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Five major categories of learning:     Conditions of Learning (R.

Gagne)   Verbal information, Intellectual skills, Cognitive Strategies, Motor skills and attitudes.

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· Verbal information: Reciting something from memory · Intellectual skills:  Discrimination: Recognizing that two classes of things differ Concrete concept: Classifying things by their physical features alone Defined concept: Classifying things by their abstract (and possibly physical) features Rule: Applying a simple procedure to solve a problem or accomplish a task Higher-order rule: Applying a complex procedure (or multiple simple procedures) to solve a problem or accomplish a task

Nine instructional events and corresponding cognitive processes: (1) Gaining attention (reception) (2) Informing learners of the objective (expectancy) (3) Stimulating recall of prior learning (retrieval) (4) Presenting the stimulus (selective perception) (5) Providing learning guidance (semantic encoding) (6) Eliciting performance (responding) (7) Providing feedback (reinforcement) (8) Assessing performance (retrieval) (9) Enhancing retention and transfer (generalization).

· Cognitive strategies: Inventing or selecting a particular mental process to solve a problem or accomplish a task · Attitudes: Choosing to behave in a way that reflects a newlyacquired value or belief · Motor skills: Performing a physical task to some specified standard

Gaining attention 2. It suggests the ways to change the instructional process with consideration given to the cognitive science and human learning research tradition. Enhancing retention and recall Principle    it brings insight into what is known about how learning occurs and lasts. Actively involved Patterns and connections Learning is informal Direct experience Challenging situation Frequent feedback Enjoyable setting reflection .  The specific operations that constitute instructional events are different for each different type of learning outcome. Stimulating recall of prequisite learning 4. T. Eliciting performance 7. Provide feedback about correctness 8. Ewell Gagne Five major categories of learning:  Verbal information. Assessing performance 9. 4. 8. 2.  Intellectual  Motor skills skills.  Cognitive  Strategies. Presenting new material 5.  and attitudes.  Learning hierarchies define what intellectual skills are to be learned and a sequence of instruction 1.Comparison Between Ewell’s and Gagne’s Principles of Learning Feature Types of learning P. 7. 3.  Different instruction is required for different learning outcomes. It shares our belief in the impact of the use of instructional technology. Informing the learner of the objective 3. 5. 6. Learning component 1.  Events of learning operate on learner in ways that constitutes the conditions of learning. Provide learning guidance 6.