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This is a quick and accurate method for determining acidic or basic substances in many samples.

Several inorganic acids and bases. Hundreds of organic species. The titrant is typically a strong acid or base. The sample species can be either a strong or weak acid or base.

COOH COO- K+

O

COOH

pH % titration mmoles acid . Plot of ml titrant (or % titration) vs pH will result in a typical titration curve.mmoles base total volume . While chemical indicators can be used for endpoint detection. a pH electrode is the best way to monitor an acid base titration.As a last resort. you can standardize an HCl solution with a standard NaOH solution. Standardization verses a secondary standard is not recommended in most cases. Each standardization introduces an error so your results are less reliable if NaOH is used.

043 0.48 1.10 M) 100 ml + 10 ml 2.60 1.011 0.082 0.054 0.74 1.018 0.00 1.025 0.10 0.10 M) .37 1.(10 ml)(0.5 1 0.067 0.mmoles excess total volume ml titrant 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 total ml 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 [H3O+] 0.0053 pH 1.5 2 pH 1.09 1.28 1.28 (100 ml)(0.96 2.17 1.5 0 0 30 60 90 ml NaOH .033 0.

020 0.36 12.96 12.68 11.52 pH 8 6 4 2 0 100 120 140 160 180 200 20 40 60 80 0 ml NaOH basic sample pH acidic sample ml titrant .23 12.30 12.7 6 5 pH 4 3 2 1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 10 ml 210 ml ml NaOH ml titrant total V [OH-] pH 14 12 10 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 0.031 0.013 0.017 0.023 0.49 12.0091 0.46 12.0048 0.11 12.026 0.029 0.41 12.033 11.

5-0.The concentration of either our sample or titrant can affect the shape of our titration curve. This is one of the reasons that most strong acid-base titrations are done in the 0. we’ll only be concerned about the titration of a weak acid with a strong base or a weak base with a strong acid. ! The calculation will require that you use the appropriate KA or KB relationship. [H3O+][A-] [HA] [OH-][HA] [A-] . acid base ! We’ll start by reviewing the type of calculations involved and then work through an example. As the [acid] decreases. First. we get a less distinct jump in pH.1 M range. different acid sample concentrations We get a similar effect as the concentration of the titrant is reduced. ! We still have the same four general regions for our titration curve.

% titration .[A-] [HA] [HA] [A-] % titration 100 .

60 3.20 4.38 4.% titration % titration 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 pH 2.10 % titration 100 .83 4.91 pH units as we went from 10 to 90 % titration. pH = pKA Also.80 5.02 4.15 6 Note: At 50% titration. the was only a change of 1.[H3O+][A-] [HA] x2 0.57 4.24 3.60 3. pH 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 % titration .

11 12.30 This is identical to what we obtained for our strong acid/strong base example .23 12.013 0.0091 0.68 11.020 pH 11.[OH-][HA] [A-] 9 8 x2 0.0048 0.017 0.050 pH 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 20 40 60 % titration 80 100 ml titrant 110 120 130 140 150 total volume 210 220 230 240 250 [OH-] 0.96 12.

14 12 10 pH 8 6 4 2 0 0 50 100 150 % titration During an acid-base titration. pt.titrated after analyte. Normal titration curve pH Too much indicator is present % titration . % titration eq. the indicator acts as an additional weak acid or base. pH It must be weaker than the species being determined . It must be present at relatively low concentrations so as not to interfere with the normal titration curve and equivalence point. It must give a sharp and distinct color change.

4.7.purple colorless .2 .yellow yellow .6 .blue yellow .10.2 6.2 .orange red .blue red .3 – 10 9.red Phenophthalein Methyl Red Bromothymol blue .6.1 10 10 1 Indicator Bromophenol Blue Methyl Orange Methyl Red Bromothymol Blue Cresol Purple Phenolphthalein Thymolphthaleine Alizerin Yellow GG pH transition range 6.4 4.blue yellow .red colorless .2 8.6 3.1 .3 .5 10 – 12 color yellow .2 .6 7.7.9.

04 = 0.0 M HCl we have: Pure water (10 ml)(1.00.091 This is a pretty big jump! .0 M) [H3O+] = (110 ml) pH = 1. each solution is at pH 7. After adding 10 ml of 1.[A-] [HA] Initially.

we have converted virtually all of A.48 0.00 1.54 0.73 6.72 6 5 pH 4 3 2 1 0 0 20 40 buffered unbuffered 60 80 100 ml HCl added For the addition of 100 ml of HCl.09 mmol 1. After addition.78 0.35 0.1 mmol ml HCl added 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 pH unbuffered 7.91 6. The addition of our first 10 ml can be expected to react the the conjugate base.40 6.00 6.Addition of 10 ml 1.52 6. .0 M = [HA] + [A-] where [A ] is negligible.0 M HCl to our buffered system.32 7 buffered 7. converting it to the acid.05 5. [A-] [HA] 0.11 moles of the acid form. there are 0.63 6.to HA so the calculation is different.04 0.09 moles of the base form and 0.64 0.10 moles of both the acid and conjugate base forms. This is a standard weak acid calculation.25 6. We started with 0. 1.82 6.00 x 10-7 = [H+][A-] [HA] When we account for dilution.39 0.43 0. KA = 1.

[ HA ] [ HA ] = 0.0 0. = 10 [ HA ] Concentration. The concentration of our buffer system determines how much acid or base it can deal with. pH 4 3 2 1 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 ml HCl added [A-] [HA] [A-] [HA] Assume that [ HA ] = [ A.] [A-] [HA] We’ll only worry about addition of a base.22 C The capacity may be smaller if you don’t start with a 1:1 mixture.022 0.011 0.050 0. a buffer only has a limit ability to reduce pH changes.] = C.0022 [A-] = 2 C . buffered unbuffered The pKA determines the range where a buffer is useful. where C is the initial concentration of either the acid or base Buffer capacity in general is then 1 = log [ A.10 0. M 1.22 0.010 Buffer capacity (mol) 0.11 0.7 6 5 Obviously.50 0. .