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Electronics Division

SCADA
SYSTEM CONCEPTS & PROJECTS

Electronics Division

SCADA
SUPERVISORY CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM

A SCADA system is an automation system which is used to collect data, monitor performance and control a plant or equipment in a wide range of applications like: Electrical power distribution and generation plants Water management systems Manufacturing systems

Electronics Division

SCADA
A typical Water SCADA application would be to monitor water levels at various water sources like reservoirs and tanks and when the water level exceeds a preset threshold, activate the system of pumps to move water to tanks with low water levels.

Electronics Division

SCADA
In BHEL-EDN, we provide SCADA systems for the electrical substations and switchyards to monitor and control the station equipment. SCADA virtually the brain of a Substation Automation System

Electronics Division

SCADA
The main components of a SCADA system are: Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) Control Room Computer (HMI) Communication equipment

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SCADA Configuration
To RCC on IEC 870-5-101

Printers

HMI view node Station HMI Station HMI Disturbance Viewer Gateway

GPS system Ethernet network Switch


FO Connection

Redundant Ethernet Bus Switch


FO Connection

Switch
FO Connection

Numerical Protection Relay

Bay Control

Numerical Protection Relay

Bay Control

Numerical Protection Relay

Bay Control

Field Signals

Field Signals

Field Signals

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Sub systems
Control and monitoring system for individual Bays Human Machine Interface Ethernet LAN Peripherals Printers Display units Keyboard Mouse Interface system to Numerical relays Gateway for remote communication with Remote Control Centre (RCC)

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SCADA Configuration
REMOTE maxVUE

maxSTATIONS

ENGINEERS STATION / maxSTORIAN

Redundant 100 Mbps maxNET

maxLINK

REMOTE TERMINAL UNITS (RTUs) External Systems Server less Configuration Scalableas large as required

Electronics Division

HMI ...
Operator Stations maxVUE Workbench

maxSTATIONS Generic name for .

Engineering Station

maxSTORIAN Remote maxVUE

maxLINKS

maxNET
100 Mbps (full duplex)

maxDNA GT Controls
PLCs Numerical Relays External systems

Electronics Division

REMOTE TERMINAL UNIT

The Remote Terminal Units may consist of a programmable logic converter (PLC) or dedicated hardware unit with its CPU, Analog Input modules, Digital Input/ Output Modules. The RTUs and PLCs are responsible for data collection such as meter readings, equipment status etc and communicate back to the HMI Computer system.

Electronics Division

REMOTE TERMINAL UNIT


The RTU operations include Scanning of inputs at a fast rate Processing such as change of state Time stamping of changes Storage of data awaiting polling from the SCADA master Some RTUs can initiate reporting to the SCADA master The RTU may do some alarm processing RTU respond to the simple request to read complete data Complex control function to be executed

Electronics Division

REMOTE TERMINAL UNIT


SCADA systems monitor and make slight changes to function optimally. SCADA systems are considered closed loop systems and run with relatively little human intervention The RTUs are usually set to specific requirements, however, most RTU allow human intervention, for instance, in a factory setting, the RTU might control the setting of a conveyer belt, and the speed can be changed or overridden at any time by human intervention for optimum performance In addition, any changes or errors are usually automatically logged for and/or displayed.

Electronics Division

REMOTE TERMINAL UNIT


SCADA systems implement a distributed database - tag database, which contains data elements called tags or points. A point represents a single input or output value monitored or controlled by the system. Points can be either "hard" or "soft". A hard point is representative of an actual input or output connected to the system, while a soft point represents the result of logic and math operations applied to other hard and soft points. Point values are normally stored as value-timestamp combinations; the value and the timestamp when the value was recorded or calculated. A series of value-timestamp combinations is the history of that point. It's also common to store additional information tags such as: path to field device and alarming information.

Electronics Division

REMOTE TERMINAL UNIT


Data acquisition and display of switchyard equipment for Status Alarms Values voltage frequency real power reactive power current Independent bay control unit for each bay Detection and reporting of alarms Sequence of events with 1 ms resolution Control of circuit breakers, isolators, tap changer

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REMOTE TERMINAL UNIT


Software interlocking to ensure safe operation of equipments Select before execute Bypass interlocks whenever required Command supervision

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System introduction
Distributed Processing Unit (DPU)
I/O Bus 8 pack rack Connector (DPU and I/O) Field 48V Field 24V System 24V
I/O Bus

Connectors

Eight-pack rack

I/O Modules

Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) Panels

D P U D P U I O

I O I O I O

I O I O I O

I O I O I O

I/O signals

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RTU Overview
Controller, Input/Output, Power Supply, Network Interfaces, Field Terminations RTU Components : Distributed Processing Unit ( maxDPU) I/O Modules (maxPAC) Network Switches Power Supply Rack

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RTU Overview
maxPAC Racks: contains I/O back planes and Edge connectors for modules connectors for 24 V logic and 24/48 V field power supply ribbon cable connectors to interconnect I/O bus of different chassis

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REMOTE TERMINAL UNIT

CPU unit Digital Input Module Digital output module Analog input module

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Distributed Processing Unit


32 Bit Intel Processor Redundant / Stand-alone modes Windows CE.net Operating System Dual ethernet ports, to maxNET

Dual 100 Mbps highway connections for high speed NO intermediate servers / communication modules Network hardened to withstand problems Optional IRIG input for satellite time synchronization High temperature tolerance and low power - No fans, no batteries for low maintenance, high reliability

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Distributed Processing Unit


128 MByte RAM 64 MByte Removable Compact Flash Non-volatile FLASH memory maintains the control strategy configuration even if power is lost 8,500 function blocks for high capacity complex control Event Reporting to 1 msec Resolution User configurable program execution time between 10 msec - 500 msec 10,000 event queue Directly accessible from all maxSTATIONS Supports off-line simulation and testing

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ANALOG INPUT MODULE


Salient Points of Analog Input Modules:

AI (IOP301, IOP302, IOP305) 16 Channels V/I 4 - 20 mA or 0 - 2.4 V 15 bit + sign Bit, 0.1% Accuracy of full scale Scan time: 100 ms (isolated) Variants - 3 wire RTD( IOP303), TC(IOP304)

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DIGITAL INPUT MODULE


Salient Points of Digital Input Modules: DI (IOP330, IOP331, IOP332, IOP333, IOP334) 16 isolated or non isolated channels per module 24/48 V DC, 120/240 V AC/DC

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DIGITAL OUTPUT MODULE

Salient Points of Digital Output Modules: DO (IOP350, IOP351) 16 Channels per module Individual Red LEDs provide output indication for each channel Green LED for system power and healthy communication

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DPU Redundancy
maxNET

Parallel I/O Bus

Primary and secondary are selected through configuration Fatal diagnostic error causes transfer in <3 msec Secondary DPU configuration can be modified and transfer initiated for testing purposes

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I/O Redundancy
I/O Can be Redundant ...

I/O

I/O I/O I/O

I/O
Redundant DPU Bus

I/O

... And Shared

Electronics Division

A SCADA system reports to human operators over a specialized computer that is variously called a master station - HMI (HumanMachine Interface) The HMI displays this information in an easily understood graphics form, archives the data received, transmits alarms and permits operator control as required. The HMI is a PC system running powerful graphic and alarm software programs. The collected data is usually viewed on one or more SCADA Host computers located at the central or master site. SCADA applications can monitor and control hundreds to hundreds of thousands of I/O points.

HMI Functions

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Software
System software: Application software Engineering & configuration Operating system software: Windows 2000/ Windows XP

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HMI Features
All operation from maxSTATIONS Alarms, SOE part of maxVUE display All maxSTATIONS, desk-top placed No hardwired back-up Large Video Screen (LVS) for display Typical Typical Modern ModernControl Controlroom room

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HMI
Single Line diagram Displays Control dialogues Interlocking logic station wide System status Annunciation (audio ,visual) Alarm list Event List Trending Reports Gateway communication with RCC using IEC 870 -5-101 protocol

Electronics Division

Electronics Division

Alarm Display
Abnormal conditions generate alarm Associate occurrence of alarm to preassigned picture Assignment of priorities for each point Segregation of alarm summary pages Alarm summary

Electronics Division

Electronics Division

Reports
Trend reports : Daily, monthly, semi-annually, yearly for mean and peak values Historical Reports : Automatic (daily at 15 min intervals, weekly, monthly, yearly) On demand By occurrence of pre-defined events

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Reports
Printing of Reports : Daily voltage and frequency curves for 24 hours Weekly trend curves for real and derived analog values Max and min values ,frequency of occurrence and duration of max and min values for each analog parameter in a 24 hour period Number of operations of breaker, date time indications Equipment operation details shift wise during 24 hours Details of MW, MVAR, current, etc for specified time period on demand Printout of system frequency and average frequency

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Reports
Fill-in-the-box type report configuration with different templates and formats Easy-to-use dialogs for report scheduling

Clear reports to printers and Monitors

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Trends
Real time Trends : Continuous updating of parameters Curve diagrams or tabular form Adjustable update intervals Historical Trends: Data retrieval by specifying the time /date

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Real Time and History Trending


Flexible trends embedded into schematics or as stand-alone pages See the current situation and explore history - seamless integration maxSTORIAN Process History

Up to eight points in one trend Change trended points during run-time Easy-to-use time handling for browsing the history

Electronics Division

maxLINK
maxNET

External Systems

Interface to external systems: PLC networks, Numerical relays LDC Interface Supports multiple simultaneous communication protocols Supports data transfer from other systems and networks Provision in DPUs also All data available to maxSTATIONS Windows-XP based

Electronics Division

Communication Networks
WITH REDUNDANCY Between the RTU in the field and the HMI system in the Control Room SCADA communications can employ a diverse range of both wired (lease line, dialup line, fiber, cable) and wireless media (licensed radio, cellular, WLANor satellite) Communication within a plant will be by data cable, wire or fiberoptic, while regional systems most commonly utilize radio Failure of one highway does not affect operation of other. Fibre optic communication

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maxNET Communications Network

Proven Industry Standard, Switched Fast Ethernet Ultra high speed (100 Mbps) redundant network Multiple simultaneous communication Utilizes intelligent switching No collisions occur. Traffic is never stopped

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Full Duplex Communications


maxSTATIONS

Effectively doubles the communications bandwidth


Switched Hub Switched Hub

One DPU can send alarm information while.. another DPU is receiving operator commands
DPUs

Electronics Division

maxNET
100 Mbps Switched Ethernet
Host Computer and Remote Workstations

100 Mbps Full Duplex switch to switch 100 Mbps Full Duplex drops

D P U

D P U

A I

D I

Full duplex, high speed communications between maxSTATIONS Modem hubs. All interfaces, links and Optical Repeater switches are redundant All stations are directly HMI Region connected Control Region Flexible topology Uses industry standard Parallel I/O Bus hardware Serial Interface Capacity greatly exceeds (MODBUS ) system maximum loading
Plant Management Network
FDX D P U A O D O

Remote MAXStation

Process I/O Signals

Electronics Division

Wireless SCADA
Wireless SCADA is required in those applications when wired communications to the remote site is prohibitively expensive or it is too time consuming to construct wired communications. In particular types of industry like Oil & Gas or Water & Wastewater, wireless SCADA is often the only solution due to the remoteness of the sites. Wireless SCADA systems can be built on private radio (licensed or unlicensed), cellular or satellite communications; each of these has its unique set of characteristics as given in the Table.

Electronics Division

Wireless SCADA
Private Licensed Typical Range 30 -60 Private Mobile License-free 30 cell coverage No Fast 9600 Yes Yes No Fast 1200 to 1.2M Yes Yes Satellite

Government Approval Yes No Setup Time Moderate Fast 9600 Data Rate (kbps) 9600 19,200 Monthly Rates? No No Not RTU/RF integration ? Yes usually

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System Diagnosis
DIAGNOSTICS Provided for Controller I/O cards Communication system

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SCADA System
ADVANTAGES:
On line help Ease of operation Sharing of information Safety of equipment Interlocking conditions Prevent unsafe operating conditions

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SCADA System
Other benefits SCADA Systems provide: Reduces operational costs Provides immediate knowledge of system performance Improves system efficiency and performance Increases equipment life Reduces costly repairs Reduces number of man-hours (labor costs) required for troubleshooting or service Frees up personnel for other important tasks Facilitates compliance with regulatory agencies through automated report generating

Electronics Division

BHEL Experience
Power plant switchyard , transmission sub stations at 110, 132, 220 , 400KV level are controlled and monitored from the switchyard / central control room

Electronics Division

BHEL EXPERIENCE
SCADA FOR POWER PLANT SWITCHYARD /SUBSTATION SUPPLIED: Kovilkalappal CCPP 110KV switchyard Perungulam CCPP 110KV switchyard Baiji , Iraq GTPP 400KV switchyard Dhuvaran CCPP 132 KV switchyard Kuttalam CCPP 110KV switchyard

Electronics Division

BHEL EXPERIENCE
SCADA FOR POWER PLANT SWITCHYARD /SUBSTATION SUPPLIED: Vindyachal STPP 400KV switchyard Alamathy 400KV/230KV/110KV substation Korba East TPS 220KV switchyard Bellary TPS 220 /400 KV switchyard Mejia TPS 220KV switchyard Chandrapura 220 KV switchyard Kutch Lignite TPS 220KV switchyard

Electronics Division

Substation SCADA System for 2X250MW VSTPP Stage 3