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Project Code: JRB-VS06

Market Analysis of Smoke Detection and Applications
An Interactive Qualifying Project Report Submitted to the Faculty of WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science by: __________________________ Nichole L. Carriere

__________________________ Ryan A. Graves

__________________________ Donald M. Havener

__________________________ Mark A. Rizzo

Date:

Approved:

____________________________________ Professor Jonathan R. Barnett, Advisor

Abstract
This project researched and evaluated smoke detection and its applications, including air sampling smoke detection (ASD) systems, conventional ionization, photoelectric and spot-type heat detectors. An analysis of the National Fire Incident Reports was used to determine how much more efficient detection systems were at decreasing property damages, injuries and casualties. Questionnaires were created to gather

feedback from professionals to determine their preference on the topic. The results of this research assisted in the making of recommendations to further increase the understanding for the need of early warning detection systems. Keywords: fire protection, fire detection, smoke detection, air sampling smoke detection

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Executive Summary
The goal of this project was to research and evaluate air sampling systems compared to other detection systems. In this report the air sampling systems are

contrasted to traditional ionization, photo-electric, and heat detector systems. These contrasts, along with other methods, were done to find potential markets within larger commercial buildings for the air sampling smoke detection systems. To find the best market for these systems various research methods were employed. An analysis of the National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS)

determined how efficient detection systems were at decreasing damages and casualties. This was done by looking at the amount of damage with detection versus the amount without detection. Different areas of origin (i.e. kitchens, storage areas, and function areas), along with materials ignited (i.e. wood, gases, and natural products), were also studied in relation to various structure fires from the NFIRS. Numbers regarding fires originating in various areas were extracted from NFIRS along with the materials that were ignited. From these numbers it was discovered that the leading areas of origin were “function areas”, “storage areas”, and “structural areas.” It was also determined that the leading materials causing fires were “wood, paper”, “fabrics, textiles, furs”, and “natural products.” This information was used to give a prediction on a potential market for the air sampling systems. Another method exercised to obtain results about the air sampling systems was sending out questionnaires via e-mail to receive feedback from engineers, building owners, and fire officials. The answers received from the professionals were compared to determine their qualified preferences on air sampling systems. A perspective based on

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their experience was gained from the results of these questionnaires. however it is beyond the scope of this report to make technical refinements of the system itself. photo-electric. The next is to consider producing a scaled-down and less expensive VESDA system for use in smaller spaces. including air sampling systems. Very Early Smoke Detection Apparatus’s (VESDA) ability to detect smoke during the incipit stages or a fire allows the system to be implemented in scenarios where heat sensitive chemicals or pharmaceutical storage is involved. iv . and heat spot-type detectors. This ability is highly advantageous to installers and engineers and provides a way to further VESDA’s penetration into the high end smoke detection market. Potential markets within larger commercial buildings where air sampling smoke detection systems could be applied. The goal of this project was to research and evaluate smoke detection and its applications. Another route would be to reduce the price of the total system. weaknesses. traditional ionization. This could allow VESDA to be utilized as a friction/over-friction monitoring device in manufacturing facilities. The engineers yielded their professional opinions on the strengths. However. and applications of air sampling systems against traditional systems. This would allow the system to be implemented strategically and provide incentive to prospective buyers. First would be to further the capability of VESDA to be easily integrated into a large number of control boxes. a two hindrances of the wide spread installation of VESDA is its price and ability to be integrated into control boxes. VESDA also has the capability to detect small changes in the quantity of smoke particles in the air. There are a few options that should be considered.

were studied in relation to structure fires in large commercial buildings. IT&T. utilities and storage services. kitchens. An analysis of National Fire Incident Reports (NFIRS) was used to determine how much more efficient detection systems were at decreasing property damages. v . The engineers yielded their professional opinions on the strengths. along with materials ignited (i. injuries and casualties. Questionnaires sent via e-mail were used to receive feedback from design engineers. and fire officials to determine their professional opinions of the benefit of using smoke detection systems. especially the early warning air sampling smoke detection (ASD) systems. A perspective based on their experience was gained from the results of these questionnaires. The number of fires originating in various areas with specific materials was extracted from the NFIRS. Different areas of fire origin (i.To find the potential market for smoke detection systems various research methods were employed. and function areas). consultants. From these numbers it was discovered which areas and materials were most commonly associated with fires. storages areas.e. gases. VESDA products are used in industries such as transportation. is recognised as the market leader in early warning smoke detection. VESDA air sampling smoke detectors are renowned for their ability to consistently deliver smoke detection that protects a diverse range of global businesses and their challenging environments providing enhanced life safety and business continuity solutions. and uses of air sampling systems against traditional systems.e. weaknesses. wood. building owners. VESDA®. a leading Air Sampling Smoke Detection Systems. and natural products). manufacturing.

allows the system to be implemented in scenarios where heat sensitive chemicals or pharmaceutical storage is involved. This would allow the system to be implemented strategically and provide incentive to prospective buyers. vi .VESDA’s ability to detect smoke during the incipit stages as well as big fires due to its very wide sensitivity range. VESDA system product ranges allow the use of such an ASD technology in both large and smaller spaces.

Ryan also assisted in the writing of the Abstract. individual specialties and interests did allow for some to contribute to areas where others felt uncomfortable working. Overall.Authorship Nichole Carriere wrote some of the Literature Review and NFIRS Results. vii . The data was analyzed and entered into the report. Introduction. Ryan Graves organized the effort to contact and interview contacts. Results and Conclusions sections. Introduction. He also spread his knowledge and assistance to help with everyone else efforts. as well as creating and arranging all of the NFIRS tables and graphics. and Results sections. Executive Summary. Donald Havener contributed to the Literature Review. Donald also was the main contributor to the Recommendations and Conclusions section. However. Results and Conclusions. She organized all of the information gathered and put it together in the Literature Review. while also contributing to the Literature Review. the group attempted to evenly distribute the required project’s work. Nichole also helped write the Abstract. Mark Rizzo was the main contributor for the Methodology section. Literature Review.

Acknowledgements The project team would like to thank the following people and their organizations for their assistance with the project: Professor Jonathan Barnett Worcester Polytechnic Institute Michael Voorhis Worcester Polytechnic Institute Ming He Vision Fire & Security David Estrela Vision Fire & Security Nicole Pennio Vision Fire & Security Worcester Polytechnic Institute’s Fire Protection Alumni viii .

.............................2 Building Codes.............................................................. 9 2.................................................1 Identifying ways to find potential markets ............... 3 2.. 10 2......................................................................................................................................2...2 Interviews....................................................................................................................... 15 3............ viii Table of Contents......1 Fire Codes and Standards...... 16 4 Results and Analysis .............................1...........................4 What has not been researched................................................................................................................... 1 2 Literature Review........................................................ iii Executive Summary............1 Fire and Building Codes and Standards......................................................................... 5 2.........................1............ 18 4...1.... 6 2....................................1 Smoke Detectors ............................................................ ii Executive Summary....... 15 3................................... 7 2................2............. ix Table of Figures..................................................................................................................................... 18 4...................3 Air Sampling Smoke Detectors .....3 Insurance Benefits of Additional Detection..........................................................................................................................................1 Areas of Fires...1 NFIRS Data Collection .............3 Authority Having Jurisdiction..................... 9 2....................................2 What is used in Addition to Requirements ............. iii Authorship .... 6 2.......... 8 2.................................................................................................. vii Acknowledgements...................................................2.....................................................................................................................2....................................3.............................................1.................................................................................2 Different Types of Detectors ....................................................................................... 11 2.........................3 Detection in Commercial Buildings.............................................................................................2 Photo-electric Smoke Detectors...............................................................4 Reasons Certain Smoke Detection is not used..................................1............................1 Ionization Smoke Detectors................................................3..1............................ xi Introduction.............................................. 3 2..........1 National Fire Incident Reporting System ..........1.................... 7 2...............................................................3.1............................................ 14 3 Methodology ...............................................1.....................2....1 What is used due to Requirements........ 12 2.......... 19 ix .............. 10 2....................................... 15 3....................3 Near-Infrared Radiation Detectors..............................Table of Contents Abstract............................... 3 2..........2..................... 8 2....................2 Heat Detectors.................................... 7 2.............3.................

.................................... 35 Glossary of abbreviations .......................................... 28 4................................................................................ 30 4.................2 Interview results ........................... 38 Appendix I -NFIRS sorting programming codes............................................3 5 6 7 8 9 Compiled Analysis ......................................2 Materials ignited .....................................4........................................................ 32 Conclusions... 40 Appendix II -Data Tables.................. 24 4..................................3 Deaths in relation to Sprinkler and Detection systems .......................................................................................................................................................... 37 Works Cited .1.................1.............................................................. 46 x .......................................................

..............Table of Figures Figure 2-Area of Origin's Function Areas ............................................................. 24 Figure 6-Type of Material Ignited... 25 Figure 7-Type of Material Ignited ........................... Structural Areas.................... 29 xi ............................................................................................................................................................ 26 Figure 8-Type of Material Ignited ................................ 27 Figure 9-Casualty Data with/without Sprinklers and Detectors ... Textiles and Fur....Area of Origins......................... Storage Areas ................................................................................... 23 Figure 5-Type of Material Ignited ............ 22 Figure 4...... Wood and Paper................................................... 28 Figure 10-Casualties by Detector Type ......... Fabric......... Natural Products ........... 21 Figure 3-Area of Origins..................................................

1 Introduction Since the beginning of civilization. detection and suppression systems must be reset. there is usually one of two outcomes. loss of property and productivity or quick. a small fire quickly escalates into a costly situation. Micheal K) There are systems that can be used in conjunction with fire suppression. With a small fire. It is also important to consider that there are over 300 million people in the United States and 3. the fire department must be notified. compared to the average 2 percent obscuration per foot. When taking downtime into account. The rise of market awareness . These numbers seem large.000 fires causing 10. but they have declined from previous years. At present.6 billion dollars in property loss and 3. all of which are at risk. When fires occur.675 casualties. Michale K) The businesses that supply products and services are vulnerable to fire. During the year 2005 in the United States there were over 1. fire has been a large hazard facing communities. Production and dispersion of items require storage and production facilities. Systems such as those provided by Vision Systems use optical detectors to sense the presence of smoke particles as low as 0.675 casualties is a small percentage number compared to the population. decisive action resulting in minimal loss. these high sensitivity detectors are found in commercial and industrial buildings where suppression can be costly. namely heat detection and smoke detection.005 percent obscurity per meter. (Karter. The best option is human intervention before a smoldering or overheat condition can progress to a fire.602. and insurance companies most likely become involved. (Karter. Some of these products are precise enough to detect microscopic smoke particles in large quantities of air.

The intent of this report is to analyze possible markets for high end ASD detectors like VESDA.and concern over fire related safety could cause an increase in the market for these high quality ASD detectors. (Vision Systems document 10947. version 01) 2 .

2 Literature Review
2.1 Fire and Building Codes and Standards
In order to identify areas within the general fire market for very early warning smoke detection systems, it was first necessary to identify where smoke detection may already be required by law, building codes, or fire codes. NFPA (National Fire

Protection Association) standards, building codes, and fire codes on a state-by-state basis were researched with the goal of uncovering code requirements as well as requirements that could be added to increase fire safety standards. It is important to understand the difference between fire and building codes and standards. A fire code is a requirement for buildings that already exists and buildings yet to be constructed. Fire codes are in place to provide guidelines for achieving an A building code is a set of

acceptable level of safety and must be maintained.

requirements, regarding fire safety, for a structure that is being built. A standard sets forth the details of how to do things in the building. For the purposes of this report, the focus of fire and building codes and standards will be on smoke detection requirements.

2.1.1 Fire Codes and Standards
NFPA 72 (National Fire Alarm Code) provides requirements for the installation, performance, testing, inspection, and maintenance of a fire alarm system. These systems range from basic domestic smoke alarms comprised of battery operated smoke detectors, to large scale integrated systems for large scale residential, commercial and public places. Each system is defined in the entire NFPA’s codes and standards by its composition, 3

building size, and fire load capabilities. Although commercial and public buildings are required to have fire alarm systems in place, they may not be required to have smoke detection of any kind. Manual “pull boxes” generally satisfy code requirements. NFPA 101 (Life Safety Code) was researched for its implementation of fire alarm requirements in various types of commercial buildings. It compliments NFPA 72, by classifying different building types and determining whether a fire alarm system is required in a given occupancy. This “Life Safety” code gives recommended and safe practices which can offer the building and its occupant’s protection. (National Fire Protection Association) State fire codes are mainly comprised of adopted NFPA standards. Most states choose to modify these standards in order to better protect building types and conditions common to their jurisdiction. An example of this would be a rural state such as Maine. Maine has fewer high-rise buildings than states like California and therefore might not need such in-depth codes concerning high-rise buildings. In addition, California may add extra protection to buildings in case of earthquakes, while Maine would not need such protection. Also, there was realization during this research that fire alarm systems are required by law in commercial and public buildings. Most states require that all plans for new construction and renovations be inspected and approved for adherence to fire codes by the fire marshal’s office. This system ensures that buildings are equipped for

emergency situations and the general safety of its occupants is ensured. (Dean, John C.) Developed by the NFPA, codes and standards are intended to minimize the possibility and effects of fire and other risks. Virtually every building, process, service, design, and installation in the United States is addressed by NFPA documents. Some of

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the various standards include NFPA 13, which deals with sprinkler technology, NFPA 25, dealing with minimum requirements necessary for inspection, testing and maintenance of water extinguishing systems, and NFPA 72, which consists of requirements for the full range of fire alarm systems. All of these standards compliment building codes, but describes how things should be done and what is required by inspectors. (National Fire Protection Association)

2.1.2

Building Codes
Sections of NFPA 5000 (Building Construction and Safety Code) identify the

construction requirements of commercial-type building spaces. This code not only dictates how these buildings should be designed, but also what sort of fire alarm system must be installed. According to this code, most commercial buildings are required to have alarm systems, though they are not necessarily required to have smoke detection. The code takes into account factors like building capacity, disbursement of people inside the building, and hazards within the building to recommend specific components of the alarm or detection system. (National Fire Protection Association) The International Building Codes were also researched to find differences between those and NFPA 5000. The International Building Codes classify buildings by their occupancy type and in some cases by level of contained hazards. These

recommendations were created accordingly to develop fire alarm requirements. International Building Codes and NFPA 5000 are quite similar with respect to fire alarm requirements. For most commercial and public buildings, alarm systems can be activated manually and/or by activation of an automatic sprinkler system. Automatic smoke

detection is generally not required. (National Fire Protection Association)

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office. For insurance purposes. The AHJ may also be an individual such as fire chief or others having statutory authority.2 Different Types of Detectors Fire detectors are common throughout all commercial and public buildings. an insurance inspection department. the authority having jurisdiction may be a federal.) 2. 6 . or other regional department. (Baker. Michael) 2. it is important to have an understanding of where these detectors are required. while others are modifications made to those codes by officials on the state level. When looking into the different types of fire detectors. The difference in space usage can mean a great deal. Many times. local.1. rating bureau. or other insurance representative may be the authority having jurisdiction. the property owner or a designated agent assumes the role of AHJ. state. John C. or individual responsible for approving equipment. The term AHJ is used in a broad manner by the NFPA due to the large variation of responsibilities by jurisdiction and approval agencies. These detectors are usually tied together into a larger system which will audibly and visually notify the occupants. Some codes are adopted directly from the International Building Codes. Where public safety comes first.State-enforced building codes are developed in the same fashion as fire codes. and where they will be placed throughout building spaces. installation. (Dean. or a procedure. and/or NFPA 5000. in order to allow evacuation of the building in a timely fashion in addition to notifying emergency services.3 Authority Having Jurisdiction The Authority Having Jurisdiction or AHJ is the organization.

(McEwen.H. ionization detectors. There are three types of automatic detection systems for fire alarms.L) 2. which has caused the alarm (instead of smoke from an actual fire). or how often steam or smoke is released into the air in the room. False positives are when a detector goes off because there is dust. These detectors are commonly found in commercial buildings. They include smoke detectors. All three detection methods provide reliable detection times after combustion particles spark fire conditions. the change in current on the photo-electric cell can be measured and interpreted 7 . R.2.1. and infrared detectors.2 Photo-electric Smoke Detectors Photo-electric smoke detectors usually contain a light source shining directly or indirectly on a photo-electric cell.depending how much dust is in the air. One downside to these detectors is that they can easily have a false alarm if the detector is placed too close to a high humidity area such as a bathroom. and/or smoke in the air.1 Ionization Smoke Detectors Ionization smoke detectors ionize the air making a conductive path in which the current flowing through can be measured.2. (Apollo Fire) 2.1. dirt. however they are not often found in cooking areas because steam and smoke resulting from normal cooking activities can result in false positives. photo-electric detectors. 2.1 Smoke Detectors Smoke detectors are used to look for the presence of smoke within a given area. A change in current caused by the presence of smoke particles will trigger the smoke alarm. and air sampling detectors.2. Smoke detectors consist of three general types. heat detectors. When the light is obstructed or reflected by smoke particles.

and used to trigger the fire alarm. as it will keep working after it sets off the alarm. Photo-electric detectors are a better choice for steamy areas or areas where ionization could occur in the air. This air is passed through a filter where smoke particulates can be separated from large dust particles. However. These detectors can detect smoke while in the incipient stage. as this will not create false alarms. Most air sampling detectors pull air into a pipe network through openings in the ceiling. (Vision Systems document 10947.1.2 Heat Detectors Heat detectors are used to monitor air temperature or to detect the rate of temperature change in a given area. Air sampling detectors monitor increasing smoke levels in the air and compare these values to preset threshold limits.3 Air Sampling Smoke Detectors Air sampling smoke detectors are a newer technology which was developed in order to achieve earlier detection of smoke particles. Then there is either laser based or LED based smoke detection. version 01) 2. Heat detectors will not sense steam released into the air by 8 .2. these detectors are prone to false alarms if located in dusty areas or areas influenced by outdoor conditions because dust particles can have the same effect as smoke on the detector. These air sampling systems are able to continually monitor the smoke content of a given area. These detectors are used more often found around bathrooms and kitchens. allowing time for human intervention which can prevent material flame up and costly damages.2. (Apollo Fire) 2. This can provide valuable data to occupants and emergency personnel.

(Rohr and Hall) 2. The melted link or ruptured glass causes the suppression system to release water or other fire suppressants. Yudaya R. offices. stores. (McEwen. warehouses. and jails.L. The detector will only be triggered if the air by the detector reaches a set threshold or by a rapid heating of the air. As a fire reaches a sprinkler head and heats it to a set threshold. The system combines smoke sensors and temperature sensors.) 2.3 Detection in Commercial Buildings The definition of a commercial building is one where more than fifty percent of its floor space is used for commercial activities. A flow detector is tied to all automatic fire suppression systems. (Sivathanu. 9 . schools. but are not limited to.H. R.2. An advantage of such a system is the system is less prone to false alarms than a conventional smoke detector. libraries. churches. They include. the fire will cause a metal link to melt or a piece of glass in the sprinkler head to break.3 Near-Infrared Radiation Detectors Near-infrared radiation detectors are new technologies which operate on the principle of apparent source temperatures obtained from spectral radiation intensity measurements at two near-infrared wavelengths. museums hospitals. the initial and maintenance costs of near-infrared radiation detectors are more costly.boiling water or by smoking food. However. There is also an interest in the systems due to fast response time and because most natural fires are easily distinguished by the unsteady nature of the emitted radiation.) Sprinkler heads on automatic suppression systems are also heat detectors. which when triggered sets off visual and audible alarm systems.

Air sampling detectors are now able to span twenty thousand square feet on one detector. as it could damage the contents of the room. downtime. and cost of suppression release (Vision 10 . The water-flow sensor is then able to set off the alarm system. 2. For this type of system. a sprinkler head will go off (releasing water) and set off a water-flow sensor.com) An early warning to a potential fire buys time to investigate and intervene which potentially avoids the damage.3. When detecting a fire at a very early stage. Minimum requirement is a manual pull box that a person could trigger the fire alarm upon seeing a fire. This gap is what brought about air sampling.vision-fs. and general computer labs there should be minimal or no smoke in such an area. 2. it can easily be extinguished with minimal or no water usage to prevent damages not only from flames but from suppression as well.00 percent obscurity per foot.3. which can be found in the very early stages of a fire. which will save money and allow for easier zone monitoring. Most smoke detectors may only be able to detect about 2. server rooms. which allows for smoke detection at 0. This leads to a need for more sensitive smoke detection to prevent damages. a basic sprinkler head detection system is used in many buildings.0015 percent obscurity per foot.2 What is used in Addition to Requirements In more specialized areas such as clean rooms. such as smoldering or pre-flame.Government buildings are also included with the exception of military bases or reservations. (www.1 What is used due to Requirements Commercial buildings are required to have a code complying fire detection system. Also.

3.3 Insurance Benefits of Additional Detection Insurance is an important factor in a building or company. The more complex the system. the more specific the control panel is to an area. (www. version 01). A detection system is run by the control panel. The early warning can also provide notification to fire departments or other emergency response organizations before the situation worsens. Suppression release can be costly and disruptive. 11 . However.com) 2. The panel would be able to pick up an “input” signal from a certain area and alert the people where the signal comes from. Compared to a basic suppression system. The insurance agencies go through a questionnaire or checklist that involves the following risk exposures before a policy is written: o o o o o o Property losses Business interruption losses Liability losses Key person losses Automobile losses Injury to employees Property losses can come from physical damage to the property or losing use of the property for a period of time. such as a sprinkler system in which it is activated by a glass head breaking. this is considered an “intelligent” system. an early warning allows the prevention of this exercise saving time and money. which electronically monitors all the sensors that are contained within the system. It is responsible for devices such as manual and automatic detection components as well as triggering alarm devices.Systems document 10947.vision-fs.

Susan) 2. (Anastasio. If something happens to the business owner in a fire.Business interruption losses are not always covered. If extra measures have been taking. Liability losses can occur when a court decides the company is responsible for bodily injury. Key person losses occur when a business owner or important member of the business falls ill or dies. However. there are security and life safety issues to consider. Business interruption insurance reimburses the difference between normal income and the income during the interruption. the business must consider its risk management. and smaller buildings which do not require a large volume of people to move if there is an alarm. Transferring risk is a method of managing exposure to loss. Insurance agents have been trained in risk analysis in addition to being familiar with financial strategies and regulations that govern them in each state. such as a mall. such as advanced smoke and fire detection. accountant. Only a special kind of insurance covers such indirect losses. If a person is injured in a fire because the company did not provide adequate detection then the company could be charged and have to pay liability loss.4 Reasons Certain Smoke Detection is not used Each type of detector has positive and negative qualities. Loss control and guaranteeing availability of funds should be kept in mind during risk management analysis. false 12 . Once exposures are identified and analyzed. Also. Smoke detectors are great for a household. often an attorney. the agent can amend a basic policy by adding special coverage and endorsements.3. when evacuating large commercial buildings. Most businesses do this by buying insurance. or insurance agent helps in developing a plan for the survival of the company.

Intelligent systems utilize microprocessors which is capable of incorporating and triggering many systems such as alarms. and ease of modification. which should be taken into consideration before detectors are installed and employed. To solve this problem. the microprocessor recognizes a decreased capability. This means that if a building owner with such a system wants to add a detector to the alarm system the operator would program this into the control panel of the system rather than rewire the entire system. Maintenance of “intelligent” systems is often more simple than that of a basic system. releasing steam or smoke into the air. It is common for smoke detectors to trip when people walk out of a steamy bathroom or where food is cooked. If the system detects a problem. version 01) An “intelligent” system is more resourceful than a basic system. If dust or an insect is the problem. and provides a maintenance alert. If the problem is smoke or fire condition then the detector reenters the alarm mode immediately after the reset and the panel will now regard this as a fire condition (Artim. and changing the memory section (Artim. Nick). heat detectors are used in such places.alarms are more likely in some areas. As it becomes dirty. (Vision Systems document 10947. ventilation and suppression systems. adding or deleting a detector. by simply connecting or removing the device from the addressable circuit. The system monitors the status of each detector. the system can be modified. These systems have a higher stability. 13 . it attempts a quick reset. Also. the detector would fix itself on the quick reset. enhanced maintenance. Also the stability of the device prevents false alarms. Nick). These features suggest that the more basic systems would become less likely to be used in newer and upgraded buildings.

it is apparent that there has not been sufficient research done into why fire and smoke detection systems are not utilized in commercial buildings. 14 . Some factors may include financial obligations. legal reasons. In discovering this information. or negligence.2.4 What has not been researched Through the data collected through research. it could provide potential markets for detection systems which address these features. This project would potentially expand the market for Vision Systems’ PROACTIV® fire alarm control panel and VESDA® air sampling smoke detector systems by exposing the holes in the market.

It was also determined what types of deaths. and causes were involved with each fire. and increasing safety during fires. injuries. The NFIRS database is a compilation of fire department database reports on every incident to which they responded. In order to sort through and extract the relevant data contained in NFIRS.1 National Fire Incident Reporting System The National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) was used as a primary research tool.1 Identifying ways to find potential markets 3. as well as shopping complexes. detection systems. 3. extinguishing systems. stadiums. warehouses. hotels. industrial plants. and how effective current detectors are in reducing losses. office buildings. it was discovered not only what types of incidents occurred.1. but also how frequently. This yielded a general overview of the types of incidents across the United States. 15 . This chapter introduces the procedure that was used to analyze and identify types of commercial buildings. the field was narrowed to larger commercial buildings such as public recreational complexes. which could allow implementation of more preventative detection.3 Methodology The goal of this Interactive Qualifying Project was to provide Vision Systems with insight for potential markets for their PROACTIV® integrated fire alarm control panel and VESDA® air sampling smoke detector systems within large commercial buildings. These buildings were known for having a larger building structure classification. In working with this data. medical complexes.

implemented and used various detection systems. areas of origin. initial material ignited. This data allowed insight into which types of systems or combination of systems were best at reducing chances of damages and casualties. casualties. Areas of the fires’ origin. The first program was used to incorporate data from years 1990 through 1998. and the ignited materials. In order to sort the data. relative damages. The programs were used to incorporate the tables into one large database which can be found in Appendix I. tested. values are given which relate to specific building types. in order to get insight into general trends. 16 . Access allowed the data to be narrowed down specifically to large commercial (non-residential) buildings. This database incorporated a few different files that included civilian deaths. These statistics were broken down by year. Types of detectors and sprinkler systems located inside of buildings with fires will also be analyzed from years 1999 through 2004. firefighter deaths. In each column on the table (in the database). Microsoft Access was used.A program was written to allow a database to be created. it was important to talk to current professionals that have created. Once the database was sorted down to large commercial buildings. The second program was used incorporate data from 1999 through 2004. information began to be extrapolated from the database in the form of statistics. 3. and materials involved in incidents. locations.1.2 Interviews In order to make use of some of the information received from the NFIRS and to look into the current and future market for detection systems. This was accomplished by referencing the NFIRS’ Manual for value types. and casualties’ data was then analyzed. recommended.

insight was given into how accurate various systems are and how each type goes above and beyond the current markets capabilities with regards to smoke. it was possible to gain insight into systems that are/are not used and why. building owners. and why they recommended the systems they did in various situations. fire marshals and building owners. system developers. and contacting of individuals that ran these tests. All of the individuals interviewed came from a list of professionals provided by Vision Systems and Worcester Polytechnic Institute’s staff. In many cases. to determine each person’s credibility and allowing insight into their fire protection background. heat. fire marshals and various consulting firms were contacted to see what types of systems they favor. included: In your opinion. Consulting firms and fire investigators provided insight into what are the best and most feasible locations for air sampling detection systems. and water flow/sprinkler detection systems. where are the top places to use air sampling and very early detection fire detectors? How effective do you feel these systems are compared to traditional systems? Do you know the difference between Vision System’s VESDA® and Fenwal’s AnaLASER air sampling systems? o What some of the limitations of each due to building construction and environment? A range of questions were then asked that - 17 . they were also able to discuss the limitations and problems that may arise with the systems.Insurance companies. Through these tests. Some consulting and insurance firms also do testing on various systems. Through fire investigators. These individuals were asked for their qualifications.

some of which include location of the fire. general building type. This is most likely due to lack of knowledge with the reporting system. In 1998.- How dependable are smart detection systems that have continual monitoring capabilities. the majority of the NFIRs data remained the same between 1999-2004 and 1990-1998. the NFIRS reporting format changed. This is to show where no data was entered into the report on that subject matter. what material was ignited. 18 . Despite this difference. Because of this. what type of detection and sprinkler systems were present (if any). detector types were able to be determined for fires from 1999-2004 but not from 1990-1998. as data is presented there may be columns with an “unknown” value. and how useful will they be. They report on many aspects of fire incidents. Due to this. Often NFIRS reports are incomplete with fields left blank. One result of this change in format was the addition of detector type in the building. There is no required training for the NFIRS reporting system and there are no regulations requiring reports to be filled out in any specific manner.1 NFIRS Data Collection An analysis of the National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) revealed many trends. The data was collected by fire departments across the United States. As data was sorted and analyzed there were a few issues. as well as data on casualties. What are the limitations of each due to building construction and design? What are your qualifications and where have you worked in the fire protection industry? - 4 Results and Analysis 4.

In order to find a good location for VESDA air sampling smoke detection, it is a good idea to know what fires are common in larger scale commercial buildings. Statistics were sorted out by year to determine which areas of origin and causes of ignition are most common for structure fires. All data from the National Fire Incident Reports were inputted into tables which can be found in Appendix II. The graphs found in sections 4.1.1 and 4.1.2 represent average incidents from 1990 through 2004.

4.1.1 Areas of Fires
The areas of fire origin of structure fires were evaluated. Figure 1 illustrates that “function areas”, “storage areas”, and “structural areas” are three major areas in which detection systems would be beneficial. Before a recommendation can be made, a further analysis of each area type must be done.

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(Average percentages in fires from 1990-2004)

Area of Origin

3% 18%

5%

25% 10%

14% 3% 5% 15%

2%

Means of Egress Function Areas (laboratory, etc.) Service, Equipment Areas Other Areas of Origin

Assembly, Sales Areas Storage Areas Structural Areas

Function Areas (sleeping, kitchen, etc) Service Facilities Transportation, Vehicle Areas

Figure 1-Area of Origin

Figure 2 breaks down the most common places of origin. It is seen that the three most common areas were “kitchen and cooking areas”, “sleeping areas”, along with “lavatories, locker rooms, and cloakrooms.”

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Area of Origin
Function Areas

6% 12%

1% 20%

4%

16%

7%

34%

Sleeping room for under 5 persons. Kitchen, cooking area. Office.

Sleeping area for 5 or more persons. Lavatory, locker room, cloakroom. Personal service area.

Dining area, lunchroom, cafeteria. Laundry room, area.

Figure 2-Area of Origin's Function Areas

Throughout storage areas, “trash and rubbish containers” were found to be the most common area of origin for fires. “Vehicle storage” and “product storage” areas were also found to be frequent areas of origin. This is seen in Figure 3.

21

concealed roof/ceiling space”. receiving. vehicle storage area. carport. 22 . Storage Areas Figure 4 shows structural areas of origin were most commonly “exterior wall surfaces”. Figure 3-Area of Origins. vault. Shipping. “ceiling and roof assembly. Supply storage room or area. and “wall assembly. concealed wall space. storage bin. storage tank. Garage. Trash or rubbish area. or by the intensity and location of damage. Storage Areas not classified above. Closet.” This can be determined by the location of the initial alarm that goes off. loading area. container. Records storage room.Area of Origin Storage Areas 10% 13% 4% 21% 11% 1% 6% 34% Product storage room or area.

open porch. Benefits of aspirated detection systems could be seen in these areas due to earlier warning of fire and general resiliency to harsh environments. Structural Areas When reviewing this data. These represent two of the most common areas for a structure fire to originate. and a general lack of smoke detection in both areas. concealed roof/ceiling space. Wall assembly. Awning. 23 . Exterior roof surface. substructure space. Less significant. though still worth note are storage areas (mainly trash/rubbish areas) and structural areas (such as ceiling and roof assemblies). and kitchen/cooking areas.Area of Origins. buildups of methane in trash areas (due to decomposition). Ceiling and roof assembly. Two types of area that standout amongst others are function areas. Kitchens and trash storage areas are to be expected as common areas of origin due to the large amount of open flames in kitchens. concealed wall space. Structural Areas not classified above. Figure 4. Exterior wall surface. Ceiling and floor assembly. Exterior balcony. concealed floor/ceiling space.Area of Origin Structural Areas 2% 12% 5% 10% 8% 9% 22% 18% 14% Crawl space. it is readily apparent as to which spaces would benefit from smoke detection.

” Similar to areas of origin. Chemical Fabric. below).4. “fabrics. While already a large percentage. These findings are significant as they point to saw mills and wood-working shops as potential areas for aspirated smoke detection systems. wood and paper products are reported as the cause of 25% of structure fires from 1990-2005. Type of Material Ignited (Average percentages in fires from 1990-2004) 2% 7% 7% 40% 8% 25% 10% 1% Gas Natural Product Material Compounded with Oil Flammable. the materials ignited must be analyzed further to draw any conclusions. Material not Classified Above Volatile Solid. Fur Figure 5-Type of Material Ignited As shown by Figure 5. paper”. thirty percent were cause by sawn wood and twelve percent were caused by wood shavings (see Figure 6. it appears even more significant when considering that forty percent of the materials were listed as “unclassified”.1. Out of all the fires caused by wood and paper products. Combustible Liquid Wood. Buildings like saw mills 24 . and “natural products.2 Materials ignited The leading materials ignited during incidents were primarily “wood. Textile. Paper Other. textiles. furs”.

Felled but unsawn wood. Hardboard. Secondly. Paper. etc. Sawn wood. uncoated. dried lumber. Wood shavings. Thus. Wood. insufficient information available to classify further. textiles and fur category. This is shown in Figure 7. Paper.and wood-working shops are at high risk for two specific reasons. silk. Paper 7% 8% 3% 10% 20% 30% 4% 6% 12% Growing wood. when combined with the present materials (sawdust. the equipment used creates very high levels of friction which. plywood. Figure 6-Type of Material Ignited. finished goods” were ignited the most often throughout the fabrics.) creates a fire hazard. Cardboard. “Furs. Wood and Paper “Man-made fabric. fiber. finished goods” followed behind at almost one fifth the number of confirmed fires started by man-made fabrics. wood pulp. Fiberboard (low density material). other fabric. aspirated smoke detection systems would be vital to control and prevent fire in these areas mainly for the very early warning properties but also for their filtering capability in the dusty environments. 25 . First. untreated. this type of facility often does not employ smoke detection because of its limitations in a high-dust atmosphere. Type of Material Ignited Wood.

“Tobacco” and “food. Human hair. Fur. leaves. Fur.Material Ignited Fabric. Textiles and Fur From a breakdown of natural products ignited. hay. other fabric. 26 . insufficient information available to classify further. starch” ranked second and third. finished goods. straw” were the most commonly ignited material. shown in Figure 8. fiber. Figure 7-Type of Material Ignited . “grass. silk. finished goods. Fabric. in this category. Textile. Wig. Fabric. Fur 36% 50% 1% 0% 13% Man-made fabric. Textile.

Coal. hay.Type of Material Ignited Natural Product 11% 11% 1% 2% 12% 52% 5% 6% Cork. Natural Product. briquettes. The other two types of material in the top three did not combine to make up the number wood and paper did. natural fiber (pre-process). Tobacco. coke. This is a high number considering forty percent of the materials were listed as unknown or not reported. Leather. This can be expected due to the fact that when heated grass and hay could ignite easily compared to something such as rubber. Natural Products It can be seen that one-fourth of the reported fires were started by wood and paper. leaves. fabrics and man-made textiles were also a significant source of the fires along with grass. Grain. straw. Grass. insufficient information available to classify further. Food. and straw. leaves. hay. peat. However. Figure 8-Type of Material Ignited. starch. 27 .

Casualty Data With and Without Sprinklers and Detectors From 1990 through 2004 41% 27% 5% 4% 23% Unknown With Sprinklers and Detectors With Sprinklers Only With Detectors Only Without Detectors and Sprinklers Figure 9-Casualty Data with/without Sprinklers and Detectors 28 .3 Deaths in relation to Sprinkler and Detection systems Overall when looking into deaths during fires.1. or sprinklers alone. These results are seen in Figure 9. When looking into areas which did not have any detection or sprinklers present. the use of sprinklers and general detection systems decreased the amount of deaths in a structure. This rise was usually about ten times higher than the amount of deaths that resulted from a combination sprinkler and detection system.4. a drastic rise in death rate occurred. Having only detection systems would result in a slightly higher death rate than both of the above. Combination systems were more effective than sprinkler systems alone.

The most common system present while there were casualties reported were “smoke detection” systems. In order to get accurate numbers. “sprinkler/water flow detection” and “other” detection systems. The next common type of detection system was a “combination of heat and smoke detection”. all fires that had detection systems present (it could also have sprinklers present) were sorted from the database for analysis. followed closely by “heat detection”.From the years 1999-2004 it was possible to determine what detection types were present for fires with casualties. Casualties with Detectors Type Present From 1999-2004 73% 1% 3% 2% 20% 1% Smoke Detection Heat detection Combo Smoke/Heat Sprinkler/waterflow Undetermined Other Figure 10-Casualties by Detector Type 29 . The results are shown in Figure 10.

3% of those contacted. The ability for the VESDA system to be easily integrated into a large number of fire alarm control panels appears to make the system stand out against its competitors in the eyes of fire protection engineers. Respondents listed numerous features that they felt made the VESDA system advantageous. Further analysis of the data was performed to find a reason for this odd result. Because NFIRS doesn’t note the number of lives saved in any given incident it is impossible to comment with certainty on the comparative effectiveness of smoke detection. This fact seemed contrary to popular belief and research showing that smoke detection saves lives. however one feature seemed particularly popular. According to the answers received. Fire Protection Engineers view the VESDA system very favorably.25%. It could be seen that thirty three percent of buildings had a combination of smoke and heat detection while twenty two percent had only smoke detection. 925 individuals were contacted via email with a response rate of 3. etc. This means that fifty five percent of buildings had smoke detection in place while the remaining forty five percent had an array of different systems (heat detection only.While analyzing NFIRS data concerning casualties it was noted that smoke detection was present in a large number of casualty-producing incidents. Since a majority of the buildings had smoke detection in place. it makes sense (statistically) that casualties would appear more often with smoke detection.2 Interview results People were contacted and asked questions regarding their professional view on the air sampling smoke detection systems. Sorting the general database of incidents by the detection type present revealed the answer. Fire Protection and industry engineers accounted for 64. water flow/sprinkler detection.). In total. 4. Another feature that sticks out to engineers is 30 .

When asked about the limitations of the air sampling systems compared to the limitations of spot detections. problems have occurred where scanning the entire length of an air pipe was required to find a problem. VESDA also had some difficulties with certain environments. This is a cause for concern in chemical storage rooms and other places where the system may be used when air circulation is a factor. however it might be cost prohibitive to install a separate VESDA system in each quarantined room. Of the engineers contacted. problems that the VESDA system is well suited in handling. there were complaints on VESDA’s inability to deal with smoke detection in inert environments. Other difficulties noted in the responses were the problems involved with troubleshooting pipe flow.VESDA’s ability to deal with smoke detection in buildings with atriums. VESDA does have the ability to maintain itself in individual quarantine zones. Vision Systems has acknowledged this problem and has introduced measures to 31 . According to one respondent. However. In addition. 64 percent cited a problem with spot detectors as having difficulties with high ceilings and large temperature gradients. However. the answers revealed some weaknesses in both systems. ceiling and floor panels and scanning individual pipes to find the problem. fire protection systems in facilities such as nuclear power plants and even biomedical facilities must be able to provide adequate protection and also prevent radiation or biological contamination of outside zones. As previously mentioned. inert air systems can cause problems for the VESDA system. according to the answers received. The precision smoke detection offered by VESDA allows for smoke detection in high roofed areas and places with very large temperature gradients. This means removing wall.

detection systems are not explicitly required in large commercial buildings. server rooms. to detect combustion at different levels. and live broadcast television studios. According to the respondents of the questionnaire the most popularly viewed areas that would make use of VESDA’s system include historical buildings. contamination risks. lobbies with large atriums. these buildings require sprinkler systems along with a manual “pull box” and a public address system. The ability for the system to integrate into many panels. inert environments and. The codes reviewed focus mainly upon safety of occupants inside the building rather than the structure itself. high cost storage rooms. Generally. service dependent areas. explosives storage. 32 . While such a system is not exactly proactive in its detection of fire.alert the control panel of precisely where blockages have occurred. Of the respondents who were familiar with the VESDA system. 4. preferably one that can detect combustion in the incipient stage. The interviews of AHJs have shown. everyone had good things to say about VESDA. and the ability to provide protection virtually anywhere make the system almost the perfect system for any location. opposed to detects that respond once a fire has already begun. most importantly. prohibitive costs are the main problems areas reported back by fire protection engineers that have worked with the systems. see the literature review for more information.3 Compiled Analysis As shown by a review of building/fire codes and standards. it will give occupants more time to evacuate though not necessarily save the building. that they favored a detection system that constantly monitors a building for fire. However. such as spot detectors A common theme was that an earlier notification of fire is always better.

textiles. Areas housing materials such as these could make use of an early detection system. Leading materials were “wood and paper”. These high risk areas of origin were found to be larger scale “storage areas” and “production and manufacturing” areas. According to the interviews conducted. including air sampling smoke detection. Although smoke detection. systems are not required by code. the chance of preventing bodily harm and reduced losses due to fires are significantly decreased with early detection systems. “fabrics. NFIRS reiterated that specific materials housed within a building pose higher risk of fire than others. and fur”. or buildings of historical value. Another example given by AHJ’s was that early detection (in their experience) is best used in buildings containing irreplaceable items. It was learned that the type of materials stored in the buildings affects what type of detection system building owners prefer to use.Notification of a fire during this stage would give the building occupants enough time to respond to the situation before the combustion has advanced. Adopting an air sampling systems in these likely fire origin areas would have been 33 . These building owners could protect valuable products while keeping protection costs down. VESDA has been recommended for use in chemical storage facilities with heat sensitive materials and also pharmaceutical storage facilities. Correlations between type of material stored and their risks are represented in the NFIRS data. Scaled down air sampling systems that are made only to cover high-risk areas may be beneficial to building owners. as their fire load is extremely high with potential for a rapidly spreading fire. The areas housing these “high risk” materials were also analyzed with the NFIRS reports. expensive items. and “other natural products”. it may be in the best interest of building owners to take a proactive approach to fire detection.

very beneficial in keeping fires small throughout the NFIRS reports that were analyzed. 34 . conclusions and recommendations can be drawn for viable marketing niche for Vision Systems’ VESDA air sampling system. From these results.

First would be to consider actively promoting the full product range such as a scaled-down and less expensive VESDA system LaserFOCUS for use in smaller spaces. This would allow the system to be implemented strategically and provide incentive to prospective buyers. A main hindrance of VESDA’s widespread use is the perception of higher cost. By gaining understanding of the needs of such an industry. This ability is highly advantageous to 35 . Another route would be to develop a clear picture of total cost of system ownership. Another recommendation is to further the ability of the VESDA system to easily integrate into a large number of control boxes. it was observed that to successfully market the VESDA product it is important to exemplify the strengths of the system and to modify the system to overcome the problems that have come up. VESDA could possibly be used as a friction/over-friction monitoring device in manufacturing facilities. This would allow Vision Systems to enter an entirely new market that could potentially be a very easy transition.5 Conclusions Through the data collected. The ability for VESDA to be able to detect small changes in the quantity of smoke particles in the air provides another market for the system. VESDA’s ability to detect smoke during the incipit stages allows the system to be implemented in scenarios where heat sensitive chemicals or pharmaceutical storage is involved. There are two options that should be considered. including on-going system maintenance needs and high system reliability to change people’s perception of higher first installation cost. VESDA could break into a large market which it could potentially dominate. The following suggestions are recommended to increase the marketability of Vision Systems’ VESDA system.

the AHJ’s expressed a notion that the system would be a valid fire safety option for many United States buildings. In the future. The system’s technology allows its use in nearly every building condition. If the first install price of the systems could be lowered while still maintaining a modest profit margin for the manufacturer. The objective of this project was to find a profitable marketing solution for Vision Systems’ VESDA air sampling system. 36 . Vision Systems may find it profitable to decrease their prices while marketing to more business owners who wish to proactively protect their building and its contents.installers and engineers and provides a way to further VESDA’s penetration into the high end smoke detection market. using VESDA’s technology in other applicable situations may allow Vision Systems to expand into more specialized and less populated markets. In addition.

6 Glossary of abbreviations Abbreviation USFA NFIRS NFPA IBC AHJ VESDA ® Actual Name United States Fire Administration National Fire Incident Reporting System National Fire Protection Association International Building Codes Authority Having Jurisdiction Vision System©’s Very Early Smoke Detection Apparatus 37 .

“Fire Protection Glossary..” ETnews. IN. 38 . Alarm. “Comparison Testing in a Simulated Data Processing/Telecommunications Facility: FM-200® and Automatic Sprinkler Systems. Chen-Fang Chang. 2005 Robin. “Fire Detection Using Near-IR Radiation and Source Temperature Discrimination.” U.maine.L. Sivathanu. <http://www. “Fire Loss in the United States During 2005: Full Report” National Fire Protection Association. “Small Business Insurance & Risk Management Guide. Small Business Administration. OR.” Hughes Associates.7 Works Cited Anastasio. Vol. “Air-fuel ratio control in spark-ignition engines using estimationtheory. Dean. Michael. Baker. 1999. “Fire Alarm and Detection Systems” Canadian Building Digest. "State of Maine Fire Marshall's Office. Nick. August 1984 National Fire Protection Association." Maine State Fire Marshall. The Travelers. 2006.” Control Systems Technology. Karter. “An Introduction to Fire Detection. Michale K. Yudaya R. Artim. Hartford.org Michael Baker & Associates Inc. IN. National Fire Codes.H. Gladstone. West Lafayette.” Northeast Document Conservation Center. March 1995. 2006 McEwen.S. West Lafayette.” Perdue University. 2005 Fall Revision Cycle. Eric. and Automatic.gov/dps/fmo>. Mark and Forsell. Fire Sprinklers. CT. John C.. Susan. Fekete. R. Inc.

August 2005 39 . Kimberly D. version: 01. “Modern Fire Protection System safeguards Venues. “U. Rohr. and Hall. document: 10947. 2006 Vision Systems. National Fire Protection Association.Tabor. John R.” International Association of Assembly Managers.S. Air Sampling Smoke Detection. “VESDA Buys Time. Jr.” Part no: 30101. Caterina. Experience with Sprinklers and Other Fire Extinguishing Equipment”. July 2006.

/* If the rec is a type20 or type55 add it to a list of those records: */ switch (RecType) { case 20: t20List=addToList(t20List.. read 'em in. */ sscanf(inputLine.INPUTLINELENGTH. char textRecord[INPUTLINELENGTH]. /* char array for holding lines from inputfile */ t20List=t55List=NULL.&IncNum..%d".numType55. numType20++.. if (numType20%50000==0) fprintf(stderr.ExpNum.h> /* for malloc() */ #define INPUTLINELENGTH 150 /* max length of input file line. Program located below.int."%d. /* NFIRS record vars */ numType20.stdin)!=NULL) { /* while we still have inputlines.fireRec*).int. struct FireRecP *Next.. #include <stdio. /* function prototypes */ fireRec *addToList(fireRec*.IncNum.FDID.RecType. 55/20 matches found */ char inputLine[INPUTLINELENGTH]. /* initialize counters */ /* Part 1: we read in the input file. } fireRec.\n".h> #include <stdlib.. /* initialize list pointers to NULL */ numType20=numType55=0. taking t20 and t55 records. /* list of type55 records */ int FDID.char*).IncNum.8 Appendix I -NFIRS sorting programming codes 8. %7d t55 records.1 Program 1 (1999-2004) Program one was run for the combining of NFIRS from the years 1999 through 2004. /* record type counters */ matchesFound.&ExpNum.RecType.ExposureNumber..IncidentNumber. int findMatchesInLists(fireRec*.int. /* No.numType55)."read %9d t20. /* list of type20 records */ *t55List.. 40 .%d. /* use nasty slow scanf library routine */ &FDID.ExpNum.&RecType).%d. int main() { fireRec *t20List.inputLine)..int.*End. */ /* structure for holding relevant data from inputfile */ typedef struct FireRecP { int FDID... numType20. */ while (fgets(inputLine.

\n". done reading the inputfile. tack the inputlines for the t20 and t55 together. } /* OK. default: break."read %9d t20. while (t20Place!=NULL) { if (t20Place->FDID==t55Place->FDID) { if (t20Place->IncidentNumber==t55Place->IncidentNumber) { if (t20Place->ExposureNumber==t55Place->ExposureNumber) { printf("%s. */ matchesFound=findMatchesInLists(t20List. fireRec *t55List) { int matches.ExpNum.IncNum.t20Place->textRecord.break. /* Now that we have our t20 and t55 record lists.*t55Place.FDID."Found %d t20/t55 matches in the input.numType55). numType20."TOTAL: Read %d t20 records and %d t55 records. */ } fprintf(stderr.%s\n". return(0). numType20. now do our search for Russo: for each t20 record. matches=num55sSearched=0.\n". break. and output them to stdout. Which way would be faster? Probably "foreach 55. } } } 41 . numType55++.. look for 55's" since there are fewer 55's than 20's by a long margin. if (numType55%5000==0) fprintf(stderr.RecType.numType55). fireRec *t20Place. go through the 20's looking for matches in the 55's.inputLine). find any corresponding t55. matches++.. look for 20's. fprintf(stderr. num55sSearched.\n".t55List). while(t55Place!=NULL) { t20Place=t20List. t55Place->textRecord). } int findMatchesInLists(fireRec *t20List. If you find a corresponding record." as opposed to "foreach 20. %7d t55 records. case 55: t55List=addToList(t55List. matchesFound). t55Place=t55List.

"Searched %d t55 records. } place->Next=NULL. } t55Place=t55Place->Next. if (list==NULL) { perror("\nAdd To List (1):").\n".t20Place=t20Place->Next. } 42 . /* remember to null-terminate the string */ return(list). } else { place=list->End.. list->End=place.num55sSearched). int i=0. } fireRec *addToList(fireRec *list. int ExpNum. char *inputLine) { fireRec *place.. place->IncidentNumber=IncNum. /* exit 2 is bad malloc making initial list node */ } place=place->Next. exit(2). int RecType. if (place->Next==NULL) { perror("\nAdd To List (2):"). } place->textRecord[i]=0. place->FDID=FDID. place->Next=(fireRec *)malloc(sizeof(fireRec)). i++. } return(matches). int IncNum. if (list==NULL) { list=(fireRec *)malloc(sizeof(fireRec)). if (num55sSearched%1000==0) fprintf(stderr. place->ExposureNumber=ExpNum. int FDID. while (inputLine[i]!=0 && inputLine[i]!='\r') { /* while loop above should also check "&& i<INPUTLINELENGTH" but I removed it to speed up processing --mvoorhis */ place->textRecord[i]=inputLine[i]. num55sSearched++. /* exit 1 is bad malloc making initial list node */ } place=list. exit(1).

struct FireRecP *Next. break. /* use nasty slow scanf library routine */ &FDID. /* NFIRS record vars */ numType20. %7d t55 records... case 55: 43 .FDID.numType55).%d... */ sscanf(inputLine. 55/20 matches found */ char inputLine[INPUTLINELENGTH]. } fireRec. Program is located below. /* initialize list pointers to NULL */ numType20=numType55=0.*End.h> /* for malloc() */ #define INPUTLINELENGTH 150 /* max length of input file line.INPUTLINELENGTH.\n". /* If the rec is a type20 or type55 add it to a list of those records: */ switch (RecType) { case 20: t20List=addToList(t20List. /* record type counters */ matchesFound. if (numType20%50000==0) fprintf(stderr.inputLine). int findMatchesInLists(fireRec*..2 Program 2 (1990-1998) Program one was run for the combing of NFIRS from the years 1990 through 1998.ExpNum.stdin)!=NULL) { /* while we still have inputlines.RecType.fireRec*)..int.h> #include <stdlib.int.numType55. /* initialize counters */ /* Part 1: we read in the input file. char textRecord[INPUTLINELENGTH].RecType. int main() { fireRec *t20List.int.%d"..&RecType)..ExpNum. /* list of type20 records */ *t55List.8.. taking t20 and t55 records.IncNum.char*). numType20.IncNum. /* function prototypes */ fireRec *addToList(fireRec*.IncidentNumber. #include <stdio. */ while (fgets(inputLine. /* char array for holding lines from inputfile */ t20List=t55List=NULL. */ /* structure for holding relevant data from inputfile */ typedef struct FireRecP { int FDID. read 'em in.&IncNum. /* list of type55 records */ int FDID."%d.int..%d."read %9d t20. numType20++.&ExpNum.ExposureNumber. /* No.

"TOTAL: Read %d t20 records and %d t55 records.inputLine). %7d t55 records. break. and output them to stdout. } int findMatchesInLists(fireRec *t20List."Found %d t20/t55 matches in the input.numType55). look for 20's. now do our search for Russo: for each t20 record.RecType. } 44 . numType55++. while (t20Place!=NULL) { if (t20Place->FDID==t55Place->FDID) { if (t20Place->IncidentNumber==t55Place->IncidentNumber) { if (t20Place->ExposureNumber==t55Place->ExposureNumber) { printf("%s.t20Place->textRecord. find any corresponding t55. t55Place->textRecord). done reading the inputfile. t55Place=t55List." as opposed to "foreach 20. Which way would be faster? Probably "foreach 55.numType55).%s\n". matches=num55sSearched=0. matchesFound). */ matchesFound=findMatchesInLists(t20List.t55List). } } } t20Place=t20Place->Next. fireRec *t55List) { int matches. look for 55's" since there are fewer 55's than 20's by a long margin. default: break.*t55Place."read %9d t20. numType20.FDID..ExpNum. */ } fprintf(stderr. if (numType55%5000==0) fprintf(stderr. If you find a corresponding record. fireRec *t20Place. } /* OK. num55sSearched.. return(0). go through the 20's looking for matches in the 55's.\n". numType20. matches++.IncNum. while(t55Place!=NULL) { t20Place=t20List.t55List=addToList(t55List.\n". /* Now that we have our t20 and t55 record lists. fprintf(stderr. tack the inputlines for the t20 and t55 together.\n".

num55sSearched++. int FDID. int RecType. place->FDID=FDID. exit(2). if (place->Next==NULL) { perror("\nAdd To List (2):"). i++. /* exit 1 is bad malloc making initial list node */ } place=list. } fireRec *addToList(fireRec *list. if (list==NULL) { perror("\nAdd To List (1):"). } else { place=list->End. while (inputLine[i]!=0 && inputLine[i]!='\r') { /* while loop above should also check "&& i<INPUTLINELENGTH" but I removed it to speed up processing --mvoorhis */ place->textRecord[i]=inputLine[i]. int ExpNum."Searched %d t55 records. } 45 . int IncNum. place->IncidentNumber=IncNum. /* remember to null-terminate the string */ return(list). } place->textRecord[i]=0.. } place->Next=NULL. exit(1). } return(matches). if (num55sSearched%1000==0) fprintf(stderr. list->End=place.num55sSearched). /* exit 2 is bad malloc making initial list node */ } place=place->Next. place->ExposureNumber=ExpNum. char *inputLine) { fireRec *place.t55Place=t55Place->Next. place->Next=(fireRec *)malloc(sizeof(fireRec)).\n".. if (list==NULL) { list=(fireRec *)malloc(sizeof(fireRec)). int i=0.

but fire too small to require to set off detectors undetermined/unknown Number of buildings involved One Buildings Two Buildings Three Buildings Four Buildings or more Cause of ignition Unknown/undetermined Incendiary Suspicious Misuse of heat ignited Misuse of material ignited Mechanical failure/malfunction Other Fire Spread Confined to object of origin Confined to room of origin Confined to floor of origin Confined to building of origin Beyond building of origin 78.96 percent with detectors) smoke heat both sprinkler/water flow detection had multiple types confirmed other type unknown type Detector operation Detector(s) in the room or space of fire origin.83% 1.66% 54.84% 2. and they operated.13% 16.72% 1. Detector(s) in the room or space of fire origin.77% 18.44% 3.10% 10.27% 0. Detector(s) not in the room or space of fire origin.66% 15.57% 46 .62% 5. Detector(s) in the room or space of fire origin.18% 2.13% 0.53% 0.02% 6.42% 33.96% 60.52% 33.9 Appendix II -Data Tables Data Table from first run of NFIRs (1999-2004) Fires in Commercial buildings Had detectors Did not have any type of detector present Detector Type(out of the 39.10% 0.01% 14.74% 7.47% 8.04% 13. and they operated.29% 43. and they did not operate.25% 4.02% 99.66% 9.08% 14.97% 39.

SALES AREAS (groups of people) Large assembly area with fixed seats (100 or more persons).00% 0.07% 0.28% 4. Lobby. cloakroom. Escalator. Sales. Exterior stairway. cafeteria.68% 0. area.00% 0.14% 0. Projection room. Lavatory.Structural Damage (as described in the FEMA NFIR's Manual) None/not reported Minimal Heavy Extreme 11. receiving. FUNCTION AREAS Sleeping room for under 5 persons. corridor. showroom area.72% 2. Office.07% 0. Laundry room.36% 0.30% 0. Swimming pool. container. Storage Areas not classified above. FUNCTION AREAS Laboratory. cooking area. Supply storage room or area.28% 0.48% 9. Printing or photographic room.79% 0. Means of Egress not classified above. 8108 1963 1870 2034 63 3301 2549 581 272 305 915 19607 1156 57 53 14234 39074 1470 778 65731 12554 16398 2786 343 397 298 66 43 17 275 69 11 2938 9134 4353 4175 4930 203 751 1157 17613 1 1. Performance.71% 54.07% 0.02% 0. entrance way. Operating room. area.48% 0.07% 4.08% 0.98% 0.62% 0.34% 12.01% 0.23% 1. Closet.81% 0. Records storage room. area. Library. Personal service area.10% 0.22% 4. Sleeping area for 5 or more persons.01% 0. Lounge area.46% 21. Shipping.54% 0.00% 47 .02% 1. STORAGE AREAS Product storage room or area. ASSEMBLY. Trash or rubbish area.50% 0. mall. storage tank. Large open room without fixed seats (100 or more persons). loading area. Kitchen. manufacturing area.18% 0.06% 1. Process.20% 0. area. Electronic equipment room. Interior stairway. carport.01% 3. Dining area.49% Area of origin MEANS OF EGRESS Hallway.05% 0. stage area. vault. Small assembly area with or without fixed seats (less than 100 persons).07% 0.02% 0. storage bin. locker room. vehicle storage area. First aid.02% 0. Garage.00% 0. treatment room.46% 0.05% 3.19% 16. lunchroom.

03% 0. Switchgear area. fuel line area of transportation equipment.53% 0.94% 0. Test cell.49% 1. Other Area of Origin not classified above. wheel area of transportation equipment. Chimney.06% 0. Ceiling and floor assembly.00% 0.52% 0. Incinerator room. running gear.05% 0. Lawn.00% 2. control area of transportation equipment. patio. Fuel tank.37% 0. Exterior wall surface.19% 3. Exterior exposed surface of transportation equipment.04% 0. Light shaft. Awning. Exterior balcony. Court.21% 0.94% 0. Other/Unknown 1499 181 1393 70 345 2881 113 848 231 3853 2021 7963 800 184 2055 39 63 1 8821 8136 6359 6619 14156 13067 16323 6442 503 838 346 104 1014 179 15 1083 6233 72 378 2744 2169 207 456 2454 2224 41385 0.00% 0.11% 0.55% 1.99% 1.60% 0.00% 48 .01% 0. woods.15% 1.20% 0.54% 10. Duct.02% 0. OTHER AREA OF ORIGIN On or near railroad right of way. area.02% 0. Heating equipment room or area. Area of Origin not applicable.70% 0. Growing wood.04% 0.26% 1. SERVICE.25% 0.08% 0.11% Type of material ignited Combustible metal.04% 0. Conveyor. area. open porch. VEHICLE AREAS Passenger area of transportation equipment. STRUCTURAL AREAS Crawl space.67% 0. public way. dumb-waiter. Multiple location. TRANSPORTATION. Trunk. use area.02% 0.50% 0. Ceiling and roof assembly. transformer vault. Chute. EQUIPMENT AREAS Machinery room.12% 0. embankment.03% 0.09% 0.46% 3.08% 0. field. area.20% 0. street. Maintenance shop. terrace. Utility shaft.SERVICE FACILITIES Elevator. Wall assembly. open area. concealed roof/ceiling space.99% 1. On or near highway.57% 0.62% 3. load carrying area of transportation equipment. Operating. Enclosure with enriched oxygen atmosphere. Display window. concealed floor/ceiling space. water heater area. concealed wall space. 1 9 9 0. Exterior roof surface. Enclosure with pressurized air. Engine area. Wildland area.00% 0. substructure space.34% 0. Anesthetic gas.

Fat.63% 1. Class II combustible liquid. wood pulp.80% 1. Grass. Class IB flammable liquid.95% 2. Flammable.03% 1.07% 0.08% 1. Polystyrene.40% 2. Class IA flammable liquid. Sawn wood. varnish. Acetylene.20% 0. Leather. untreated. Class IC flammable liquid.27% 0.07% 0.09% 0. Radioactive material.05% 0.46% 0. Grease (nonfood). Applied paint. Polyester. Natural gas.44% 6.31% 0.40% 0. Natural Product. Polyurethane.04% 0.03% 0. peat. Hardboard. Polyacrylic.19% 0.26% 0. Tobacco. grease (food). coke. tar. leaves. Felled but unsawn wood. natural fiber (pre-process). Class IIIA combustible liquid. insufficient information available to classify further.07% 0.01% 0. LP-City Gas (LP and air mix). Solid chemical (specify type).29% 2.05% 0. uncoated. Paper. Volatile Solid. Chemical not classified above.17% 0. Manufactured gas.02% 0.82% 2. Chemical.28% 0. Coal. Class IIIB combustible liquid.17% 1.88% 1.26% 49 .01% 0. Adhesive. Polyolefin. starch. Plastic.49% 10.17% 0.34% 0.02% 0.Volatile Solid.22% 0. Gas not classified above.83% 0. Type of Material not classified above.01% 0.01% 0.61% 0. Polish. hay.91% 3.09% 0. briquettes. insufficient information available to classify further.64% 0. Grain. Rubber. Fiberboard (low density material). Plastic not classified above.08% 0. Food.05% 0. Combustible Liquid not classified above. Wood shavings. insufficient information available to classify further. 26 30 37 51 57 80 90 109 166 167 188 191 205 263 269 297 307 333 362 381 696 712 779 829 911 1051 1090 1165 1257 1407 1638 1890 2500 2623 3399 3595 4208 4443 4807 6673 7383 8004 9377 9808 10045 11535 11937 14105 26570 42025 0. Gas. Natural Product not classified above. straw. resin. insufficient information available to classify further. plywood. LP-gas. Flammable. insufficient information available to classify further Specialty gas other than anesthetic.01% 0.06% 0. Combustible Liquid.45% 2.04% 0. Gasoline. Polyvinyl.

08% 0.51% 4. ember. Blasting agent.01% 0.62% 39.47% 1. HEAT FROM NATURAL SOURCE Sun's heat. Lightning discharge. Incendiary device.97% 0.68% 2. Electric lamp.01% 0. flame escaping from gas fueled equipment. reignition.05% 0.05% 0. HEAT FROM HOT OBJECT Heat.46% 1.84% 2.10% 29.15% 0. Paper cap.37% 3.44% 0.84% 5. Protected ordinary structure Unprotected ordinary structure Protected Wood Frame Unprotected wood frame Fire Fighter Deaths With/without detectors 47568 61957 11.65% 0. FUEL-POWERED OBJECT Spark.72% 0. spark from friction. Heat from properly operating electrical equipment.52% 0. HEAT SPREADING FROM ANOTHER HOSTILE FIRE (Exposure) Heat from direct flame. chemical reaction. FIREWORKS Explosive.25% 11.78% 4. Radiated heat. Other Form of Heat of Ignition not classified above. Static discharge.34% 0.31% 0.42% 0.23% 396572 8797 216 1265 313 2343 96.25% 8.33% 0.19% 9. Heat from gas fueled equipment.57% 50 . Spontaneous ignition. Form of Heat of Ignition undetermined or not reported Structure Type Fire resistive. ember. Protected noncombustible or limited combustible.18% 2. Fireworks not classified above.25% 0.Cork.73% 0.81% 1. flame escaping from liquid fueled equipment.07% 0. Spark. HEAT FROM OPEN FLAME.04% 3. party popper.06% 0. spark. SPARK Cutting torch operation (separating metals). Fireworks. Heat from Explosive. not amateur rocketry. ember.08% 0.52% 21241 40299 21498 46081 34858 19384 2662 3193 18188 312 25 21 1402 34 1524 13037 12155 218 1896 6900 8346 13622 82 212 2955 1005 192 1919 6217 270 1704 3332 4345 254 421 2192 5.05% 0.05% 0. Conducted heat.06% 0. Rekindle. Multiple forms of heat of ignition. other than cutting and welding. ash.02% 0. Type of Material undetermined or not reported Heat source HEAT FROM FUEL-FIRED. Heat from flying brand. Heat from Explosive. Fireworks. HEAT FROM EXPLOSIVE. Model rocket. Torch operation. convection currents.01% 0. Hot ember. insufficient information available to classify further. Welding torch operation (joining metals).

53% 47.44% Area of origin MEANS OF EGRESS Hallway.05% 4. mall.11% 2.23% 0.49% Damages incured during fires where smoke detectors were present Minimal Heavy Extreme 120368 22577 7071 80.79% 136 86.81% 8.94% 3184 26353 4533 14251 5.71% NFIRs Data 1990 Fires in Commercial buildings Had detectors Did not have any type of detector present Structural Damage (as described in the FEMA NFIR's Manual) None/not reported Minimal Heavy Extreme 27486 28529 49. 606 103 1.12% 16. stored pressure source.69% 0.70% 5.08% 0.) Multiple detectors and power supplies Confirmed other type of power supply Unknown/Unconfirmed 27.11% 868 77792 26558 445 24045 1158 692 5104 26977 0.68% 47.70% 8.41% 2.05% 8. etc.Detectors were present in the building Detectors were not present in the building Total number of deaths Detector type present in fires with firefighter deaths Smoke detector Combination of smoke and heat detector More than one type of detector present Unknown or unconfirmed detector type Power supply for detectors present in fires with firefighter deaths Battery only Hardwired only hardwired with battery back-up Multiple detectors and power supplies Unknown/Unconfirmed Power Supply in detectors Battery only Hardwired only Plug-in detector hardwired with battery back-up Plug-in detector with battery back-up Mechanical.54% 16.24% 15.71% 0.18% 51 .49% 5.42% 3. corridor.21% 72. Exterior stairway.09% 25.27% 14.41% 26 4 3 1 3 70.27% 10. (Includes spring-wound.07% 37.

Large open room without fixed seats (100 or more persons).57% 1. Office.04% 0. Shipping. storage bin. Duct. FUNCTION AREAS Sleeping room for under 5 persons.29% 3.22% 0. Means of Egress not classified above.26% 0. Storage Areas not classified above. Swimming pool. cloakroom.02% 0. Lavatory. Sleeping area for 5 or more persons.35% 0.27% 0.91% 10.20% 0. dumb-waiter. Performance. Escalator. Kitchen.33% 0. cooking area. SALES AREAS (groups of people) Large assembly area with fixed seats (100 or more persons). vault. Function Areas not classified above. area.15% 0.09% 2.10% 1. Utility shaft. Sales Areas not classified above. Supply storage room or area.16% 0. Records storage room. manufacturing area.29% 0.49% 0. Garage.12% 0. carport. FUNCTION AREAS Laboratory. Operating room. entrance way. ASSEMBLY. receiving. Personal service area. cafeteria. Closet.09% 0.04% 0. Small assembly area with or without fixed seats (less than 100 persons). First aid. area. loading area.12% 0. Lobby.62% 0.22% 52 . Light shaft. locker room. treatment room. Chimney. Assembly. stage area.04% 0.01% 3. Display window. Electronic equipment room. 101 10 296 87 66 121 184 534 724 9 22 50 1389 65 292 2298 1051 1176 906 59 150 97 50 21 274 25 8 1900 160 1878 184 1515 85 507 5980 1438 776 146 113 24 37 536 47 162 126 0.39% 0. Conveyor.04% 0. area. showroom area. Dining area.52% 4.68% 2.29% 0.02% 0.70% 0. Sales.53% 0.17% 0. storage tank. Library.96% 0.33% 2. Process. area. container. STORAGE AREAS Product storage room or area. Trash or rubbish area.39% 0.07% 0. lunchroom.48% 0.11% 0.18% 0.08% 0.88% 2. vehicle storage area. Projection room.10% 1. Printing or photographic room.Interior stairway.95% 1. Laundry room. Chute. SERVICE FACILITIES Elevator. Lounge area.

33% 0.57% 3. VEHICLE AREAS Passenger area of transportation equipment.83% 12. Ceiling and floor assembly. EQUIPMENT AREAS Machinery room. Exterior exposed surface of transportation equipment. Anesthetic gas. LP-gas. wheel area of transportation equipment.40% 1.22% 0. concealed roof/ceiling space.01% 0.54% 0. Multiple location.90% 1. street. On or near highway. transformer vault. Fuel tank. STRUCTURAL AREAS Crawl space. Vehicle Areas not classified above.73% 1.59% 0. area.20% 0.40% 0.02% 0.72% 0. public way. Incinerator room. Enclosure with pressurized air. area.26% 2.16% 0.02% 0.27% 1.15% 1. Equipment Areas not classified above.57% 0. Wildland area.40% 0. TRANSPORTATION. Court. Exterior roof surface. Test cell. concealed wall space.53% 0. load carrying area of transportation equipment.68% 3.44% 8. Operating. Manufactured gas. fuel line area of transportation equipment. Transportation. substructure space.22% 0.02% 0.49% 0.Service Facilities not classified above. concealed floor/ceiling space. Structural Areas not classified above.37% 0. Maintenance shop. Other Area of Origin not classified above. open area. Engine area.02% 0. Ceiling and roof assembly. SERVICE. Specialty gas other than anesthetic. OTHER AREA OF ORIGIN On or near railroad right of way.89% Type of material ignited GAS Natural gas. LP-City Gas (LP and air mix). Enclosure with enriched oxygen atmosphere. Wall assembly.73% 0. terrace.09% 0. control area of transportation equipment. Awning. Heating equipment room or area. Switchgear area.46% 0.47% 0. Other/Unknown 147 1269 892 301 100 782 13 14 7 322 208 125 409 965 452 1345 816 111 380 1770 467 6734 224 185 428 276 86 969 247 4698 297 262 506 877 2179 0. Area of Origin not applicable. Acetylene. field.18% 1. woods. area. use area. patio.32% 0.81% 2. Exterior wall surface. embankment.52% 0. Trunk. water heater area. running gear. Service. 290 48 124 180 10 87 27 0.39% 0.76% 0. Exterior balcony. open porch.05% 53 .16% 0. Lawn.

Chemical. Flammable. Grass.07% 0.49% 0. Coal.Gas not classified above.77% 0. Polystyrene. leaves.11% 0. Wood shavings. Gasoline.17% 0.02% 0. Combustible metal.05% 1. Applied paint.59% 8. briquettes. VOLATILE SOLID.12% 0. Volatile Solid. Class IB flammable liquid.22% 0.31% 2.99% 0. Tobacco. Volatile Solid. WOOD.30% 0.72% 0. insufficient information available to classify further PLASTIC Polyurethane.14% 0. insufficient information available to classify further. Leather.05% 0. Class IIIB combustible liquid. PAPER Growing wood.11% 0.16% 1.88% 1. Class IC flammable liquid.27% 6. Polish. Chemical not classified above.52% 0. coke.63% 0.07% 0. insufficient information available to classify further. Cork. Radioactive material. Class IIIA combustible liquid.40% 0.13% 0. Solid chemical (specify type).74% 54 . plywood. resin.52% 0. Class II combustible liquid. CHEMICAL Fat. varnish. Combustible Liquid. Gas.38% 0. wood pulp.60% 0. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID Class IA flammable liquid.29% 0. starch. Grain. insufficient information available to classify further. Fiberboard (low density material). Flammable. insufficient information available to classify further.60% 1. natural fiber (pre-process).00% 0.39% 0. Adhesive.19% 0. Sawn wood. Food. peat. Polyacrylic.20% 3. FLAMMABLE. Combustible Liquid not classified above.33% 0. NATURAL PRODUCT Rubber.59% 0. tar.30% 0. hay.80% 1186 215 27 570 333 162 81 2 39 30 401 173 1454 92 184 56 1232 2194 1899 30 28 3233 294 107 353 64 272 54 289 330 4816 1053 656 413 2. grease (food). Polyvinyl. Grease (nonfood).05% 5. straw. Plastic. Natural Product not classified above. Natural Product.16% 0.10% 0.92% 3.05% 0. Felled but unsawn wood. Plastic not classified above. Polyolefin.10% 2. Polyester. 42 75 166 149 3425 122 553 90 785 166 448 0. Hardboard.

Fur.81% 1. Asphalt treated material.42% 2. finished goods. rayon. Fabric. finished goods. insufficient information available to classify further. Material Compounded with Oil.03% 0.57% 0. Heavy timber. TEXTILE. Textile. Type of Material undetermined or not reported Construction Type Fire resistive.02% 0. OTHER TYPE OF MATERIAL Multiple types of material first ignited.81% 6.20% 4. Human hair.78% 55 . Unprotected noncombustible or limited combustible not qualifying for 3.54% 13701 24.06% 0. Material Compounded with Oil not classified above.03% 0.46% 3279 5.10% 7.27% 0.72% total 27289 301 0. FABRIC. finished goods. Cardboard.14% 0.85% 6036 10. Cotton. Paper. uncoated. Waterproof canvas.10% 5.36% 13. Oil cloth.35% 0. Textile.47% 4.67% 1. insufficient information available to classify further.96% 1.06% 0.43% 0. Wood. cotton fabric. Protected Wood Frame Unprotected wood frame not qualifying for 7.14% 1941 2442 7362 3.99% 3388 6. Paper not classified above. fiber.04% 0. Protected ordinary. Wig.72% 7.65% 2. untreated. Treated and/or coated paper. Oily rags.82% 4.25% 3.30% total 28328 301 0.34% 0.01% 0. finished goods. FUR Man-made fabric. Protected noncombustible or limited combustible.Paper.13% 0. other fabric. Wood.05% 6567 11. Not classified above Undetermined or not reported Structural Damage with Sprinklers Only None/not reported Minimal Heavy Extreme Structural Damage with Sprinklers and Smoke Detection None/not reported Minimal Heavy Extreme 5965 1497 1014 795 1582 2244 71 22 33 9 196 319 18 17 81 31 192 241 149 81 10. Fur not classified above. not qualifying 5.14% 3900 670 2296 3072 3416 4059 2084 3924 452 3531 6. Wool. insufficient information available to classify further.54% 13999 24.01% 0. Type of Material not classified above. wool mixture fabric. Fur. silk. Fabric. Unprotected ordinary.48% 6. MATERIAL COMPOUNDED WITH OIL Linoleum.

01% 0. Operating room.22% 0. Interior stairway.17% 0. cloakroom. Exterior stairway.04% 0.08% 0.16% 0.09% 0. Electronic equipment room. area. Laundry room.09% 0. Sales Areas not classified above. cafeteria. Kitchen. Dining area. area. Process. Lobby. entrance way.10% 0.02% 0.15% 0.09% 0. manufacturing area. First aid. lunchroom.28% 0.78% 7.07% 2. showroom area.03% 1. Means of Egress not classified above. Large open room without fixed seats (100 or more persons). Function Areas not classified above.03% 0. Printing or photographic room. Personal service area.17% 0. mall.10% 36.02% 3. Lavatory. FUNCTION AREAS Laboratory. area.17% 0.56% 3089 27187 4527 16142 5. stage area. Escalator. cooking area.NFIRs Data 1991 Fires in Commercial buildings Had detectors Did not have any type of detector present Structural Damage (as described in the FEMA NFIR's Manual) None/not reported Minimal Heavy Extreme 27951 30165 48. Sales.67% 0.41% 0. Assembly. Projection room.33% 0.79% 1. Performance.33% 56 . STORAGE AREAS 609 97 99 6 356 93 48 126 191 462 680 11 14 41 1248 59 255 2340 1113 1146 968 51 165 95 50 19 237 22 12 1798 194 1. corridor.05% 0.16% 0. Office. Small assembly area with or without fixed seats (less than 100 persons). ASSEMBLY. SALES AREAS (groups of people) Large assembly area with fixed seats (100 or more persons).79% 27.97% 1. FUNCTION AREAS Sleeping room for under 5 persons. locker room. Lounge area.61% 0.44% 4. Sleeping area for 5 or more persons. Library.92% 1. treatment room.32% 46.02% 0. Swimming pool.78% Area of origin MEANS OF EGRESS Hallway. area.

Trash or rubbish area. dumb-waiter. Duct.38% 0. other fabric. Vehicle Areas not classified above.83% 0.60% 1. storage tank. storage bin.29% 0. Exterior wall surface. EQUIPMENT AREAS Machinery room. Ceiling and roof assembly.05% 57 . rayon. Man-made fabric.14% 0. Maintenance shop. vault. load carrying area of transportation equipment. Cotton.07% 0. water heater area. Fuel tank.85% 10.04% 0.08% 0.21% 0.85% 1. Chimney. Equipment Areas not classified above.03% 0. area. finished goods. carport. Conveyor. STRUCTURAL AREAS Crawl space. Service Facilities not classified above.77% 12.42% 0. transformer vault. area. SERVICE. Enclosure with pressurized air.00% 0.43% 0.62% 3. Test cell.12% 0.30% 0. Ceiling and floor assembly.48% 2. Enclosure with enriched oxygen atmosphere. finished goods. Exterior balcony.61% 0. wool mixture fabric. Exterior roof surface.35% 0.71% 2. container.20% 1.03% 0. Closet. 1826 183 1531 81 495 6316 1657 835 139 119 25 44 484 42 174 120 159 1222 866 261 116 748 17 19 1 352 247 133 344 947 415 1510 828 104 363 1741 447 7177 225 223 392 279 1586 2188 69 29 3. Garage. Light shaft. concealed floor/ceiling space. silk.31% 2. Storage Areas not classified above.14% 0.63% 0. Structural Areas not classified above.Product storage room or area. Incinerator room. Awning. Chute. fuel line area of transportation equipment. Heating equipment room or area. open porch. Records storage room. cotton fabric.18% 0.76% 0.27% 2. Fur. control area of transportation equipment.73% 3. Service. Exterior exposed surface of transportation equipment.00% 0. Engine area. wheel area of transportation equipment. SERVICE FACILITIES Elevator. area. Shipping. receiving. running gear. concealed roof/ceiling space. finished goods. TRANSPORTATION. Display window.49% 0. vehicle storage area.24% 0.59% 1.67% 0. Utility shaft. Wall assembly.10% 1. concealed wall space.63% 0.20% 0. Supply storage room or area.39% 0.23% 0. fiber. loading area. Operating. Trunk.44% 0. VEHICLE AREAS Passenger area of transportation equipment. Switchgear area.87% 2. finished goods. Wool. Transportation.45% 0. substructure space.

Not classified above Undetermined or not reported Structural Damage with Sprinklers Only None/not reported Minimal Heavy Extreme Structural Damage with Sprinklers and Smoke Detection None/not reported Minimal Heavy Extreme 25 7 206 323 19 16 220 33 217 215 160 85 0. Type of Material undetermined or not reported Construction Type Fire resistive.66% 4. Oil cloth.94% 37.15% 2127 2556 8060 3.04% 0. Fabric. Treated and/or coated paper. Fur not classified above.81% 6299 10. OTHER TYPE OF MATERIAL Multiple types of material first ignited. Textile.56% 0.Wig.87% 3841 687 2402 3115 3481 3906 2205 4086 509 3775 6.38% 0.18% 4.03% 0.95% 6878 11. MATERIAL COMPOUNDED WITH OIL Linoleum.99% 6. not qualifying 5.79% 7.99% 3456 5.47% 3378 5.40% 13. Material Compounded with Oil. Human hair. Protected noncombustible or limited combustible. Type of Material not classified above.47% 14522 24. Fabric. Oily rags. Textile.35% 0. Waterproof canvas.37% 0. insufficient information available to classify further. Fur.01% 0. Unprotected ordinary. Protected Wood Frame Unprotected wood frame not qualifying for 7.83% 58 . Asphalt treated material.72% 3.84% NFIRs Data 1992 Fires in Commercial buildings Had detectors Did not have any type of detector present Structural Damage (as described in the FEMA NFIR's Manual) 27493 28680 48.47% 14222 24. insufficient information available to classify further.28% 0. Material Compounded with Oil not classified above.13% 5. Heavy timber.03% 0.37% 0.88% 6.50% total 28815 274 0. Protected ordinary. Unprotected noncombustible or limited combustible not qualifying for 3.36% 5.03% 0.83% total 27743 274 0.61% 1.06% 0.

Operating room. Small assembly area with or without fixed seats (less than 100 persons). Closet. entrance way. 529 96 76 8 349 97 56 128 157 428 662 6 28 48 1186 56 265 2424 1081 1120 982 64 150 68 52 22 263 18 9 1681 176 1735 165 1372 83 472 5501 1449 822 0. Function Areas not classified above. Performance.01% 0. cooking area. Lobby.44% 0. area.84% 9.28% 0. area.73% 7.94% 0.17% 0. area. showroom area. STORAGE AREAS Product storage room or area.47% 4. Printing or photographic room.76% 1. vehicle storage area. receiving.17% 0. stage area. Laundry room. Personal service area. Lounge area. Large open room without fixed seats (100 or more persons).92% 1. Garage. First aid. mall.10% 0. Swimming pool. Sales. ASSEMBLY. Sales Areas not classified above.85% Area of origin MEANS OF EGRESS Hallway. lunchroom.02% 2.04% 0. Electronic equipment room. Shipping.18% 0. Kitchen.58% 1. Trash or rubbish area.75% 0.23% 0.27% 0. loading area.90% 25. manufacturing area. Assembly. vault. Projection room. Supply storage room or area. cafeteria. FUNCTION AREAS Sleeping room for under 5 persons. Interior stairway.99% 0. corridor.11% 0. locker room. Sleeping area for 5 or more persons. storage bin. Storage Areas not classified above.47% 0. cloakroom. area.29% 2.32% 1. Means of Egress not classified above. Exterior stairway. Lavatory. storage tank. Library. Process.None/not reported Minimal Heavy Extreme 2506 27374 4440 14520 4.11% 0.14% 0.46% 59 .03% 0. Office. SALES AREAS (groups of people) Large assembly area with fixed seats (100 or more persons).05% 0. Escalator.99% 1. container.09% 0.62% 0. carport. FUNCTION AREAS Laboratory.01% 0.46% 48. Dining area.15% 0.10% 0.12% 0. Records storage room.09% 0.31% 3.09% 2.79% 2. treatment room.

fuel line area of transportation equipment. woods. Test cell. transformer vault. Utility shaft.53% 0. Switchgear area.21% 0.31% 0. VEHICLE AREAS Passenger area of transportation equipment.24% 0. running gear. area. Maintenance shop.29% 2.93% 0. area. control area of transportation equipment. Display window.28% 0. STRUCTURAL AREAS Crawl space. public way.75% 12.03% 0. water heater area.01% 0. Structural Areas not classified above.55% 8. Enclosure with pressurized air. Multiple location.47% 0.31% 0. Awning. Wildland area. TRANSPORTATION. field. Other/Unknown 133 112 19 48 516 46 155 119 162 1209 882 267 100 715 7 17 3 297 264 123 369 941 462 1412 810 86 353 1522 421 7171 175 176 409 295 79 1083 310 4664 517 268 914 1038 2893 0. Chimney.68% 0.77% 0. terrace. Operating. wheel area of transportation equipment. On or near highway. Court. Exterior wall surface. SERVICE. EQUIPMENT AREAS Machinery room. concealed wall space.57% 0. Heating equipment room or area. street.22% 0. concealed roof/ceiling space. Area of Origin not applicable. Exterior roof surface.92% 0. concealed floor/ceiling space. Wall assembly. Other Area of Origin not classified above. Transportation.15% 1. Ceiling and roof assembly. embankment.15% 60 . Incinerator room.73% 0.SERVICE FACILITIES Elevator.82% 2.71% 0. Light shaft.51% 1. Ceiling and floor assembly.48% 0.20% 0.44% 0. Vehicle Areas not classified above.85% 5. Exterior exposed surface of transportation equipment. area.53% 0. use area. OTHER AREA OF ORIGIN On or near railroad right of way.03% 0. Engine area.48% 1. Exterior balcony.92% 0. Service.27% 0.15% 0. load carrying area of transportation equipment. Duct. substructure space.08% 0. open area. Lawn. Enclosure with enriched oxygen atmosphere. Conveyor.63% 2. patio.09% 0. Service Facilities not classified above. Trunk.18% 1. open porch.63% 1. Equipment Areas not classified above.66% 1.01% 0. Chute.14% 1. dumb-waiter.30% 0. Fuel tank.

CHEMICAL Fat. FLAMMABLE.19% 0.83% 1192 266 21 531 283 153 76 1 46 36 2.08% 0.21% 0.28% 0. NATURAL PRODUCT Rubber.12% 0.30% 4.84% 61 . insufficient information available to classify further PLASTIC Polyurethane.50% 0.02% 0.27% 0.14% 0. insufficient information available to classify further. natural fiber (pre-process). Flammable.12% 1. Coal.12% 0.24% 5.46% 3. Class IIIA combustible liquid. LP-gas. Anesthetic gas.19% 0.20% 0.32% 0.00% 0. Grain.71% 0. varnish. Class IC flammable liquid.61% 0. Cork. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID Class IA flammable liquid.33% 3. Polystyrene.Type of material ignited GAS Natural gas. 312 47 114 178 13 78 30 68 118 225 133 3063 104 345 66 742 203 469 0. Applied paint.95% 0. Gasoline. VOLATILE SOLID. Grease (nonfood). Plastic. Leather.05% 0. Combustible Liquid. peat. Grass. Acetylene.00% 0. coke.14% 0. Adhesive. Class IIIB combustible liquid. resin.06% 6.14% 0. Polyolefin. starch. hay.40% 0. Polyester. briquettes. Flammable.56% 0. Volatile Solid. Manufactured gas. insufficient information available to classify further. Polish. LP-City Gas (LP and air mix).35% 0. grease (food). Chemical. Class IB flammable liquid. Polyvinyl.08% 0. Volatile Solid. Class II combustible liquid. Gas. Chemical not classified above. insufficient information available to classify further.47% 0. Combustible metal.04% 0.67% 0. Gas not classified above. Specialty gas other than anesthetic.26% 0.45% 0. Combustible Liquid not classified above. Radioactive material.32% 0. tar. Food.04% 0. straw. Solid chemical (specify type). leaves. Polyacrylic. Plastic not classified above.13% 2.36% 0.06% 400 186 1686 78 156 74 1293 2504 1884 21 34 3515 377 109 474 0.

Heavy timber.20% 0.62% 0. Oily rags. wood pulp. rayon.55% 8. Unprotected noncombustible or limited combustible not qualifying for 3. Protected Wood Frame Unprotected wood frame not qualifying for 7. Hardboard.36% 0.83% 14. Fur.24% 4.73% 0. cotton fabric.08% 2. Sawn wood. Material Compounded with Oil not classified above.10% 0.89% 1. Natural Product not classified above.49% 0. Paper. Textile. Wood.03% 0.10% 0. Cotton. FABRIC.34% 6. Textile. MATERIAL COMPOUNDED WITH OIL Linoleum. Paper not classified above. Protected ordinary.78% 6. Not classified above Undetermined or not reported Structural Damage with Sprinklers Only 56 351 97 275 301 4316 1063 672 307 4961 1497 932 1167 1434 2051 58 25 41 11 201 325 11 16 411 32 170 214 146 72 0.17% 0.66% 2. Fur not classified above. Wood shavings.91% 3. silk.02% 0. WOOD. insufficient information available to classify further. Fabric. FUR Man-made fabric.04% 62 . TEXTILE. Cardboard. Fiberboard (low density material). Oil cloth. Material Compounded with Oil.95% 6. finished goods.13% 6.38% 0. Type of Material not classified above.46% 4. finished goods. Fur.68% 1. insufficient information available to classify further.13% 1945 2713 7887 3.06% 0. Human hair. Unprotected ordinary. Asphalt treated material.55% 3. Waterproof canvas.26% 0. Fabric.30% 0.66% 1.58% 0. uncoated. OTHER TYPE OF MATERIAL Multiple types of material first ignited.57% 5. Paper. plywood. Felled but unsawn wood.96% 0. PAPER Growing wood. Treated and/or coated paper.04% 0. Wood.07% 0. other fabric.02% 0. untreated. not qualifying 5. Wig. insufficient information available to classify further. finished goods. Protected noncombustible or limited combustible.54% 7. insufficient information available to classify further.65% 0.Tobacco. Natural Product. Type of Material undetermined or not reported Construction Type Fire resistive. finished goods.83% 2. Wool.04% 3528 694 2568 3244 3446 3881 1876 3912 531 3393 total 27748 6.28% 1. fiber. wool mixture fabric.

Means of Egress not classified above. ASSEMBLY. entrance way. Personal service area. area.17% 0. Assembly.18% 0.17% 0. Exterior stairway.02% total 27336 3 0.99% 1. Escalator. cooking area.32% 1.None/not reported Minimal Heavy Extreme Structural Damage with Sprinklers and Smoke Detection None/not reported Minimal Heavy Extreme 3 15336 3381 5630 0. cloakroom.47% 4. Swimming pool. lunchroom.90% 5584 9. showroom area. Lobby. SALES AREAS (groups of people) Large assembly area with fixed seats (100 or more persons). FUNCTION AREAS Sleeping room for under 5 persons.09% 2.76% 1. Library.11% 0.23% 0. Laundry room.62% 0. Lounge area.75% 0. Interior stairway.94% 37.01% 27.83% 2506 27374 4440 14520 4.02% 10. corridor. Dining area.94% 0. Small assembly area with or without fixed seats (less than 100 persons).05% 0.90% 25. Lavatory. Office. Sales. Sleeping area for 5 or more persons.85% Area of origin MEANS OF EGRESS Hallway.10% 0.14% 0.94% NFIRs Data 1993 Fires in Commercial buildings Had detectors Did not have any type of detector present Structural Damage (as described in the FEMA NFIR's Manual) None/not reported Minimal Heavy Extreme 27493 28680 48. Kitchen.01% 0.88% 3313 5.46% 48. locker room.01% 15101 26. cafeteria.30% 6.11% 63 .28% 0. FUNCTION AREAS 529 96 76 8 349 97 56 128 157 428 662 6 28 48 1186 56 265 2424 1081 1120 982 64 0. Large open room without fixed seats (100 or more persons). Sales Areas not classified above.92% 1. mall.10% 0.01% 0.73% 7.

Incinerator room. TRANSPORTATION.47% 0.12% 0. Service.44% 0.08% 0. Display window.47% 0. Function Areas not classified above. Enclosure with pressurized air. First aid. water heater area. vault. area.21% 0. transformer vault. Service Facilities not classified above. Light shaft.31% 3. Conveyor.99% 0.92% 0.58% 1. Shipping. STRUCTURAL AREAS Crawl space. storage bin.Laboratory. Electronic equipment room. Heating equipment room or area.15% 0. Wall assembly.02% 2.29% 2.68% 0. SERVICE FACILITIES Elevator. Process. Performance. Enclosure with enriched oxygen atmosphere.29% 2.27% 0. Test cell. manufacturing area. Closet. carport.84% 9. Supply storage room or area. dumb-waiter.22% 0. Ceiling and roof assembly. SERVICE. area.48% 0.20% 0.66% 1.03% 0. Projection room. receiving. Equipment Areas not classified above. treatment room. open porch. Operating room. area.51% 1. Chute. Awning.46% 0. vehicle storage area. storage tank.44% 0. 150 68 52 22 263 18 9 1681 176 1735 165 1372 83 472 5501 1449 822 133 112 19 48 516 46 155 119 162 1209 882 267 100 715 7 17 3 297 264 123 369 941 462 1412 810 86 353 1522 0. Garage.18% 1. substructure space. Storage Areas not classified above.57% 0. stage area. Structural Areas not classified above. Records storage room. Maintenance shop.09% 0.01% 0.79% 2.01% 0.09% 0. VEHICLE AREAS Passenger area of transportation equipment. Exterior balcony.09% 0.04% 0.71% 64 .03% 0. Utility shaft. concealed floor/ceiling space.15% 1. Exterior wall surface.82% 2.03% 0. Printing or photographic room. concealed wall space.63% 2. STORAGE AREAS Product storage room or area. loading area.15% 0.28% 0. concealed roof/ceiling space. Chimney. Duct. Trash or rubbish area. area. Switchgear area. Ceiling and floor assembly. Exterior roof surface. container.53% 0.27% 0. area.24% 0. area. EQUIPMENT AREAS Machinery room.

control area of transportation equipment. field.50% 0. embankment.48% 1. Other/Unknown 421 7171 175 176 409 295 79 1083 310 4664 517 268 914 1038 2893 0.14% 0.73% 0. tar. Polish. Other Area of Origin not classified above. Applied paint.24% 5. Class IB flammable liquid. terrace. Court. Wildland area.15% Type of material ignited GAS Natural gas.14% 1.85% 5.21% 0.00% 0. street.04% 0. Gas not classified above.27% 0. Adhesive.61% 0.63% 1.08% 0. Multiple location.53% 0. Class IIIA combustible liquid. Combustible metal. Class IIIB combustible liquid.77% 0.31% 0.31% 0.02% 0. Fuel tank. Chemical not classified above. Chemical.93% 0.45% 0. Solid chemical (specify type). COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID Class IA flammable liquid.30% 0.12% 0. insufficient information available to classify further.14% 0. load carrying area of transportation equipment. open area. Area of Origin not applicable. Combustible Liquid. grease (food). CHEMICAL Fat. Gas.08% 0. running gear. insufficient information available to classify 312 47 114 178 13 78 30 68 118 225 133 3063 104 345 66 742 203 469 0. Combustible Liquid not classified above.47% 0. Engine area.20% 0. insufficient information available to classify further.95% 0.83% 1192 266 21 531 283 153 76 1 46 36 2. wheel area of transportation equipment. Anesthetic gas.12% 1. woods.56% 0. LP-City Gas (LP and air mix). resin.12% 0. OTHER AREA OF ORIGIN On or near railroad right of way. VOLATILE SOLID. LP-gas. Transportation.32% 0. Operating. patio. Gasoline. public way.36% 0. Flammable. Vehicle Areas not classified above. Exterior exposed surface of transportation equipment. Grease (nonfood). Class II combustible liquid.40% 0.05% 0. varnish. Flammable. Manufactured gas. Volatile Solid. Specialty gas other than anesthetic. use area. FLAMMABLE. Volatile Solid.75% 12.55% 8.92% 0. Lawn. On or near highway.32% 0. fuel line area of transportation equipment.Trunk.06% 65 .19% 0. Class IC flammable liquid. Radioactive material. Acetylene.

cotton fabric.02% 0. Plastic. finished goods. straw. Polyacrylic.55% 8. Fur. insufficient information available to classify further.17% 0.08% 2.62% 0. finished goods. 400 186 1686 78 156 74 1293 2504 1884 21 34 3515 377 109 474 56 351 97 275 301 4316 1063 672 307 4961 1497 932 1167 1434 2051 58 25 41 11 201 325 11 16 411 32 170 214 146 72 0. Wool. Cork.49% 0.65% 0.20% 0. Polyester.89% 1. Fabric. silk. insufficient information available to classify further.73% 0.46% 3. Wood shavings. wool mixture fabric. Human hair.67% 0.83% 2. Plastic not classified above.04% 0. Fur. finished goods. briquettes.66% 1. Leather.06% 0. Paper not classified above. TEXTILE.26% 0.14% 0. wood pulp.55% 3. Textile. Fiberboard (low density material).68% 1. Grass. Grain. plywood. Waterproof canvas. Fur not classified above. insufficient information available to classify further.33% 3. Wood. FUR Man-made fabric.35% 0.13% 2. Natural Product.06% 6. Natural Product not classified above.36% 0.30% 4. fiber. Polyvinyl. uncoated. Felled but unsawn wood. Material Compounded with Oil not classified above. Cardboard. untreated.58% 0. Paper.07% 0. insufficient information available to classify further.10% 0. Food. Polystyrene. insufficient information available to classify further. leaves. Wood. Material Compounded with Oil. Tobacco.02% 0.71% 0. starch. Polyolefin.10% 0. FABRIC. rayon. Treated and/or coated paper. Oily rags. Cotton. NATURAL PRODUCT Rubber.04% 0. WOOD.00% 0. hay. Paper. Sawn wood. Hardboard.28% 0.26% 0. coke. Asphalt treated material. other fabric. Oil cloth.further PLASTIC Polyurethane.19% 0.66% 2.13% 66 . natural fiber (pre-process). MATERIAL COMPOUNDED WITH OIL Linoleum. peat.03% 0.54% 7. Fabric.38% 0. finished goods. Coal. Textile. PAPER Growing wood.30% 0.84% 0. Wig.

01% 15336 27.13% 67 .24% 4.68% 8.01% 0. Protected ordinary. ASSEMBLY.OTHER TYPE OF MATERIAL Multiple types of material first ignited. mall.78% 6. Type of Material undetermined or not reported Construction Type Fire resistive.30% 3381 6.83% 14.28% 1.48% 29. Escalator. Unprotected ordinary. Protected noncombustible or limited combustible.01% 15101 26. entrance way.06% 0.90% 5584 9.07% 37. Heavy timber.94% NFIRs Data 1994 Fires in Commercial buildings Had detectors Did not have any type of detector present Structural Damage (as described in the FEMA NFIR's Manual) None/not reported Minimal Heavy Extreme 27111 29286 48.14% 0. not qualifying 5. Exterior stairway.88% 3313 5. Interior stairway. Lobby.02% total 27336 3 0.68% 2403 29712 4784 16897 4.02% 5630 10. Means of Egress not classified above. Not classified above Undetermined or not reported Structural Damage with Sprinklers Only None/not reported Minimal Heavy Extreme Structural Damage with Sprinklers and Smoke Detection None/not reported Minimal Heavy Extreme 1945 2713 7887 3.96% Area of origin MEANS OF EGRESS Hallway.14% 0.34% 6.13% 6.46% 4. Type of Material not classified above. corridor.04% total 27748 3 0. Unprotected noncombustible or limited combustible not qualifying for 3.95% 6. Protected Wood Frame Unprotected wood frame not qualifying for 7.57% 5.55% 0.96% 0. SALES AREAS (groups of people) 595 81 78 7 313 74 1.26% 52.04% 3528 694 2568 3244 3446 3881 1876 3912 531 3393 6.91% 3.

42% 1. loading area. container. cafeteria. stage area. Service Facilities not classified above. EQUIPMENT AREAS Machinery room. area.22% 2. Kitchen. lunchroom.07% 0. Sales.04% 0.52% 0.37% 2.32% 0. Switchgear area. Sales Areas not classified above. Library. Operating room. Chimney.04% 0.11% 0. Function Areas not classified above. Sleeping area for 5 or more persons. Process. receiving. Laundry room.21% 0. Heating equipment room or area. 50 136 180 335 628 7 14 63 1119 37 254 2491 998 1170 895 66 116 83 56 21 266 24 4 1665 208 1553 138 1320 59 492 5332 1422 833 111 103 18 46 524 37 155 131 124 1233 857 314 0.59% 1.47% 0. Trash or rubbish area. Lavatory.18% 0. Projection room.11% 1. carport. storage bin.52% 1.93% 0. Small assembly area with or without fixed seats (less than 100 persons). Swimming pool.59% 0. FUNCTION AREAS Sleeping room for under 5 persons. Dining area.15% 0.02% 0.24% 0. Large open room without fixed seats (100 or more persons). Performance. dumb-waiter.10% 0.48% 0. Office. Light shaft. Assembly.12% 0. Lounge area.10% 0. area. Storage Areas not classified above. Electronic equipment room. manufacturing area.03% 0. Closet. FUNCTION AREAS Laboratory.01% 0. SERVICE FACILITIES Elevator. vault. Printing or photographic room. locker room. First aid. SERVICE. transformer vault.27% 0. Supply storage room or area. Duct. area.45% 4. STORAGE AREAS Product storage room or area.01% 2. vehicle storage area.24% 2.75% 0. Garage.45% 2. area. Shipping.07% 1.23% 0. Display window.34% 0.87% 9. Records storage room. cooking area. cloakroom.77% 2.20% 0. water heater area. storage tank. Utility shaft.95% 0. area. Personal service area.09% 0. Chute.19% 1.07% 0. Conveyor.56% 68 .08% 0.Large assembly area with fixed seats (100 or more persons).98% 0. treatment room. showroom area.

82% 13. Test cell. OTHER AREA OF ORIGIN On or near railroad right of way. TRANSPORTATION. area.23% 0.21% 0. open porch. Specialty gas other than anesthetic. Enclosure with enriched oxygen atmosphere.35% Type of material ignited GAS Natural gas.18% 0. Gas.44% 0. concealed wall space.Incinerator room. Service. Fuel tank. concealed floor/ceiling space. load carrying area of transportation equipment. terrace.53% 1.99% 0. Maintenance shop.15% 0. patio.37% 0.54% 0.34% 0.15% 0. Awning. Other/Unknown 82 637 18 19 3 305 248 129 324 896 434 1429 793 99 389 1565 460 7523 187 201 498 249 95 1120 351 5283 510 250 623 1127 3017 0. Lawn. Other Area of Origin not classified above.06% 0.37% 0. Trunk.15% 1. Exterior exposed surface of transportation equipment.00% 5. Wall assembly. Structural Areas not classified above. area. woods. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID Class IA flammable liquid.17% 1.22% 69 . concealed roof/ceiling space. Multiple location. LP-gas.33% 0.07% 0.36% 0. Exterior balcony. open area. fuel line area of transportation equipment.77% 2.01% 0.59% 0.10% 0.01% 0.90% 0. VEHICLE AREAS Passenger area of transportation equipment.88% 0. control area of transportation equipment. FLAMMABLE. On or near highway. street. Acetylene. Court.44% 0. STRUCTURAL AREAS Crawl space. Class IB flammable liquid. Enclosure with pressurized air.36% 0. Transportation. Ceiling and roof assembly.10% 2. Exterior roof surface. Manufactured gas. Equipment Areas not classified above.41% 0.62% 9. LP-City Gas (LP and air mix). Exterior wall surface. Operating. Anesthetic gas. Wildland area.77% 0. Ceiling and floor assembly. substructure space.55% 0.44% 1. public way. 310 35 84 203 7 83 40 54 119 210 122 0. wheel area of transportation equipment.57% 1. field. Engine area. Vehicle Areas not classified above.13% 0. use area.03% 0. Area of Origin not applicable. insufficient information available to classify further. running gear.69% 2. Gas not classified above. embankment.03% 0.

49% 2.18% 0.37% 2. Polyester. Volatile Solid.47% 0.12% 0.03% 0.61% 0.56% 7.45% 1. Fiberboard (low density material). Paper not classified above.26% 0.11% 0. Polish. Flammable. Class IIIA combustible liquid.22% 1.17% 0.60% 7. TEXTILE. VOLATILE SOLID.07% 0. insufficient information available to classify further. Paper. insufficient information available to classify further. FABRIC. coke. leaves. Solid chemical (specify type). varnish.12% 0. Radioactive material. Class IIIB combustible liquid.13% 0. Adhesive.60% 3. Natural Product not classified above.05% 0. Coal. grease (food).01% 0. natural fiber (pre-process). Felled but unsawn wood. NATURAL PRODUCT Rubber. Combustible Liquid not classified above. Food.30% 3. Plastic not classified above.21% 1.14% 2.15% 1.66% 1168 247 25 419 278 145 69 3 48 28 394 170 1752 71 156 77 1393 2593 1802 17 28 3559 263 124 589 65 421 100 302 314 4224 1246 775 339 4155 1381 895 1161 2. starch.37% 0. Chemical. hay.09% 0. uncoated. Flammable. insufficient information available to classify further. tar. straw. Combustible metal. Grass.38% 0. wood pulp. Wood shavings. Leather. Tobacco.59% 2.70% 0. Applied paint.04% 0. Plastic.44% 0. WOOD. Grain. FUR 2917 75 345 82 770 213 373 5.06% 70 . briquettes.74% 0. insufficient information available to classify further. untreated. Natural Product. Cork.75% 0. Chemical not classified above. Class IC flammable liquid. Polystyrene. Class II combustible liquid.28% 0. insufficient information available to classify further PLASTIC Polyurethane.49% 0. Cardboard. Hardboard. Polyolefin. Combustible Liquid.13% 0.47% 4. Wood. Volatile Solid. peat.31% 0. Wood. Polyacrylic.Gasoline.37% 0.54% 0. PAPER Growing wood.05% 6. CHEMICAL Fat. Sawn wood. resin. plywood. Polyvinyl.20% 0.04% 0. Paper. Grease (nonfood).

37% 3.34% 0. Heavy timber.91% 6. Material Compounded with Oil. Wig.28% 0. Type of Material undetermined or not reported Construction Type Fire resistive. Oil cloth.87% NFIRs Data 1995 71 .39% 0. Protected noncombustible or limited combustible.50% 10.82% 0.87% 6. Protected ordinary.88% 0. Material Compounded with Oil not classified above. Fabric. finished goods.Man-made fabric. finished goods. Human hair. Not classified above Undetermined or not reported Structural Damage with Sprinklers Only None/not reported Minimal Heavy Extreme Structural Damage with Sprinklers and Smoke Detection None/not reported Minimal Heavy Extreme 1336 2090 60 31 29 12 220 355 7 17 731 460 152 191 159 90 2. not qualifying 5. finished goods. cotton fabric.39% 15.38% 0. Textile.18% 4.30% 0.94% 0. Protected Wood Frame Unprotected wood frame not qualifying for 7.27% 0. other fabric. Textile.11% 0.91% 1. MATERIAL COMPOUNDED WITH OIL Linoleum. Fur. Cotton.16% 2097 2477 8487 3.75% 6. fiber.01% 28. rayon.03% 1.67% 3. Wool. Type of Material not classified above. wool mixture fabric.63% 0. Fur.63% 10.12% 6. Oily rags.02% 0.31% 6. Fabric.01% 0. insufficient information available to classify further.71% 0. insufficient information available to classify further.98% 5. OTHER TYPE OF MATERIAL Multiple types of material first ignited. Asphalt treated material. Treated and/or coated paper. Unprotected noncombustible or limited combustible not qualifying for 3.05% 3333 663 2497 3374 3312 3759 1864 3880 511 3599 total 27338 3 16425 3739 6170 total 26955 3 16216 3665 6130 5. silk.05% 0. Fur not classified above. Waterproof canvas.72% 4. finished goods. Unprotected ordinary.05% 0.43% 5.01% 29.

04% 0. 526 89 56 15 312 75 46 131 131 330 557 10 13 70 969 54 221 2299 916 1114 800 68 143 76 48 20 256 9 10 1574 210 1434 174 1233 0. lunchroom. Interior stairway.05% 0. Dining area.17% 0. Closet. FUNCTION AREAS Laboratory. cafeteria. STORAGE AREAS Product storage room or area.70% 0. showroom area. area.02% 2.99% 0. Assembly.43% 8. Swimming pool.02% 0.27% 0. cloakroom. SALES AREAS (groups of people) Large assembly area with fixed seats (100 or more persons).13% 0. cooking area.40% 2. Exterior stairway.05% 2075 26225 4446 14608 3. Supply storage room or area. Sales. mall. Printing or photographic room. stage area. Large open room without fixed seats (100 or more persons). Personal service area. Lounge area. Lobby.09% 0.97% 0.73% 2.42% 4. storage tank.03% 0.02% 0. First aid.33% 2. storage bin. Function Areas not classified above. treatment room.53% Area of origin MEANS OF EGRESS Hallway. area.51% 0. Library. Small assembly area with or without fixed seats (less than 100 persons).38% 27. ASSEMBLY. Office.83% 0.14% 0.98% 40. Laundry room.33% 1.91% 49. area. Performance.25% 0.25% 0.14% 0. Means of Egress not classified above. Sleeping area for 5 or more persons. manufacturing area.Fires in Commercial buildings Had detectors Did not have any type of detector present Structural Damage (as described in the FEMA NFIR's Manual) None/not reported Minimal Heavy Extreme 25455 27598 47. Electronic equipment room.32% 72 .11% 0. FUNCTION AREAS Sleeping room for under 5 persons. Sales Areas not classified above.02% 0. Lavatory. Escalator. locker room.59% 0.09% 0.10% 1. Kitchen. corridor. Process. Operating room.48% 0.62% 1. Projection room. entrance way.10% 0. area.13% 1.

VEHICLE AREAS Passenger area of transportation equipment. Chimney.Records storage room.41% 0.12% 0. concealed roof/ceiling space. TRANSPORTATION. patio.65% 0. substructure space. Lawn. load carrying area of transportation equipment.49% 0. Storage Areas not classified above.41% 0.11% 2.59% 2. SERVICE. Ceiling and floor assembly.01% 0.54% 73 .07% 0.16% 1. Garage.56% 1.96% 0.18% 0. Switchgear area.26% 2.30% 0.84% 13. On or near highway. Utility shaft. Enclosure with pressurized air.87% 0.19% 0. Duct. Wall assembly. Trash or rubbish area.22% 2. container.18% 0.04% 0.26% 0.83% 0. Exterior exposed surface of transportation equipment.06% 0. Incinerator room. fuel line area of transportation equipment. loading area. Operating. Chute. concealed wall space.26% 0. Court. public way. STRUCTURAL AREAS Crawl space. Exterior balcony.10% 0.91% 9. Vehicle Areas not classified above. Display window. Fuel tank. terrace. Structural Areas not classified above. 54 484 4831 1429 864 103 92 21 52 453 33 139 139 140 1073 783 260 83 568 18 20 5 329 219 136 295 877 454 1382 747 96 313 1501 448 7058 205 202 510 239 116 1124 358 4871 461 286 0.48% 0. Ceiling and roof assembly. open area. use area. carport.69% 1. Service. area. embankment. Wildland area.86% 2.39% 0.67% 9. OTHER AREA OF ORIGIN On or near railroad right of way. field. Awning. woods. Equipment Areas not classified above. receiving. control area of transportation equipment.63% 0. running gear. Exterior wall surface. EQUIPMENT AREAS Machinery room.60% 1.85% 0. SERVICE FACILITIES Elevator.45% 0. wheel area of transportation equipment. transformer vault. vehicle storage area. Enclosure with enriched oxygen atmosphere. Multiple location. Conveyor. Maintenance shop. dumb-waiter. water heater area. open porch. Shipping.10% 0. area. Service Facilities not classified above.04% 0. area. Transportation. Trunk. Engine area. Test cell.03% 0. Light shaft. vault.26% 0. concealed floor/ceiling space. street.02% 1.62% 0. Exterior roof surface.17% 0. Heating equipment room or area.38% 0.

00% 5. Anesthetic gas. Polyacrylic.52% 0. resin.64% 0.26% Type of material ignited GAS Natural gas. Acetylene. Polyolefin. Cork. Polystyrene.89% 0. Adhesive.29% 3.12% 2. Specialty gas other than anesthetic. Combustible Liquid not classified above. insufficient information available to classify further.13% 0.60% 0. Class IIIB combustible liquid. Polyvinyl.16% 0.13% 0. Volatile Solid. LP-City Gas (LP and air mix).21% 4. Class IC flammable liquid.41% 0.07% 0. VOLATILE SOLID.Area of Origin not applicable.38% 0. insufficient information available to classify further PLASTIC Polyurethane.07% 74 . Class II combustible liquid.65% 4. Chemical not classified above.18% 0. varnish. FLAMMABLE.25% 0. Polish. Other/Unknown 555 1059 2788 1.75% 1172 193 16 416 317 142 82 52 36 366 156 1647 70 149 65 1404 2497 1789 12 36 2.28% 0.15% 0. grease (food). Polyester.05% 2. Radioactive material.13% 0.71% 3. tar. NATURAL PRODUCT Rubber.03% 0. insufficient information available to classify further. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID Class IA flammable liquid. Solid chemical (specify type).15% 1. Manufactured gas. Leather. Chemical. Class IB flammable liquid.10% 0.07% 0. Grease (nonfood). Combustible Liquid. Other Area of Origin not classified above. Volatile Solid. Plastic. 274 39 94 159 5 70 36 70 131 216 113 2594 84 342 82 627 201 397 0.36% 0.02% 0.10% 0.00% 0. CHEMICAL Fat.21% 0.78% 0.37% 0. Class IIIA combustible liquid. Gas not classified above. Applied paint. Flammable. Combustible metal.30% 0.18% 0. Flammable.07% 0.69% 0. LP-gas.01% 0. Plastic not classified above. Gas. Gasoline.27% 0. insufficient information available to classify further.

21% 1. Protected noncombustible or limited combustible. cotton fabric. Type of Material not classified above.23% 7.68% 1. Material Compounded with Oil.04% 0.15% 4. insufficient information available to classify further. fiber.62% 14. Fur.61% 0. insufficient information available to classify further. wood pulp.Grass.77% 0. Tobacco. Protected ordinary.98% 0.51% 0. Wood.99% 2. peat.18% 0. Grain. wool mixture fabric. Coal. Wig. Hardboard.21% 0. Heavy timber.52% 1.86% 6. Waterproof canvas. Cotton. finished goods. untreated. OTHER TYPE OF MATERIAL Multiple types of material first ignited.97% 2927 612 2407 3109 3212 3517 1714 3737 5.07% 0. coke. straw. Oil cloth.13% 0. Unprotected noncombustible or limited combustible not qualifying for 3. 3427 269 83 520 70 410 114 262 297 4056 1174 746 318 3711 1262 890 1055 1279 1914 38 15 20 9 199 322 12 12 628 409 159 172 138 84 6. Wool.60% 6. insufficient information available to classify further. natural fiber (pre-process).02% 0. starch.04% 75 . insufficient information available to classify further. Material Compounded with Oil not classified above. other fabric. Natural Product not classified above.63% 3. uncoated. Felled but unsawn wood. Protected Wood Frame Unprotected wood frame not qualifying for 7. not qualifying 5.49% 0.61% 0. Fabric. finished goods.05% 6. leaves. WOOD. Sawn wood.41% 3. finished goods. Cardboard.02% 1. MATERIAL COMPOUNDED WITH OIL Linoleum. Treated and/or coated paper. Textile. TEXTILE.16% 1938 2452 7942 3. Fur not classified above. Human hair. Paper not classified above. briquettes.38% 1.46% 0.77% 0.54% 5. Natural Product. rayon.16% 0. Fiberboard (low density material). Food.30% 0. FABRIC. silk. Unprotected ordinary.41% 0.65% 2. Paper.02% 0. Type of Material undetermined or not reported Construction Type Fire resistive. hay. FUR Man-made fabric. finished goods. Fur. Textile.65% 4. Paper.99% 2.38% 0.26% 0. PAPER Growing wood. plywood.56% 7. Wood.32% 0.03% 0. Oily rags. Asphalt treated material. Wood shavings. Fabric.

38% 48.13% 1. cooking area. 450 65 80 10 347 90 57 169 141 329 517 8 24 69 1042 43 237 2342 988 0.Not classified above Undetermined or not reported Structural Damage with Sprinklers Only None/not reported Minimal Heavy Extreme Structural Damage with Sprinklers and Smoke Detection None/not reported Minimal Heavy Extreme 492 3384 0.36% 8.65% 0.62% 0.97% 0.49% Area of origin MEANS OF EGRESS Hallway.02% 0. FUNCTION AREAS Sleeping room for under 5 persons.15% 0.269786817 3335 0.50% 27. Large open room without fixed seats (100 or more persons). Sales. locker room. cloakroom.26% 0. Swimming pool. mall.17% 0. SALES AREAS (groups of people) Large assembly area with fixed seats (100 or more persons). Lounge area. entrance way.76982E-05 14475 0. Lobby.088439862 NFIRs Data 1996 Fires in Commercial buildings Had detectors Did not have any type of detector present Structural Damage (as described in the FEMA NFIR's Manual) None/not reported Minimal Heavy Extreme 25164 28081 47. Dining area.12% 0. Library.08% 0. Small assembly area with or without fixed seats (less than 100 persons). showroom area. Means of Egress not classified above. ASSEMBLY.064086857 4736 0.26% 39.38% total 25662 2 3. lunchroom. Lavatory.86% 76 . corridor. Exterior stairway.93% 6. Sleeping area for 5 or more persons.40% 1.02% 0. cafeteria.089269221 total 25360 2 3. Interior stairway.91% 2331 25747 4528 14636 4. Escalator.11% 0.96% 0.45% 4.062861667 4692 0.76982E-05 14313 0.32% 0. Assembly. Kitchen.85% 0.05% 0. Sales Areas not classified above.272840367 3400 0.

69% 0.58% 2. water heater area.16% 0. Display window.06% 0. transformer vault. First aid. Enclosure with pressurized air.50% 1.99% 1. receiving. Heating equipment room or area. Exterior roof surface.01% 0.27% 0. substructure space. Ceiling and roof assembly.48% 0. Performance. Printing or photographic room.34% 77 .11% 1. Personal service area. concealed wall space.68% 1.04% 0. area.15% 0. area. Trash or rubbish area. stage area. STRUCTURAL AREAS Crawl space. STORAGE AREAS Product storage room or area. area. Function Areas not classified above. area.20% 0. Electronic equipment room.02% 3.09% 0. Switchgear area. SERVICE FACILITIES Elevator.93% 1.10% 0.40% 0.05% 0. area.62% 0. Service Facilities not classified above. concealed floor/ceiling space. Chute.23% 2.82% 0.07% 0. Process. area. container. treatment room. vault. 1029 901 83 115 80 33 24 255 21 13 1605 192 1336 125 1188 49 465 4568 1398 902 106 101 23 54 497 36 149 137 129 1057 861 213 60 552 8 17 7 373 247 144 267 967 432 1426 714 1. Light shaft. area. Projection room. Duct. Garage.69% 0. manufacturing area. concealed roof/ceiling space.36% 2. Enclosure with enriched oxygen atmosphere. FUNCTION AREAS Laboratory.01% 0. Exterior balcony.63% 1. Maintenance shop.04% 0.51% 0. loading area. Ceiling and floor assembly.02% 0.22% 0. Conveyor.04% 0.87% 8.70% 0. Records storage room.81% 2.23% 0.93% 0. Equipment Areas not classified above.46% 0.03% 0. storage bin. storage tank.Laundry room. SERVICE. Test cell. Exterior wall surface. Incinerator room. Wall assembly. carport. Supply storage room or area.24% 1. Office. Closet. Storage Areas not classified above. Service. open porch.19% 0. Operating room. dumb-waiter. Shipping. vehicle storage area. EQUIPMENT AREAS Machinery room. Utility shaft.28% 0.26% 0. Chimney.

Flammable.46% 0.79% 0.16% 0. insufficient information available to classify further.37% 0. varnish.17% 0.49% 0. LP-City Gas (LP and air mix). use area. Operating.68% 9.09% 0. TRANSPORTATION. field.36% 0.19% 78 . Transportation. Class II combustible liquid.08% 0. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID Class IA flammable liquid. Polish. VEHICLE AREAS Passenger area of transportation equipment. Gas not classified above. fuel line area of transportation equipment.17% 0. Gasoline. open area.77% 13. CHEMICAL Fat. Gas. FLAMMABLE.50% 0. Applied paint. Specialty gas other than anesthetic. Flammable.46% 0. Adhesive.41% 1. Combustible Liquid not classified above.05% 0.17% 1. Area of Origin not applicable. Manufactured gas.21% Type of material ignited GAS Natural gas.00% 0. control area of transportation equipment.39% 0.18% 4. Wildland area. insufficient information available to classify further. load carrying area of transportation equipment. Lawn.19% 0.07% 0.33% 0.77% 1168 246 27 380 261 101 2. terrace. Class IC flammable liquid. OTHER AREA OF ORIGIN On or near railroad right of way. Fuel tank.27% 0. Multiple location. Trunk. 1 268 41 93 196 2 90 36 67 142 209 94 2375 85 291 92 591 203 411 0. Combustible metal. Class IB flammable liquid. VOLATILE SOLID. grease (food).17% 0.49% 0.90% 0. resin.18% 2. On or near highway.71% 0.16% 0. Combustible Liquid. street.13% 0.55% 0. embankment. Court.08% 6. LP-gas.56% 2. Other/Unknown 91 300 1485 412 7005 190 176 433 260 96 1088 364 4842 477 217 585 1109 3307 0.38% 0. Class IIIB combustible liquid. Structural Areas not classified above. patio. Class IIIA combustible liquid. Other Area of Origin not classified above.10% 2. Grease (nonfood). Anesthetic gas.81% 0. running gear. wheel area of transportation equipment. Vehicle Areas not classified above. Acetylene. woods.04% 0. Engine area.Awning. tar.11% 0. public way. Exterior exposed surface of transportation equipment.

finished goods.49% 2. Grass.Solid chemical (specify type). Radioactive material.69% 0.62% 0. Textile. finished goods.55% 3.75% 1. Coal. Wool. Paper. Polyvinyl.55% 0. insufficient information available to classify further.64% 2.26% 0.53% 1. leaves. Paper not classified above. Fur not classified above. Tobacco. silk. insufficient information available to classify further.07% 0. Plastic. straw. briquettes. peat. Wood shavings.04% 0. Oil cloth.51% 3.83% 1. Polystyrene. Polyolefin. Grain.20% 0.01% 0. Natural Product. Wig.41% 0. Polyacrylic. hay. Fur. fiber. Oily rags.18% 2.92% 4.68% 0. insufficient information available to classify further. rayon. Cotton.11% 0.28% 3.40% 0.57% 7. Polyester. Natural Product not classified above.16% 0.93% 0.23% 0.09% 0. coke. Fiberboard (low density material).55% 0. natural fiber (pre-process). Fur. Treated and/or coated paper.20% 79 . 41 3 50 26 0. Human hair.05% 329 150 1703 80 120 85 1555 2424 1631 11 23 3595 295 84 496 163 381 140 293 304 4125 977 743 303 3455 1345 873 1159 1335 1794 61 20 39 11 219 368 21 4 701 364 104 0.37% 0. Sawn wood.04% 0. Wood. finished goods. Food.31% 0. Felled but unsawn wood.32% 0.01% 1. NATURAL PRODUCT Rubber. Waterproof canvas. wool mixture fabric. insufficient information available to classify further PLASTIC Polyurethane. plywood. insufficient information available to classify further.75% 0. wood pulp. Wood. PAPER Growing wood.02% 0. TEXTILE. Chemical not classified above. Cork. Chemical. Leather.02% 0.15% 0.57% 6. Cardboard. untreated. Volatile Solid.16% 2. Hardboard. finished goods. MATERIAL COMPOUNDED WITH OIL Linoleum.08% 0. Fabric. FABRIC.06% 0. Fabric. WOOD. starch.04% 6. cotton fabric. Volatile Solid. Textile. other fabric. Paper.72% 0. uncoated. FUR Man-made fabric. Plastic not classified above.

Not classified above Undetermined or not reported Structural Damage with Sprinklers Only None/not reported Minimal Heavy Extreme Structural Damage with Sprinklers and Smoke Detection None/not reported Minimal Heavy Extreme 187 160 92 0. Unprotected noncombustible or limited combustible not qualifying for 3.10% Area of origin MEANS OF EGRESS Hallway.01% 48.01% 13724 25.60% 0.50% 3300 6.27% 4997 9. Unprotected ordinary. Protected Wood Frame Unprotected wood frame not qualifying for 7.20% 4960 9. Material Compounded with Oil.47% 22026 21250 50.57% 15.14% 4.54% 3.08% 8. Heavy timber.90% 49.35% 0.30% 6. Protected noncombustible or limited combustible. not qualifying 5. corridor. Type of Material undetermined or not reported Construction Type Fire resistive.32% NFIRs Data 1997 Fires in Commercial buildings Had detectors Did not have any type of detector present Structural Damage (as described in the FEMA NFIR's Manual) None/not reported Minimal Heavy Extreme 5 20806 3752 13188 0.40% 1.71% 6.17% 1866 2433 8468 3. mall.85% 6.50% 4.04% total 25329 3 0. Material Compounded with Oil not classified above. Type of Material not classified above. insufficient information available to classify further.Asphalt treated material.97% 80 .90% 2877 606 2509 3224 3202 3482 1756 3512 452 3214 5. OTHER TYPE OF MATERIAL Multiple types of material first ignited.01% 13577 25. 418 0.06% 6.01% 6.30% 0. Protected ordinary.38% total 25060 3 0.67% 30.78% 3340 6.

37% 0. Library.42% 2. Closet.62% 0. Lounge area. entrance way. Shipping.15% 0. Assembly. showroom area. Supply storage room or area. Swimming pool. 67 64 7 270 97 41 101 158 263 491 5 17 42 794 22 191 2065 735 915 700 77 115 54 38 14 216 19 5 1404 181 1063 98 903 46 395 3527 1059 703 104 104 14 40 438 28 143 0. area. area. Dining area.12% 0. Trash or rubbish area.09% 0.62% 0. Large open room without fixed seats (100 or more persons). vehicle storage area. cloakroom.01% 0. SALES AREAS (groups of people) Large assembly area with fixed seats (100 or more persons). Chimney. Small assembly area with or without fixed seats (less than 100 persons).11% 0.04% 0. locker room. First aid.62% 0. FUNCTION AREAS Sleeping room for under 5 persons. Printing or photographic room.01% 3.83% 0. Duct. STORAGE AREAS Product storage room or area.09% 0.10% 1. Garage.11% 1.24% 0. Operating room. Storage Areas not classified above. Escalator. Performance.50% 0.45% 1. SERVICE FACILITIES Elevator. manufacturing area.02% 0. cafeteria. Lobby. Lavatory.04% 0. Process. Office.15% 2.70% 2.23% 0. Kitchen. Laundry room.22% 0. Sales. Means of Egress not classified above. container.23% 2. Function Areas not classified above.Exterior stairway. lunchroom. Display window.09% 0. vault. Electronic equipment room. Utility shaft. carport.03% 0. Projection room. Sleeping area for 5 or more persons. dumb-waiter.06% 0.13% 0.33% 81 . area. loading area. treatment room. Records storage room.18% 0.15% 0.27% 0. Light shaft. Interior stairway. stage area.24% 0. Sales Areas not classified above. area.09% 1.01% 0. ASSEMBLY.44% 4.46% 0. Personal service area. FUNCTION AREAS Laboratory. cooking area. storage bin.24% 0.77% 1.03% 0. storage tank.61% 1. receiving.91% 8. Chute.05% 0.

Switchgear area. area. Multiple location.92% 0. Anesthetic gas. Lawn. Manufactured gas. concealed floor/ceiling space.43% 0. Equipment Areas not classified above. open porch. area. public way. transformer vault. Service Facilities not classified above. Enclosure with pressurized air.59% 1. Heating equipment room or area. 238 28 110 140 5 60 0. Engine area.Conveyor.82% 13. open area.42% 0. embankment. Vehicle Areas not classified above. Awning.37% 0.06% 0. Other Area of Origin not classified above. On or near highway.84% 2. Exterior balcony.00% 0. Court.31% 0. concealed wall space.32% 0. water heater area. SERVICE.73% 0.02% 2. field.55% 0. Test cell. Enclosure with enriched oxygen atmosphere. Maintenance shop. wheel area of transportation equipment. Structural Areas not classified above. load carrying area of transportation equipment.63% 5.53% 0. Other/Unknown 137 126 1019 677 204 61 449 15 20 2 317 185 106 255 772 364 1121 569 97 290 1264 353 5914 162 183 398 229 81 866 326 3348 294 147 442 1140 2347 0. Wall assembly. Area of Origin not applicable.68% 0. Incinerator room.78% 0.56% 0.35% 1. terrace.03% 0.04% 0.14% 82 . TRANSPORTATION.67% 0.22% 0.32% 0.19% 2.42% Type of material ignited GAS Natural gas. Transportation. LP-gas.34% 1. Service. EQUIPMENT AREAS Machinery room. Trunk. STRUCTURAL AREAS Crawl space. area.05% 0. Exterior roof surface. Wildland area. concealed roof/ceiling space.00% 0. Fuel tank. VEHICLE AREAS Passenger area of transportation equipment. Ceiling and floor assembly.29% 2. control area of transportation equipment. running gear. street. Operating.14% 1.01% 0. OTHER AREA OF ORIGIN On or near railroad right of way. Exterior wall surface. use area.75% 7.24% 0.25% 0. Acetylene.74% 0. Ceiling and roof assembly.47% 0. LP-City Gas (LP and air mix). fuel line area of transportation equipment.59% 1. Exterior exposed surface of transportation equipment.67% 2. patio. woods. substructure space.92% 0.

73% 5. Volatile Solid.31% 3. Cork. tar.28% 0. Class IIIA combustible liquid. NATURAL PRODUCT Rubber. Volatile Solid. Polyacrylic. insufficient information available to classify further.24% 0.15% 0. Felled but unsawn wood. Applied paint.40% 0. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID Class IA flammable liquid. Adhesive. Polystyrene. Tobacco.09% 0. Grease (nonfood).58% 0. briquettes.88% 1076 201 23 322 220 159 47 1 44 33 340 168 1518 69 102 68 1182 2299 1328 7 20 2336 269 63 449 146 218 105 250 181 3200 964 614 2.34% 0. Plastic not classified above.22% 4. Gasoline. Sawn wood.42% 83 . Class IC flammable liquid.23% 1. Class IB flammable liquid.33% 0. Chemical. Flammable.04% 0. Grass.39% 3. Chemical not classified above.39% 2.13% 1.04% 0. Grain. Radioactive material. WOOD. CHEMICAL Fat.62% 0. Leather.51% 0. VOLATILE SOLID. Coal. plywood.46% 0. hay. starch. Polyolefin. insufficient information available to classify further.05% 5. Class II combustible liquid.42% 7. resin. grease (food). peat. Gas not classified above. Gas.07% 0. leaves.37% 0. 18 64 144 149 97 1854 62 246 56 471 214 379 0.08% 0. Combustible Liquid not classified above. Food.00% 0.14% 0.24% 0. PAPER Growing wood. coke.74% 0. Natural Product not classified above.50% 0. Combustible metal. insufficient information available to classify further. Natural Product. Class IIIB combustible liquid. insufficient information available to classify further. FLAMMABLE. Polyester.15% 1.16% 0. straw.49% 0.49% 0.79% 0. Polish. Polyvinyl. Combustible Liquid. Plastic. varnish.02% 0.51% 0.57% 0. Wood shavings. Solid chemical (specify type).05% 0.16% 2. Flammable.34% 0.Specialty gas other than anesthetic.10% 0.11% 0. Hardboard. insufficient information available to classify further PLASTIC Polyurethane. natural fiber (pre-process).

Oily rags. Protected noncombustible or limited combustible.45% 0. Textile. Unprotected noncombustible or limited combustible not qualifying for 3.37% 0. wool mixture fabric.26% 0. Material Compounded with Oil not classified above. wood pulp. finished goods. insufficient information available to classify further. other fabric.73% Structural Damage with Sprinklers and Smoke Detection None/not reported 0. Paper.80% 2. rayon. FUR Man-made fabric. Material Compounded with Oil. insufficient information available to classify further. Human hair.15% 1.05% 2.98% 5. Wig. Cardboard. finished goods.01% 26. Protected Wood Frame Unprotected wood frame not qualifying for 7. Not classified above Undetermined or not reported 264 3049 1177 781 977 1116 1493 33 15 13 7 170 306 8 10 31 16 113 162 138 97 0.26% 2. OTHER TYPE OF MATERIAL Multiple types of material first ignited. Unprotected ordinary.02% 0.32% 0. Protected ordinary. Asphalt treated material. Wool.90% 4. Fur not classified above.03% 0.88% 6.72% 1.70% 6. cotton fabric.07% 0.65% 6. Oil cloth. FABRIC. not qualifying 5.18% 5. uncoated. finished goods.41% 6.02% 0. MATERIAL COMPOUNDED WITH OIL Linoleum. Textile.61% 7. Type of Material undetermined or not reported Construction Type Fire resistive.64% 2661 512 2414 2876 2776 3016 1680 2932 424 2502 total 22181 5 11555 2956 4644 total 21917 5 6. insufficient information available to classify further.71% 0.04% 0.58% 6. TEXTILE. Heavy timber. Type of Material not classified above.02% 0. Paper not classified above. fiber. Fabric.97% 3. Waterproof canvas. Fabric. finished goods.01% 84 .83% 10. Cotton. Fur.78% Structural Damage with Sprinklers only None/not reported Minimal Heavy Extreme 0.58% 3. silk.39% 0.Fiberboard (low density material).08% 0. Wood.03% 0.22% 1689 1968 6769 3. Treated and/or coated paper. Paper. Wood. Fur.78% 0. untreated.55% 15.

284065 0.378754 0. First aid.151051 0. storage tank.513211 0. Library.022545 0.096943 0. Swimming pool.033817 0. Electronic equipment room. manufacturing area.595184 0. number 2889 336 67 42 10 264 96 75 168 126 266 469 10 15 61 758 28 149 2174 698 826 679 74 103 67 43 15 228 10 7 1418 206 1002 114 864 percentage 6.022545 0.015781 3. Printing or photographic room.514023 0. Function Areas not classified above. Kitchen.530796 0.862206 1. Process. area. Office.063126 0.137524 1.464424 2.169086 0.708901 0. Lounge area. Sleeping area for 5 or more persons. Product storage room or area. Sales. Small assembly area with or without fixed seats (less than 100 persons). Large assembly area with fixed seats (100 or more persons).599693 1. Lavatory. Laundry room.757507 0. storage bin.166832 0. stage area. Dining area. corridor.196862 0.802507 27. Large open room without fixed seats (100 or more persons). Projection room.257011 1.84967 4. cloakroom.057354 0.Minimal Heavy Extreme 11419 2896 4607 26. Closet. Personal service area.033817 0. Lobby. area. Escalator. Sales Areas not classified above.022545 0.69% 10. Laboratory.74416 9. cafeteria.232212 0. Assembly. entrance way. mall.335918 4.65% NFIRs Data 1998 Structure Damage Minimal Signifigant Heavy unknown number 25613 4348 12353 2042 percentage 57. Operating room. Supply storage room or area. Interior stairway.573632 1.216431 0. showroom area. area. Sleeping room for under 5 persons.39% 6. lunchroom. treatment room. Exterior stairway. cooking area.901253 1. Means of Egress not classified above. Performance. area. locker room.151051 0.947876 85 .603661 Area of origin origin MEANS OF EGRESS Hallway.094688 0.258995 0.

517269 0. Wall assembly. Exterior wall surface. Chimney.329155 0. Passenger area of transportation equipment. Awning. Switchgear area. wheel area of transportation equipment. Vehicle Areas not classified above. vault. use area. Area of Origin not applicable. woods.477951 1. Other Area of Origin not classified above.513752 1. Enclosure with enriched oxygen atmosphere. Court. Equipment Areas not classified above. loading area. Exterior balcony. Transportation. concealed roof/ceiling space.26152 0. Multiple location. open porch.105961 0.027054 0. Service Facilities not classified above.976193 0.892777 8.229687 0. Storage Areas not classified above.622238 2. Service.083416 0.149968 0.031563 0. container.27216 0. Exterior roof surface. Machinery room. area.915321 0. area. area. Ceiling and floor assembly. receiving. Wildland area.374245 1.980702 86 . Display window. Lawn.26152 0. water heater area. transformer vault.20615 2. Engine area. substructure space.157814 2. fuel line area of transportation equipment. control area of transportation equipment. Heating equipment room or area.182613 0. Trash or rubbish area. open area. dumb-waiter.82938 0. Structural Areas not classified above. On or near highway.301831 1. load carrying area of transportation equipment. Crawl space.374245 0.166832 0.202904 0.128506 0. On or near railroad right of way.390026 0. Enclosure with pressurized air.816124 0.Records storage room. Chute. Fuel tank. Garage. patio.051853 0. street. Utility shaft. public way. running gear. terrace. Operating.311119 2. Test cell.488953 0.42709 0. Conveyor.829651 2.048336 0. Light shaft. Elevator.315628 0.139778 1.666065 0. Shipping. embankment.369465 1. carport.009018 0. concealed floor/ceiling space. Incinerator room.801515 2. Exterior exposed surface of transportation equipment.756245 0.865723 13. Area of Origin undetermined or not reported. vehicle storage area. Maintenance shop. Ceiling and roof assembly. 47 396 3904 1051 779 81 90 12 57 433 37 116 140 138 1021 673 241 62 465 14 23 4 337 173 116 212 739 368 1115 633 74 276 1255 384 5887 146 166 362 268 70 989 384 3615 406 166 535 1104 435 0.759762 0. field. concealed wall space.604202 0.543331 0. Trunk. Duct.865723 8.

124989 0.184868 0.514023 0.Material Ignited Type of Material undetermined or not reported Gas. starch. Polyurethane.568131 0.41708 0. leaves.009018 0. Grease (nonfood).381459 0. tar. Class IIIA combustible liquid.521237 0. insufficient information available to classify further. Rubber. Chemical. Polystyrene. Cork.541077 0. peat. Plastic.689873 87 .65831 0.444134 0.732708 0.087925 5.082153 0. Leather. Class IB flammable liquid. Radioactive material. Grain.033817 5. Chemical not classified above.322392 0.029308 0. Natural Product. resin. Food. Plastic not classified above. insufficient information available to classify further.133015 1.308865 0. Combustible metal.254757 2. Class IA flammable liquid. Adhesive. LP-gas. insufficient information available to classify further Fat.137524 0.211922 1. Solid chemical (specify type).856434 0.917305 0. Grass. natural fiber (pre-process).036072 0.151051 0. Combustible Liquid. Tobacco. insufficient information available to classify further. Class II combustible liquid.229958 0. Manufactured gas. Polyacrylic.117233 0. Natural gas.060871 2.883759 0.004509 0. Specialty gas other than anesthetic. Polyester. Polish.137524 2. grease (food). Flammable.313374 0.464424 0.838398 0. Natural Product not classified above. Class IC flammable liquid.367211 0.6584 0. number 7389 143 252 29 82 137 4 67 24 61 392 197 77 1799 61 228 59 480 185 27 1050 206 16 325 216 139 41 2 39 2387 292 145 1267 52 102 61 1259 113 1294 13 15 2449 240 94 499 125 306 percentage 16.055821 0. hay. Class IIIB combustible liquid. varnish. coke.486969 0. Volatile Solid. Acetylene.06538 0. straw. Flammable. Anesthetic gas. Polyolefin. insufficient information available to classify further. Polyvinyl. Combustible Liquid not classified above. briquettes. Gas not classified above.173595 4. Applied paint.137524 0.326901 2. Coal.281811 0. Volatile Solid. LP-City Gas (LP and air mix).054108 0.092434 0. Gasoline.

054108 0. Textile. Fur. finished goods. other fabric.205158 0. Unknown 1163 259 214 2967 1129 654 305 2911 1156 764 306 1035 1414 24 18 13 9 155 116 10 11 262 10 91 181 139 1601 267 2732 2.022545 0. Sawn wood.441068 6.92479 1. Man-made fabric. Material Compounded with Oil not classified above. insufficient information available to classify further. Felled but unsawn wood.040581 0.022545 0. Fiberboard (low density material).609433 0.590675 0.474434 0. finished goods. Paper. Fabric. Oil cloth.84291 NFIRs Data 1999 Structure Damage Type of damage Minimal number 3058 percentage 31. Oily rags. Textile.206601 52.349445 0. Fabric.545315 1.48246 6. Wood shavings. Fur.333393 3. Fur not classified above. insufficient information available to classify further. fiber. Waterproof canvas. Hardboard. Human hair. Treated and/or coated paper.159257 Structure Type Type other structure type Enclosed building fixed portable or mobile structure open structure air supported structure tent open platform underground structure work areas connective structure Unknown/ Undetermined number 2848 2628 483 2322 2685 2857 2841 1500 2753 23439 percentage 6.408062 0.66% 88 .56281 2.722428 0.26152 0. Multiple types of material first ignited. Paper.687618 6.Wood.313374 3.187844 0. plywood.689061 2. Wood. Growing wood.621968 0.234917 6. untreated.029308 0.583912 0. Wig.689873 2. Paper not classified above.601948 6. wool mixture fabric.38173 6. uncoated. Material Compounded with Oil. rayon. silk. Cotton.088917 5.024799 0. cotton fabric. Cardboard. wood pulp. insufficient information available to classify further. finished goods. Type of Material not classified above.404996 3. finished goods.606186 1.02029 0.420777 5. Wool. Asphalt treated material.053296 6. Linoleum.

03% 0.20% 0.07% 0. Kitchen.66% 0.13% 0.09% 0. ASSEMBLY. Swimming pool.44% 0. dumb-waiter.17% 0.21% 89 .97% 0.89% 10. area. Garage.04% 0. Library.34% number 182 57 59 39 3 88 33 9 13 4 15 604 20 1 1 183 973 51 60 1306 277 406 44 12 8 13 2 1 1 16 2 118 187 139 64 94 4 13 52 550 143 4 20 percentage 1.02% 1. area. Office. Lounge area.02% 0. Closet. vault. Process. Operating room.22% 1. locker room. 818 2080 3704 9660 8. Exterior stairway.54% 5. Lobby. showroom area. container.34% 0. Utility shaft.16% 6. vehicle storage area.Significant Heavy Unknown Total Area of origin MEANS OF EGRESS Hallway. loading area.08% 0.04% 0.94% 1. Dining area.46% 0.88% 0. Printing or photographic room. cafeteria. mall. Personal service area. Records storage room.47% 21. Escalator. Trash or rubbish area.13% 0.21% 0. First aid. area. lunchroom.87% 4. receiving.52% 2. Lavatory. manufacturing area. Sleeping area for 5 or more persons. Shipping.53% 0.01% 0. FUNCTION AREAS Laboratory. cloakroom. Small assembly area with or without fixed seats (less than 100 persons).62% 13.01% 0. FUNCTION AREAS Sleeping room for under 5 persons.25% 0. STORAGE AREAS Product storage room or area.69% 1. carport. stage area. treatment room. Large open room without fixed seats (100 or more persons). Means of Egress not classified above. entrance way.01% 0.53% 38.13% 0. Electronic equipment room. Laundry room. SALES AREAS (groups of people) Large assembly area with fixed seats (100 or more persons). storage tank.40% 0. SERVICE FACILITIES Elevator. cooking area. corridor.01% 1.91% 0. Performance. Interior stairway.59% 0.48% 0. Sales.61% 0. Supply storage room or area. storage bin.12% 0.04% 0.

Awning. Flammable.07% 0. Exterior wall surface. fuel line area of transportation equipment. substructure space. OTHER AREA OF ORIGIN On or near highway. insufficient information available to classify further.37% 0.35% 2.70% 0. Natural gas. Class IB flammable liquid. Multiple location. concealed floor/ceiling space. area.46% 0.09% 0. terrace. Court. Chimney.07% 0. Maintenance shop.06% 0. Chute.82% number 258 36 93 44 1 4 2 60 9 14 118 percentage 2. field.69% 0. Switchgear area. concealed wall space. water heater area. area. TRANSPORTATION. Exterior exposed surface of transportation equipment. Heating equipment room or area.65% 1. Enclosure with pressurized air. Conveyor. EQUIPMENT AREAS Machinery room. open area.10% 0. Exterior roof surface. Duct. wheel area of transportation equipment. public way. running gear.04% 0. Exterior balcony.65% 0. Ceiling and floor assembly.Light shaft.11% 0.67% 0.39% 1. street. SERVICE. Engine area.02% 0.31% 0.03% 0. Wall assembly.96% 5.09% 0.01% 0. woods. transformer vault.57% 0. Ceiling and roof assembly.01% 0. STRUCTURAL AREAS Crawl space. area.62% 0. Manufactured gas.49% 1.75% 0.78% 3. LP-City Gas (LP and air mix).07% 1.00% 2.65% 0. Anesthetic gas. Area of Origin not applicable.14% 1.14% 0. Fuel tank. Class IA flammable liquid. concealed roof/ceiling space.32% 0.01% 1.22% 0. LP-gas.22% 90 . Wildland area. Lawn.74% 3. use area.08% 0. Display window. patio. open porch. Incinerator room.01% 0. Unknown area of orgin Material ignited Type of Material undetermined or not reported Gas.02% 0. 2 7 55 1 31 6 47 97 201 14 3 64 1 1 172 297 159 168 324 286 521 159 9 14 21 30 7 11 68 10 63 67 3 72 33 755 0.34% 7. insufficient information available to classify further.66% 0. Test cell.96% 0.03% 0. VEHICLE AREAS Passenger area of transportation equipment.14% 0. Combustible Liquid. Gasoline.

30% 0. Cork.03% 0.71% 1.34% 0. Grass.07% 0.04% 5. Natural Product. fiber. other fabric. Paper. Grease (nonfood).16% NFIRs Data 2000 91 . hay.37% 0. natural fiber (pre-process).27% 1. Human hair. Oil cloth. Material Compounded with Oil. Cardboard.05% 3.30% 0.75% 0. Coal. leaves. Adhesive. untreated.12% 0. plywood.08% 0. Fur. Tobacco. Polyurethane. Class IIIA combustible liquid. briquettes. wood pulp. straw.22% 0. insufficient information available to classify further.02% 0.Class IC flammable liquid. resin. Volatile Solid.01% 0.06% 0. Applied paint. Wood shavings. silk. Solid chemical (specify type). peat. Food. Rubber.07% 0.05% 2.23% 0.48% 0.22% 0. uncoated. coke. Class IIIB combustible liquid.11% 1. Hardboard. Combustible metal. Sawn wood. Man-made fabric.07% 0. Paper.09% 0. finished goods. Leather. starch.27% 0. Chemical. Felled but unsawn wood. insufficient information available to classify further Fat. insufficient information available to classify further.27% 9404 169 36 29 7 15 97.16% 0.21% 2.20% 11. Asphalt treated material.12% 1.86% 1. Polish.45% 0. insufficient information available to classify further. Fiberboard (low density material). Class II combustible liquid. Structure Type enclosed building open structures tent open platforms/wharves Underground structure work areas connective structures 9 28 12 112 11 143 8 21 21 29 12 4 569 209 27 1 2 61 7 7 78 20 226 43 19 1146 165 164 5 316 101 272 892 6 2 26 3 27 1378 0. varnish.29% 0.35% 1. Fur.16% 0. insufficient information available to classify further. Grain. Fabric. Textile.28% 14. finished goods. tar.63% 0.70% 0.89% 2. Growing wood.02% 0.28% 0. grease (food).82% 9.81% 0. Type of Material not classified above. Wood.

09% 0. area.35% 0. loading area.Structure Damage Type of damage Minimal Significant Heavy Unknown number 6955 1974 4765 8021 percentage 32. Operating room. entrance way. corridor. Library.07% 0. cafeteria. area.56% 3. stage area. Large open room without fixed seats (100 or more persons).00% 0. Lobby. Interior stairway.01% 0.95% 0.94% Area of origin MEANS OF EGRESS Hallway.01% 0. Small assembly area with or without fixed seats (less than 100 persons).16% 0.01% 0. manufacturing area. Sleeping area for 5 or more persons. Projection room. Lounge area.01% 0. Printing or photographic room. SALES AREAS (groups of people) Large assembly area with fixed seats (100 or more persons).03% 3. Exterior stairway. FUNCTION AREAS Sleeping room for under 5 persons.52% 0. Closet. FUNCTION AREAS Laboratory.96% 0. Swimming pool.73% 0.11% 0.36% 1. storage tank.08% 0.09% 21.19% 5. Dining area. receiving.00% 0.02% 0.04% 0.79% 2. Records storage room. showroom area.23% 92 . STORAGE AREAS Product storage room or area.06% 0. Process. locker room. Kitchen. Laundry room. storage bin. Lavatory.38% 0. First aid.48% 0. Performance.10% 0.08% 0. number 376 113 97 77 1 206 100 16 14 19 42 1295 58 4 6 690 2104 104 69 3161 707 904 132 17 17 23 2 2 2 22 3 1 172 513 299 215 326 9 49 percentage 1.61% 0.45% 0.94% 36. Escalator. Office.27% 0.26% 4.69% 0. area. lunchroom. Means of Egress not classified above. Sales. Electronic equipment room. Supply storage room or area. Personal service area. cooking area. treatment room.18% 9. cloakroom.46% 0. area.50% 0.32% 14. mall.99% 1. ASSEMBLY.03% 9. Shipping. vault.

Chute. LP-City Gas (LP and air mix). Exterior roof surface. area.06% 0. street. SERVICE FACILITIES Elevator.63% 0.73% 0.02% 0. Heating equipment room or area. On or near highway. Fuel tank. Garage.97% 4.32% 1. Utility shaft. substructure space.31% 0.09% 0. concealed wall space. wheel area of transportation equipment. Multiple location. fuel line area of transportation equipment.02% 0. VEHICLE AREAS Passenger area of transportation equipment. terrace. Awning.10% 2.43% 0.43% 2. Trunk. dumb-waiter. vehicle storage area. open porch. running gear.16% 0.18% 1. area. Light shaft. Exterior exposed surface of transportation equipment.29% 0.Trash or rubbish area.15% 0.02% 0. public way. SERVICE.35% 1.03% 0. Area of Origin not applicable. STRUCTURAL AREAS Crawl space. embankment. field.24% 0. Wildland area.68% 0. load carrying area of transportation equipment. Natural gas. carport. Display window. transformer vault. Unknown area of origin Material Ignited Unknown Gas.61% 2.01% 0.10% 0. use area.05% 0.26% 0.57% number 21131 94 158 93 percent 97.57% 0. Ceiling and roof assembly. Test cell. insufficient information available to classify further. 69 1054 87 8 64 4 11 126 4 113 7 136 132 470 32 4 113 2 1 456 504 294 379 744 645 986 342 22 33 21 3 56 13 40 269 5 11 147 145 19 21 166 1860 0. Incinerator room. concealed floor/ceiling space. Maintenance shop.02% 0.85% 0. open area. container.43% 93 . Engine area. Wall assembly.10% 0. patio.75% 3.52% 0.00% 2. Switchgear area. Chimney. Lawn.15% 0. Enclosure with pressurized air. EQUIPMENT AREAS Machinery room.67% 0. area. Ceiling and floor assembly. Exterior balcony. Exterior wall surface. OTHER AREA OF ORIGIN On or near railroad right of way.01% 0. TRANSPORTATION. Court.54% 1.32% 4. concealed roof/ceiling space.10% 0.76% 8.40% 0.04% 0. woods.05% 0. Conveyor. Duct.52% 0.58% 0. water heater area.

26% 0.26% 0.05% 6.91% 0.29% 2.11% 0. Grass. Polish. Class IIIA combustible liquid. Wood shavings.01% 0. Volatile Solid.76% 1.96% 0. insufficient information available to classify further. Oil cloth. Class IB flammable liquid.01% 0. Human hair. wood pulp. Paper. straw. Grain. Type of Material not classified above. Asphalt treated material.78% 2.05% 0. peat.10% 0. other fabric. Applied paint. Chemical. Gasoline. Fabric. Linoleum. Man-made fabric. finished goods. Cardboard.10% 0. varnish. Flammable. uncoated.01% 0. Wood. resin. Tobacco.80% 0. Solid chemical (specify type). Rubber. Felled but unsawn wood. Material Compounded with Oil. leaves.08% 2.02% 0. Combustible metal. Coal. Sawn wood. plywood. insufficient information available to classify further Fat. natural fiber (pre-process).71% 0. starch.03% 0. Class II combustible liquid. Grease (nonfood).09% 2. silk. 1 12 3 154 21 5 273 24 66 8 353 20 414 5 50 57 34 22 10 1353 369 78 2 6 170 24 5 208 19 609 101 48 2846 387 529 17 600 217 389 2332 10 2 7 57 19 4 62 490 0.06% 0.09% 0. untreated.74% 0.02% 1. Natural Product. insufficient information available to classify further. insufficient information available to classify further.09% 1.79% 10.26% 0. insufficient information available to classify further. Polyurethane.11% 0.47% 0. coke. Cork. Combustible Liquid.26% 94 . Leather. Class IC flammable liquid. Class IA flammable liquid. fiber. Adhesive.16% 0. Fur. Textile.23% 1. hay. Paper.00% 1.30% 0. insufficient information available to classify further. Food.02% 0. grease (food).70% 0.23% 0. LP-gas.02% 0. Wig. Anesthetic gas.Manufactured gas.04% 1.11% 1. tar. Fur.00% 0.03% 0.22% 13.63% 0. Fiberboard (low density material).44% 0. Growing wood. Hardboard.78% 0. Class IIIB combustible liquid. finished goods. briquettes.36% 0.

66 0.28 15. corridor. Large open room without fixed seats (100 or more persons).87% 2.60 3.Structure type Enclosed building open structure tent open platform underground structure work areas connective structure 21035 504 24 44 10 98 96.06 0.40 0.34 0. First aid.32% 0.07 0.07 0. SALES AREAS (groups of people) Large assembly area with fixed seats (100 or more persons). number 5495 226 258 255 7 460 296 79 41 47 126 3001 193 7 11 1922 5442 149 162 8870 1709 2349 373 39 41 29 11 3 32 8 percentage 9. area.02 0.23 95 . mall. Means of Egress not classified above. FUNCTION AREAS Laboratory.26 0. Library.01 0.45% NFIRs Data 2001 Structure Damage damage type Minimum Significant Heavy Unknown/not reported Area of origin Unknown Hallway. Personal service area. entrance way.45 0. Lobby.52 0.57 25. Sales.01 4. Escalator. Assembly.66 0. Office. Exterior stairway.13 0.45 0. Sleeping area for 5 or more persons.87 34. area.01 0. cafeteria.02 3.05% 0. showroom area.08 0. Electronic equipment room.05 0.20% 0.01 number 17252 5441 14712 19464 percentage 30. Swimming pool. Laundry room. cooking area.34 9.81 0. FUNCTION AREAS Sleeping room for under 5 persons. Printing or photographic room.11% 0. area. Sales Areas not classified above. Lavatory. ASSEMBLY.22 5.01 0.07 0. lunchroom. Dining area. Lounge area.14 0. cloakroom. treatment room. Interior stairway. Kitchen. locker room.28 0.57 0. Small assembly area with or without fixed seats (less than 100 persons).38 9.

Heating equipment room or area. Ceiling and roof assembly. open porch. Garage.01 1. storage tank.92 0. On or near highway. Trunk. concealed roof/ceiling space. area. storage bin. Conveyor. EQUIPMENT AREAS Machinery room.21 0.91 0. Lawn. TRANSPORTATION. field. Test cell. embankment.71 0.64 0.01 0. Process. terrace.04 0. public way.38 0. area. wheel area of transportation equipment. dumb-waiter. Maintenance shop. Ceiling and floor assembly.05 0. receiving. Enclosure with pressurized air. Exterior roof surface.58 3.35 0. VEHICLE AREAS Passenger area of transportation equipment.40 3.Performance.08 0.42 1. container. Duct. Exterior wall surface. Supply storage room or area. transformer vault.01 0.14 0. area. SERVICE.43 4. substructure space. Closet.58 0. STORAGE AREAS Product storage room or area. open area.01 0. OTHER AREA OF ORIGIN On or near railroad right of way.03 0.43 0. Wall assembly. patio. vehicle storage area. Wildland area.82 0. Awning. loading area.70 0. street. Chute.14 0. Shipping.48 1. Exterior balcony. Projection room.26 0. Incinerator room.06 0. vault.12 96 . Court.07 0. Engine area. woods.68 2. running gear. Exterior exposed surface of transportation equipment.75 0.19 4.93 2.04 0.17 1.00 0.33 1. concealed floor/ceiling space. Display window. Switchgear area. Records storage room. Utility shaft. STRUCTURAL AREAS Crawl space. area. Light shaft.23 0. carport.27 1.03 0. Operating. fuel line area of transportation equipment.02 1. Chimney. Trash or rubbish area.07 0.55 1. SERVICE FACILITIES Elevator. water heater area.24 1. load carrying area of transportation equipment.72 0. manufacturing area.29 0.43 0. Fuel tank. concealed wall space.01 0. control area of transportation equipment. 2 386 1273 666 574 782 34 79 246 2701 198 23 163 6 44 362 7 401 37 465 271 1090 130 16 327 5 10 1099 1326 880 798 2034 1814 2513 964 63 118 77 26 242 22 4 152 811 19 147 412 517 38 68 0. stage area.11 0.

leaves. hay. peat. Paper. Wood shavings. Combustible Liquid. Fabric.81 0.23 0. uncoated. Polish.11 0. Volatile Solid.23 0. Flammable.07 2.44 1.75 1. Gasoline. Applied paint. Grass.09 2.01 0.06 1. grease (food). untreated. other fabric.73 0. tar. plywood. Textile. Solid chemical (specify type).29 0. Cork. Class IC flammable liquid. Polyurethane.03 6. Leather.30 0. Cardboard.26 0. coke. Type of Materials ignited Gas. Class II combustible liquid. Paper. Class IIIA combustible liquid. Natural Product. Fur.09 0.87 2.01 1.39 0.Multiple location.07 0.77 0. Wood.05 2. Class IIIB combustible liquid. Fur.49 0. use area.01 0. Combustible metal. natural fiber (pre-process).87 0. insufficient information available to classify further. starch. insufficient information available to classify further. LP-gas. varnish. Rubber. Fiberboard (low density material).81 0. silk.01 0.02 0. Food. Grease (nonfood). Anesthetic gas. insufficient information available to classify further.72 0. Chemical. LP-City Gas (LP and air mix).07 1. Grain. briquettes. Class IA flammable liquid. finished goods. straw.17 0. Growing wood. Tobacco. insufficient information available to classify further. Manufactured gas.18 0. insufficient information available to classify further Fat.08 0.01 0. resin.13 0. insufficient information available to classify further.24 12. Adhesive.05 0. finished goods. wood pulp. Area of Origin not applicable.91 1. Class IB flammable liquid.21 0. fiber. Hardboard.64 0. 496 289 0.37 0. Man-made fabric.51 number 220 366 238 3 38 5 461 31 7 666 51 148 26 1258 42 1063 8 131 129 102 47 15 3839 734 168 3 12 408 64 32 640 52 1578 280 135 7076 1061 1347 40 1554 517 1005 6147 28 percentage 0. Coal. Felled but unsawn wood. Natural gas.87 0.77 10.05 97 . Sawn wood.42 0.

Textile.53 55183 1202 29 172 32 251 97.235696 4. mall.487954 0. Means of Egress not classified above.516327 9. Escalator.06 0.398772 0.050961 0. Lounge area. Library. Exterior stairway. FUNCTION AREAS Sleeping room for under 5 persons.07 0.23 0. SALES AREAS (groups of people) Large assembly area with fixed seats (100 or more persons). Material Compounded with Oil.282835 0. Large open room without fixed seats (100 or more persons). Sales. Asphalt treated material.01 0.653336 98 .137595 0.02 0.630646 0.833675 0.30 0.01274 3. Swimming pool.425526 0.05 0. Type of Material not classified above. corridor.020385 0. ASSEMBLY.059879 0. Human hair. Structure Type Enclosed building open structure tent open platform underground structure work areas connective structure 1 8 89 130 37 12 202 1437 0.04 2.Wig. Lobby.00637 0.44 NFIRs Data 2002 Structure Damage damages Minimum significant heavy unknown number 25033 7501 15834 30123 percentage 31. number 334 383 313 5 623 495 108 40 47 185 3794 222 16 10 2760 7577 percentage 0.55651 20. showroom area.36 2. Interior stairway.00 0.16 0. Oil cloth. Fur not classified above.793722 0. entrance way. Small assembly area with or without fixed seats (less than 100 persons). Linoleum.17301 38.89283 9. insufficient information available to classify further. Fabric.37765 Area of origin Hallway.11 0.

066364 1.964442 0. area.040769 0. EQUIPMENT AREAS Machinery room. Electronic equipment room. locker room. Printing or photographic room. Closet. concealed floor/ceiling space.523627 0.173268 16.347811 0. Laundry room. Operating room. Chimney. Process.01274 0.101923 0.058605 0. dumb-waiter. vehicle storage area. concealed wall space. receiving. area. cooking area. area. Records storage room. Ceiling and floor assembly. Awning.057446 1.778433 2.32233 0.680333 0. 273 136 12627 2484 3238 534 69 80 55 16 10 7 60 6 4 611 1849 837 830 958 46 162 203 3570 263 19 253 11 68 569 19 141 35 757 413 1676 149 32 411 10 11 1751 1584 1325 1242 2914 2746 3330 1352 93 0.72249 0. FUNCTION AREAS Laboratory. loading area. Performance.712528 3. Lavatory.135277 0. Incinerator room.086634 0.582347 3. storage tank. Switchgear area. Shipping.024207 0.01274 0. carport.044591 0.118485 99 . SERVICE. vault. STORAGE AREAS Product storage room or area. Chute. Test cell.242525 1.070072 0. concealed roof/ceiling space. Maintenance shop.014014 2.724924 0.005096 0. Exterior wall surface.206393 0.355684 1. stage area. substructure space. Duct. lunchroom.179638 0.526175 2. Heating equipment room or area. Display window.08719 3. area. Dining area.33507 0. Trash or rubbish area. STRUCTURAL AREAS Crawl space. treatment room.49849 4.018066 1. Kitchen. Conveyor. container. First aid.230829 2.020385 0. Office. cafeteria. area. Exterior roof surface. Light shaft. manufacturing area.076442 0.164694 4. open porch.024207 0. Personal service area.008918 0.Sleeping area for 5 or more persons.189831 0.125314 0.220522 0. storage bin. area. water heater area. area. Wall assembly.688092 1. transformer vault. Enclosure with pressurized air.007644 0. Supply storage room or area. Ceiling and roof assembly. Garage.548292 0. Utility shaft. cloakroom. Projection room.258628 4.014014 0.087908 0. Exterior balcony. SERVICE FACILITIES Elevator.

Volatile Solid.080264 0. terrace.231874 0. starch.015288 0. Tobacco.00637 1.442089 0. Wildland area. Lawn.033125 0.003822 0. Polyurethane.337618 0. VEHICLE AREAS Passenger area of transportation equipment. On or near highway. Grass. natural fiber (pre-process).230714 0. Class IA flammable liquid. Adhesive. fuel line area of transportation equipment. load carrying area of transportation equipment. Class IIIA combustible liquid. Combustible Liquid.035673 0. grease (food). insufficient information available to classify further. leaves. Coal. OTHER AREA OF ORIGIN On or near railroad right of way. Grease (nonfood). Class II combustible liquid. briquettes. Polish. Solid chemical (specify type). tar.314686 1. Applied paint.228052 0.944172 0. field. Leather.615472 0. Court.413016 0. LP-City Gas (LP and air mix). patio.082812 100 .112115 0.886726 0. Rubber.07262 0. varnish. running gear. 179 63 23 192 38 3 247 1268 14 57 572 397 32 77 493 8085 0. coke. Grain. resin.016562 0. open area.728746 0. use area. Area of origin unknown Material Ignited Natural gas. peat.00637 0.TRANSPORTATION. Food. Area of Origin not applicable.178364 0. Manufactured gas.077831 0.039495 2. Class IB flammable liquid. LP-gas.0981 0.606439 0. public way.118485 0. Exterior exposed surface of transportation equipment. Multiple location.040769 0. insufficient information available to classify further Fat.00637 0. control area of transportation equipment.50579 0.750405 0.900154 1. woods. embankment. Class IIIB combustible liquid.270095 0.048413 0.244614 0. Anesthetic gas. Operating.053509 0.026755 6. Flammable.029303 0. Combustible metal. wheel area of transportation equipment.628097 10. Engine area. Chemical. Gasoline. Cork. Class IC flammable liquid. street.001274 0. Trunk. hay.07262 1. Fuel tank.333796 0.017836 0.271369 0. straw.30054 number 347 476 265 1 26 5 696 28 5 846 88 213 31 1894 57 1526 13 212 182 140 42 21 5416 966 262 5 12 589 93 65 percentage 0.

002548 0. Paper. insufficient information available to classify further.001274 0.Wood.075168 3.81903 Areas of origin MEANS OF EGRESS Hallway. Means of Egress not classified above. number 2266 522 496 636 20 911 799 percent 2.07262 0. Hardboard.6574 NFIRs Data 2003 Structure Damage damages Minimum Significant Heavy Uknown number 34774 10344 22455 44710 percentage 30.40015 1. other fabric.102037 0. Wood shavings. Unknown structure type type Enclosed building open structure tent open platform underground structure work areas connective structure 865 59 2413 385 196 9733 1535 2008 65 2022 700 1294 8461 47 2 1 143 152 2252 31636 1. Type of Material not classified above. finished goods.869119 40. finished goods. Sawn wood.017812 0. Man-made fabric. uncoated.648597 10.558255 0. Interior stairway.490502 0.891822 1.128906 0. Human hair. silk.24971 12. Asphalt treated material. Paper.30526 number 75964 1671 30 253 57 516 percentage 96. Fur not classified above.082812 2. Felled but unsawn wood. Cardboard.566426 0. entrance way. fiber. Fur.018115 0. Fiberboard (low density material).193653 2. insufficient information available to classify further. Exterior stairway.96996 9. wood pulp. Linoleum.32233 0.059879 0. Fabric. Textile.77958 0.464897 0.038221 0. Fabric. Growing wood.441741 0.576092 0. insufficient information available to classify further. mall. Lobby.955638 2.78052 2. Escalator. untreated.212436 19.074238 0.711595 101 . plywood. corridor.182186 0.99858 39. Fur.811343 0. Wig. Material Compounded with Oil. Textile.

area. carport. Performance.183465 0.172929 0.070358 0. Swimming pool. Garage. Records storage room. Kitchen.001781 0. area. Sales. FUNCTION AREAS Laboratory. container. Heating equipment room or area.078373 0. Laundry room.350008 0. cafeteria. Duct.999261 1. EQUIPMENT AREAS Machinery room.006234 102 . Library.228886 3.048983 0. Closet.868796 0.037557 0.000891 0. stage area. Dining area. Display window.960377 3.231558 4. Large open room without fixed seats (100 or more persons). Office.366039 0. Test cell. Small assembly area with or without fixed seats (less than 100 persons).14695 16.749891 0.623879 9. Incinerator room.097967 0. dumb-waiter. Sleeping area for 5 or more persons.074811 0. Trash or rubbish area. Printing or photographic room.247001 1. cooking area. Sleeping room for under 5 persons.047202 1. 161 79 88 260 5020 294 18 15 4069 10666 394 165 18200 3324 4344 771 95 112 84 20 10 2 75 27 752 2523 1150 1122 1317 55 206 257 4473 1 393 54 411 22 110 842 38 98 53 1165 495 2096 218 58 573 7 0. SERVICE. Chute.087279 0. locker room. Maintenance shop.013359 3.350899 0. Personal service area.866712 0. area. area.686658 0. Storage Areas not classified above.084608 0.143388 0. Process.048093 0. Utility shaft. Lavatory. Shipping. First aid.669736 2. transformer vault. Enclosure with pressurized air.499212 0. Electronic equipment room.017812 0.20904 2. receiving. loading area. Operating room.099748 0. Supply storage room or area.470846 0.983684 0. Chimney.ASSEMBLY. area.033843 0.510318 0. Light shaft. cloakroom. treatment room. showroom area.194152 0.016031 0. SALES AREAS (groups of people) Large assembly area with fixed seats (100 or more persons). manufacturing area. vault. Conveyor. STORAGE AREAS Product storage room or area. Lounge area. SERVICE FACILITIES Elevator. area.261838 0. vehicle storage area. storage tank.051655 0.44085 1. Switchgear area. water heater area.066796 0. lunchroom.024198 0.024046 0.019593 0. storage bin.008906 0.

064124 0. Class IB flammable liquid. Exterior roof surface. substructure space. Wildland area. Wall assembly.896102 1. terrace.490876 0. fuel line area of transportation equipment. Flammable. Grease (nonfood). Class IC flammable liquid.000891 0. woods. resin. Exterior exposed surface of transportation equipment.328046 0. TRANSPORTATION.170996 103 .605613 0.Enclosure with enriched oxygen atmosphere.035624 2. LP-gas. Chemical. STRUCTURAL AREAS Crawl space.034734 0. concealed floor/ceiling space.259167 0. wheel area of transportation equipment.207511 0.751824 0.151555 number 3884 467 646 383 1 60 9 912 39 13 1084 104 291 40 2614 89 1967 12 233 192 percentage 3. field. tar. concealed roof/ceiling space. Trunk.19148 0. Lawn. Engine area.514032 1. Operating. 20 1 2506 2129 1700 1875 3719 3539 4219 1674 156 238 72 30 215 59 3 302 1763 9 71 680 466 53 13059 1293 0. open porch.151857 3.000891 2. Awning. Ceiling and roof assembly. insufficient information available to classify further. insufficient information available to classify further Fat. LP-City Gas (LP and air mix). Polish. Combustible Liquid.138935 0. patio.010687 0. Class IIIA combustible liquid.053436 0. Manufactured gas. Fuel tank. Adhesive. street.011578 0. Class II combustible liquid.079264 1. Class IIIB combustible liquid. Exterior wall surface.312167 3. Area of Origin not applicable. open area. public way. OTHER AREA OF ORIGIN On or near railroad right of way.268963 1. embankment.002672 0.008015 0.57014 0. Unknown Material Ignited Type of Material undetermined or not reported Gas. Court.008015 0.459117 0. Class IA flammable liquid.231861 1. Natural gas. Volatile Solid. concealed wall space.063233 0.052546 0.415913 0. insufficient information available to classify further.026718 0.965418 0. VEHICLE AREAS Passenger area of transportation equipment. Anesthetic gas. Exterior balcony.415023 0.75747 1.63043 1.047202 11. Multiple location.341102 0.669888 3. control area of transportation equipment.017812 0. running gear.092623 0. use area. grease (food). Gasoline.211964 0. load carrying area of transportation equipment. On or near highway. Ceiling and floor assembly.575332 0.812233 0.

Applied paint, varnish. Combustible metal. Solid chemical (specify type). Polyurethane. Natural Product; insufficient information available to classify further. Rubber. Cork. Leather. Grass, leaves, hay, straw. Grain, natural fiber (pre-process). Coal, coke, briquettes, peat. Food, starch. Tobacco. Wood, Paper; insufficient information available to classify further. Growing wood. Felled but unsawn wood. Sawn wood. Wood shavings. Hardboard, plywood. Fiberboard (low density material), wood pulp. Paper, untreated, uncoated. Cardboard. Fabric, Textile, Fur; insufficient information available to classify further. Man-made fabric, fiber, finished goods. Fur, silk, other fabric, finished goods. Wig. Human hair. Fabric, Textile, Fur not classified above. Material Compounded with Oil; insufficient information available to classify further. Linoleum. Oil cloth. Asphalt treated material. Type of Material not classified above. Structure Type Enclosed building open structure tent open platform underground structure work areas connective structure

201 63 24 7130 1212 334 7 18 678 79 63 1249 77 3241 484 284 12594 2285 2655 68 2546 954 1702 11221 48 2 10 206 231 43 28 288 3194

0.179012 0.056108 0.021375 6.350026 1.079415 0.297463 0.006234 0.016031 0.603831 0.070358 0.056108 1.112368 0.068577 2.886457 0.431054 0.252932 11.2163 2.035036 2.364561 0.060561 2.267485 0.849639 1.515813 9.993499 0.042749 0.001781 0.008906 0.183465 0.20573 0.038296 0.024937 0.256495 2.844598

number 108679 2441 40 361 101 661

percentage 96.79025 2.173971 0.035624 0.321509 0.089951 0.588691

NFIRs Data 2004
Structure Damage damages Minimum significant number 40261 12215 percentage 30.85418 9.361014

104

heavy Unknown

26292 51720

20.14898 39.63583

Area of origin MEANS OF EGRESS Hallway, corridor, mall. Exterior stairway. Interior stairway. Escalator. Lobby, entrance way. Means of Egress not classified above. ASSEMBLY, SALES AREAS (groups of people) Large assembly area with fixed seats (100 or more persons). Large open room without fixed seats (100 or more persons). Small assembly area with or without fixed seats (less than 100 persons). Lounge area. Sales, showroom area. Library. Swimming pool. FUNCTION AREAS Sleeping room for under 5 persons. Sleeping area for 5 or more persons. Dining area, lunchroom, cafeteria. Kitchen, cooking area. Lavatory, locker room, cloakroom. Laundry room, area. Office. Personal service area. FUNCTION AREAS Laboratory. Printing or photographic room, area. First aid, treatment room. Operating room. Electronic equipment room, area. Performance, stage area. Projection room, area. Process, manufacturing area. STORAGE AREAS Product storage room or area, storage tank, storage bin. Closet. Supply storage room or area. Records storage room, vault. Shipping, receiving, loading area. Trash or rubbish area, container. Garage, carport, vehicle storage area. SERVICE FACILITIES Elevator, dumb-waiter. Utility shaft. number 2926 711 577 714 27 1013 826 208 85 100 287 5893 369 11 10 4610 12312 499 186 21567 4053 5157 932 111 139 94 15 17 5 70 23 4 899 2789 1262 1370 1453 55 242 330 5265 415 73 482 percentage 2.242352 0.544878 0.442186 0.547177 0.020692 0.776317 0.633008 0.159402 0.06514 0.076635 0.219944 4.516124 0.282785 0.00843 0.007664 3.532892 9.43535 0.382411 0.142542 16.52796 3.106033 3.952088 0.714242 0.085065 0.106523 0.072037 0.011495 0.013028 0.003832 0.053645 0.017626 0.003065 0.688952 2.137361 0.967139 1.049905 1.113512 0.042149 0.185458 0.252897 4.034854 0.318037 0.055944 0.369383

105

Light shaft. Chute. Duct. Display window. Chimney. Conveyor. SERVICE, EQUIPMENT AREAS Machinery room, area. Heating equipment room or area, water heater area. Switchgear area, transformer vault. Incinerator room, area. Maintenance shop, area. Test cell. Enclosure with pressurized air. STRUCTURAL AREAS Crawl space, substructure space. Exterior balcony, open porch. Ceiling and floor assembly, concealed floor/ceiling space. Ceiling and roof assembly, concealed roof/ceiling space. Wall assembly, concealed wall space. Exterior wall surface. Exterior roof surface. Awning. TRANSPORTATION, VEHICLE AREAS Passenger area of transportation equipment. Trunk, load carrying area of transportation equipment. Engine area, running gear, wheel area of transportation equipment. Fuel tank, fuel line area of transportation equipment. Operating, control area of transportation equipment. Exterior exposed surface of transportation equipment. OTHER AREA OF ORIGIN On or near railroad right of way, embankment. On or near highway, public way, street. Court, terrace, patio. Lawn, field, open area. Wildland area, woods. Multiple location, use area. Area of Origin not applicable. Uknown Materials ignited Type of Material undetermined or not reported Gas; insufficient information available to classify further. Natural gas. LP-City Gas (LP and air mix). Manufactured gas. LP-gas. Anesthetic gas. Flammable, Combustible Liquid; insufficient information available to classify further.

25 105 927 44 64 93 1283 613 2430 257 71 567 14 20 2837 2296 2001 2157 4421 4037 4754 1951 160 256 92 22 279 40 5 331 2054 25 82 870 577 62 159 665 14961

0.019159 0.080467 0.71041 0.03372 0.049047 0.071271 0.983232 0.469775 1.86224 0.196953 0.054411 0.434523 0.010729 0.015327 2.174146 1.759549 1.533474 1.653026 3.388051 3.093771 3.643247 1.495157 0.122617 0.196187 0.070505 0.01686 0.213813 0.030654 0.003832 0.253663 1.574091 0.019159 0.062841 0.666728 0.442186 0.047514 0.12185 0.509625 11.46542

number 4638 474 761 384 2 51 6 1116

percentage 3.55435 0.363252 0.583195 0.29428 0.001533 0.039084 0.004598 0.855251

106

282785 10. uncoated. Textile.000766 6. Adhesive.86154 1.263626 0.001533 0. insufficient information available to classify further. peat. Food. Fabric. finished goods. Material Compounded with Oil.00843 0.074336 1. Class IIIA combustible liquid.009288 0.549476 0.847588 1.941144 0.032953 2.145607 0.078168 2. briquettes.304426 0.379529 0. coke. insufficient information available to classify further Fat. Tobacco.061308 2. Paper. Fur not classified above. Solid chemical (specify type). tar.297345 0. Wood.41095 0. leaves. Volatile Solid. Felled but unsawn wood.151738 0. Cork. Fiberboard (low density material). Polish. insufficient information available to classify further. Fur.171663 0. Fur. Chemical.012262 0. Man-made fabric. Coal. straw.935718 0. Wood shavings. starch. Textile. Combustible metal. Radioactive material. Cardboard. wood pulp.087364 0. grease (food).541138 9. hay. Polyurethane. resin. Wig. insufficient information available to classify further.037551 2.Class IA flammable liquid. Gasoline.059009 0. finished goods. Grain.970296 2. Unknown 39 7 1221 86 344 49 3146 114 2270 11 264 198 190 77 16 1 8263 1317 388 8 30 717 114 97 1403 80 3870 597 369 14173 2571 3105 102 3007 1106 2011 12972 49 2 9 224 233 51 43 3854 19717 0.006897 0.96579 0. Sawn wood.005364 0. Rubber.739624 0. fiber. Growing wood.332383 1. Oil cloth.065906 0. Type of Material not classified above. plywood. Applied paint. Paper.037551 0.1102 Structure type 107 .022991 0. Hardboard. Class II combustible liquid. Linoleum.006131 0.075195 0. Grease (nonfood). varnish. Grass.039084 0. Fabric. Class IIIB combustible liquid.202317 0.457513 0. silk. Class IC flammable liquid.17856 0. Asphalt treated material. natural fiber (pre-process).029888 0. Class IB flammable liquid. Leather. other fabric. untreated. Human hair.087364 1.953528 15.

Enclosed building open structure tent open platform underground structure work areas connective structure number 126307 2810 57 406 106 802 percentage 96. etc.63% 4. Equipment Areas Structural Areas Transportation.153455 0. Lavatory.00% 1.57% 1.137504 25.436019 13.093394 15.66% 7.98335 9. Material not Classified Above Area of Origin. Chemical Natural Product Wood.792603 6.043682 0. Exterior wall surface. open porch. locker room.218369 6. kitchen. Awning. Vehicle Areas Other Areas of Origin Type of Material Ignited Gas Flammable. cooking area.52% 3.89068 Means of Egress Assembly. 2.12975 4.754 1.57% 0.10% 1.607125 24.Structural Areas Crawl space. Sales Areas Function Areas (sleeping. Exterior roof surface. Fur Material Compounded with Oil Other. Function Areas Sleeping room for under 5 persons.79587 2. Exterior balcony.40539 3. Wall assembly.63% 108 .24% 2.30354 2.64206 1.378411 39. etc) Function Areas (laboratory. cafeteria.081234 0. substructure space.990576 8.614616 NFIRs Data (averages 1990-2004) Area of Origin Average 1990-2004 3.31114 0. Ceiling and roof assembly.246183 5.26% 0. Paper Fabric. Structural Areas not classified above.) Storage Areas Service Facilities Service.0864 9. concealed roof/ceiling space. Ceiling and floor assembly.667235 17.28% 1. Dining area. concealed floor/ceiling space. Sleeping area for 5 or more persons. Combustible Liquid Volatile Solid.86% 3.03% 1. concealed wall space. Textile. cloakroom. Kitchen.50% 1. lunchroom.

Storage Areas Product storage room or area. Trunk. Closet.01% 0. Engine area. Operating. area. control area of transportation equipment. Fuel tank. Storage Areas not classified above.16% 2. vault.68% 1. vehicle storage area. Vehicle Areas Passenger area of transportation equipment. receiving. 2.93% 3. Records storage room. Exterior exposed surface of transportation equipment. fuel line area of transportation equipment. carport.54% 0.12% 0.91% 4. wheel area of transportation equipment.19% 0. container.53% 0.60% 0.54% 1. Trash or rubbish area.Laundry room. Vehicle Areas not classified above. Personal service area.54% 1.70% 0. storage bin. Transportation. load carrying area of transportation equipment. Shipping. Garage. running gear.35% 0.42% 6. Transportation. Supply storage room or area. storage tank.24% 0.50% 109 . Office.21% 1. loading area.

68% 0.60% 0. Textile. hay. Paper. Natural Product Rubber. fiber.37% 0. uncoated. leaves. Felled but unsawn wood. Food. finished goods.18% 2.64% 3.64% 110 . Textile.20% 0.30% 0.05% 0. finished goods. wood pulp.04% 2. coke. straw. Wood shavings. peat. Tobacco. Sawn wood.03% 0. Leather. starch. briquettes. insufficient information available to classify further. Grass. Cardboard.35% 7. plywood. Fabric. other fabric.Type of Material Ignited Growing wood. Hardboard.37% 0. Fiberboard (low density material). Paper. Fur. Human hair.93% 0.79% 0. Grain.76% 1. Fur.70% 0. Wood. Coal. natural fiber (pre-process). Fur Man-made fabric. Natural Product. 0.14% 3. Wig.93% 1. Cork. silk.95% 4.01% 1. insufficient information available to classify further. untreated.93% 2. insufficient information available to classify further.68% 2. Fabric.

57% Safety Precautions Table 2 Unknown With Sprinklers and Detectors With Sprinklers Only With Detectors Only Without Detectors and Sprinklers 1999 21.21% 27.74% 59.00% 27.30% 6.54% 30.76% 23.41% 2000 21.70% 2.00% 25.43% 24.81% 1.82% 3.88% 43.89% 2.65% 2004 26.40% 42.45% 5.16% 32.74% 25.17% 17.76% 25.90% 20.64% 77.21% 19.81% 32.49% 3.30% 3.93% 41.42% 2.59% Average across across total years tracked 41.84% 11.77% 9.26% 9.32% Detectors (by type) Smoke Detection Heat detection Combo Smoke/Heat Sprinkler/waterflow Undetermined Other Total Average across total years tracked 1999 37 0 2 0 3 1 43 2000 61 1 1 2 14 2 81 2001 200 1 7 1 35 3 247 2002 262 2 11 1 40 8 324 2003 392 3 11 9 53 8 476 2004 473 3 13 2 66 11 568 73.39% 21.18% 2.98% 9.69% 3.86% 1.56% 0.42% 8.17% 2.23% 37.30% 48.12% 2.95% 5.73% 4.53% 2002 22.37% 30.00% 111 .53% 50.77% 3.14% 11.76% 3.1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Safety Precautions Table 1 Unknown With Sprinklers and Detectors With Sprinklers Only With Detectors Only Without Detectors and Sprinklers 61.78% 3.58% 9.02% 6.49% 21.43% 7.12% 2.43% 58.94% 2001 22.33% 35.30% 2.00% 8.84% 3.21% 41.84% 51.80% 24.14% 2.02% 100.65% 33.70% 39.57% 2.15% 2.26% 2003 26.20% 2.70% 1.22% 58.04% 8.33% 7.17% 11.03% 4.79% 0.27% 2.11% 22.