You are on page 1of 35

LABORATORY MANUAL

MANUFACTURING PROCESSES

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING, JABALPUR
1

Contents
Metal removal processes Single point tool operations 1. Turning • Experiment no. 1 • Experiment no. 2 2. Shaping • Experiment no. 3 Multipoint tool operations 1. Milling • Experiment no. 4 • Experiment no. 5 2. Fitting, drilling and taping • Experiment no. 6 Measurement of parts Metal joining processes Arc welding MMAW •

Experiment no. 7

Oxyfuel gas welding Oxyacetylene welding • Experiment no. 8 Sheet metal forming Development of surfaces • Experiment no. 9 Inspection of parts Non destructive testing 1. Pulse echo method • Experiment no. 10 2. Magnetic particle inspection • Experiment no. 11

2

MACHINING PROCESSES Machining is one of the processes of manufacturing in which the specified shape to the work piece is imparted by removing surplus material. Conventionally this surplus material from the work piece is removed in the form of chips by interacting the work piece with an appropriate tool. This mechanical generation of chips can be carried out by single point or multi point tools or by abrasive operations. These are summarized below. Machining Processes Single point tool operations 1. Turning 2. Boring 3. Shaping 4. Planing Multi-point tool operations 1. Milling 2. Drilling 3. Tapping 4. Reaming 5. Hobbing 6. Broaching 7. Sawing Abrasive operations 1. Grinding 2. Lapping 3. Honing 4. Super-finishing

The process of chip formation in metal cutting is affected by relative motion between the tool and the work piece achieved with the aid of a device called machine tool. This relative motion can be obtained by a combination of rotary and translatory movements of either the tool or the work piece or both. The kind of surface that is produced by the operation depends on the shape of the tool and the path it traverses through the materials. When the work piece is rotated about an axis and the tool is traversed in a definite path relative to the axis, a surface of revolution is generated. When the tool path is parallel to the axis, the surface generated is a cylinder as in straight turning or boring operations. Similarly, planes may be generated by a series of straight cuts without rotating the work piece as in shaping and planning operations (Fig.3). In shaping the tool is reciprocating and the work piece is moved crosswise at the end of each stroke. Planning is done by reciprocating the work piece and crosswise movement is provided to the tool. Surface may be machined by the tools having a number of cutting edges that can cut successively through the work piece materials. In plane milling, the cutter revolves and moves over the work piece as shown Fig. 4. The axis of the cutter is parallel to the surface generated. Similarly in drilling, the drill may turn and be fed into the work piece (Fig. 5). The machine tools, in general, provide two kinds of relative motions. The primary motion is responsible for the cutting action and absorbs most of the power required to perform the machining action. The secondary motion of the feed motion may proceed in steps or continuously and absorbs only a fraction of the total power required for machining. When the secondary motion is added to the primary motion, machine surfaces of desired geometric characteristics are produced.

3

4: Plain milling Fig. 5: Drilling 4 . 3: Shaping and planing Tool Work piece Fig.Fig. 1 Straight turning Fig. 2: Straight boring Fig.

which control the shapes of the surfaces produced. 1.00 Hours PART (A) OBJECTIVE To study the characteristic features of lathe. Do not remove guards).INTRODUCTION TO LATHE MACHINE AND EXERCISE ON TURNING TIME: 9. Record these details (Table A). Note down the special features of the speed and feed control on each machine. which control the geometrical form of the surface. (b) Plot the lathe speeds against No. b. d. from Table B on a semi-log graph paper and show that the speed steps are in G. Machine tool structures and guide ways I slide ways. Note particularly the features. Record the obtainable speed and feed values (Table B). Size specification of various machine tools. Drive mechanism for secondary (feed) motion. OUTLINE OF PROCEDURE i) Run the machine at low speed and observe the motions. (Please ensure that the main isolator switch is off and check that the machine cannot be inadvertently started. Use the manufacture's handbook for details that cannot be inspected. 2. ii) iii) iv) v) OBSERVATIONS (a) Record the following in a tabular form: Machine Tool Specifications (Table A) Machine Lathe Type & Make Size Speed given to Tool Work Feed given to Tool Work Type of Surface Produced Speed and Feed Data (Table B) No. Drive mechanism for primary (cutting) motion. c.P. Learn the names of the major units and the components of each machine. Pay attention to the following: a. Lathe Speed Feed 5 .

6: Part to be produced using lathe machine EQUIPMENT List all tools and instruments used. (e) Note down the time required to perform different operations. Make a neat sketch and indicate all measured dimensions.PART (B) Experiment # 1: To make the part shown in the sketch from a mild steel rod on a Lathe having three jaw chuck. 6 . (c) Sketch the main drive unit of the lathe and show how the speed steps are obtained. (d) Make the process plan to manufacture the part. Knurl the required surface. Turn the bar to the required diameter with rough cuts. OBSERVATIONS (a) Measure all dimensions (up to second decimal place) on the specimen turned by your group. Machine the roots and the groove with form tools. Face the steps and finish the diameters to the required sizes. OUTLINE OF PROCEDURE Hold the bar in a three jaw chuck and face the end with a right hand facing tool. (f) Calculate the manufacturing cost of part by taking various assumptions. Cut the threads. (b) Show the calculation of the required gear ratio for thread cutting. Fig.

Turn the bar to the required diameter with rough cuts. Adjust the position of the workpiece and match the centre with the axis of the machine. OUTLINE OF PROCEDURE Hold the bar in a four jaw chuck and face the end with a right hand facing tool. Make central hole with a center drill. (e) Calculate the manufacturing cost of part by taking various assumptions (Same assumptions should be taken for similar type of manufacturing activities). Turn the bar upto the required diameter and length. Make a neat sketch and indicate all measured dimensions. (b) Discuss briefly how tapered portion was turned. Machine the roots and the groove with form tools. Mark the centre of the eccentric circle. Readjust the position of the job piece and align the centre of the eccentric circle with the axis of the machine. (c) Make the process plan to manufacture the part. Machine the taper with the help of the cross-slide swiveling arrangement.Experiment # 2: To make the part shown in the sketch from a mild steel rod on a Lathe using four jaw chuck. Face the steps and finish the diameters to the required sizes. 7: Part to be produced using lathe machine EQUIPMENT List all tools and instruments used. OBSERVATIONS (a) Measure all dimensions (up to second decimal place) on the specimen turned by your group. (d) Note down the time required to perform different operations. Fig. 7 .

d. Learn the names of the major units and the components of each machine. Shaper Speed Feed 8 .SHAPING: INTRODUCTION AND PRACTICE TIME: 2. Drive mechanism for secondary (feed) motion. Note particularly the features. Use the manufacture's handbook for details that cannot be inspected. Drive mechanism for primary (cutting) motion. 1. Record the obtainable speed and feed values (Table B). Machine tool structures and guide ways / slide ways. Note down the special features of the speed and feed control on each machine. (Please ensure that the main isolator switch is off and check that the machine cannot be inadvertently started. Do not remove guards). Pay attention to the following: a. Record these details (Table A). b. which control the shapes of the surfaces produced. 2. which control the geometrical form of the surface.15 Hours PART (A) OBJECTIVE To study the characteristic features of Shaper OUTLINE OF PROCEDURE i) Run the machine at low speed and observe the motions. c. ii) iii) iv) v) vi) OBSERVATION Record the following in a tabular form: Machine Tool Specifications (Table A) Machine Shaper Type & Make Size Speed given to Tool Work Feed given to Tool Work Type of Surface Produced Speed and Feed Data (Table B) No. Size specification of various machine tools.

Fig. Make a neat sketch and indicate all measured dimensions. (d) Explain the use of clapper box on the machine. OUTLINE OF PROCEDURE Hold the work piece in a vice and machine the top surface till the desired height is obtained. (c) Explain the quick return mechanism. Machine the inclined faces using right and left hand tools. OBSERVATIONS (a) Measure all dimensions (up to second decimal place) on the specimen machined by your group. (b) Calculate the machining time for the bottom surface of the specimen. 9 .PART (B) Experiment # 3: To machine a V-groove as shown in the sketch out of the work piece provided. 8: Part to be produced using shaper machine EQUIPMENT List all tools and instruments used.

Pay attention to the following: a. 2. ii) iii) iv) v) OBSERVATION Record the following in a tabular form: Machine Tool Specifications (Table A) Type & Make Speed given to Tool Work Feed given to Tool Work Type of Surface Produced Machine Milling (Vt) Milling (Hz) Size Speed and Feed Data (Table B) No. Milling Speed Feed 10 . which control the geometrical form of the surface. Machine tool structures and guide ways I slide ways. Note particularly the features. (Please ensure that the main isolator switch is off and check that the machine cannot be inadvertently started. Record these details (Table A). OUTLINE OF PROCEDURE i) Run the machine at low speed and observe the motions. which control the shapes of the surfaces produced. Note down the special features of the speed and feed control on each machine. Record the obtainable speed and feed values (Table B). b. Use the manufacture's handbook for details that cannot be inspected. Do not remove guards).MILLING: INTRODUCTION AND PRACTICE TIME: 9:00 Hours PART (A) OBJECTIVE To study the characteristic features of Milling machine. 1. d. Size specification of various machine tools. Learn the names of the major units and the components of each machine. c. Drive mechanism for primary (cutting) motion. Drive mechanism for secondary (feed) motion.

4. (b) Observe the roughness of the surface produced and compare it with the surfaces produced in other manufacturing processes 11 . Fig. 6. Complete the T-slot with the help of T-slot cutter. Cut the keyway to required depth using end milling cutter. Mount the cutter on the spindle & set it in position with respect to work piece. 3. Clamp the work piece in vice. OBSERVATIONS (a) Measure the width of keyway. OUTLINE OF PROCEDURE 1. Change the cutting tool to T-slot cutter. 2. 9: Part to be produced using vertical milling machine EQUIPMENT List all tools and instruments used. 5. Test the cutter for run.PART (B) Experiment # 4: Milling keyway on the specimen shown in the sketch.

Cutter mounting in correct position. 10: Part to be produced using horizontal milling machine EQUIPMENT List all tools/cutters and instruments used. Introduction Gears are one of the most commonly used elements in almost all simple or complex mechanisms. 2. 3.Experiment # 5: Spur gear cutting using Indexing on Milling Machine. Concepts used 1. machines and processes used for gear making. learn the principles. 12 . processes. It is therefore essential for all engineering students to know all about gears. procedures and practices used for gear manufacturing. 2) Gear cutter for cutting 5 modules. 1) Dividing head. Indexing process. it is expected that students. Fig. Milling processes. Knowledge of spur gear. 4. In this experiment. their manufacturing.

slip gauges) 04 Adjust the work piece to the centre of cutter. tail stock. 10 Repeat the procedure for next tooth. Which one did you use for slot milling and why? (d) Explain the advantages of using a helical milling cutter. 11: Milling gear with a form cutter 13 . 07 Withdraw the work piece out of range of the cutter and lift the milling table by the height of the tooth depth in the increments of the depth of cut. dial indicator) 02 Mount the gear-milling cutter on the arbor and test for concentricity. (use Try square. (c) Explain up-milling and down-milling operations. Calculate the necessary depth of cut and then mill the teeth of the spur gear in succession. (use Dividing head. Gear Milling Setup For The Forming Method: - Fig. Carefully adjust the work piece so that the cutter just touches the top surface of the specimen. 08 Milling of first tooth space. 09 Withdraw the work piece from the cut and turn the indexing handle by the tooth pitch & mill next tooth space. Stepwise Procedure 01 Mount and align the dividing head and tailstock on machine table.OUTLINE OF PROCEDURE Fit the form cutter on the arbor and the specimen between the centers of the dividing head and the tail center. Make a neat sketch and indicate all measured dimensions. OBSERVATIONS (a) Measure all dimensions (up to second decimal place) on the specimen milled by your group. and feed for milling. 06 In the beginning the cutter should have touched slightly on the work piece. (b) Explain in brief how the required indexing was obtained with the dividing head. (use gear cutter) 03 Hold the work piece on the mandrel and adjust the mandrel between centres. 05 Set the revolutions.

Size specification of various machine tools. 2. OUTLINE OF PROCEDURE i) Run the machine at low speed and observe the motions. Record the obtainable speed and feed values (Table B). Drive mechanism for primary (cutting) motion. Note particularly the features. Machine tool structures and guide ways I slide ways. Drilling Speed Feed Speed given to Tool Work Feed given to Tool Work Type of Surface Produced Size 14 . Use the manufacture's handbook for details that cannot be inspected. d. Do not remove guards). 1. Note down the special features of the speed and feed control on each machine. Learn the names of the major units and the components of each machine. b. (Please ensure that the main isolator switch is off and check that the machine cannot be inadvertently started. which control the geometrical form of the surface. c.DRILLING AND FITTING TIME: 4:30 Hours PART (A) OBJECTIVE To study the characteristic features of Drilling machine. ii) iii) iv) v) OBSERVATION Record the following in a tabular form: Machine Tool Specifications (Table A) Type & Machine Make Drilling Speed and Feed Data (Table B) No. Record these details (Table A). Pay attention to the following: a. Drive mechanism for secondary (feed) motion. which control the shapes of the surfaces produced.

Punch at the center and at four points on the periphery of the required hole. ream and tap holes on the mild steel plate. as shown in the sketch. 15 . Mark the circle for the diameter to be drilled. (c) Sketch a reamer and show its main features. OUTLINE OF PROCEDURE File all the sides of the mild steel work piece ensuring with a trisquare that all the angle are 90o. OBSERVATIONS (a) Measure all dimensions (up to second decimal place) on the specimen made by your group.PART (B) Experiment # 6: To drill. Fig. (d) Explain why a set of three taps was used. (b) Explain how power is transmitted from drill spindle to drill shank. Drill and ream the holes as required. file. Mark the centers of the hole. Tap the hole using a set of three taps. 15: Part to be produced in fitting shop EQUIPMENT List all tools and instruments used. Make a neat sketch and indicate all measured dimensions.

(1) Linear measuring/ marking tools (a) Steel rule /scale (b) Calliper:. The following principle measuring instruments are used in the work shop. equipments & various kinds of gauges are used for measurement and inspection of the manufacturing or production accuracy of parts and articles. (2) Non precision instruments:These types of instruments are limited to the measurement of parts to a visible line graduation on the instrument used. For every particular measurement a particular instrument should be used. such as a graduated rule or scale. (1) Precision instruments:By which instruments we can take measurement within accuracy of 0. inside and Odd legs (c) Divider (d) Depth gauge (2) Surface measuring tools (a) Surface plate (b) Angle plate (c) Try square (d) Surface gauge (e) V block (f) Straight edge (3) Precision instrument (a) Micrometer: . tools. inside (b) Depth micrometer (c) Varnier calliper (d) Height gauge (4) Angular measuring tools (a) Bevel protractor (b) Combination set (c) Sine bar (5) Gauges (a) Feeler gauge (b) Snap gauge (c) Ring gauge (d) Thread gauge (e) Slip gauge 16 . Measuring instruments.out side. Measuring instruments may be classified according to the accuracy.outside.01mm or 0.MEASUREMENT OF PARTS Measurement is the key on which the whole production is based. According to the accuracy there are the two types of measuring instrument. Dimensions given on the job drawing help the operator to produce the job of required size. For example caliper can not substitute micrometer or rule cannot substitute vernier gauge.001 inch is known as precision instrument.

try square and “v” block.0 mm and 0. It is generally used to transfer or compare a dimension from one object to another and measurement count with the help of steel scale. An adjusting screw and nut keep the legs in position to set the point of callipers according to the object. Depth gauge is used to measure the depth of blind holes.A divider is similar in construction to a caliper except that both legs are straight with sharp hardened point at the end. (1) Calipers are specified by the greatest distance it can be opened between legs. It is made up of cast iron. (2) A sense of feel or touch is necessary to use a caliper successfully. (c) Odd leg spring Callipers:. and in metric system scale divided into millimeter 1.Strip of a hard steel having line engraved at interval of fraction of a standard unit of the length. 17 .5 mm. (b) Inside spring calliper:. Scale is usually marked in inches and centimeter both.Outside spring callipers consists of two legs and both legs bent inwards. The leaf spring applies force to open the legs at the bottom. One leg of it is straight having sharp point and other leg bent inward. and doing general surface working. It is used for scribing the parallel lines to the edge of the work and also used for finding the center of a round work.Odd leg caliper is similar to inside calliper. surface gauge. Surface plate is used for marking out the object with the help of angle plate. 1/16”. scribing circles. It is used for transferring dimensions.5mm Kinds: (1) Steel rule (2) Contraction rule (3) Wooden box scale (2) Callipers:. -: Surface measuring and Marking Tools :(a) Surface plate: .The narrow steel rule having a sliding head is clamped with an adjustable screw at right angle. Least count in inch 1/64” Least count in metric system is 0. Surface plate must be protected from rust. (a) Outside spring callipers:. The flatness of surface plate is highly accurate and smooth. grooves and slots. 1/64”.Surface plates are made in rectangular and square shapes in various sizes. Its points of legs are bent outwards to make contact with the side of hole and grooves. 1/32”.Callipers is an indirect measuring tool. (f) Depth gauge:.-: Linear Measuring tools :(1) Steel rule or scale: . dust and apply grease and oil time to time after use. Top of the calliper joint between the two legs is fixed around a leaf spring.Inside calliper is similar to outside calliper. It is in different sizes and styles. (d) Divider:. For very precision work glass surface plate is used. Inches divided into 1/8”.

The lower graduations are graduated in 1mm intervals but each graduation shall be placed at the middle of two successive upper graduations to be read 0.This is a tubular cover attached with the spindle and moves with spindle.The graduations on the barrel are in two parts namely one above the reference line is graduated in 1mm of intervals.The spindle is an actual measuring rod having threads of 0. 15. The principle parts of instrument are.I. (v) Thimble:. so object cannot rotate easily. Marking pin or scriber is clamped with screw in the pole. (vi) Ratchet:. It is made up of cast iron. -: Precision measuring instrument :(1) Out side micrometer:. (d) Surface gauge:. It is made up from carbon steel plate in different sizes. 15. in English (inch) system. (iv) Sleeve or Barrel:.5mm and thimble has a scale of 50 divisions round its circumference. (e) “V” block:. 5.U shape flat is known as frame and it is made of cast steel or malleable cast iron.This is used to lock the spindle at any desired setting.A small round piece of hardened steel fixed at the end of frame with contact to the object. Thus on going through one complete turn of thimble = 0. READING OF MICROMETER: In MM:. 10. (ii) Hardened Anvil:.5mm pitch in metric system and 40 T. 25.…. Some time it is used for surface making purpose. This is to prevent and damage of the instrument.It is small extension piece of the thimble. The first and every fifth are long and numbered 5.P. The beveled edge of tubular is divided into 50 equal parts 0. so on in mm and 25 equal parts in inch. It is engraved or graduated in mm or inches.Try square is made in two pieces of steel. “V” block is used for marking out the round bar. It is often used for scribing the line on the object.5mm.It has two plane surfaces at right angle to each other. 50 18 . (iii) Spindle:. (f) Straight edge:.Sleeve is measuring scale. (i) Frame:. Blade is perfectly fixed by riveting in the middle of one end at right angle of beam.5mm is opened one division of its scale 0.Straight edge is commonly used for testing the straightness and flatness of plane surface. 10. (vii) Lock Nut or Clamping Ring:.Micrometer is used for measuring the dimension to the outside of any round or thickness of object. It is used for supporting and setting the round bar in the ‘v’ groove in horizontal position.“V” block is made of Steel with V shaped grooves. The centre of the bottom is provided with “V” shaped groove for resting the block on the round bar. This is used in conjunction with the surface plate for supporting work in perpendicular position.5 × 1 mm = 0. (c) Try square:.01mm.Surface gauge is made of steel. The micrometer screw has a pitch of 0. Bottom of the base is exactly flat for resting or setting on the face plate. It is used for testing the trueness of plain surface and also used for checking the right angle of object.(b) Angle plate:. Pole of the surface gauge is adjusted by the adjusting screw.

400” and so on. 13.3. 0. 0. (2) Inside Micrometer:. 6”.200”. 5. (3) Depth Micrometer:Depth micrometer is used for measuring depth of hole to an accuracy of 0.The spindle is the threaded 40 TPI. Thimble 4.5mm. The sliding vernier scale or vernier head can be locked to the main scale by the knurled screw attached to the vernier. 0. The thimble is divided in 25 divisions. It is very useful for direct marking and it saves lot of time in transferring the measurement by means of surface gauge.5 × 0.2. The sleeve is graduated 40 divisions in one inch.01mm. A vernier scale is the name given to any scale making use of the difference between two scales.01 or = 1/100 = 50 50 2 The principle of measuring is similar to an external micrometer.Least count = 1 1 × = 0.025” or 0. Each depth micrometer is supplied with three interchangeable spindles. and 8” in inch. Beam or main scale carries the fixed graduations.001inch. It means one division on sleeve is 1/40 or 0. One round turn by one thread pitch of 0. The inside micrometer head has only 13mm or ½” movement.01mm and 0. 0. There is a flat scriber on the sliding jaw for marking the lines. 1”. Reading:.01 in metric system. It is similar to an external micrometer and is used for measuring holes with a diameter over 50mm or 2 inch.02 or 0. These represent 0.025”. 50. Sleeve 6. 4”.01mm or 0. Spindle 1 1 1 × = 0. 0.015”.The beveled edge of the thimble is divided into 50 division round the circumference.005”. (5) Vernier Calipers:. 25.25”.The inside micrometer is used for measurement of internal hole an accuracy of 0. The vertical scale carries a sliding jaw containing the vernier and a sliding clamp for making the fine adjustment. and one division of its scale is therefore equivalent to a thimble movement of 0. (4) Vernier Height Gauge:. 0. Locking ring 5.025”.001inch. The measurements are read in the same way as in the vernier calipers. Extension rods of the following size are in common use.001. Head 3. If the thimble is rotated one complete rotation it will move 0.01 50 2 In INCH:. 150. Ratchet stop 2. it moves 1/25 of 0.4 and so on up to the length line. 19 . 25. 20. Parts of depth micrometer:1.010”. 15. Any size can be obtained by fixing the required size of extension rod.The vernier calipers is a precision instrument which can measure up to 1/1000 of an inch and 0. 10. 2”.The vernier height gauge consists of a vertical scale fixed on a heavy base. Every fifth line of thimble is marked 0.100”. 0. It has two measuring jaw fixed and adjustable vernier head having a vernier scale.300”.020”. These represent 0. If it is rotated only one division out of 25 divisions. 100. 200 and 600mm and ½. Every fourth division on the sleeve is marked 1.

One division on vernier scale = 1 24 25 − 24 − Difference = = = 40 1000 1000 1 1000 " Metric system:.The vernier scale in bevel protractor has 12 division both to right and left. The blade can slide both ways. reading 00 to 900 way.This is also called vernier bevel protractor.One division of main scale = 1 40 " Now 25 division on vernier scale = 24 division of the main scale or say 24 1 24 × = 40 25 1000 24 40 " . Reading:. 12 12 12 1 division on vernier scale = 20 . 2 50 50 50 VERNIER GEAR. -: Angular measuring tools :(1) Bevel Protractor:.One division of main scale = 1 mm 2 24 2 25 division on vernier scale = 24 division of main scale or say One division on vernier scale = Difference = 24 1 24 × = 2 25 50 1 24 25 − 24 1 − = = mm. The protractor disc is graduated in degree over an arc of 1800. 1 division on protractor dial = 10 12 division on vernier scale = 23 division on the protractor 23 12 23 24 − 23 1 difference = 2 − = = or say 5 minutes. The horizontal vernier caliper which measures the tooth thickness is similar to an out side vernier caliper whereas the vertical version caliper is adjusted for measuring the distance from the top of a tooth (or addendum circle) to the pitch circle of a gear. to the 0 line. The verniar tooth caliper consists of two vernier calipers perpendicular to each. It can measure an angle directly up to an accuracy of 5 minutes. The table which gives these distance and chordal tooth thickness for gear of different diameter pitches and different number of teeth are available. These 12 divisions are equal to 23 degree on the protractor dial. Any angle can be measured by setting the stock at the particular angle on the disc.TOOTH CLIPER It is used for measuring the chordal thickness of gear tooth of pitch circle of gear.Reading:.

These heads are fitted in the steel rule having a groove. Two roller are fixed in each lapped with a screw.The combination set is combined with square head. 35 and 28 pieces. The pitch or number of threads per inch is stamped on the every blade. A 100 mm sine bar is very common Perpendicular = sin (θ ) Hypotenuse -: Gauges :(1) Pitch Gauge or Screw Pitch Gauges:.Threads are checked with thread gauges. Slip gauges are made in sets. The sine bar is specified by the distance between the centers of two rollers.They are made in set of leaf and fixed in the metal pocket for opening and closing.Ring Gauges are used for testing the external dimension of shafts and cylindrical parts. These are used for checking the clearance between two mating parts (3) Snap Gauge:. It is used for measuring an angle. They are used for checking diameters.These are also known as “Go and not Go”. The blades are fixed in a pocket for opening and closing like knife. 49. For checking internal threads plug thread gauges are used. (4) Ring Gauge:. while checking for external threads ring thread gauges are used. These blades are having one end teeth to the various pitches of the specific threads. (3) Sine Bar:. It is a flat of metal stepped or lapped on both the ends. The thickness of the blade is stamped on every leaf. In English measurement there are five sets containing 81. These gauges are made in British. The square head is used as a tiny square and bevel protractor for checking the angle. 21 . lengths.These are steel strips hardened with various blade.Sine bar is an indirect measuring instrument. For general purpose a 49 pieces set is used. Sine bars are used in conjunction with slip gauges for setting of angle.(2) Combination Set:. 41. bevel protractor and a center head. (2) Feeler Gauge:. (5) Thread Gauges:. The snap gauges are made in fix and adjustable size stamped on the gauge. The center head is used for finding the center on the end of round work. (6) Slip Gauges:. These are used for precise measurement of parts and for verifying measuring tools such as micrometers and various limit gauges.Slip gauges are rectangular blocks of steel. and thickness of the parts. American and metric thread size. The surfaces of slip gauges are highly polished.

brazing or soldering). are permanently joined together by coalescence.30 Hours PART(A) OBJECTIVE To study and observe the welding methods through demonstration and practice (Arc and Gas) Background Solid materials need to be joined together in order that they may be fabricated into useful shapes for various applications such as industrial. harmful metallurgical effects. gas welding and brazing. grease and other contaminants. Thermal processes are extensively used for joining of most common engineering materials. rivets etc. domestic. and (3) caution to avoid. This exercise is designed to demonstrate specifically: arc welding. art ware and other uses. metals. Surface roughness is overcome by pressure or by melting two surfaces so that fusion occurs.). WELDING PROCESSES Welding is a process in which two materials. ARC WELDING In this process a joint is established by fusing the material near the region of joint by means of an electric arc struck between the material to be joined and an electrode. or compensate for. Depending on the material and the application. free from oxides. mechanical (bolts. The production of quality welds requires (1) a satisfactory heat and/or pressure source. welding can be achieved under a wide variety of conditions and numerous welding processes have been developed and are routinely used in manufacturing. (2) clean surfaces. Contaminants are removed by mechanical or chemical cleaning prior to welding or by causing sufficient metal flow along the interface so that they are removed away from the weld zone. commercial. different joining processes are adopted such as. (3) metals with no internal impurities. pressure.INTRODUCTION TO WELDING PROCESSES TIME: 4. In many processes the contaminants are removed by fluxing agents. and metallurgical conditions. flat or matching surfaces. The particular combination of temperature and pressure can range from high temperature with no pressure to high pressure with any increase in temperature. chemical (adhesive) or thermal (welding. usually metals. The electrode held externally may act as a filler rod or it is fed 22 . These are difficult conditions to obtain. A high current low voltage electric power supply generates an arc of intense heat reaching a temperature of approximately 3800°C. (2) a means of protecting or cleaning the metal. To obtain coalescence between two metals following requirements need to be met: (1) perfectly smooth. Thus. absorbed gases. namely. resulting from temperature.

The chemical reaction may be shown as 3Fe + 2O2 → Fe3O4 + heat In this process. the long flame reduces in size and a feathery inner cone appears. 23 . The acetylene flame is long and bushy. gas metal arc welding (GMAW).16: The basic circuit for an arc welding Fig. with the addition of oxygen to create a high-temperature flame. Fig. 5. a joint is established by fusing the material near the region of joint by means of a gas flame. as the name implies. As the oxygen is turned on. neutral and oxidizing. A filler rod is used to feed molten material in the gap at the joint region and establish a firm weld. gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Oxyacetylene Flame Three distinct flame variations are produced with an oxyacetylene gas mixture.independently of the electrode. the fuel gas. It is extensively used in a variety of structural applications. reducing or carburizing. The flame temperature normally obtained with 2 ½ parts oxygen to 1 part of acetylene is about 5850oF (3232oC). joints in thicker materials can be obtained by the arc welding process. the burning of acetylene. The gases are fed through the torch on a 1:1 ratio with the remaining 1½ parts of oxygen coming from the surrounding air. 17: Schematic diagram of shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) GAS WELDING Gas welding usually refers to oxyacetylene welding or. Due to higher levels of heat input. There are so many types of the basic arc welding process in the market such as shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). submerged arc welding (SAW).

The length of the luminous inner cone is usually between 1/16 and 5/8 (1. Fig. If a carburizing flame is used in welding steel. It is also used in silver. for hard-facing operation. the flame as a whole grows smaller and the inner cone is reduced in size to produce an oxidizing flame. An oxidizing flame used on steel will cause the metal to foam and spark. All three flames are shown in Fig. 18: Three types of oxyacetylene flames Each of the three flames may be used as follows: Carburizing flame may to used to advantage in welding high-carbon steels.87 mm) long. the excess carbon will enter the metal. white cone disappears and a rounded inner cone and outer envelope indicate a neutral flame. 24 . the feathery. If more oxygen is turned on.57 and 15. however. Neutral flame is used for most welding operation. In this operation. Oxidizing flame is used for fusion welding of brass and bronze. 18. the flame is only slightly oxidizing. causing porosity in solidified metal. When the oxygen proportion is further adjusted. and for welding such nonferrous alloys as nickel and Monel.producing a reducing flame.brazing operations. only the intermediate and outer flames are used so that a low – temperature soaking heat will be imparted to the parts being joined by silver solder.

Clean the welded zone and submit. speed and arc length control Strike the arc and make tacks at the both ends to hold the metal pieces together during the welding process Lay beads along the joint maintaining proper speed and arc length (Speed 100-150 mm/min). Tongs etc. What is the electrode coating and what its function. MS Electrode. 2. PROCEDURE (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Clean the mild steel flats to be joined by wire brush Arrange the flat pieces properly providing the gap for full penetration for butt joint (gap 1/2 thickness of flats). Precautions to be taken during various arc welding processes.PART(B) Experiment # 7: To prepare a butt joint with mild steel strip using MMAW technique.S. 25 . Wire Brush. 19: Joining the M. Fig. Report the following 1. Give the common arc welding defects and their reasons. Practice striking of arc. 4. Limitations of arc welding. plates using arc welding EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS Welding unit. 3. mild steel flats (150*100*10 mm).

Experiment # 8: To prepare a Lap joint with mild steel strip using oxyacetylene welding technique. Composition of the filler rod used in gas welding. 3. 5. Tack at the two ends. Precautions to be taken during Gas welding. Advantage and limitations of Gas welding. 4.S. Nature of flame used in gas welding. mild steel strips. Keep the metal strip in lap position. 20: Joining the M. 3. gas-welding wire. Clean the joint and submit Report the following 1. wire brush. fluxes. PROCEDURE 1. plates using gas welding Equipment & materials Gas welding set. Clean the mild steel strip removing the oxide layer and flatten it. 2. 26 . tongs etc. Fig. 2. Deposit filler metal at the joint maintaining proper speed and feed. Composition of flux used in and its role.

the work piece return back a little and ends up which less bend then that on the punch.2c) (c) Knocked-up joint Fold one sheet and close edges slightly (Fig. In all these operations.3c) Close the right angled sheet using a mallet (Fig.lc) Insert one folded sheet into the other (Fig. BENDING Bending is a very important process in the sheet metal forming by which metal can be plastically deformed according to the requirement. When the punch is released. bending. 21. They are essentially cold working operations. 21. 21. 21.3b) Slip the second sheet in the folded one (Fig. 21. 21. 21. deep drawing.2(b) Slip the strap on the bent edges of the sheets after bringing them together (Fig. 21.2a) Cut a piece of sheet (called strap) of required width Strap width = (4x size of marked edges) + (4 x thickness of sheet) Close the edges of the strap slightly as shown in Fig. Bottoming and coining are the other popular bending process.ld) Groove the seam using grooving die (Fig. 21. Air bending is one of the bending process in which the punch touches the work piece and the work piece does not bottom in the lower cavity. 21. It is a flexible process. 21.30 Hours PART(A) OBJECTIVE To study and observe the sheet metal forming process. some plastic deformation of the metal is involved. spinning etc. thickness.3d) 27 . first at right angles to the plane of the sheet (Fig. This is called spring back.1e) (b) Double grooved joint Fold sheets after making them as per the instructions given (Fig.1a) Fold the sheets at edges in the portion marked. 21. Spring back depends on the material. Background Many products are manufactured from sheet metal involving combination of processes such as shearing. Demonstration (Self secured sheet metal joints) (a) Internal grooved joint Mark out portions of given sheets near edges to be joined with a marker (Fig.SHEET METAL FORMING TIME: 4.3a) Bend one sheet to form a right angle band (Fig. Bending generally refers to deformation about one axis only. grain and temper.lb) and then at 180o to the plane (Fig.

3 PART(B) Experiment # 9: To prepare a funnel using the concept of development of surfaces as shown in the figure. Fig.2 Fig. 22: Sheet Metal Funnel 28 .21. 21: Sheet metal joints 21.1 21.

Equipment & material Mallet. Cut out the required portion and form the conical portion. 3-4. DE. bench shear. each equal to nd/6. and external curve at 3 Starting from D mark lengths DC. Joint AO and G6 and extend it to cut the outer curve at points H and I. Report the spring back during the bending operation of given metal sheet. Precautions to be taken during sheet metal working. meeting the internal curve at D. Make the bottom half of the funnel. Report the following 1. What are the machines used in the shearing and bending operation. Draw the sketches showing the principle of the development of the job as shown in the sheet metal forming demonstration. EF and FG. 2. respectively. and OA and OX as radii Draw the vertical line O3. grooving and riveting tool. Procedure Draw the elevation on full scale Complete the cone by extending the lines A and G Choose a point O and draw curves with O as a center. 4. CB. 29 . 3. and 10 mm on another side for joint. hand shear. 2-1. Provide a margin of 5 mm on one side. 4-5 and 5-56. each equal to ml/6 Again starting from 3 mark length 3-2. metal sheet. 1-0. (D and d are major and minor diameters) Draw another curve with O as a center and OX +5 mm as radius. BA.

surface checks. (Fig.15 Hours PART(A) OBJECTIVE To study different non destructive methods for inspecting flaws in the welding joints. ultrasonic. The current may be passed through the part or through a conductor in close proximity to the part. when magnetized. overlap. 24) The magnetic filed can be set up by passing an electric current through all or a portion of the part. After the excess liquid has been removed from surface. Magnetization 30 . radiography. cracks slag inclusions penetration. liquid penetrant. will have distorted magnetic fields in which there are material flaws and that these anomalies can be clearly shown with the application of magnetic particles. a thin coating of absorbent material is applied to draw the traces of penetrant from the defects to the surface for observation. 23. 23: Some welding defects that can be checked visually Liquid penetrant The liquid – penetrant method involves flooding the surface with a light oil – like penetrant solution that is drawn into the surface discontinuities by capillary action. Either ac or dc can be used to generate the magnetic filed. eddy current. (ii) Destructive testing. acoustic emission. thermal and optical methods. The following defects can be observed: undercut. the direction of the induced filed should be almost perpendicular to the expected flaw. Nondestructive Testing (NDT ) Nondestructive testing includes visual examination. Background (WELD INSPECTION) Weld inspection methods can be broadly divided into two groups: (i) Nondestructive testing (NDT) and. Brightly colored dyes of fluorescent materials are added to the penetrant solutions to make the traces more visible. and the extent of reinforcement.INSPECTION OF PARTS TIME: 2. Fig. magnetic particle. Some of these defects are shown in Fig. Magnetic – particle Inspection Magnetic – particle inspection is based on the principle that ferromagnetic materials. To be effective. Visual Inspection An experienced welder or inspector can detect most of the weld defects by careful examination.

The acoustic emission is in the form of short bursts or train of fast impulses in the ultrasonic range. Acoustic-emission Monitoring: Engineering materials undergoing stress or plastic deformation emit sound. and neutron beams. the same transducer alternately serves both functions in a pitch-catch mode. These acoustic emissions can be related to the physical integrity of the material or structure in which they are generated and the monitoring of these events permits detection and location of flaws as well as prediction of impending failure. These eddy-currents are affected by variation in conductivity. while dc is used to locate subsurface discontinuities or nonmetallic inclusions. and homogeneity of the host material. The altered ultrasonic signal can be used to detect flows with in the material. magnetic permeability. Three types of penetrating radiations are presently used for industrial radiography: X-rays. Ultrasonic Inspection Ultrasonic inspection consists of sending a high – frequency vibration (beyond 20 kHz) through a component and observing what happens when the beam hits a discontinuity or a change in density. Conditions that affect these characteristics can be sensed by measuring the eddy current response of the part.is better with ac for surface discontinuities. density. Fig. mass. 24: Magnetic-particle inspection Eddy-current testing When electrically conductive material is subjected to an alternating magnetic field. small circulating electric currents are generated in the material. The shadowgraph is commonly registered on a photographic film to provide a permanent record. Where contact directly above the part is impractical. an angle beam is used. to measure thickness from one side and to characterize metallurgical structure. Radiography Radiography is essentially a shadow pattern created when certain types of radiation penetrate an object and are differentially absorbed depending on variations of thickness. A receiving transducer converts the received ultrasonic wave into a corresponding electrical signal. The signals are sent through the part. The sending transducer transforms a voltage burst in to ultrasonic vibration. A flaw is recognized by the relative position and amplitude of the echo. gamma rays. The transducer is coupled to the work piece by a liquid medium such as water. 31 . or chemical composition of the material. With appropriate instrumentation. and the time intervals that elapse between the initial pulse and the arrival of the various echoes are displayed on an oscilloscope screen. The pulse rate and amplitude of acoustic emission bursts are usually very high compared to most natural or artificial noises and therefore it is possible to isolate the significant signals by careful measurement of emission rates and amplitudes.

How an Ultrasonic Flaw detector Works Einstein-II TFT is a single channel Ultrasonic testing instrument used for the inspection of homogeneous material for the presence of inclusions. It can also be used for thickness gauging of homogeneous material. Fully charged battery gives continuous working of eight hours and charging time is just 3 to 4 hours. through a material under test. porosity and other discontinuities that could affect the performance of material and components. This principal utilizes the precise timing of the transit time of a short burst of ultrasound energy. Thickness gauging with Einstein-II TFT operates on the principal of the time-offlight measurement. Basically three type of transducer/probe is available for different types of applications: 1> Straight beam Probe (Normal probe) 2> TR probe (Dual crystal probe) 3> Angle beam Probe 1> Straight beam Probe: This probe introduces ultrasound normal to the test piece surface utilizing longitudinal or compression waves. The ultrasound waves travel to the far side of the test piece and reflect back to the transducer/probe and a measurement is obtained. light in weight and user friendly Digital Ultrasonic Flaw Detector. Normal beam probe is used mostly for flaw detection and thickness gauging (refer figure 1. 1. The reflection of the ultrasound energy is a function of the ratio between the acoustic impedance of the discontinuity and the base material. compact. High frequency sound (Ultrasonic sound) waves are introduced into the test material/part from a transducer/probe that is usually coupled to the test piece by water or other suitable coupling liquid. The principal of Ultrasonic testing is shown in figure1. It shows the ultrasonic energy generated in the test piece and resultant instrument display. The transducer converts electric signals to Ultrasound and vice versa. 2. it provides wide viewing angle and allows fast scanning speed.PART (B) Experiment # 10: To inspect the defects in the welding done in experiment no. The greater the impedance ratio the more sound energy will be reflected. Introducing Einstein-II TFT Einstein-II TFT is a portable.) 32 . 7 and in the given specimens using pulse echo method. Trace pattern can be directly printed out on conventional PC printer having serial port for interface or can be transferred to PC via RS232 Serial port for storage of data. A short burst of Ultrasound is introduced into test material so some or all of the energy is reflected by discontinuities. Einstein-II TFT has COLOR LCD display. requiring access from only one side of the test piece.

Another reason to use angle beam testing on the welds is to position the sound beam more normal to the expected discontinuities since the flaw in welds are usually perpendicular to the test piece (except porosity). 3> Angle Beam Probe: This probe introduces ultrasound at angle to the surface of the test piece. the wave energy is mode converted from a longitudinal wave to a shear wave by the refraction principal. 25: Parts and controls of Einstein-II TFT 33 . In most angle beam probe. This probe is suitable for inspection of the welds.2> TR probe: This probe contains separate transmitting and receiving elements as showing in figure 2 usually mounted on delay lines. TR probe is suitable for the thickness gauging of pitting and corrosion and also for better surface resolution. This design improves near surface resolution by separating the initial pulse from the received echoes. Parts and Controls of Einstein-II TFT 16 17 15 18 19 14 13 4 12 3 11 2 10 9 1 5 6 7 8 20 Fig. The reason for this is its ability to position the transducer/probe away from the weld bead yet propagate energy into the weld zone. 3. Figure 3 shows the principal of angled beam weld testing.

The method is used to inspect a variety of product forms including castings. Many different industries use magnetic particle inspection for determining a component's fitness-for-use. nickel. 4. It is basically made by wrapping an electrical coil around a piece of soft ferromagnetic steel. LPI). Ferromagnetic materials are materials that can be magnetized to a level that will allow the inspection to be effective.e. An electromagnetic yoke is a very common piece of equipment that is used to establish a magnetic field. petrochemical. Compare the result obtained in both the samples. automotive. 3. Underwater inspection is another area where magnetic particle inspection may be used to test items such as offshore structures and underwater pipelines. and part surface preparation is not as critical as it is for some other surface NDT methods (Ex. the magnetic field can be turned on and off. 2. using an electrical current to produce the magnetic field. This type of magnet generates a very strong magnetic field in a local area where the poles of the magnet touch the part being inspected. MPI is fast and relatively easy to apply. or some of their alloys. and weldments. That is. cobalt.iron filings) to detect flaws in components. Experiment # 11: To inspect the cracks in welding of the given specimen by magnetic particle inspection. Electromagnets Today. The only requirement from an inspectability standpoint is that the component being inspected must be made of a ferromagnetic material such as iron. Some examples of industries that use magnetic particle inspection are the structural steel. On the basis of observations. A switch is included in the electrical circuit so that the current and. most of the equipment used to create the magnetic field used in MPI is based on electromagnetism. They can be powered with alternating current from a wall socket or by direct current from a battery pack. 34 . forgings. Introduction Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI) is a Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) method used for defect detection. Report of possibility of concluding false result. discuss the type of defect in each of the given samples. MPI uses magnetic fields and small magnetic particles (i. After testing the welded sample piece what conclusions will you draw.Report the following: 1. and aerospace industries. These characteristics make MPI one of the most widely utilized nondestructive testing methods. power generation. therefore.

of cracks found on the surface of the given specimen. the magnetizing force should be terminated.025 mm) of a ferromagnetic coating (such as nickel) to be left on the surface. Dry particles with half wave DC is the best approach when inspecting for lack of root penetration in welds of thin materials. Inspect for indications . Report the following: 1. the AC or half wave DC current creates a pulsating magnetic field that provides mobility to the powder. No.Dust on a light layer of magnetic particles.Look for areas where the magnetic particles are clustered. an electromagnetic yoke. oil or other moisture that could keep particles from moving freely. 35 . Dry particle inspection is also used to detect shallow subsurface cracks.Dry Particle Inspection In this magnetic particle testing technique. Specifications often allow up to 0. dry particles are dusted onto the surface of the test object as the item is magnetized. rust or scale will reduce test sensitivity but can sometimes be left in place with adequate results. The surface must be free of grease.If the magnetic flux is being generated with an electromagnet or an electromagnetic field. prods.001 inch max (0.Use permanent magnets.With the magnetizing force still applied. they can be left in place. A thin layer of paint. a coil or other means to establish the necessary magnetic flux. rust or scale must be removed.076 mm) of a nonconductive coating (such as paint) and 0. Apply the magnetizing force . Half wave DC with prods and dry particles is commonly used when inspecting large castings for hot tears and cracks. Report of possibility of concluding false result. 2.003 inch (0. If permanent magnets are being used. PROCEDURE Prepare the part surface . remove the excess powder from the surface with a few gentle puffs of dry air. paint. Dust on the dry magnetic particles . Any loose dirt. Gently blow off the excess powder . The force of the air needs to be strong enough to remove the excess particles but not strong enough to dislodge particles held by a magnetic flux leakage field. Terminate the magnetizing force .the surface should be relatively clean but this is not as critical as it is with liquid penetrant inspection. Dry particle inspection is well suited for the inspections conducted on rough surfaces. When an electromagnetic yoke is used.