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Student No.

: 72198, Michael Krol

The Hippy Movement: Did Cultural Revolution take place?

Student name:

Michael Krol

Student number: 72198 Course: Level: Date: Lecturer: Word count: BMus in Commercial Music Performance 5 07/06/2013 Richard Lightman 3,181

Student No.: 72198, Michael Krol The focus of the current study is the hippie movement started in the sixties. The sixties are still celebrated and discussed, but for most only the highlights are remembered: the drugs, the War in Vietnam, and this colourful bright image of longhaired young people, called hippies. Our addiction to categorization and poor memory gives birth to stereotypes. Popular TV shows typically boost those stereotypes even more to make us laugh harder and think less. South park is a classical case: in the Episode Die Hippie Die hippies are pictured as a sort of social parasitic disease, group of passive young junkies who do nothing, but rapidly replicate themselves and mumble some nonsense about corporations trying to use you to take you down (T. Parker, M. Stone, 2005). This is a good example of a simplified description of the movement, possibly representing a majority opinion. The goal of the current work, however, is to avoid such simplifications, and to study the movement in depth in order to estimate its impact on Western society. The main question to answer is did or did not the so called Cultural Revolution of the sixties ever take place. To answer this question, well examine the key facts about the movement in three countries: USA, UK and USSR. Next, the major opinions on hippies will be studied. Finally the facts and the opinions will be analysed in order to reach the conclusion on the subject.

The Hippie Movement in USA


The Seeds of the 60s documentary (1991) clearly depicts the historic background of the sixties: the widening generation gap, the War in Vietnam, and frustration with the establishment - all that resulted in various forms of youth rebellion: the anti-war movement, the Women s Liberation movement and the hippie movement, it all happened during the decade. While the anti-war and the Womens movements organized protest actions, boycotts and demonstrations, the hippies did something completely different: they simply decided to retreat:,

Student No.: 72198, Michael Krol drop out of society. They typically lived in large communes, the most famous of them in San Francisco, Haight Ashbury district, others preferred to travel East:
Their [hippies] main colony has grown up in a low-rent district of San-Francisco which is called Haight Ashbury The place has become a Mecca for young people all over the nation, to come and search for something new and significant for themselves. ( The Hippie Temptation, 1967) The immigration departments of Europe record a constant level over the past few years of something like ten thousand dishevelled flower children (mostly American, British, German, and Scandinavian) migrating to the Near East and India - usually toward Katmandu (where drugs are cheap and legal) and a deal of hard knocks along the way. (Roszak, 1969, p.33)

Sometimes there is a tendency to mix all the protest movements together calling them a 60s counterculture, and so it might seem that there was a connection between the movements, which was not true for most part::
To understand the effect Jerry Rubin and others like him had in America, you have to see them for what they were they were people who had most Americans convinced that hippies and political activists marched hand in hand. But for the most part they never did. (Making Sense of the Sixties,1991)

The nature of the movement Most of the hippies were young people, mostly from middle-class:
Most of these people are young, most of them come from middle class homes, on the average they are well-educated, or could be if they wanted to. The kids of Haight Ashbury are not poverty stricken: many of them have gone to school, come from good homes, and for some reason they run away from home and go to Haight Ashbury. (The Hippie Temptation, 1967)

Hippie lifestyle can be expressed in a famous formula: Sex, Drugs & Rock N Roll: their rebellion was global: inside their own microcosms they broke all the boundaries of the conservative society: gaining sexual freedom and liberation (the famous hippie concept of Free Love), experimenting,

Student No.: 72198, Michael Krol trying to discover themselves through drugs, philosophy and Eastern religions, listening to music (typically Rock). Music was particularly important: it was something that they had in common, something that projected their state of mind and their ideals, like a secret knowledge they could not share with the older generation:
I think for people my age back then radio was the great secret, common ground, it was the way we communicated with one another and it was where all of our prophets and leaders were - it was where Bob Dylan and the Beatles and The Supremes and Aretha Franklin were, and they were all singin quite revolutionary messages. (Davis and Talbot, 2005)

Drugs were another key element of the movement. According to Theodore Rozsak, for hippies the drugs was not an entertainment but a gateway to become a better person:
The fascination with drugs was not fun and games in the sixties, for many people it was a way to see reality differently and hopefully therefore to change your values. (Roszak, 1969)

Hippies seriously believed that the World would be better is everybody would take drugs. Here is a short interview with members of Grateful Dead band, who actually lived in Haight Ashbury:
- Yes, I would say that its a large part of the framework, Most of the people who are hippies now came to this through drugs. Yeah, but its not a dope movement, were not trying to spread dope. I think personally that the more people turn on, the better World is going to be We were talking before about a way of being, and one of the ways of achieving that being is through drugs, expanding your consciousness, changing yourself And most of use have given up, with psychedelic drugs anyway temporarily.

(The Hippie Temptation, 1967)

But the most relevant feature for our discussion is the hippie idealistic belief that they were about to reform the existing society into a Love-Peace paradise:
Hippies preach altruism and mysticism, honesty, joy and non-violence Their professed aim is nothing less than the subversion of Western society by "flower power" and force of example. (The Hippies: Philosophy of a subculture, 1967) Many of the residents of Haight Ashbury were seriously trying to construct an alternative society.

Student No.: 72198, Michael Krol


One with alternative press, with alternative business and enterprise, with alternative religions, and perhaps most important of all, the people of the Haight World were committed to new kinds of social welfare. (Making Sense of the Sixties,1991)

The Peak And the End The movement became massive by the end of the decade. Many believe Woodstock Festival in 1969 was the most successful moment, a culmination, a triumph of Love-Peace ideal (The 1960s Hippie Counter Culture Movement, 2012). Unfortunately the movement lost its popularity in the early seventies due to hippie public image heavily damaged by Altamont festival and Charles Manson accusation: By 1970, the hippie movement began to wane. The events at the Altamont Free concert
shocked many people including some who had supported the hippie movement. Several hippie mega-stars, including Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, and Jim Morrison, overdosed on drugs. The Charles Manson murders also contributed to the public hatred of the hippies. Soon, hippies were being physically attacked on the streets by skinheads, punks, athletes, greasers, and members of other youth subcultures. (The 1960s Hippie Counter Culture Movement, 2012)

Nevertheless, the hippie movement didnt die there are neo-hippies who are very similar to the original sixties hippies:
Neo-hippies, some of whom are sons, daughters and grandchildren of the original hippies, advocate many of the same beliefs of their 1960s counterparts. Drug use is just as accepted as in the "original" hippie days, although most neo-hippies do not consider it necessary to take drugs in order to be part of the lifestyle, and others reject drug use in favor of alternative methods of reaching higher or altered consciousness such as drumming circles, community singing, meditation, dietary practices, and yoga and dance. (This History of Hippies, no date)

The idea of living in commune is alive as well: according to International Communities website, 5

Student No.: 72198, Michael Krol There are 1636 communes in USA, though most of them are not classic hippie communes:
These communal groups below range from small to large, urban to rural, and christian monastery to secular anarchist collective. They are found throughout the United States and around the world. Most do not resemble the sterotypical 'hippie commune' but a few hippie communes from the sixties are still around.

United Kingdom
At the first glance the hippie movement in UK was very similar to the original US movement: the slogans, the look, and behaviour were the same. But according to Dominic Sandbrook, the UK hippies should be seen not as drop-outs, but more as a US fashion craze:
Hippies are often described simply as drop-outs, but this is not quite right. Most people who looked and acted like hippies, wearing hippie clothing and using hippy slang, continued to hold down regular jobs. It was a label adopted by young people for leisure purposes, denoting a certain style of dress, vocabulary and behaviour at evenings and weekends. (Sandbrook, 2007, p.441)

One of the famous accusations against UK hippies is that it actually only inspired a new form of consumerism instead of bringing in the new free society:
It became a form of consumerism: at Gandalfs Garden, a Kings Road boutique named after the wizard in The Lord Of the Rings, shoppers could pick up a handmade pottery, clothes and leather goods, as well as health foods and books about drugs and mysticism. (Sandbrook, 2007, p. 442) Pop music, the core symbol of Swinging Britain was big business: the shops, not the barricades were the real counter culture. (Why I Hate The 60s: the decade, 2004)

Britain also had its own Woodstock: the Isle Of Wight Festival in 1970. It can be said that the hippies suffered an ideological defeat, because the Isle Of Wight Festival runs every summer since 1970 and it is far from being free.

Student No.: 72198, Michael Krol

The ideal lives on - Free Festivals and New Age Travellers The hippie idea didnt die in 1969-70: it gave birth to New Age Travellers movement, whose vision of an alternative society was actually directly inherited from the hippies and beatniks:
Initially one of their main influences was the Beat Generation, whose members rejected consumerism and celebrated personal freedom Their legacy was much larger Hippie Generation, many of whom headed East in search for enlightenment and alternative lifestyles. (New Age Travellers documentary,1992)

The Travellers brought an idea of Free Festival, famous events include Windsor Free Festival in 1972-74, Stonehenge Free Festival (1972-84). From the list on UK Rock Festivals website it becomes clear that free festivals became a long lasting tradition, although the festivals were not as massive as Isle of Wight:

(The festival site in 1984 , a working exercise in collective anarchy.... Herb, 1984)

The Travellers movement survived despite various actions of British Establishment that issued various legislations against them (New Age Travellers,1992).

Student No.: 72198, Michael Krol

USSR
The coming of The Beatles In his documentary Blame The Beatles in all (2004) Max Kapitanovsky claims that the main catalyst for the Soviet hippie movement to appear was the music of The Beatles. The hippies testify:
If were to recall the things that were the substance of our lives - its not the bell-bottoms, not the jeans, and not the hair. As we didnt believe in God then, Rock-N-Roll was our religion and The Beatles were, of course, at the top of it. (Kapitanovsky, 2004) If someone wonders who is to blame in what happened June the 1 st 1971 on Psychodrome, I think that its The Beatles are to blame. (Kapitanovsky, 2004)

The Iron Curtain made the impact of Rock-N-Roll and The Beatles only harder:
If a poet in Russia is more than just a poet, then The Beatles were surely more than just The Beatles. Because any youngster living in any country including ideologically friendly Poland, felt he lives on the same planet with The Beatles, breathes the same air and potentially can meet them the theoretical possibility to come to their concert or buy a new album in a shop made them reachable and so not as magical. China, North Korea, and our motherland were an exception. We lived on another planet. And we knew very well whats the meaning of the word never (A. Makarevich, 2002, p.42) With all the constant bans and almost the total absence of information there was a unique situation when there was a multimillion army of Beatles fans who never saw their idols neither live or on a screen. (Kapitanovsky, 2004)

The impact was substantial: youngsters started to build guitars, organize themselves into rock bands, grew their hair long, and in some cases became hippies.

The Soviet hippie movement According to Sopova (2012), the movement appeared in late sixties; it was not as massive as in America, but it was big and existed mostly in large cities. Their trappings, 8

Student No.: 72198, Michael Krol behaviour and music preferences were very similar to American hippies, but there are no sources mentioning massive drug usage - cheap wine and music seemed to be good enough: Trofimov quotes ex-hippie Alexander Zaborovsky in his blog:
By the way, there was nothing anti-social in our meet-ups. We even didnt drink often. The main thing was socializing: talks about music, about The Beatles, about Morrison. Someone played guitar Few people smoked weed but there were not many of them. (Trofimov, 2012)

Armen Grigorian, lead singer of a Moscow rock band Krematorii explains:


music for us was connected to a certain way of life, it was the same thing. What we knew about hippies there [in America] it was mostly the pictures of the musicians, the music that we listened on tape recorders, and no video at all. And thats why there was a complex illusion [of knowledge] created, meaning we simply imagined many things, how it should have been. (Sopova, 2012)

Illusion or not the resulting hippie ideology was similar as well: there was the same will of abandon the norms of a surrounding conformist society, and try to gain personal freedom, the freedom of expression. Unlike US and UK, hippies in USSR could come from any social class:
It could be an ordinary Moscow school boy, or a cousin of some diplomat or Party member, or a bohemian person. He could be from any background, something came into his soul, and he raised and went. (Not Just About Hippies, 2004)

Due to the strictness of the Soviet regime, an open manifestation would be unthinkable: instead they organized regular happenings in pre-conditioned places: Russian hippie artist Sergey Solmi explains:
It was very comfortable there was no Internet, people would come to see each other, tell each other the locations of upcoming concerts or underground exhibitions. (Hippies in USSR, 2012)

Another common activity was secret gigs of local rock bands, which often was disrupted by militia if the gig was discovered.

Student No.: 72198, Michael Krol

USSR strikes back Soviet establishment didnt appreciate the fact that some youngsters gathering together in large numbers for some non-Soviet activity. Propaganda films and sanctions against the long hair took place but were not effective. The most famous anti-hippie action was the historic provocation of Anti-war Demonstration in June 1971 in Moscow - about 600 hippies who turned up for the demonstration were loaded into buses and taken to militia stations for questioning: after that many had a criminal record, some hippies lost their jobs, many students were expelled out of universities and sent to the Army, some ended up in Psychiatric hospitals or even in jail, two people committed suicide. (Kapitanovsky, 2004; Nesterov, 2011; Trofimov, 2012). The movement sustained a hard blow but survived. Samarsky (2009) explains that hippies became less massive towards the eighties, and lost their uniqueness, became other subcultures had appeared.

So was there a Cultural Revolution?


There is still a lot of debates about the hippie movement up to this day. The opinions can be divided into two major categories. The first one is the cynics who typically describe the sixties as a decade of decay and chaos rather than enlightenment and progress, and if there were some changes - the hippies took a very insignificant part in it, if at all. Another side is represented by the romantics, those who believe that the movement had directly caused the Cultural Revolution occurred in the sixties. Lets examine both opinions in detail and try to understand whose point is closer to objective reality.

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Student No.: 72198, Michael Krol

Hippies The Story of Failure The sceptical point of view about the hippies is typically represented in the following statements: 1) The decade that followed after the sixties was the very opposite of hippie Utopian free society, hence their dream never materialized: for example, according to McKay (1996, p. 13): the movement was replaced by capitalism:
but what has the 1960s counterculture resulted in and been replaced by? In America, by deadhead capitalism, a child of the time who touched a joint but fortunately didnt inhale, by the moral majority and by the backlash movement against feminism, welfare, political correctness in Britain, the sixties were followed by the destruction of the unions, seemingly endless years of Thatcherism voted in again and again by the English

As for Russia, Samarsky (2009) claims that hippies became totally irrelevant since the nineties when USSR fell apart and Russia fell into a turmoil of business and crime. 2) Group of drugged and clueless youngsters could not possibly change a thing: they didnt have a clear program, and even if they had it it would be impossible to carry out without a leader and some kind of hierarchic structure. Also to change a society, they would be expected to actively participate in it instead of running from it. Raszak did try to take the hippies seriously but remained sceptical about possible success of their campaign:
It is not ideal, it is probably not even good that the young should bear so great responsibility for inventing or initiating for their society as a whole. It is too big a job for them to do successfully. It is indeed tragic that in a crisis that demands the tact and wisdom of maturity, everything that looks most hopeful in our culture should be building from scratch as must be the case when the builders are absolute beginners. (Raszak, 1969, p.26)

The story of Haight Ashbury presented in various documentaries is a good example of a small alternative sub-society which didnt survive for long and finally collapsed (Hippies, 11

Student No.: 72198, Michael Krol 2007): it simply was not mature enough: it didnt have the complex social mechanisms that that the surrounding normal society had developed after hundreds of years of social evolution. Later there was another attempt to build an alternative society in the country. This also partially failed due to structural inadequacy, as Riley (2012) calls it people that simply were not used to live in communes. Hippie communes that survived were more an exception than a rule. 3) The very idea of replacing the bourgeois society by something else was wrong and unachievable in first place:
but it is to recognize that their [protesters] ultimate objectives were based on a fundamental fallacy. There was never any possibility of a revolution; there was never any possibility of a `counter-culture' replacing `bourgeois' culture. Modern society is highly complex with respect to the distribution of power, authority, and influence. Just as it was not formed by the simple overthrow of the aristocracy by the bourgeoisie, so, in its contemporary form, it does not consist simply of a bourgeois ruling class and a proletariat. (Marwick 1998, p.10)

We have to admit we dont live in a hippie dream: wars have not stopped, the bourgeois society seems to remain intact: we still go to work, watch commercials, and run after money. We also havent all turned on, tuned in, and dropped out. 4) Cultural Revolution, Swinging Sixties, and Love Generation no more than a myth cultivated by mass-media. Indeed, one must remember that even in USA the movement always was a minority, for example, the hippie agenda remained irrelevant for most black Americans, who had their own fights in the sixties. We should not be confused with documentaries and certain books that show all the protest movements of the sixties as one thing named counterculture. The modern viewer sees many people protesting, taking LSD and dancing on the streets, and can start generalizing assuming that almost the whole generation went crazy, which is simply not true because these are the exceptions or extreme cases that show, not the overlooked boring majority. For example, according 12

Student No.: 72198, Michael Krol to BBC myth slayer documentary Why I hate The 60s (2004), in UK only a small part of Central London was swinging, everything else remained the same.

According to this thesis, the sixties were the time when young people, especially the hippies, were living in a sweet illusion that big changes are just around the corner, that the new era of Love and Peace is very close. Unfortunately the sixties dreamers had to wake and face the cruelty of the seventies.

Hippies The Story of Success Now lets consider another opinion the hippies succeeded in their project. The effect of the movement should not be seen as total conversion of the conventional society into a hippie commune, but rather as gradual transformation of values of the society. Indeed, the outcomes of Cultural Revolution are easy to observe if we compare the conformist values of the fifties to values of modern days: today we (the West) enjoy much more freedom: freedom to choose a way of life, freedom of personal expression, sexual life, political opinion etc, we are less racist and more tolerant. Romantics, as I called them, argue that hippies are those who caused all these changes, so their idea about a free society was successful to a certain degree. Sieghart, for example, makes quite a far going statement:
According to YouGov poll for Readers Digest, we are all hippies now. And its not just the maxi dresses flooding out of Topshop or the instant sell-out of Glastonbury tickets. The values of peace, love, greenery, independence of mind and sexual freedom are no longer alternative but mainstream. (Sieghart, 2007)

The History Channel documentary Hippies (2007) gives the movement credit for such inventions as personal computer and the Whole Earth Catalog, and also suggests that the recent Green movement is a direct implementation of hippie views into modern reality. One must also mention huge music festivals of the sixties, which could not take place without the hippies, for they gave birth to Stadium Rock and modern open air festivals, and also gave birth to so-called Youth Culture. 13

Student No.: 72198, Michael Krol All the influences mentioned above are so massive and important, so it wouldnt be a stretch to called it a Cultural Revolution.

Analysis, Part One. Hippies Are To Be Taken Seriously Now, after we have learned the history and the nature of hippie movement in three given countries and main opinions on the subject, we can analyse the facts and try to understand whose point is more valid. We saw that all the three movements were massive, unique and draw much attention of mass-media. They were similar in looks, behaviour and the core idea of trying to live an alternative lifestyle. They all started in the sixties, they all met a negative response by the local establishment that tried to mock it, criticise it or even shut it down by force (1971 provocation in USSR). They all gradually lost their popularity giving way to new subcultures like Punks. Cynics depict hippies as clueless drug addicts: indeed, the US hippies openly admitted that the trip is the doorway to freedom, and drugs were one of the causes for the crash of the US movement (Davis and Talbot, 2005). It can be assumed that some part of the movement were drugged youngsters who had nothing to do with revolutions or building a new society. But one should not forget that there was a lot of activity inside the movement: someone built the alternative society in Haight Ashbury with alternative press, Diggers, music, art exhibitions:
By the autumn of 1966 Haight Ashbury was a semi-autonomous psychedelic city state with its own lifestyle, culture, newspaper, even its own free public services. (The Hippies documentary, )

Cynics also accuse the hippies in passive, apolitical behaviour stating that little can be achieved this way. But lets compare the conventional political way of political debates and votes which rarely result in substantial evolutional changes (because modern democracies imply that large majority of voices needed for a serious change to pass) to a hippie way which meant - simply skipping all the political procedures and imposing the changes on themselves, and hoping that more and more people will follow 14

Student No.: 72198, Michael Krol them. The unusual look and a celebration-like lifestyle served as an effective advertising campaign, which in fact was working effectively until Manson and Altamont killed it. Simplest prove to it is the media of sixties: Raszaks book (1967) and even the sceptical Hippie Temptation film (1967) both treat the movement quite seriously and explain their position in details. Thus we have proved that hippies were too massive to be disregarded and productive and conceptual enough to be taken seriously - the South Park stereotype of hippies is invalid.

Analysis, Part Two. The Possibility of Cultural Revolution The answer to the main question about the Cultural Revolution heavily depends on our definition of the Hippie Goal. The author tends to believe that the Goal of lets all get high, reach enlightenment, and live forever in a perfect world with no wars, jobs and money should not even be discussed seriously, for this is an utopia by definition. The more practical approach would be to view Cultural Revolution as a gradual shift of cultural values within an existing society: we should try to recognize and examine the changes brought by the hippies and answer two basic questions: 1) Can we prove that those changes were brought directly by the hippies? 2) Are those changes substantial enough to call it a revolution?

Lets consider the more optimistic point of view of the Romantics, who claim the Modern World is full with hippie spirit and values. Indeed, there are modern organizations like Green Peace, Feminists, or human rights movements, who focus on personal freedom. Many of popular modern technologies, products and websites (such as LINUX, Wikipedia, Couch surfing) are based on hippie-like idea of open-source such technologies created non-commercially by virtual commune of programmers. Although (Sieghart, 2007) and Hippies (2007) present all those achievements as a triumph of hippie ideals, in some cases it might be hard to prove a direct connection to

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Student No.: 72198, Michael Krol the hippies. As to multiple cultural changes that happened we also cannot clearly prove that hippies alone are responsible for them: they were only one part of the broader phenomenon called sixties counterculture. Probably the only serious hippie achievement which is easy to prove is their direct influence on mainstream specifically fashion and music industry. Indeed, Woodstock and Monterey made music businessmen to understand that youth can be considered as a separate strong market. The huge music festivals, which would be impossible without the hippies, gave many artists a nation-wide exposure the importance of Jimi Hendrix for Rock music is indisputable. As to the fashion: many mega-artists including The DOORS, The Beatles, and The Who were not hippies themselves but adopted hippies looks, which arguably had a certain psychological effect on their World-wide audiences who watch their concerts until present. Another thing to mention is the media myth brought up by the cynics. Strangely enough, the myth of happy idealistic 60s with dancing hippies in the centre only gives hippies a good promotion: many people remember only Woodstock and know less about Altamont or Charles Manson which makes hippies to look more successful than in early seventies. As a result, people watch sixties documentary and feel strange nostalgia for the good old times. All this may have resulted in modern New Age hippie-like activities like Couch surfing, meditation, and mysticism, typically without any drugs involved.

Conclusion
The hippie movement is much discussed topic which arises arguments and controversies. The two basic opinions considered have their valid sides: they were young, they were many and they wanted an immediate changes. They had a clear, but unachievable goal of free society that never became reality. Although we are definitely not living in a Hippie Utopia, we are also not living in the Puritan fifties anymore as well, 16

Student No.: 72198, Michael Krol though it is virtually impossible to prove that hippies were the only reason for that. The mass-media myth suggests we owe hippies our gratitude for the free World as we know it today, but nobody can tell what the World would be without Woodstock and Monterey.

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Student No.: 72198, Michael Krol

References:
D. Davis, S. Talbot, The Sixties - The Years That Shaped a Generation (2005), [Streamed] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mUc2eLe-ruI Last accessed: 11th April 2013 M. Kapitanovsky, (2004), Blame The Beatles in all, Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jUxhVTNPdn0, Last accessed: 15th May 2013 A. Makarevich, (2002), Sheep Himself, Zakharov Publishing, Moscow A. Marwick (1998)The Sixties. Cultural Revolution in Britain France Italy and the United States, c.1958-c.1974, Oxford University Press G. McKay (1996) Senseless Acts of Beauty, Verso, London O. Nesterov, On The Wave of My Memory, 2011. [TV programme], Vremya, November 2011. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SYU_W30HU68 Last accessed: 16th May 2013 T. Parker, M. Stone, 2005. South Park, Season Nine, Episode Two Die Hippie, Die. [Streamed] March 2005 Available at: http://www.watchsouthparkonline.net/season-9/episode-2-die-hippie-die/ [Accessed: 18th April 2013]. The Bad Trip: Film, Counterculture and The Death of the Sixties , 2012, [Streamed], Nottingham Contemporary. Narrated by J. Riley, Available at: http://www.nottinghamcontemporary.org/event/james-riley, Last accessed: 11th May 2013 T. Roszak (1969) The Making of a Counter Culture, Doubleday & Company Inc., Garden City, New York A. Samarsky, (2009) Wilted flowers of the Lost Generation in Propaganda Journal, Available at: http://propaganda-journal.net/981.html, Last accessed: 15th May 2013 D. Sandbrook (2007), White Heat. A History of Britain In the Swinging Sixties , Abacus, London M. Sieghart (2007) Hey man, were all kind of hippies now. Far out, The Times. Available at: http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/opinion/columnists/article2612774.ece accessed: 26th May 2013

Last

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Student No.: 72198, Michael Krol E. Sopova, (2012) Come With Me To Love Street, [Streamed], Humanities Institute of TV & Radio Broadcasting, Moscow, Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=IHcN7DaTh9Q Last accessed: 16th May 2013 V. Trofimov, 2012. How the soviet hippie System was destroyed, LiveJournal, [blog] 2 June. Available at: http://valtrofimov.livejournal.com/133315.html Last accessed: 18th May 2013 (no date) A Decade To Remember - The Sixties [Streamed] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NcEXZcv2Q-c http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rHfaXuFE2fU&feature=endscreen&NR=1 Last accessed: 10th March 2012 The festival site in 1984 , a working exercise in collective anarchy.... Herb , 1984 [Online image] Available at: http://www.ukrockfestivals.com/henge-84-township-herb.jpg (Accessed: 15th May 2013) (1967) The Hippies: Philosophy of a subculture, Time Magazine, 90(1) Available at: http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,8995551,00.html Last accessed: 13th April 2013 (1967) The Hippie Temptation in CBS News [Streamed] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xaczKrkfllE CBS News Productions, USA Last accessed: 9th April 2013 Hippies, [TV programme] The History Channel, Season 1, Episode 43, 2007. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gidtqtO1IBE , Last accessed: 26th May 2013 (1991) Making Sense of the Sixties, PBS Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=plgKnrpvtAI Last accessed: 10th April 2013 (2004) Not Just About Hippies, [Streamed], Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BI41g7qWPfc Last accessed: 17th May 2013 (1991) Seeds of the 60s, PBS Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k0PyiwKRHvQ Last accessed: 20th April 2013 (2012) The 1960s Hippie Counter Culture Movement in Mortal Journey Available at: http://www.mortaljourney.com/2011/03/1960-trends/hippie-counter-culturemovement, Last accessed: 2nd May 2013

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Student No.: 72198, Michael Krol (no date) This History of Hippies in Happy Hippie. Available at: http://www.happyhippie.com/hippie-history.html Last accessed: 5th May 2013 Timeshift: New Age Travellers, 1992. [TV programme] BBC, BBC4, August 2005. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=knkH6ePGZCU Last accessed: 15th May 2013 Why I Hate The 60s: the decade that was too good to be tru e, [TV programme] BBC, BBC4, June 2004. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0bPiJWCm0FE Last accessed: 23th May 2013

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