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The role of the veterinarian in promoting public health does not always involve work in developing countries or tropical places. Zoonotic diseases, or diseases common between animals and people, are present worldwide, including in the homes of pet owners. Due to close contact with their pets, children are at higher risk of contracting diseases from companion animals. (http://leerburg.com/308.htm) More than half of infectious diseases in people are shared with animals, including some of the more famous diseases like rabies, plague or influenza. However, there are more pathogens that pets can harbor and can infect people.
prevention of diseases and improving the quality of life of the people. prolonging life. In order to assess this risk of transmission of zoonosis from pets to humans. and vice versa. pets can serve as a source of infection to people. This does not mean that people should refrain from having pets and. and it is thus crucial for animal owners and physicians to take into account the pet when looking at disease dynamics in a family. if the animals are treated properly. it is important to focus our attention on several groups who are at higher risk of infection. These usually include children. What needs to be done is to realize that these animals should be maintained healthy in order to reduce likelihood of transmission of disease to people It is clear that the importance of pets in today’s households is significant.Public Health is indeed a multi disciplinary process in achieving optimum health. Indeed. This is why the veterinarian should be an active member of a family’s health team and work together with family physicians when evaluating how the pets’ health can affect households. . cancer or other chronic conditions. pregnant women or those with depressed immune systems like those individuals with HIV. the benefits of having a pet definitely outweigh the risks. the elderly. and the close contact that many have with their companion animals puts them at higher risk of infection from these pathogens.
including people. in practice. depending on the severity of the infection. it is important to realize that. both in animals and people. and each strain commonly affects a specific host. although other tests like ELISA can detect the microbe more efficiently. Clinical appearance in both animals and humans is similar. including diarrhea and abdominal pain. which suggests that it is part of the natural flora. and those are the ones that have zoonotic potential. For example. . Dogs and cats most often have watery diarrhea that may be bloody. who are usually colonized by type A2. it may not be the most important. the parasite can be present in asymptomatic individuals. such as kids (and puppies) or the immune-compromised. There are in fact several different strains of Giardia lamblia. Humans show very similar symptoms. Some strains. however can infect a wide range of species. while type F only infects cats – human infection from these strains is not likely to cause disease in people. commonly showing gastrointestinal involvement. .2) Giardia Giardia is one of the most commonly recognized zoonotic diseases from pets.gov) It is important to recognize that. Stained Giardia protozoans in their trophozoite forms (cdc. lethargy and decreased appetite can also be present. Giardia types C and D only infect dogs. This means that those who show significant disease from an infection may be more sensitive to it. Diagnostics is usually done through evaluation of a fecal sample by identifying the parasite its cyst form directly under the microscope. Vomiting. Treatment in both animals and people include medicating with drugs such as metronidazole or fenbendazole.
Giardia lamblia are unicellular protozoans that are present in both animals and people. the parasites are shed in the feces and can survive well in water sources Gardiasis in animals can be challenging to treat and using a single drug may not do the trick. The current recommended treatment includes using metronidazole and fenbendazole together for better control. Commonly found in the intestinal tract of many animal species including wildlife. .
(dermnetnz. It is caused by a group of fungus that can be found on the skin of many pets and can be spread to other individuals through direct contact. as well as people. Animals usually have a mild localized skin infection characterized by an area of hair loss and skin inflammation that may or may not be itchy. but also fomites (couch. . Likewise.3) Ringworm (Microsporum canis) infection in a person. in people. or dermatophytosis. is one of the most common zoonotic diseases that affects a wide range of animals. especially cats. such as petting. Children tend to be at higher risk of infection due to their closer contact with pets. bedding) and fleas. Not all cases of human ringworm are caused by a zoonotic species of fungus and it is important that physicians dealing with dermatophytosis infection in a family recommend veterinary examination of the pets to help control the outbreak. ringworm is characterized by circular skin lesions and is not usually severe if the individual’s immune system is working normally.org) Ringworm.
Innovative approaches need to be developed. Pharmaceuticals. Health insurance. Public health concepts need to be integrated into hospital services to provide continuity of health services. research. sustainable. This is because public health centers on promotive and preventive services. . encouraging new investments for the development and implementation of health promotion and protection programs to address existing and emerging health problems. and putting in place mechanisms to sustain these financing arrangements. low-cost and high impact. policy and standards development. Also needed is an orientation and training of local health personnel and local executives on national health goals. Vaccine-preventable diseases. Infectious diseases. disease surveillance. Increased financial investments for public health means securing more funding over a period long enough to achieve the goals of eliminating disease. It also means advocacy for scientifically proven and appropriate technologies and services. Vectors-borne (Contagious) diseases. basic knowledge and technical skills to handle primary and secondary disease prevention and control. Also needed are revitalized management systems for research. It is also the most effective way of bringing down the cost of health and ensuring that everyone has access to quality health care. There is a need to retrain and retool central and regional level health personnel. and monitoring and evaluation. Technical leadership means good information and knowledge about new health technologies and practices. Increasing the budget allocation of Public Health entails prioritization of programs and projects that are epidemiologically sound.The Future of Public Health Care System of the Philippines Public health or primary health’s main objective is to ensure that people are healthy through prevention and control of diseases and the promotion and protection of health. Management capabilities of central and local health managers and staff need to be improved. health information systems. Development and strengthening of technical expertise in public health capabilities of central and regional health offices in providing technical leadership over local health systems need to be enhanced. laboratory services. Women's health and Children's health. The DOH has identified the following priority impact programs. Tuberculosis.
Making use of Theoretical Forecasting we would be able to have a glimpse into the future of our government hospitals most specially the district hospitals in Cagayan The Provincial health office is mandated among others to formulate and implement Provincial Health Plan according to national health policies. It is defined as a process of estimation in unknown situation. Being run with antiquated system of policies long before formulated. Management capabilities of central and local health managers and staff need to be improved. Innovative approaches need to be developed. Monitor different health plans in the rural health units and district hospitals. revenues are enhanced and retained. Hospital reform program provide fiscal and managerial autonomy to government hospitals. As we are faced with different alternatives in our everyday existence in this world. Alongside this is to modernize local health system which aims to promote the development of local health systems where networking among municipal and provincial health facilities are functional and sustained by cooperation and cost sharing among local government units (LGUs) in the catchment area. medicare and emergency hospitals in the province With less than 1000 badly managed bed capacity hospitals to accommodate over 1. and monitoring and evaluation. health information systems. hospital operations are cost efficient. manage the operations of the 15 district. In connection with the instruction stated in the Public Health Reform to strengthen the capacity of the DOH to exercise technical leadership in disease prevention and control. Public health concepts need to be integrated into hospital services to provide continuity of health services.2 million population plus patients from Cagayan not counting patients from neighboring provinces. disease surveillance. As we all know these facilities create huge impact in the health care situation of our country. Also needed are revitalized management systems for research. enhance the effectiveness of local public health delivery systems and sustain funding for priority public health programs over a period required to remove them as public health threats. which involves improving the way hospitals are governed and financed so that quality of care is improved. municipal. Forecasting Future Policies could make dramatic changes if applied properly in Public Health most specially in government hospitals. Conduct trainings to frontline health service providers on program management and implementation. laboratory services. research. forecasting would be of great help to us in designing and helping us in decision making and eventually making suitable changes for our organizations. policy and standards development. and dependence on direct budget subsidies are reduced. change is indeed needed to make a turnaround.BETTER GOVERNMENT HOSPITALS IN CAGAYAN Forecasting is an important procedure in order to come up with factual information about what is going to happen in a given organization on the basis of what have happened prior to the desired outcome. Cagayan government hospitals are indeed in bad shape. .
Earnings can be retained through indirect government ownership. prepared to accept an influx of PhilHealth patients and expected to ease the cost to provincial governments of maintaining hospitals . What does it mean for a hospital to have Kita (Financial Strength)? Hospital can generate revenues to support its operations instead of depending on local government subsidy. Equipment and infrastructure capability . Standardize. 5S in hospitals stands for Sort. 5S is a proven strategy to improve workplace quality and motivate staff. Enhanced capability of patients to afford medical services will be realized through PhilHealth Plus enrollment. Sort (seiri). This lean method encourages staff to improve their working conditions and helps them to learn to reduce waste. Revenues generated may be used to hire additional manpower. Enhance efficiencies through management autonomy. cleaning. Set in Order (seiton ). Sweep. With the adoption of all these policies it is expected that government hospitals will generate income to fund part or all its operating requirements. and Self-discipline.hospital has adequate staff and medical specialists.hospital facility has basic equipment and infrastructure corresponding to its classification as a primary or secondary hospital Capability to provide essential drugs and medical supplies. 5S is a Japanese system that is use to reduce waste and optimize productivity through maintaining an orderly workplace and using visual cues to achieve more consistent operational results. Implementation of this method “cleans up’ and organizes the workplace basically in its existing configuration. This is practiced in major companies and may be replicated in government hospitals. build and improve facilities. It means that hospital is well-organized and clean using the 5S quality improvement program. unplanned downtime and in process inventory. routines that maintain organization and orderliness are essential to a smooth and efficient flow of activities. The list describes how to organize a work space for efficiency and effectiveness by identifying and storing. Shine (seiso). What does it mean for a hospital to have Kakayahan (Enhanced Capability)? Human resource capability . In the daily work of an organization. and subsidize indigent patients. Hospital staffs are trained on how to determine the true cost of services. provide a methodology for organizing. The 5s is a list of 5 Japanese words. What does it mean for a hospital to have Kaayusan (System) and Kalinisan (Clean). . supplies and needed equipment. developing and sustaining a productive work environment.The incorporation of the Japanese Management Philosophy most particularly the 5Sis one policy that should be adapted in all district hospitals because with this policy we could be able to derive several policies that could improve the Public Heath Care System of the P most specially if applied in the different district hospitals in Cagayan. standardize (seiketsu). Systematize. purchase drugs. and sustain (shitsuke).
Artificial-intelligence feedback Researchers have developed training-methods for artificial-intelligence devices as well. for example. and then automatically test them for "fitness". . Evolutionary algorithms. These new members replace programs that perform the worst. such a system can continue to run in real-time after initial training. due to wear or damage. The procedure repeats until the achievement of optimum performance. Researchers have also developed robots that can appear to mimic simple human behavior as a starting point for training. observing how well they perform the intended task. allowing robots to adapt to new situations and to changes in themselves. The methods construct a series of programs. known as a “population” of programs. including genetic programming and other methods of machine learning. In robotics. The system automatically generates new programs based on members of the population that perform the best. use a system of feedback based on "fitness functions" to allow computer programs to determine how well an entity performs a task.
As such. For so many years surgery has been strictly hand work for that was were its name is derived (greek “chirugiae”). Robotic Surgery is a great scientific breakthrough in modern technology that create a huge impact in the healthcare profession and the world of medicine. Taylor’s theory of deconstructing the process inspired many that even the most sensitive of all profession has proven not exempted by his influences. only recently has it succumbed to the machine invasion. accuracy and efficiency may yet leave doubts to some thus. advanced and popular Nano Technology. Its impact creates a big buzz in the world of medicine and at this time and age people are looking for advancement in science as ways of treatment and procedure. . Its effectiveness.Over a decade ago since Frederick Taylor introduced the Scientific Management theory which paved the way for the rise of machines in the workplace. Relatively new in the field of surgery it is predicted to be short lived as robotic surgery is being overtaken and replaced with the more sophisticated. this topic provides information and serves as eye opener in the world of robotic surgery. But unlike many machines that were controversial and questioned during Taylors time robot surgeons are generally easily accepted and embraced by the open public. must be proven on the fact that it is a good option for medical procedure. numerous professions followed in automating human work.
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