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Background of the Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution (1820-1870) was of great importance to the economic development of the United States. The first Industrial Revolution occurred in Great Britain and Europe during the late eighteenth century. The Industrial Revolution then centered on the United States and Germany.

The Industrial Revolution itself refers to a change from hand and home production to machine and factory. The first industrial revolution was important for the inventions of spinning and weaving machines operated by water power which was eventually replaced by steam. This helped increase America’s growth. However, the industrial revolution truly changed American society and economy into a m odern urban-industrial state.

The Industrial Revolution - An Overview

Debates and laws regarding child labour. At its simplest. Anti-technology groups such as the Luddites. allowing – or driving – them into cities and manufacturing. The Industrial Revolutions: The term 'industrial revolution' was used to describe the period by the 1830s. New city and factory cultures affecting family and peer groups. The agricultural revolution frees people from the soil. iron and steam led by Britain. transportation was expanded. What Changed – Industrially and Economically:       The invention of steam power. First. but modern historians increasingly call this period the 'first industrial revolution'. The South increased its cotton supply sending raw cotton north to be used in the manufacture of cloth. characterised by steel. . taking risks and developing ideas Important Inventors. which was used to power factories and transport and allowed for deeper mining. characterised by developments in textiles. cramped housing and living conditions. electricity was effectively harnessed. Francis C. The government helped protect American manufacturers by passing a protective tariff. Third. Higher population because of less disease and lower infant mortality allowed for a larger industrial workforce. They also seized four men and hung one for desertion.'The Industrial Revolution' refers to a period of massive economic. manufacturing began to expand. The textile industry was transformed by new machines – such as the Spinning Jenny . public health and working conditions. Developments in metallurgy and chemical production. Better machine tools allowed for more and better machines. Proportionally large amounts of spare capital for investment. Improvement of iron making techniques allowing for vastly higher production levels. including the United States. Therefore. Americans were upset over an incident with the Chesapeake whereby the British opened fire when they were not allowed to search the ship. This led to the development of the textile industry throughout New England. Causes of the Industrial Revolution:         The end of feudalism changes economic relationships.and factories. This resulted in much public outrage and the passage of the Embargo Act which stopped the export of American goods and effectively ended the import of goods from other nations. Colonial trade networks. Lowell increased the efficiency in the manufacture of cloth by bringing spinning and weaving processes together into one factory. Culture of hard work. America went to war with Great Britain in 1812. a mainly agrarian world economy based on manual labour was transformed into one of industry and manufacturing by machines. Industrialization in America involved three important developments. The real impetus for America entering the Industrial Revolution was the passage of the Embargo Act of 1807 and the War of 1812. The presence of all the required resources close together. but the 1760/80s to the 1830/40s are most common. Inventions. Creation of new and quicker transport networks thanks to first canals and then railways. Eventually. The war made it apparent that America needed a better transportation system and more economic independence. improvements were made to industrial processes such as improving the refining process and accelerating production. and Events of the Industrial Revolution Cotton and Cloth In 1794. with the developments beginning in Britain and then spreading to the rest of the world. Inventions and the scientific revolution allowing for new technology. Second. technological. social and cultural change which affected humans to such an extent that it's often compared to the change from hunter-gathering to farming. The precise dates are a subject for debate and vary by historian. electrics and automobiles led by the US and Germany. to differentiate it from a 'second' revolution of the 1850s onwards. Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin which made the separation of cotton seeds from fiber much faster. What Changed – Socially and Culturally:     Rapid urbanisation leading to dense. again allowing for much higher production at a lower cost.

If standard parts were made by machine. Three industrial developments led the way to Industrialization in America: (1) transportation was expanded. This was made possible by James Watt’s invention of the first reliable steam engine. advances were made in agriculture too including better machines and cultivators. better communication networks became ultra important. With the great advances of the Industrial Revolution. This became an important part of American industry and the Second Industrial Revolution. railroads linked the most important Mid West cities with the Atlantic coast. From Agriculture to Cities As industries and factories arose. In 1844. was begun in 1811. The creation of the Erie Canal created a route from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes thereby helping stimulate the economy of New York and making New York City a great trading center. John Deere created the first steel plow in 1837 helping speed up farming across the Midwest. people moved from farms to cities. Transportation The Cumberland Road. the Clermont. This eventually became part of the Interstate 40. However. and the automobile (Karl Benz). this network ranged throughout the eastern coast to the Mississippi. Further. and (3) improvements were made to industrial processes. by Robert Fulton. Person James Watt Invention First reliable Steam Engine Date 1775 . Communication and the Industrial Revolution With the increased size of the United States. For example. B. (2) electricity was effectively harnessed. Cyrus McCormick created the reaper which allowed quicker and cheaper harvesting of grain. The foundations set throughout the mid-1800's set the stage for inventions such as the light bulb (Thomas Edison). by the start of the Civil War. All of a sudden. clothing began to be made in factories as opposed to at home. telephone (Alexander Bell). Morse created the telegraph and by 1860. Elias Howe created the sewing machine which revolutionized the manufacture of clothing. Following is a list of key events and dates of the Industrial Revolution. river transportation was made efficient through the creation of the first steamboat. Samuel F. Railroads were of supreme importance to the increase in trade throughout the United States. Ford's creation of the assembly line which made manufacturing more efficient just helped form America into a modern industrialized nation. This led to other issues including overcrowding and disease. Further. Railroads further opened the west and connected raw materials to factories and markets. Utah.In 1846. A transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869 at Promontory. inventors continued to work throughout the rest of the 19th and early 20th century on ways to make life easier while increasing productivity. Interchangeable Parts Eli Whitney came up with the idea to use interchangeable parts in 1798 to make muskets. In fact. the first national road. The impact of these and other inventions of the time cannot be underestimated. Industrial Revolution Inventors Top 10 Significant Industrial Revolution Inventors The Industrial Revolution that occurred in the 19th century was of great importance to the economic future of the United States. then they could be assembled at the end much more quickly than before.

1913 . B. Interchangeable parts for muskets Regular Steamboat service on the Hudson River Telegraph Sewing Machine Improves and markets Howe's Sewing Machine Transatlantic Cable Telephone Phonograph. 1879 1888 1892 1903 1908. 1798 1807 1836 1844 1851 1866 1876 1877. Morse Elias Howe Isaac Singer Cyrus Field Alexander Graham Bell Thomas Edison Nikola Tesla Rudolf Diesel Orville and Wilbur Wright Henry Ford Cotton Gin.Eli Whitney Robert Fulton Samuel F. Assembly Line 1793. Incandescant Light Bulb Induction Electric Motor Diesel Engine First Airplane Model T Ford.