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A Combined MODELS-TACS ATPdraw General Model of the High Impedance Faults in Distribution Networks

Kamal M. Shebl, Ebrahim A. Badran, IEEE Member, and Elsaeed Abdalla

Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Mansoura, 35516, Egypt eabadran@ieee.org

Abstract - The High Impedance Faults (HIF) are the faults which are difficult to detect by overcurrent protection relays. In this paper a generalized HIF arc model is presented. The proposed model is based on the dynamic arc resistance. A combination between MODELS and TACS as supported tools in ATP will be used. The proposed arc model is validated by comparing the simulated results with the published results. The comparison shows a good agreement. Finally, the validated model is used to analyse many fault scenarios on the IEEE 13node radial distribution test feeder. The outputs confirm the presented model validity.. Index Terms - Modeling, Arc Model, HIF, Distribution Network, ATPdraw.

It is simulated using

In [7] and [8] the HIF is modeled using a series of two variable resistors; a transient arc resistor and a steady-state higher fault-path resistor. The two series resistors have been controlled using TACS. In [1] the diodes and polarizing ramp voltages are used to control arc ignition instants. The arc model consists of linear resistance, nonlinear resistance, and DC and AC sources. Whereas, in [2], [9] and [10] the arc model is treated using anti-parallel diodes with non-linear resistance and only DC source. In [11] a HIF model using two time-varying resistances is presented using MODELS. Finally, in [3] a universal arc model is introduced to represent the HIF arc faults feature. This model is based on TACS. In this paper the arc is proposed to be modeled using a combination between MODELS and TACS in ATPdraw. This will make a better utilization for the benefits of the two tools in ATP. This can lead to generalization of the arc model using ATPdraw. II. THE PROPOSED HIF ARC MODEL The arc of the HIF is proposed to be modeled using MODELS in combination with TACS in ATPdraw. This proposed strategy is more flexible and easy to use. It will provide a general purpose icon in ATPdraw to represent the HIF arc. The arc can be represented according to the principle of thermal equilibrium using the following differential equation [6]:

I. INTRODUCTION Detection of high impedance faults (HIF) still presents important and unsolved protection problem, especially in distribution networks [1]. When a conductor such as a distribution line makes contact with a poor conductive surface such as an asphalt road or a tree, the resulting level of fault current is usually lower than the nominal current of the system at the fault location. Therefore, the conventional protection relay system will not be able to detect the HIF and/or trip the appropriate protection relay [2]. There are several models have been used for describing the arcs. Most models are used for circuit breaker arcs and several of them have been applied to long arcs or arcing faults [3]. Furthermore, many software are used for analyzing this phenomenon specially the transients programs. The ElectroMagnetic Transient Program (Alternative Version) EMTP-ATP is used through many literatures' methods of arc modeling. In [4] a realistic model of HIF incorporating non-linear impedance, time-varying voltage sources and a controlled switch -to yield the signal characteristics of arcing- is presented. The main parts of this model were built using the Transients Analysis Control System (TACS). Also, a digital arc model which is derived from Hochrainer arc description is used in [5]. It is based on energy balance in the arc. Whereas, in [6], the arc is represented by two different components;

dg 1 = (G g ) dt

G = i V arc

(1)

(2)

where g is the time varying arc conductance, G is the stationary arc conductance, |i| is the absolute value of the arc current, Varc is a constant arc voltage, and is the arc time constant. The time constant can be given by;

527

= Ae Bg

(3)

where A and B are constant parameters which represent compromised values for positive and negative half cycles [3]. The steps of calculating of the arc conductance using MODELS are arranged in the flowchart in Fig. 1. The flowchart consists of; calculation of G, construction of the main differential equation and its integration it. A feedback signal is used in calculation to initiate the differential equation solution. The arc conductance is updated at each time step of solution. The arc resistance is modeled in power network using TACS controlled resistance type 91 [12].

|i| Measured Fault current

It is evident that, the simulation time terminal is used to enable the user to control the MODELS simulation time regardless the overall ATP simulation step time. This makes the MODELS solution very accurate. Furthermore, a feedback signal is used to update the arc conductance.

Simulation Time Measured Current

g

Inputs

CTR

Outputs

RES

Varc

G=| i |/Varc

dg 1 = (G g ) dt

III. VERIFICATION OF THE PROPOSED HIF ARC MODEL The proposed HIF arc model is verified by comparing its outputs with those published in [3]. The single line diagram of the test system used for this verification is shown in Fig. 3. The test system was picked from [3] and modeled using ATPdraw as shown in Fig. 4 including the proposed HIF arc model. The test system operates at 20 kV. It consists of a 50 Hz voltage source with 2.6% source impedance, Zs, and a 16 kVA, 0.234/20 kV transformer with 4.2% impedance, Ztr. A capacitor divider of 100 pF and a calibrated resistance of 0.49 ohms are used with the system. For verification purpose, the HIF is applied using the following fault condition, Rtree=140.5 K, A=5.6E-7, and B=395917 as given in [3].

Zs Ztr

I(t)

Integrator

= Ae

Bg

1/g

Fig. 2 illustrates the general view of the resultant ATPdraw basic HIF arc model using MODELS. It consists of five inputs; simulation time, the measured arc current, a feedback signal (g) and two additional signals; CTR and RES. CTR is a control terminal to enable the user to input any additional control signal. RES is a reset terminal to enable the user to coordinate with control signal. The outputs of the arc model are time varying arc resistance, Rarc, and arc conductance, g. The three input variables; Time, CTR, and RES can be simulated using TACS to give the required signals Thus, the proposed HIF arc model combines between the simplicity of MODELS and the flexibility of TACS. MODELS program is used in basic and iterative equation processing. Whereas, TACS is used to enable the user to input any type of control waveforms and/or reset signals. This makes any type of faults, fault constants, and/or affected power system constants can be manipulated through simple terminals. So, the proposed model avoids the complexity of existing TACS models and adds a flexible control to the traditional black box MODELS subroutines.

Rarc Rtree

G

Time CTR RES

Feedback (g)

Fig. 3: Single Line Diagram for the Test System Used for Validation of the Proposed HIF Arc Model

Fig. 5a illustrates the ATPdraw-TACS model for the required control circuit for generating CTR signal. This signal represents the arc duration. Also, Fig. 5b shows CTR

528

output signal. Fig. 6a illustrates the ATPdraw-TACS model for the required control circuit for generating RES signal. It represents the duration of the insulation strength through the arc. Also, Fig. 6b shows RES output signal

Fig. 7 introduced the comparison between the published and simulated voltage and current at fault point. It is noted that the peaks and the trajectories of both the voltages and currents are similar. This figure ensures the validity of the proposed model. It is clearly seen that the outputs of the proposed model are in good agreement with that of the published results.

Fig. 4: The ATPdraw Representation of the Test System Including the Proposed HIF Arc Model

(a)

CTR

200 Voltage ( x 0.1 KV ) 150

Published

100

50

1.0

0 -50

0.8

-100

0.6

-150

0.4

-200 0

0.2

0.0 0.00

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

[s]

0.10

(b) Simulated Fig. 7: Validation of the Voltage and Current of the Fault

T

IV. APPLICATION OF THE HIF ARC MODEL IN GENERAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS To illustrate the general usage of the proposed HIF arc model in distribution system analysis, a benchmark test system is used. The IEEE 13 Bus test system is used in this analysis [13]. The single line diagram of the system is shown in Fig. 8.

RES

a. TACS model for RES

2.0 *10 -6 1.6

1.2

0.8

0.4

0.0 0.00

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

[s]

0.10

529

The test system is supplied from 115 kV, 50Hz, with1100 MVA short circuit at 82 degree AC source. A 5 MVA, 115/4.16 kV, delta/wye grounded substation transformer, and a 500 kVA, 4.16/0.48 kV in-line transformer are used. Many lumped parameter and -equivalent, single phase and three phase over-head and under-ground lines are used to connect the system parts. Loads consist of wye and delta connected spot, unbalanced, and distributed loads. They are mixture of constant kW, kVAR, and Z as given in the appendix. Also, balanced three phase and single phase shunt capacitors are connected. Fig. 9 illustrates the ATPdraw model of the test system including the HIF arc model. The analysis will based on single-phase to ground fault, that most of HIF are single phase to ground faults [14]. Many points were selected at different locations that represent many types of loads in the test system. The fault was applied at 20 ms and cleared at 95 ms at bus 646, bus 652, and bus 675, respectively. The buses were selected due to their load type variety.

MODEL dv

Fig. 10b shows the waveform of the fault current for single-phase to ground fault at bus 675. This bus is a threephase unbalance load with normal load current of 97 A, 30 A, and 108 A for phases A, B, and C, respectively. The fault is applied on phase C. It is shown that the fault current is 20.5 mA. This value is very small current compared with the rated current. Fig. 10c shows the waveform of the fault current for single-phase to ground fault at bus 652. This bus is a twophase load with normal load current of 40.5 A and 43.8 A for phases A and C, respectively. The fault current is 18 mA. A new fault current profile can be notable.

20 [mA] 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15

Gu 58

-20 0.00

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

[s]

0.10

650

25.00 [mA] 18.75

a. Bus 646

646

611

Fig. 9: The ATPdraw Model of the IEEE 13 bus test System Including the HIF Arc Model

Fig. 10a shows the waveforms of the fault current for single-phase to ground fault at bus 646. This bus is a singlephase load with normal load current of 72 A. It is shown that the bus current does not largely change during the fault. It is shown that the fault current is 20 mA. This value is small enough such that the over current protection does not sense it compared with the rated current.

645

632

12.50 6.25

633

634

684

671

I

-25.00 0.00

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

[s]

0.10

b. Bus 675

692 675

20 [mA] 15 10

652

680

0.02

0.04

c. Bus 652

0.06

0.08

[s]

0.10

Fig. 10: The HIF Current Waveform for IEEE Test System

530

The change of the influence of the fault current waveform is notable. This is due to the change in fault location which leads to change in the impedance angle between the source and the fault point. This change in the influence of the waveforms and the values of the fault currents confirm the proposed model validity. V. CONCLUSIONS This paper introduces a generalized HIF arc model using ATPdraw. The presented model is based on the dynamic arc resistance. A combination between MODELS and TACS in ATPdraw are used. The presented HIF arc model combines between the simplicity of MODELS and the flexibility of TACS. MODELS program is used in basic and iterative equation processing. Whereas, TACS is used to enable the user to input any type of control waveforms and/or reset signals. This makes any type of faults, fault constants, and/or affected power system constants can be manipulated through simple terminals. So, the proposed model avoids the complexity of existing TACS models and adds a flexible control to the traditional black box MODELS subroutines. It is evident that, each part of the presented model can be used separately in any other universal model. Also, the parts of the model can be modified separately. So, the presented model can be used as a generalized model for the HIF arc using the ATPdraw. The presented HIF arc model is validated by comparing the simulated results with the published results. The comparison has shown a good agreement. Finally, the model is used to analysis the IEEE 13-bus radial distribution test feeder through application of many faults scenarios. The output waveforms of the analysis confirm the model validity. REFERENCES

[1] M. Michalik, W. Rebizant, M. Lukowicz, S- Jae Lee, and S-Hee Kang, Wavelet Transform Approach to High Impedance Fault Detection in MV Networks, IEEE Power Tech., pp. 1-7, June 2005. [2] T. M. Lai, L. A. Snider, E. Lo, and D. Sutanto, Highimpedance Fault Detection using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Frequency Range and RMS Conversion, IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, Vol. 20, No. 1, January 2005, pp.397-407. [3] Nagy I. Elkalashy, Matti Lehtonen, Hatem A. Darwish, Mohamed A. Izzularab and Abdel-Maksoud I. Taalab, Modeling and Experimental Verification of High Impedance Arcing Fault in Medium Voltage Networks, IEEE Transaction on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, Vol. 14, No. 2, April 2007, pp. 375-383. [4] David chan, Tat Wai, and Xia Yibin, "A Novel Technique for High Impedance Fault Identification", IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, Vol. 13, No. 3, July 1998, pp. 738-744. [5] M. Kizilcay and T. Pniok, Digital System Simulation of Fault Arcs in Power Systems, ETEP, Vol. 1, No. 1, January/February 1991, pp. 5560.

[6] M. Kizilacy and P. La Seta, Digital Simulation of Fault arcs in Medium-Voltage Distribution Networks, 15th PSCC, Liege, 22-26 August, 2005. [7] S. R. Nam, J. K. Park, Y. C. Kang, and T. H. Kim, "A Modeling Method of a High Impedance Fault in a Distribution System using Two Series Time-Varying Resistances in EMTP", Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, IEEE-SM, Vol. 2, 2001, pp. 1175-1180. [8] F. M. Uriarte, Modeling, Detection, and Localization of HighImpedance Faults in Low-Voltage Distribution Feeders, December 15, 2003, Blacksburg, Virginia, M.Sc. Thesis. [9] S. R. Samantaray, P. K. Dash, and S. K. Upadhyay, Adaptive Kalman filter and neural Network Based High Impedance Fault Detection in Power Distribution Networks, Electrical power and Energy System 31, 2009, pp. 167-172. [10] S. R. Samantaray and P. K. Dash, ''High Impedance Fault Detection in Distribution Feeders using Extended Kalman Filter and Support Vector Machine'', Euro. Trans. Electr. Power 2010, pp. 382393. [11] Tao Cui, X. Dong, Z. Bo, A. Kilmek, and A. Edwards, "Modeling Study for High Impedance Fault Detection in MV Distribution System'', Universities Power Engineering Conference, UPEC 2008, pp. 1-5. [12] Lszl Prikler and Hans Kristian Hidalen, "ATPdraw Version 5.6 for Windows 9x/NT/2000/XP/Vista - Users' Manual", November 2009. [13] IEEE Working Group on Distribution Planning, Radial Distribution Test Feeders, Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 6, No. 3, August 1991. [14] PSRC Working Group D15, "High Impedance Fault Detection Technology", Report of PSRC, March 1, 1996.

APPENDIX

IEEE 13 Bus Test System Load Data Node 634 645 646 652 671 675 692 611 Load Ph-1 Model kW kVAr Y-PQ 160 110 Y-PQ 0 0 D-Z 0 0 Y-Z 128 86 D-PQ 385 220 Y-PQ 485 190 D-I 0 0 Y-I 0 0 TOTAL 1158 606 Ph-2 Ph-3 kW kVAr kW kVAr 120 90 120 90 170 125 0 0 230 132 0 0 0 0 0 0 385 220 385 220 68 60 290 212 0 0 170 151 0 0 170 80 973 627 1135 753

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