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1 The Effects of Code Usage in Intercultural Communication Some cultures are very hesitant about the value of words

. These are some of the many variations of intercultural ways to communicate. Direct Style- (European Americans) use verbal messages that are explicit in revealing the speaker’s true intentions and desires. Indirect Style- (African Americans and Koreans) will veil the speaker’s true wants and needs with ambiguous statements. Elaborate Style- (Arab and Latino) results in the frequent use of metaphors, proverbs, and other figurative language. Succint Style- (Japanese American, Native American, and Chinese American) there is a preference for understatement and long pauses. Personal Style- there is an emphasis on conversations in which the individual, as a unique human being, is the center of action. Contextual Style- (Japanese, Chinese, and Indian cultures) the emphasis is on the social roles that people have in relationships with others. Instrumental Style- communication is goal-oriented and depends on explicit verbal messages. Affective Style- more emotional and require sensitivity to the underlying meanings in both the verbal and nonverbal code systems. People from other cultures may organize their ideas, persuade others, and structure their conversations in a manner that differs from yours. You should attempt, to the greatest extent possible, to understand your own preferences for using verbal and nonvernbal codes to accomplish practical goals. The Art of Persuasion Persuasion involves an interaction between a speaker and his or her audience, in which the speaker intends to have the audience accept a point of view or a conclusion. Evidence is what a persuader offers to those she or he is trying to persuade. In any given persuasice situation, we have a myriad of sensory information or ideas. Cultural patterns supply the underlying assumptions that people within a culture use to determine what is “correct” and reasonable, and they therefore provide the persuader’s justification for linking the evidence to the conclusions desired from the audience. Quasilogical Style- preferred style for members of many Western cultures, where the preference is to use objective statistics and testimony from expert witness as evidence. The evidence is then connected to the conclusion in a way that resembles formal logic. (Example: In the quasilogical style, the speaker or persuader will connect the evidence to the persuasive conclusion by using such words as thus, hence, and therefore. Presentation Style- emphasizes and appeals to the emotional aspects of persuasion. In this style, it is understood that people, rather than the idea itself, are what make an idea persuasive. Analogical Style- seeks to establish an idea (a conclusion) and to persuade the listener by providing an analogy, a story, or a parable in which there is either an implicit or explicit lesson to be learned.