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and to the memory of

Handbook is dedicated to



United States Department of



Insect and Mite Pests in Food
An Illustrated Key
J. Richard Gorham

United States Department of

Health and Human Services
Public Health Service

Food and Drug Administration Washington DC

Handbook No. 655

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, B.C. 20402



Borham, J.R., ed. 1987. Insect and Mite Pests in Pood; An Illustrated Key. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook Number 655, 767 p., illus.

The publication, presented in two volumes, is and identification of the prehensive treatise food-contaminating arthropods (insects and their relatives). It provides the of identirapid and accurate than 600 species of pests encountered throughfying out the food industry. Diagnostic keys and useful illustrations of both adult and immature stages of these pests presented. Volume 1, arranged phylogenetically, consists of part and includes keys to the major anthropod pests of stored food. Volume 2, also arranged phylogenetically, consists of parts 2 and 3. It begins with general key to arthropod classes and insects orders. Except for chapter 7 in volume and chapter 25 in volume 2, all the keys in illustrated by drawings associated with parts and 2 illustrated by addikey couplets. The keys in part tional drawings in part 3 (ch. 27). The two volumes plement each other and should be used simultaneously to to time both the couplet at the permit the drawings (vol. 1) and the plate illustrations (vol. 2). Thus, the at the time both the specific features described in the key couplet and the general habitus of the arthropod being studied.

Responsibility for assuring safe and nutritious food supplies for the American people is shared by the Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services. While prevention of problems is the ideal, much past effort has been expended upon corrective constraints against foods that should have been allowed to become defective in the first place.

In keeping with the increasing emphasis prevention, this timely publication fnsect and Mite Pests in Food: An Illustrated Key is fundamental technical document to assist scientists in achieving early detection and before-the-fact prevention, well after-the-fact correction, of certain defects in food.

KEYWORDS: arthropod, stored-food pests, food pests, food insects, moths, Lepidoptera, food industry, beetles, cockroaches, weevils, ants, silverfish, psocids, thrips, aphids, parasitic wasps, springtails, scale insects

be purchased from the Copies of this publication Superintendent of Documents. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402.

be purchased from the National Microfiche copies Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161

Issued February 1991

Voliime 1

Voliume 2

J.R. 81arham

Classes and orders: Arthropods and insec!tS (Arthropoda, Insecta)

L.V. Krtutson


G.T. Okumura
Orders of larval Endopterygota (Insecta) W.R. Enns



Mites (Acari)

R.L. Smiley


Springtails (Collembola) H.G. Scott
Silverfish (Thysanura)


Cockroaches (Blattaria, Dictyoptera) A.B. Gurney and F.W. Fisk

45 22.

P. Wygodzinsky
Psocids (Psocoptera) E.L. Mockford
Thrips (Thysanoptera) G.T. Okumura and C.S. Papp
Aphids (Aphididae, Homoptera)


Adult beetles (Coleoptera) J.M. Kingsolver Larval beetles (Coleoptera) D.M. Anderson



23. 95



Dermestid beetles (Dermestidae, Coleoptera) J.M. Kingsolver
Spider beetles (Ptinidae, Coleoptera) T.J. Spilman

M.B. Stoetzel
115 25.


Scale insects (Coccoidea, Homoptera) D.R. Miller
Parasitic wasps


26. 149


Checkered beetles (Cleridae, Coleoptera) J.M. Kingsolver

(Apocrita, Hymenoptera) G. Gordh



Sap beetles (Nitidulidae, Coleoptera)
W.A. Connell

Illustrations of mites and insects A.D. Cushman, C. Feller, and others


Cryptophagid beetles (Cryptophagidae, Coleoptera) J.M. Kingsolver
Minute brown scavenger beetles (Lathridiidae, Coleoptera) J.M. Kingsofver and F.G. Andrews





Arthropod pests of the food industry; A list and taxonomic bibliography J.R. Gorham




Darkling beetles



(Tenebrionidae, Coleoplera) T-J. Spilman

Seed beetles (Bruchidae, Coleoptera) J.M. Kingsolver
Weevils (Curculionidae, Coleoptera) D.R. Whitehead





Adult moths (Lepidoptera)

D.C. Ferguson


Larval moths (Lepidoptera)



Flies (Diptera)

R.J. Gagne


Ants (Formicidae, Hymenoptera) D.R. Smith



of this handbook will be able to Although most effectively without any editorial explanations, few ments concerning the organization might be helpful to and at least of passing interest to others. All aspects of this project have been designed with the in mind. Our objective to make the handbook convenient to

storage situations. These keys, from the most general to the most specific, deal with insects and mites associated with food, not with insects and mites in general.
The geographic scope of this handbook is basically worldwide, since all the major cosmopolitan pests included. However, with regard to those pests that are not politan, the various specialists have selected those geographic parameters that consistent with their knowledge of the arthropods involved. The bionomic notes given for most species inform the reader about host materials and geographic distribution.

Because of the sheer volume of the material to be included in the handbook, is being published in two volumes, each of which is intended to complement the other. Volume consists of part (ch. 1-17) and includes keys to major arthropod pests of stored food. The arrangement q^___^._^EisJs-ess.anliaUi^biilooaoatir haoie^

ning with the mites and ending with the ants.

Volume 2 consists of part 2 (ch. 18-26) and part 3 (ch. 27, 28, appendix, and the index). Part 2 is also arranged phylogenetically, beginning with general key to arthropod classes and insect orders. Except for chapters 7 and 25, all the keys in parts and 2 have drawings associated with the key couplets. The keys in part further illustrated by additional drawings in part 3 (ch. 27). Since the couplet illustrations for part in volume and the plate illustrations in volume 2, the identifier will need to both volumes simultaneously. This permits the to at the time both the specific features described in the key couplet and the general habitus of the arthropod under consideration.
Plate is the only exception to this arrangement. Since it is the frontispiece of volume and since all the faxa illustrated therein keyed out in volume 1, the sionally will need to turn back to the frontispiece when keying out certain beetles in chapters 3, 5-7, 11, and 12. Chapter 14 refers to the frontispiece (plate 2) of volume 2.
With few exceptions, the plates arranged according to the order of appearance of each taxon in the keys of part 1. In both the couplet illustrations and in the habitus drawings of the plates, the figures that the oriented anterior aspect of the drawing points either up to the left. (In few instances, the couplet illustrations shown head-to-head tail-to-tail to facilitate comparison of structures.) In deference to the tradition of lepidopterists, the that oriented drawings of moth genitalia (ch. 14) anterior points down. The tradition of coccoidologists has also been respected in that the key to scale insects (ch. text figures rather than couplet illustrations. 25)

lustrations, the bionomic notes in the couplets, and the habitus drawings, the identifier may arrive at confident identification. If, however, after reaching this point, the still has doubt about the identity of particular specimen, he she has two options. One is to send the specimen to specialist to identify (see the appendix for

The second option is to consult scientific literature. To help you do this provided list of taxonomic aids in chapter 28 for most of the taxa included in this handbook well for many (approximately 400) that not. This list also taxonomic index to the handbook, with the entries, including complete scientific and (if any), arranged by order and family. (Throughout the handbook, the approved by the Entomological Society of America shown in boldface type.) In addition, the scientific and listed alphabetically in the general index. Occasionally, the complete scientific (genus, species, mentioned for ilauthor) is used in the text. Such taxa lustrative purposes only, relation to stored they have food and therefore do not appear in chapter 28. The authors of these taxa given for the convenience of the reader.

keyed out in the handbook. Approximately 650 taxa The major cosmopolitan pests invariably included in their respective chapters. Accidental pests not inmost field crop pests, except for those well cluded, commonly, if inadvertently, carried into processing that

Many people involved in making this handbook possible. In addition to the authors and the illustrators, others gave support to the completion of the book. For example, the book could not have been written without the administrative support of both the Food and Drug Administration and the Agricultural Research Service. In addition, many scientists, each her field, gave expert in his advice and suggestions to help achieve high level of accuracy and utility in the preparation of the keys. In short, thanks to all of you who assisted in making Insect and Mite Pests in Food: An Illustrated Key informative and useful reference in its field.
J. Richard Gorham Food and Druo Administration

and in their host preferences. distribution. the combined expertise of leading specialists in the United States has been marshaled to produce comprehensive and fully detailed manual for than 600 species quick and positive identification of of pests encountered throughout the many facets of the food industry. expensive visit of the khapra needed of beetle to the United States-identifications that the extent of the inthe difficult-to-identify larvae taken festation could be determined and control before the pest could spread throughout the country. A definitive work of this nature requires diverse mix of knowledge and capability-practical knowledge of which species need to be identified and which need to be cluded. The practically oriented food inspector. moths. population characteristics. food inspectors. exported from. Richard Gorham. J. Many classifications oped any other practical not developed with the present the products of basic research. current researchmakes tool such than the inheritors of and of research. Speaking for the authors. pronew crops and cessing. must be made by persons lacking specialized training in insect/arthropod systematics. prepared largely by research entomologists of the Agricultural Research Service’s Systematic Entomology Laboratory of the Biosystematics ahd Beneficial Insects Institute. objective in mind but Precise identification of pests and suspected pests is it is in the production essential in the food industry. consider the most recent. and others involved in maintaining the purity of processed foods. to enable frontline A prime objective practical nonspecialists to identify authoritatively large number of not only their time but also the time species. although few similar works have been published in England and Canada. with designed for sections prepared by other specialists. much of the develfundamental classification that today that two-century timespan. instructors in pest identification and pest management. pesticide applicators. fhrips. quarantine officer. and skill in scientific illustration and in organizational and editorial capability. and others in this field should pause to consider the nature and quality of the research that These points particularly important when siders that pest-identification requirements change as food habits change. and to thank the primary illustrators Candetta Feller and Arthur D. No manual of this kind has ever been published before in the United States.Introduction the identification of foodcontaminating arthropods (insects and their relatives) and international in food prepared for their audience of entomologists. both formerly with the Systematic Entomology Laboratory. In adand better known arthropod dition to the beetles. this available. The two volumes. both instructional aid. We. especially at the subspeciflc level. In the food industry. We anticipate dealing with increased numbers of diverse kinds of organisms. pest control operator. and resistance to pesticides. storage. Cushman. For example. commercial This comprehensive treatise food processors. well their natural enemies. for his leadership of this project. rapid and accurate identifiother insect cation. for their outstanding contributions to this project. The strengthened provided by scientifically based identificaregulatory the critical in the future tion may become also of certain pesticides is restricted. the poorly known groups such inmites. would like to thank the editor. packaging. This will of systematists who otherwise would be required to identify those specimens. and transported within the United States and other countries. Lloyd Knutson* Director Blosystematics and Beneficial Insects Institute Agricultural Research Service U. those species but also of closely related the ability to present this broad range of specialized detail in useful manner. international pathways of foods developed. and scale insects groups such cluded. particularly. and other procedures change. This handbook will help provide the basis for this capability. The emphases placed diagnostic keys and useful illustrations of both adult and immature stages special features. as the pests themselves change change. While many difficult problems remain in the classification of pests and related species. ahd flies. We can feel confident that these two for many important questions volumes will provide need to be time. At the for years to prepared for unpredictable future needs by maintaining systematics research and service capability. such parasitic forms. just and postharvest segments of agriculture. often of only fragment of thropod. Department of Agriculture ’Present address: Weeds Laboratory-Europe Biocontrol American Embassy-Agriculture York 09794-0007 .S. We hope that this handbook will increase the efficiency of food inspection and will help guarantee the purity of foods imported into. shipping. 200 years of basic systematic work. reference tool and For the first time. solid understanding of the identity of hot only similar forms.

Part 1 .

Department of Agriculture Beltsville MD 20705 .MITES (ACARI) R.L.S. Smiley Systematic Entomology Laboratory Plant Sciences Institute Agricultural Research Service U.

spiders. The mouthparts borne the gnathosoma. distinguished .) Several systems of subordinal nomenclature being used by acarologists. The acarine body. and ticks have kind of abdominal segmentation that is inconspicuous apparently absent. As arachnids. 1. is given in table 1. hypopi) provided merely supplemental information. because of their potential for certain food-storage situations.1.2). key. families. genera. food habits. that is joined to the abdomen by slender pedicel. differs widely in both morphology and behavior from earlier and later stages in the developmental cycle. birds. is composed mainly of the idiosoma. in contrast to the rather distinct body regions of insects. Hughes {18}.W. key. for of the higher taxa. The central objective of the key is to help the to identify those kinds of mites commonly associated with food. suborders. Zakhvatkin (28) should be consulted for keys to hypopodes. University (D. mites. in Some mites. phoretic parasitic insects. Terminology for the subdivisions of the mite body is given here. Eriophyoidea Astigmata Cryptostigmata ()). Acaridida Oribatida Astigmata Oribatida by unlikely belonging they widely Astigmata Cryptostigmata (14). of the subclass Acari System System 1|3 System 1114 System IV System V Order Parasititormes Onychopalpida1 Holothyroidea2 Notostigmata2 Parasitiformes2 Tetrastigmata Notostigmata Metastigmata Mesostigmata Holothyrida Opilioacarida Ixodida Gamasida Holothyrina Opitioacarida Ixodida Holothyrina7 Opiiioacarida7 Ixodida8 Ixodides1 Mesostigmata1 Mesostigmata Mesostigmata Order Acariformes Trombidiformes1’3 Prostigmata Actineida Prostigmata Prostiamata Tetrapodili2 Sarcoptiformes1’2 Acaridiae Oribatei (27) (3). The hypopus second nymphal stage) (deutonymph only in the Astigmata and then only occasionally. In the subclass Araneae (spiders). Since bionomic information is sometimes helpful adjunct in the process of making identification. available specific behaviors. The system used in this key. and species of mites associated with foods is based largely A Manual of Acarology by G. anterior region that is less distinct from the idiosoma. Acarology (20).1) and mites (Tig. have included notations to the key couplets whatever reliable information foods. (References 3. The occasional references to characters of the hypopodes (formerly. food associations. Krantz (20) and The Mites of Stored Foods and Houses among by A. and mammals and included here. along with other systems that have been proposed.Insect and Mite Pests in Food The key presented here to selected orders. The characters of the adult stage form the basis for most of the key couplets. Equivalent mainly suborders. the head and thorax combined in single unit. Region of mouth and mouthparts Region of legs and Region of legs ((( and IV Posterior Gnathosoma Propodosoma Podosoma Metapodosoma ---Idiosoma Hysterosoma Opisthosoma region Table 1. The subclass Acari includes the ticks (fig.M. the cephalothorax. and geographic distribution. 4. and 7 other important references consulted.1. 1.

L.palpus genital opening scutum festoon Figure 1. ventral.1. right.) . (Drawing by R. Smiley. Ixodid tick (Ixodida) (diagrammatic): Left. dorsal.

11.L. and 45 for other structural details). Smiley.Insect and Mite Pests in Food Figure 1.) . Mesostigmata). 3. Mesostigmatid mite. (Drawing by R. Androlaelaps casalis (Laelapidae.2. ventral view of female (see pi.

free living. spiracular (stigmal) plate (surrounds stigma) oval.1) and located between IV. 1. palpus with lined apotele (2C). with sclerotized plates shields Large leathery Acari (usually (see scutum.1). external parasites ----------------------------------ticks. stigma located between surrounded by elongate peritremal shield (fig. 1.Mites (Acari) KEY Drawings by Smiley With to 4 pairs of lateroventral hysterosomal stigmata (1A). fig. Haller’s organ (on dorsum of tarsus) present (2B). Order Acariformesinconspicuous stigmata). palpus without fined apotele (2A). Haller’s organ absent (2D). hypostome with retrorse teeth (2A). Order Parasitiformes---------------Without hysterosomal stigmata (1 C) (except for certain Cryptostigmata that may have absent. subtriangular (fig. and sometimes (2C). III and IV behind shaped. 1. Suborder Mesostigmata (mesostigmatid mites) parasitic 3 28 ixodid tick 2D Blatti3oc/us keegam . sensillum (propodosomal trichobothrium) absent (1 B). Suborder Ixodida without sclerotized Small nonleathery Acari (usually less than long). rounded. sensillum present (1D) 2 17 Order Parasitiformes 2 than long). with plates shields. hypostome without retrorse teeth and 111 between III and IV.2).

they Coxa not contiguous with and not overlapping tritosternal base (3B). hypostomal setae 1-111 arranged in (3A). Uropodidae (uropodid tortoise mites)----------------The uropodids ships moldy grain ably mycophagous. III and IV without foveae pedales (3B) 4 Idiosoma broadly rounded at posterior margin (pi. prob- warehouses. idiosoma tapered at posterior margin (p(. dorsal shield not bordered by of platelets (4B)~-----------------------Fuscuropoda marginata Distribution: Europe. with single cosmopolitan. v^-r\ ^ ’^-W-H-V ^^ 4A Leiodinychus krameri 4B Fuscuropoda marginata . dorsal shield bordered. 3A). 3C).^ychus krameri posteriorly. at least of platelets (festoons) (4A)-----Le/odf. III and IV with foveae pedales (leg grooves) (pi. 38). peritreme elongate and often strongly convoluted (pi. peritreme elongate but not convoluted (3B). 3B). damp. hypostomal setae 1-111 not arranged in (3C).Insect and Mite Pests in Food Suborder Mesostigmata 3 Coxa partially contiguous with and partially covering base of tritosternum (3A).

Germany. each with thickened midrib (6B). Ameroseiidae (ameroseiid mites) Corniculus not forked (5B)---------"-------------- 5A Kleemannia plumosa 5B Lasioseius Dorsal setae and pectinate. Iceland. habits: mycophagous. 4B&C Kleemannia plumosa Distribution: Australia. 4A -Kleemsnnia plumigera Distribution: England. Canada. Ireland. Dorsal setae broad and serrate. mycophagous. without thickened midrib (6A).Mites (Acari) 5 Corniculus forked distally (5A). Netherlands. pi. Netherlands. United States. England. Germany. Ireland. 6A Kleemannia plumigera 6B Kleemannia pfumosa . Israel. pi.

dorsal shield usually undivided (8B) and often reduced (see 11B). habits: prob- ably predaceous arthropods. Dorsal propodosoma without scleronoduli (8B). apotele of palpal tarsus 2-tined (7D)"- 8 Dorsal propodosoma with scleronoduli (8A).Insect and Mite Pests in Food 7 Tarsus without claws (7A).^^ -^ /. ’n\\ \ \\> w ~f- 8A Digamasellus 8B Blattisocius dentriticus 10 . 5. Digamasellidae (digamasellid mites) Digamasellus probably cosmopolitan. apotele of palpal tarsus 3-tined (7B).------ 9 ^-^ ^A tr^ /?/ \ ^ ^ \^ . dorsum covered with subequal propodosomal (podonotal) and hysterosomal (opisthonotal) shields (8A). dorsal shield is divided. Macrocheles muscaedomesticae Distribution. Macrochelidae (macrochelid mites)---------. Foods: eggs (Mu&ca domestica) phorelic Tarsus with claws (7C). then anterior (podonotal) shield is much larger than posterior (opisthonotal) shield (see 11A) fly mite. cosmopolitan. pi.

anal shield subrectangular (1 OB). adapted Epigynial shield pointed posteriorly (10D). Chicken hostschickens. Chelicera not scissorlike (10F). chela fixed. The leave invade buildings through openings. this family. representative cosmopolitan species. starlings. 6). originating from and retractable into adapted Chelicera stout.Mites (Acari) 9 Chelicera slender (9A). pigeons. Dermanyssidae chicken mite. originating from and retractable into gnathosoma (9C) 9A Liponyssoides sanguineus 9B Dermanyssus gallinae 9C Blattisocius dentriticus 10 Epigynial shield rounded posteriorly (10A). chela movable dermanyssid mites. whiplike needlelike. Dermanyssus gallinae (pi. anal shield oval in shape (10E). including domestic adapted 11 hinds birds n . Chelicera scissorlike (10C). sparrows. Macronyssidae (macronyssid mites)---Macronyssid parasitize mammals.

Ornithonyssus sylviarum Distribution: Australia. Liponyssoides sanguineus (New Yori<). 13 Epigynial shield rounded posteriorly and at least twice ventrianal shield long (13A). Dorsal shield rounded posteriorly. Europe. fig. 7----house Egypt.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 11 Dorsum with 2 shields (11A). Japan. cosmopolitan.2. situations. habits: arthropods. 11C). temperate regions the world. 8--------tropical rat mite. Zealand. America. dorsal shield setae often much shorter than setae unshielded dorsum (see 11C)-----northern fowl mite. Ornithonyssus bacoti Distribution: cosmopolitan. setae shielded dorsum (see 11B). mite. Ascidae (ascid mites)---------------------- 14 13A Androlaelaps ^ ^epigynial shield ^ 13B Blattiscx. pi. 1. Korea. Laelapidae (laelapid mites)------------Anaro/ae/aps casa//s cosmopilitan. Genus Ornithonyssus--- 12 11A Liponyssoides sanguineus 11C Ornithonyssus sylviarum 11B Ornithonyssus bacoti dorsal shield equal in length to setae 12 Dorsal shield pointed posteriorly. Russia. probably Dorsum with shield (11B. 12 . Epigynial shield truncate posteriorly and about equal in length to ventrianal shield (13B). pi. South Africa.

fixed and movable digits subequal in length (15B). Genus species mentioned virtually politan. extending forward to (15A). pi. They associated other mites 14A Lasioseius 14B Blaltisocius dentriticus 15 Peritreme long. and close together distally (14B). extending to digit much shorter than movable digit (15E). cheliceral fixed digit with tooth (15B). ventrianal plate with 9 setae (15F) 16 ^^ 15A Blattisocius dentriticus 15D Blattisocius keegani 15B Blattisocius dentriticus 15E Blattisocius keegani 15C Blattisocius dentriticus 15F Blattisocius keegani 13 . convergent. 9Acouplet III (15D). cheliceral fixed digit toothless (15E). and well separated distally (14A) Distribution: Europe. slender. fixed Peritreme short. less parallel.Mites (Acari) 14 Corniculi relatively short. prob- Corniculi long. ventrianal plate with 11 ------Blattisocius dentriticus setae (15C). ably mycophagous Slatespredaceous.

~\o----------Blattisocius keegani ^ 16A Blattisocius tarsalis 16B Blattisocius keegani Order Acariformes 17 Stigmata absent (as in all Astigmata) present (as in if present. rarely strong.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 16 Cheliceral movable digit with 3 teeth (16A). Suborder Prostigmata (prostigmatid mites)pairs claw. rayed (17H). (17F) strong plale claspers metapodosoma (17J). Cryptosiigmata.Asligs ctyptostigs by following: Adults always legs. by 17B) suckerlike pulvillus (17B). usually strong. but shoulders of anterior 18 propodosoma-------------------------------stigmata stigmata (hence always difficult Crypto- suborder) the Prostigmata. present. legs. stigmata. 19B. chelicera usually dentate. puvillus podium absent). 9B----------B/aft/socms tarsalis Cheliceral movable digit with tooth (16B). usually 47 present. styletiform (171). 18B. pairs present (17A). empodium seldom (17A. empodium usually present. often very (17A) (claw small. pi. chelate. palpus complex. palpus with complex (17D). hypopodes 14 . (17C). strong podosoma (opisthogaster) claspers plate (17E). styletiform. 17A&C. help the given Astigmata. pi. padlike (17H). opening between bases of chelicerae Cryptostigmata). hypopodes (pi. 23. pulvillus (if any resembling present. usually by rayed (17H). chelate. 25). empodium. Stigmata present and opening either between bases of chelicerae (17F) shoulders of propodosoma (17G). hairs. teeth. 20A. 17B).


Suborder Cryptostigmata usually homomorphic. 18F). clawlike. 19 16 . often borne pretarsus. Only species food-storage notably widely only infrequently) processed foods.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 18 Integument usually strongly sclerotized. genital (18C) and anal (18D) openings similar in shape and covered by trapdoorlike valves. Phauloppia lucorum. sensory setae (sensilla prodorsal trichobothria) present propodosoma (18B). pi. Y (181). V (18H). oribatid mites. found (and foods moldy Among these Aphelacarus laevigatus. not borne pretarsus (18A). empodium clawlike (18E. 11A beetle mites. Suborder Astigmata (astigmatid mites)---------------homomorphic heteromorphic. if at all. 18K) openings not similar in shape. 181) and anal (18J. Y. genital (18H. and usually flanked by 2 pairs of genital discs. Integument weakly sclerotized. V) and usually flanked by 3 pairs of genital discs. present. genital opening longitudinal (18C) (not shaped like inverted U. genital opening transverse shaped like inverted U. empodium. sensory setae absent from propodosoma (18G).

18A 18E Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 18G Tyrophagus putrescentiae ^’ 18C 18H 18D Scheloribales 18J Derfnatophagoides fannae 18K Carpoglyphus lactis (A-D) (H8.J) (I&K) .

e.. granular (19C) 19B Aeroglyphus robustus 19C Eumglyphus maynei 20 Legs and clawlike (i. pi. the whole leg functions claw) and terminating in long pretarsi (20A). Sarcopfes scabiei cosmopolitan.Insect and Mite Pests in Food Suborder Astigmata 19 Integumental striae of dorsal hysterosoma broken by spinelike projections (19A). 20G) 18 . the lobes do not each bear 2 long and 3 short simple setae (20F. Sarcoptidae (sarcoptid mites)------------itch mite. Psoroptidae (scab mites) scab mite. sclerotized genital apodemes present (20E) absent. smooth. 11B. genital opening of female Inverted U (20B) and flanked by sclerotized genital apodemes. shaped like opisthosoma of male bilobed. tarsi and heavily sclerotized (20A). tarsi and lightly sclerotized (20D). Food habits: adapted parasite Integumental striae not broken by spinelike projections-surface may be warty (19B). 12. pt. each lobe bearing 2 long simple setae and 3 short simple setae (20C). Psomptes equi cosmopolitan- Legs and neither clawlike terminating in long pretarsi. if posterior end of male appears bilobed. genital opening of female not shaped like inverted U (20E).

13A.---.-------------brown flour cosmopolitan._--. Carpoglyphidae (driedfruit mites) ------.Mites (Acari) 21 Apodemes and /p-iA\ fused with sternum and surrounding anterior end of genital plate 2? Apodeme not fused with sternum and not adjoining anterior end of genital plate (21 B) apodeme 23 apodeme 21 A Carpoglyphus lactis 21B Aeroglyphus robustus 2. Europe. 13B. W 22A Gohieria fusca 22C Carpoglyphus iactis 22D Carpoglyphus tactis 19 .---. epigynial shield subrectangular (22B). Food associations: of mite. sugar. Glycyphagidae (glycyphagid mites) (in part) --. America: probassociations: containing ably cosmopolitan. Gohieria fuses.---. pi.--------driedfruit mite. pi. epigynial shield subtriangular (22D). flour many Genua and tibiae to IV without sclerotized ridges (22C).---. Carpoglyphus lactis Argentina.---------.2 Genua and tibiae to IV with sclerotized ridges (22A).

and Glycyphagidae (glycyphagid mites) (in part)than twice long Tarsi to IV stout. leg with tarsal scale (25F)---------------------------Lep/cfogtyp/7us Lepidoglyphus destructor. is representative distribution. and usually not adjacent tibiae (23A). Glycyphagus domesticus (pi. Crista metopica absent (25D). pi. i4-------------warty grain mite. adjacent tibiae (23B)- 24 Dorsal idiosoma with conspicuous wartiike tubercles (24A). cuticle without striations (24B)------------------- 25 24B Glycyphagus domesticus 25 Crista metopica (prodorsal sclerite) present (25A). 15). fish products. leg without tarsal scale (25C)--------------Glycyphagus mile. grain adapted products. supracoxal seta with stout branches (25E). cuticle at least partially striate (24A). 20 . mites associated this species food. cosmopolitan foods fungi. representative of distributed widely with with fungi. supracoxal seta with slender branches (25B).Insect and Mite Pests in Food than twice long 23 Tarsi to IV slender. Aeroglyphus robustus America. grains. Dorsal idiosoma without wartiike tubercles (24B) (but small triangular spicules may be present).

metapodosomal venter without prominent.Mites (Acari) 25B Crista metopica 25A Glycyphagus domesticus 25 D Lepidoglyphus destructor 25C Glycyphagus domesticus 25 F Lepidoglyphus destructor 26 Tarsal tip bearing large and conspicuous clawlike empodium associated with pulvillus of variable size (26A). tip of tarsus bearing a large. and metapodosomal venter with prominent. and metapodosomal venter without prominent. ringlike structures------------------------Tarsal tip bearing minute claw surrounded by conspicuous discoid belt-shaped pulvillus (26B). ringlike structures (see 27 pulvillus 26B Dermatophagoides farinae 21 . 26D). strongly-sclerotized. ringlike structures (as in 42D). stronglysclerotized. clawlike empodium (26C.

Synonym: Suidasia \ 28B 28E 28A Suldasia nesbitti 28D Suldasia pontifica 28F Suidasia pontifica (E&F) 22 . Foods: peanuts. pi. Rico. 16------------------------scaly grain mite. Acaridae (acarid mites) (in part)--Dorsal idiosoma unpatterned (27B)------------------- 28 29 27B Thyreophagus entomophagus 28 Female with hi (apical dorsolateral seta of hysterosoma) shorter than he (humeral seta) (28A) and with anal region subcircular (28B). Europe. Oudemans. wheat bran. male with anal suckers (28F)---------------------Suldasia pontUica Distribution: Africa. male without anal suckers (28C). Foods: Female with hi long longer than he (28D) and with anal region circular (28E).(nsect and Mite Pests in Food 27 Dorsal idiosoma patterned (27A). Europe. Susdasia nesbitti Distribution: Africa.

17C--. Kenya. 23 . tip of tarsus III of male with simple claw (29D). Europe.Lardoglyphus zacheri America.Mites (Acari) 29 Tarsal claws to IV of female bifurcate (29A). Genus Lardoglyphus----male angelinae 30 See Olsen key chapter 28) (H001 separate species 23. hysterosomal shield of hypopus with 14 spines (30F). associations: slaughterhouse byproducts wastes. moldy Australia. tarsi (30B) and male with bifurcate claws. India. Japan.Lardoglyphus konoi Europe. States. Mexico. 29A Lardoglyphus 30 Seta c^ than 3 times as long 0/3 (30A). tip of tarsus III of male with 2 large spines (29B). fish. 17A&B Seta c/4 subequal in length to c/s (30D). tarsi (30E) and of male with simple claws. pi. Acaridae (acarid mites) (in part)-------------------- \ \ \^ y’^ zacheri ^^ ---. Lardoglyphidae (lardoglyphid mites). hysterosiomal shield of hypopus with 10 spines (30C). pi. Tarsal claws of female simple (29C). States.

Solenidion seta d2 of hypopus not extending beyond base of 03 (33D) 34 24 .fnsect and Mite Pests in Food 31 Inner proximal seta (scQ approximately long longer than outer proximal seta 32 37 (sce)(31A)-----------------------------------Inner proxima! seta absent (31B) much shorter than outer seta (31C) 32 Solenidion than 3 times longer than genu (32A). Acarus siro cosmopolitan. femur of male not enlarged and not bearing ventral conical process (32D) larged. femur of male ventral conical process (32B). seta d. of hypopus extending beyond base of da (33B). fungi. pi. of tarsus recumbent. Foods: processed grains. with distinct constriction proximal to terminal 33 Solenidion expansion (33A). of tarsus not recumbent and without distinct constriction (33C). with 33 35 setal terminology plied Acaridae. Genus Acarus---------Solenidion genu less than 3 times longer than (32C). 18 grain mite.

Mites (Acari) 33A Acarus sit’o 33C Acarus farns 34 of tarsus with sides expanding gradually from base. States. with sides almost parallel and with distinct egg-shaped head that is wider at of hypopus subany part of the stem (34C). setae sc/ and long Acarus farris hysterosomal setae (34B). Couplets 32-34 adapted 13. cheese. grains w-\ field. pi. width of widest part of head of hypopus about 2 times equal to width of stem (34A). Europe. Foods: grains. pi. United States. 20Aits widest part than Distribution: Europe. cheese. 19-----------Africa. then narrowing to indistinct neck before expanding into terminal head. 34C Acarus immobilis ^34D ^ \ /Icarus immobilis 25 . setae sc/ and Acarus immobilis equal in length to hysterosomal setae (34D).

stout spicules (36A).Insect and Mite Pests in Food 35 Seta vi than 4 times longer than seta (35A). seta c/2 not passing base of 0/3 (pi. 20B -cheese mite. cheese. 21 B)----mold mite. with short. seta c/s extending well beyond base of 0/3 (pi. which key tropicus Britain. (dried eggs. cheese. species. Africa. pi. many other stored foods). New According Hughes putrescentiae having c/i d (/a putrescentiae}. slender spicules (36B). high protein fungi. 21A)-~-------------------Tyropftagus longior cosmopolitan. tropicus differs long equal length this point. fat nuts. (18). tropicus. including foods. with long. Tyrophagus putrescentiae cosmopolitan. Seta vi less than 3 times long seta (35B). Tyrotichus case/ cosmopolitan. 36A Tyrophagus longior 36B Tyrophagus putrescentiae 26 . Genus Tyrophagus 36 . rice. bulbous. grains. Europe. many Supracoxai seta stout. T.upracoxal seta 35A Tyrolichus 35B Tyrophagus longior 36 Supracoxai seta (see 35B) slender.

38E)- supracoxal seta 38E Schwiebia 38C Histlogastar 38D Thyreophagus 27 . d. also 31 C)- 38 37A Aieurogiyphus 37B Caloglyphus 38 Setae scf. America. probably fungi bran. Russia. 38B)------Setae so. flour.(38C. da. and ds absent. wheat. present.. then not level with vi (37B. chicken meal. 38D.-ds present (38A. cl. Japan. fish products. Aleuroglyphus ovatus Distribution: Europe. Seta absent (see 31 B) or.Mites (Acari) 37 Seta nearly level with vi (37A)-----brownlegged grain mite.

They Tarsus with simple seta adjacent to |=SanGasan. Tarsus with spinelike seta (ba) in front of Opisthosomal male. widely distributed. ca//ae. 28 . (40D). 22B.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 39 Tarsus with large. 23). and cua (40C)-present. echinopus. have the literature potential taminants. insects. robini (pi. flour. 39A Rhizoglyphus 40 Tarsus without spinelike seta in front of and (40A) Thyreophagus entomophagus Opisthosomal Distribution: Europe. virtually cosmopolitan species. References: 78.a] w-\ and (39B)- Caloglyphus (pi. feeds fungi associated Reference: damp. simple (unlobed) (40B). 24). spinelike seta adjacent to and (39A)- Rhizoglyphus associated decaying plant species.

Histiogaster Distribution: Europe. 43 29 . opisthosomal shield absent from male--------------------------------"--Scftmeb/’a Distribution.Mites (Acari) 41 Tarsus short and stubby. also found in wine. long wide (41 B). Hong Kong. Palpal tarsus without V-shaped process (42C). Pyroglyphidae (pyroglyphid mites)5. opisthosomal shield present male (see 40D)-----------------------. 25-27) adapted family associated typical family. chapter Woodring (C018) 41A Schwiebia 41B Histiogaster 42 Palpal tarsus with apical sensillae forming Y-shaped process (42A). Reference: ginger (rotting). about as long wide (41A). Histiostomatidae Some production heinemanni (pi. metapodosomal venter without ringtike small and weakly structures (genital papillae may be present. meat. hypopodial stage present (pi. but they sclerotized). taro. as in 42D. 10. cosmopotitan. North fish. metapodosomal venter with prominent. strongly-sclerotized. tomatoes. (COOS) chapter than twice Tarsus elongate. ringlike structures (42B). hypopodiat stage absent. 25)-------------histiostomatid mites.

France. ventral opisthosoma of male with 3 pairs of setae posterior margin (44C). Genus Dermatophagoides species associated Dermatophggoides "house 43B 43E 43F Dermatophagoides farinas 44 Genital sclerite with 2 pairs of setae anal aperture (44A). anal sucker plate not surrounded by sclerotized (43C).Insect and Mite Pests in Food 43 Seta long sc/" (43A). granary Genital sclerite with pair of setae (44D). with pair of setae anal aperture (44E). vulva covered with membrane (43B). States (Ohio). anal plate of male rounded and located closer to the posterior margin of 30 . 29 Eurogtyphus tongior England. anal plate of male pointed and located approximately equidistant between genital plate and posterior margin of opisthosoma (44C). Genus Euroglyphus Seta at least 5 times longer than sc/ (43D). with 2 pairs of setae (44B). Sweden. posterior margin of idiosoma of male with 10 setae (43F). vulva not covered with membrane (43E). 28. posterior margin of idiosoma of male with 3 to 6 setae (43C). pi. anal sucker plate surrounded by sclerotized (43F).

----------European house dust mite. Japan. 32) with daisylike sclerotized base (45A) -. 30.Mites (Acari) body than to the genital plate (44F). 44D 44E 45 Seminal receptacle of bursa copulatrix (see pi. Substrates: decomposing oil. ventral opisthosoma of male with 2 pairs of setae posterior margin (44F). pf. See couplet Base of seminal receptacle not daisylike in shape (45B)- 45A Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 45B Dermatophagoides microceras 31 . 3i-----------urog/yp/7us maynei Distribution: Europe. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Dislribution: essentially cosmopolitan.

33B) pairs of legs- 48 32 . Eriophyes ficus (47A) (Eriophyidae). mites. pi. (Louisiana). superfamily. Stales. bursa copulatrix lightly sclerotized (46D)----Dermatophagoides microceras Distribution: England. Japan. 33A) 4 (pi. 32----American house dust mite. the they depending kind they (20). miles. Dermatophagoides farinae Distribution: England. Eriophyoidea fig mite. Leone. Netherlands. representative phytophagous With 3 (pi. Sclerotized process at apex of tarsus small and blunt (46C). gall mites. Russia. Eriophyoids cosmopolitan. Spain. bursa copulatrix heavily sclerotized (46B). They variously mites. 46A Dermatophagoides 46C Dermatophagoides 46B Dermatophagoides 46D Dermatophagoides farinae microceras farinae microceras Suborder Prostigmata 47 With 2 pairs of legs (47A) -eriophyoid mites.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 46 Sclerotized process at apex of tarsus large and sharp (46A).

Ne-matalycid (Nematalycidae) they have long legs. Body not wormlike (48B) 49 49 Palpal tarsus with thumb-claw complex adapted (49A-C)- Palpal tarsus without thumb-claw complex (490)- 49D Tydeus 33 .Mites (Acari) 48 Body wormlike (48A) dog follicle mite. representative of parasitize -follicle mites. host-specific stubby. Demodicidae (48A). They widely distributed (20). by pairs of legs short respectively.

adult without crista metopica (50E)of superfamily Erythraeoidea key key point. 33A) birds and including may adapted pests Larva without urstigma (500). stage Leptofrombidium (pi. erythraeoid. adult with crista metopica (508. six-legged parasitic this with food. Larval erylhraeoid having tetranychids and cheyletids chelae metopica. resembling adult erythraeoids the long straight short. also 50C)---------------------------------Trombidioidea Although possible superfamily might form special parasitic. curved. 50A Trombicula microti 500 Scutacarus baculitarsus agaricus 50C Balaustium putnami SOB trombidiid mite 50E Cheletomorpha iepicfopterorum 34 .Insect and Mife Pests in Food 50 Larva with urstigma (Claparede organ) (50A). invades buildings Europe (20). 51 chelae. (50C) of differ couplet. chigger.

--Cheletomorpha lepidopterorum 53 Tarsus with paired claws (52C). Palpus with comblike setae (51B). palpal claw with basal tooth (52B). especially distribution essentially cosmopolitan. 34- (52A). Clover grasses Slates.Mites (Acari) 51 Palpus without comblike setae (51A)- spider mites. Bryobia praetiosa (pi. They 51B Cheyletus eruditus without paired claws 52 Tarsus pi. palpal claw with 2 basal teeth (52D) 52A Cheletomorpha lepidopterorum 52C Cheyletus malaccensis 52B Cheletomorpha lepidopterorum 52D Cheyletus eruditus 35 . Cheyletidae (cheyletid mites)-Cheyletid 52 prey arthropods. Note legs bearing single fringed found in disproportionately long. They buildings they lay eggs. the idiosoma anterior margin by lobes. Tetranychidae The mite. 33B). They Europe Inherbaceous plants.

but longer than palpal tarsus (55B) 56 36 . (see couplet comnrionly laboratory 48B).Insect and Mite Pests in Food 53 Basal teeth of palpus similar in form (53A).------Cheyletus malaccensis Basal teeth dissimilar (51 C). femur IV with 2 setae (53B) Cheyletus eruditus seta (53D). the longer being at least 4 times the palpal tarsus (55A)------------snout mites. femur IV with 53C Cheyletus malaccensis 53D Cheyletus malaccensis 54 Leg modified for clinging to hairs (54A) -----------myobi id mites. Palpus not elbowed. apical setae variable. parasites Leg not modified for clinging to hairs (54B) 55 54A Myobia muscularis 54B Spinibdella bifurcata 55 Palpus somewhat elbow-shaped. with 2 long apical setae. Myobiidae Myobia affinis. 35A) predator miles grains (Texas). Bdellidae long Spinibdella associated (pi.

Halacaridae (pi. podapolipophagus These mites. Tarsal claw not pectinate or. Tragardh.Mites (Acari) 56 Tarsal claw both pectinate and scythe-shaped (56A)- halacarid mites. ectoparasites that coincides their External peritreme absent (57B)--- 58 palpus peritreme.^ 57A Pimeiiaphilus cunliffei 57B Pyemotes tntici 37 . then not scythe-shaped (56B)- 56A Rhombognathides seahami 56B Tydeus 57 External peritreme present (57A). formerly cockroaches. Pterygosomatidae (pterygosomatid mites) cockroach mite. 36A. 35B) found Rhombognattiides dulse. if pectinate. Pimeiiaphilus cunliffei P. pi.

Scutacaridae baculifarsus agaricus (22) (pi. tarsal claw and pulvillus smooth.-.--.scutacarid mites. tarsal claw and podium either smooth pectinate.-. 36B). Tydeidae Tydeid mites.. subspecies Pennsylvania phorid Delaware. 38) representative family.--.. trochanter IV of male subtriangufar (59B) ....---. trochanter IV of male subrectangular (by u) 60 38 ..-.-. probably Sensillum of female globular (58C). occasionally there foods.--. rayed hairs present (58B) ---. phoretic family widely Female without hoodlike podonotal shield (59C).-. especially (pi...-.---.-..{nsect and Mite Pests in Food 58 Sensillum (prodorsal trichobothrium) of female setaceous (58A).---. 37..--.--.---_.----..tydeid mites.-. they prey Tydeus in uncertain..-----------.------.. without rayed 59 58B Tydeus 59 Female with hoodlike podonotal shield covering propodosoma and gnathosoma (margin of podonotal shield striated) (59A).-.

but with apical whiplike setae (608). gravid female with saclike hysterosoma (pi. claw. sometimes elongate beak. palpus of male reduced in size absent. production Pennsylvania (76). 40A)-Leg IV of female without pretarus. male palpus always present but variable in shape.Mites (Acari) 59A Scutacarus baculitarsus agaricus 59C Pseudopygmephorus smileyi (latercil view) 59B Scutacarus baculitarsus agaricus 59D Pyemotes tritici 60 Leg IV of female with pretarsus. idiosoma oval. 44). Other tetranychoid feed eggs (26). and pulvillus. forming Tarsonemidae (tarsonemid mites)----------------------fungi. claw. and pulvillus. 39 . idiosoma elongate. elongate beak (pi. 39). but without apical whiplike setae forming (60A). gravid female without saclike hysterosoma (pi. which 61 62 lukoschusi. grainsspecies.

41). Pygmephoridae Pygmephorus sellnicki (pi. Sitophilus S/torroga oryzae. including Oryzaephilus surinamensis. 40). Pseudopygmephorus smileyi (pi. 43) pest Pennsylvania (77).insect and Mite Pests in Food 61 Gnathosoma of male about wide long (61 A). Callosobruchus maculatus. 61 E)---------------------mushroom mites. Gnathosoma of male longer than wide (61 C). trochanter IV of female triangular (61B)---------------------------pyemotid mites. 39. Pyemotes (6) parasite (Newport)] (pi. trochanter IV of female quadrangular (61 D. European species United States. Pyemotidae mite. 42. introduced mushrooms (25). 40 .

-...--.. 44 male with angulation -Tarsonemus United States. pi....-.-. England.-----------.-.Mites (Acari) 62 Leg IV of female extending beyond margin of opisthosoma (62A). pharyngeal structure strongly sclerotized.. 41 . without conspicuous glands at base (62B).-.. femur IV of inner surface base (62C). Japan.-.Tarsonemus granarius Distribution: Canada.--.-. pharyngeal structure weakly sclerotized.-. pi...-.-. 45 male without angulation . femur IV of base (62F).--. with conspicuous glands at base (62E).-. Leg IV of female not extending beyond margin of opisthosoma (62D).

Soc. and G. Ent..A. E. La chaetotaxie des pattes chex les Acarididae. A. Guide the families of mites. Deahl. D. Cross. Le genre Dermatophagoides Bogdanov 1864 importance dans les allergies respiratoires et chez I’homme (Psoroptidae: Sarcoptiformes). with key to species. Trans. M. E. 73 Griffiths. National Pest Control Association. A dimorphic species of Pyemores and to previously-described forms (Acarina. Acarologia 9(1)179-225. 1939. van. Acarida) with diagnoses. Hammen. E. 10 Fain.M.) 11(6)415-464. 1952. Q.J. Camin.L. Museum (Natural History).(Nat. Soc. Acarina).H. University of Maryland.W. Mites in birds’ nests (Acarina). Jour. Jour. and D. London 35:139-270.) (Zool. Hist.E.A. New York. Terrestrial mites of New York. key.A-.W. Moser.M. Meded. Hull. 15 Hill.W. France 64(1)50-60. 1971. and E. Ann. A manual of parasitic mites of medical economic importance. Baker.O. A. 1964. Sheals. An introduction their external morphology and classification.J. and J. Evans. 8 Evans. F. Bull. 72(3-4)257-288. L. 1958. The terrestrial Acari of the British Isles. Browning. 1965. T. and phylogeny.M. Bot. Gould.N. 1976. Bronswijk. 12 Grandjean. Evans.. 1972. Institute of Acarology.. Sinha.W-.Soc.G. Washington 80(3)317-329. G. pi. and H. 11 Fain.O.H. Yunker. and C. Zool. 1975. Cunliffe. A.. New York. Baker. and K. Baker. F. College Park. Rev. and W.D.L. Evans. 47(22)273-292. der. Zool. British 1961. Les acariens nidicoles detriticoles de la famille Pyroglyphidae Cunliffe (Sarcoptiformes).. 1967. 1978. An introduction to acarology. British Museum (Natural History). Allergy 47(1)31-52. London. Proc.Insect and Mite Pests in Food References Cited Baker. J. 42 . and R.E. Bull. 1956. E. 1955. key Some British mites of economic importance. Zool. Afr. J.B. Soc. Ent. Zool. Pyroglyphid mites (Acari) and house dust allergy. 1979. J. New York Ent. and M..C.W. Woolley. species of Description and life cycle of Histiostoma (Acari: Histiostomidae) associated with commercial mushroom production.O. Tarsonemoidea). A revision of the genus Acarus L. D. Mesostigmatic mites of Britain and Ireland (Chelicerata: Acari-Parasitiformes). Abbatiello. LondonG. Macfarlane. British Mus.. E. Soc. Wharton. T. Keegan. II. 1758 (Acaridae. Delfinado. Till.. Macmillan. 84(1)48-66. America 68(4)723-732. W. A revised classification of the mites (Arachnoidea.

. R. 1978. 100. D. and K. In Fauna of U. Ber. Book Stores.C.L. 1976. Mag.. Proc. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Becker und Erier. Kansas Ent. R. Ratcliffe and 6. Ministry of Agriculture. A re-examination of the genera Pimeliaphilus Tragardh 1905 and Hirstiella Berlese 1920 (Acari.S. 2d ed. Ann.U. Washington 80(3)330-334. 18 Hughes. Bronns Klassen Ordnungen des Tierreichs. 1976. with key to females and overview of the current problems for classification (Acari: Pyemotidae and Pygmephoridae). 24 Smiley. Acarologische Aanteekeningen.L. K. 1961.L. Proc. 1869 (Acarina: Acaridae). G-W. Acarina. 1978. America 69(6)1065-1072. Ent. Soc. A.. 1978. H. Hughes published in 1959 by American Institute of Biological Sciences. Deahl. Acarologia 13(4)621-650. Soc.M.C.S. 8(170)28-36. Ent. 19 Jack. A species of Tarsonemus (Acarina: tetranychoid mite Tarsonemidae). with notes phoretic behavior. In Dr. 1943. A. 1929.M. Hist. 22 Norton. and V. A. Two species. A. (Acarina: Scutacaridae) from commercial mushroom houses. 13(4)305-314.G. 1974. 1968. 47(4)527-534. Ent. London. of Tarsonemus (Acari: Tarsonemidae) associated with commercial mushroom production. 1978. subsp.16 Hill. Washington 80(3)335-343. and K.A. 27 Vitzthum. O. Jour. English translation by A. Landwehr. predaceous eggs. 28 Zakhvatkin. 2d ed.R. Corvalis OR. A. and G. The mites of stored food and houses. 25 Smiley.S. 17 Hill. Fisheries and Food Technical Bulletin 9. Washington 70(1)13-21.. 1972. R. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office. A species ol Pseudopygmephorus (Acari: Pygmephoridae) associated with commercial mushroom production. Acarology 4(2)125-160. Ide. Tyroglyphoidea [Acari]. A contribution Ihe study of the genus Rhizoglyphus Claparede. Soc. Ann. Taxonomic studies Pygmephows species from the Western Hemisphere. L. 1.Soc. H. 23 Oudemans. 21 Manson.G.. Soc. . Scutacarus baculitarsus agaricus. Nat. Washington DC. A. See pages 751-925. Jour. 1941. Ent. 20 Krantz. Prostigmata).L.S.M. Internatl.M. Proc. R. A manual of acarology.L.R.eipzig. Ent. Deahl. 26 Smiley.A. A species of genus and three Erythraeoidea (Acarina: Erythraeidae and Smarididae).

(nsect and Mite Pests in Food Notes and Sketches 44 .

Gurney* Systematic Entomology Laboratory Plant Sciences Institute Agricultural Research Service U.COCKROACHES (BLATTARIA. Fisk Department of Entomology The Ohio State University Columbus OH 43210 Deceased .S. Department of Agriculture c/o National Museum of Natural History Washington DC 20560 Frank W. DICTYOPTERA) Ashley B.

S5B&C). 47D). 49A&B). Blaberidae: Blaberus cranilfer (pi. Her system. Blattellidae: Blattella vaga (pi. 53B&C). 60A&B). either by invasion from natural habitats sometimes by importation of cockroaches that domestic in their home territories. older. Blatta orientalis (pi. Polyphagidae: Keyed to family level only (pi. Pycnoscelus surinaniensis (pi. (pi. 46A&B). Petmatosilpha spp. life history information. sometimes subtropical climates. single family. 57C&D). which has been dorsed widely. 23-25. P. 14. 60). B. P. (pi. Supella longipalpa (pi. Those species listed represented in this chapter only by illustrations here according to their family affiliation. Blattella llturicollis (pi. The species included in this key listed here according to their family affiliation and in the order in which they appear in the following key to adult cockroaches. 53. Blatta orientalis. 56D&E). the following publications from sugamong those listed at the end of the chapter mentioned in the key): Cockroaches in gested (others general. B. 49C&D). 58). 59). 10. Lupparia sp. giganteus (pi./nsect and Mite Pests in Food This key to the adults ahd egg (oothecae) of the species most likely to infest food products is intended States. and Blaberidae. Periplaneta brunnea is quite For readers wishing information aspects other than those dealt with here. Blattidae. 46D). 55A). traditional sense. Nauphoeta cinerea (pi. applied aspects. Eclobius pallidus (pi. Blaberus spp. especially the duration of the stages of the better known species. The recent-and hopefully ephemeral-appearances of Btatta tateralis (6. identification. sylvestris (pi. 32. australasiae and Leucophaea stature maderae. Cryptocercidae: Cryptocercus punctulatus (pi. 46 . germanica (pi. 508). 20. 47. Blattidae: Periplaneta fuliginosa (pi. 52). P. In the southern third of the United States. S4A&B). Cryptophagidae: Keyed to family level only (pi. 52C- Blattidae: Dempeltis erythrocephala (pi. 21. In families. Shawella couloniana (pi. Blatta lateralis (pi. ecology. 29. 30. 53D&E). approved names. 50A). 57B). 34. 8. 56A-C). It will be for the in United taxa occurring primarily helpful for many other countries also because most of the species discussed here cosmopolitan nearly than P. Lemproblatta spp. Parcoblatta spp. discoidalis (pi. In prevalent. Eurycotis lloridana (pi. 55D). several other species often attain considerable pests. 48). "Blattidae. Although any of these species may be important at times. Blattelta asahinai. (pi. E). (pi. 56D&E). 48. Ectobius lapponicus (pi. 11. 54C-E). (pi. Some earlier classifications recognized larger number of of which still used by few writers. 61). Polyphagidae: Arenivaga spp. 53A). 57A). The basic classification of cockroaches followed here is that of McKittrick (31). notably P. americana." inthis usage still appears in cludes all cockroaches. Methana marginalis (pi. amerlcana (pi. Blattellidae: Aglaopteryx gemma (pi. 9. 47A). (pi. Pycnoscelus indicus (pi. Ectobius sylvestris (26). 60C). recognizes five families: Cryptocercidae. 51A&B). 52B). four species the most serious pest cockroaches in the United States: Blattella germanica. Leucophaea maderae (pi. and Supella longipalpa. 57A). 47C). australasiae (pi. Blaberidae: Panchlora nivea (pi. Periplaneta japonica (pi. Nyctibora noctivaga (pi. S1. foreign countries with tropical other commercial board ships carrying fruit well foodstuffs. 54. Blattellidae. 42 (see also chapter 28). 60D). 38. Neostylopyga rhombllolia (pi. and Epilampra maya in the United States have to include in this chapter illustrations of prompted selected species that might become domiciliary in the United States. 6. E. 51C&D). brunnea (pi. Periplaneta americana. 52A). Polyphagidae. textbooks and general entomological literature. 47B).

couplet 17) of Drawings by Oothecatypes (44} {47) (42. respiratory vary among species. Adier. D. Arenivaga (Blattidae. plied nymphs. (42}. though (1B). wing pads (sheaths) (pi. southern (males winged. Adults and species (or genera Blaberus} only sign wings nymphs key wings (1A). however. cidae. by flange (1 D). Polyphagidae) Cryptocercus punctulatus (CryptocerNorth Africa. identify key possible nymphal stages should taken key species. 52C). Although likely polyphagid cryptocercid offer environments.E.Cockroaches (Blattaria. polyphagid (42). 52D). responsibility. importance. these descriptive they the egg capsules easily confused Crypbelow. Weidhaas) cooperated Roth.Several entomologists (V. about long by high. Dictyoptera) Adult cockroachThis key adapted Stojanovich (35). (only couplet 16) winged. Some wingless cockroaches Lamproblatta spp. 45) illustrated the oothecae species. Younger nymphs show (pi. chambers. couplet 3) Neotropics. Since nymphal morphological features. reproduction. America.E.The flange unique among species elongate 1A Panchlora nivea 1C Cryptocercus punctulatus 1D Polyphaga aegyptiaca 47 . Roth loaned of identification of egg greatly photographs species. well-sclerotized keyed punctulatus (1C) elongate. by generously loaning egg Dr. has well-developed keel has about well-defined egg dentition. (USA). Scott. respiratory (one denticle) present Polyphagid respiratory keel well-sclerotized. brought key. Polyphagidae. Polyphaga spp.

and nearly straight (3C). Blattellidae (blattellids. key. styli (3F. female subgenital plate simple.. symmetrical. or. and small. strong spines (2A) ventral margin (2B)---------Femora and 111 lacking strong spines 2A Periplaneta americana 2B Biaberus 3 Large species (pi. robust spines the basal part.Insect and Mite Pests in Food Adults 2 Femora and 111 with both ventral margins (anterior and posterior) bearing numerous. length 18 (including folded wings). Lupparia sp. blattid cockroaches)----------------Smaller species (pi. delicate spines the distal half (3D). found Texas) has arboreal. elongate. robust spines (3A). the anteroventral margin of femur bears large. similarly-arranged. 47A). Zealand) cockroaches Aglaopteryx gemma. occasionally essentially species (7). if longer. masses) probably reported Iwo Jima (7). Nyctibora noctivaga. 3G). sometimes unequal in size (3E). human dwellings. 54). noctivaga (Neotropics) species exported native territories. living Georgia [13). (Bahama Islands. both styli male subgenital plate similar. (Iwo Pacific islands adjacent cockroach. appearing valvular (3B). normally signs (27). undivided male subgenital plate not symmetrical. (Australia. Shawella couloniana. anteroventral margin of femur always with only large. blattellid cockroaches)----------pi. 48 . usually less than 18 long. subgenital plate (terminal ventral segment) of female divided longitudinally. Blattidae (blattids.

sometimes very short (4C)----See pi. extending beyond the tip of abdomen (4A) See pi. included key.Cockroaches (Blattaria. Neoiropics) may (Australia) domiciliary marginalis of standing human dweilingsopportunistic invader erythrocephala (South Africa) Parhouse-invading habits (Neotropics. LamproPelmatosilpha (Australia. by Front wings not reaching tip of abdomen (4B). Deropeltis erythrocephala. blattids. japonica (China. Japan. adapted Drawings populations Japan (7). New spp. Pelmatosilpba shipped Zealand) many places countries tropical Latin normal 4A Blatta lateraliscf 4B Blatta orientaliso’ 4C Blatta fateralis9 49 . USSR) vaguely species. Lamprobiatta marginalis. key. Dictyoptera) 4 Front wings (tegmina). when folded (the position usually seen). species Periplaneta japonica.

Although pest buildings. male supraanal ventral surface plate (terminal abdominal tergite) with thickened structures apex (5B). pi. 46D-"--------smokybrown cockroach. 48o’). sometimes shining black (5A). male supraanal sometimes plate notched (5D). Although smokybrown usually ently together. smokybrowns by americana. adults. shining markings. species Asia (?). but with pronotum front wings. yellowish markings both (5C). front wings straw-colored (pi. pheromones produced by large-sized nymphs (33). blackish-brown. nymphs Drawings by Color not entirely dark. sometimes primarily there.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 5 Color entirely dark. ridged distant from apex (5E). California. Periplaneta fuliginosa Except Stales. may originated quite important mainly outdoors. neither notched ridged (5F) 6 50 . chocolate overall. flies actively.

temperatures 300 days (7). drawings (6A&B. usually with male notched transverse with supraanal plate with apex deeply ings (6C&D). 48) specimens kindly provided by range of Nymphs 30-35 species days Drawings by base. Genus Blatta (in part) male. ventral ridges (6F). Libya. Turkestan cockroach. 48cr. Infestations Texas discovered military origin (6. Front wing chestnut-brown. with wide margins of transparent yellow (6A). Although imported populations uncertain. wings represented by flaps (as they females closely-related orientalis). 52). (6E). Blatta lateralis Blatta (Shelfordella) [Shelfordella tartars} found both buildings Near East. brownish-yellow nearly wings. pi. Males treated dissimilar they this key (see couplet 11). and North regions of Central Asia. with lateral pale stripe. with (6C) without (6D) short yellow stripe yellowish markpronotum darker color than brownish-yellow. rately pi. neither notched ridged (6G) 7 51 . Dictyoptera) 6 Front wing brownish-yellow (straw-colored). fully-functional. shipments points Old World.Cockroaches (Blattaria. pronotum reddish-brown centrally. adults long long. male supraanal plate with apex broadly notched (6B).

pronotum with blackish central spot short yellow stripe and blackish margins in decided contrast to pale (7A). 7D). (7B). Africa. pronotum with brown markings often not in sharp contrast with pale (7C. general incomplete Front wing entirely chestnut-brown.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 7 Front wing with base. male supraanal plate truncate (7E) deeply notched (7F) but not conspicuously ridged ventral surface 8 52 . male supraanal plate ventral surface distant from posterior margin with thickened transverse ridges 47A--------------Australian pi. favorable nymphs yellowish spots margins color. This species apparently native widely distributed. Periplaneta australasiae cockroach. subtropical in tropical the United Slates triesusually restricted greenhouses slates. stripes Drawings spots the middle by extend the body.

the segments apex not slender (8C). 47B simple. daysdays days produces about (54). usually permit separation. though posterior mostly nymphs pronotum large nymphs large patches duration the complete cycle ranges years. bearing American cockroach. of americana. The nymphal stages Caged adults long year being usually occupy See 2A. cosmopolitan species. pi. days species. probably native frequently reported cockroaches Among Periplaneta.Cockroaches (Blattaria. Unequivocal separation of species requires plate rather long-lived This C. truncate feebly notched at tip. species ranges north color. male supraanal plate the ventral short. The nymphs lateral margins size spots abdominal segments. 47C---------------brown cockroach. 53 . considered subtropical widespread tropical Africa. with ventral surface supraanal plate long and papery thin specialized structures (8B). Periplaneta brunnea often confused with species. cockroach. and only slightly specialized surface (8D). pi. Dictyoptera) 8 Cercus very long and slender (especially the apical segments of males) (8A). Cercus stouter. Periplaneta americana Africa. male deeply-notched tip. Incubation requires nymphal development. States.

with conspicuous pattern of yellowish areas (9A). readily recognized by distinctive established pattern. but lacking conspicuous pattern of yellowish (9B). has apparently Stales. markings frequently only poorly markings. both sexes small triangular pads separated from each with vestigial front wings present other by wide mesonotal space (9A). front wing either normal (but not reaching tip of abdomen) (9C) vestigial (9D). intercepted occasionally along Rehn (39) Mexican its probable Asia origin spead Mexico tropical usually Nymphs longer adult. pi. Neostylopyga rbombifolia This species. Drawings Color either uniformly dark with few pale marks. 47D harlequin cockroach.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 9 Color dark brown.-------------------------- 10 9A Neostylopyga rhombifolia 54 .

front wings of small. either solidly colored with pale pronotal markings and lateral wing stripes. flightless cockroach. adults disturbed. body color blackish dark chocolate-brown. much shorter than their respective tarsal segments (10E). with pulvilli of segments and III small. about Florida stinkroach. subrectangular pads. 57). vestigial. buildings (79. usually almost touching along midline (10A). 30. Genus Blatta (in part)--- 11 10C Blatta orientalis ^=ss^E^^^ 10B Eurycol/s floridana ^f^ 10E Blatta orientalis ^ 55 10D Blatta orientalis . front females vestigial. States. body color dark reddish-brown to nearly black (occalaterally). 51C&D long large.Cockroaches (Blattaria. pi. and present short. only usually outdoors. See Drawings by Body length 15 to 27 mm. they yellow spicuous pale markings (pi. front wings sionally with few yellowish in both sexes. segment of tarsus III than segments to V combined. triangular pads (10C). present long slightly longer wings of males longer (10D). segment of tarsus III shorter than segments to V combined. Dictyoptera) 10 Body length 30 to 40 mm. they often tremely vile-smelling pale dorsal nymphs usually surface. with pulvilli (small pads tarsal segments) of segments and (II their respective tarsal segments (10B). transverse. Eurycotis floridana targe. widely separated. C).

with pale lateral wing stripes and scattered pronotal markings. (much time Body of female dark brown to black. pad (arolium) claws small.Insect and Mite Pests in Food solid dark brown to black. females. origin. especially arolium Females climb Oriental proficient notably month longer (46). Drawings by 11B B/aHa onentaffs 56 . 51A&B---oriental cockroach. nymphal females requiring maturity. Australia. Eggs usually slightly cold). cockroaches. pi. front wings separated by distance less than width of wing (11 C). though nymphs paler. See also 9D. Blatta orientalis to ing mainly States. though appears cities throughout (39) thought Africa likely original homeland. Blatta lateralis See couplet 6. 48-------------------female. Nymphal growth months. Russia. front wings of males overlapping and 1/2 2/3 of abdomen (11B). port America). Turkestan cockroach. nymphs black. This responsible relatively temperate England (northern Europe. pipes. (36) suggested Black vicinity Caspian Seas. ability withstand temporary submersion pass through traps. pi. spread widely through usually dwellings readily temperatures They partial leaky drains. Adults See also 9B. front wings of females separated 11 Body color of both by distance greater than width (11 A). being "waterbugs" adults.

Genus B/ae//a--------------------------------Although only Blattella germanica represented key. (37) species Blattella species Japan. Philippines. nipponica (2). China. 55). Burma. communication). 12C)- 12C Parcoblatta pennsylvanica 57 . 13 genus should germanica passing. lituricollis (pi. outdoor species. except readily (B.Cockroaches (Blattaria. Japan grassy under margins. including placed Symploce (L. recognized worldwide. Pacific islands. personal species However. Dictyoptera) 12 Pronotum with 2 conspicuous longitudinal black bars pale background (12A). occasionally north Japan mostly pest. Hawaii. Indo-Malaysian Africa. cockroach. closely resembles germanica. though (3. germanica not). 52A). species Roth. Laboratory nipponica produced offspring. worldAsia. and cultivated decayed vegetation Drawings by Pronotum without 2 conspicuous longitudinal bars (12B.

discovered in Florida.. they these.. descriptions cockroach. only occasionally in buildings.---.-field cockroach. 52C). very large posterior spot notum.---. styii elongate.. large pale occupies portions period Nymphs favorable (longer days usually (less ditions unfavorable). immediately numphs (pi. Blattella vaga Although (22). rounded at apex (13F).. India. primarily outdoor-living cockroach. male supraanal plate elongate.----.. 40. Caution: asahinai.--..--. male supraanal plate short. probably important pest cockroach. Arizona. is spread (9. Texas.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 13 Face with male subgenitai piaie conspicuous. sometimes by nearby decomposing vegetation. broadly emarginate at apex (13C). styli male sugenital plate short and rounded. 52B --.-.. During especially dry weather. of unequal size (13E). nearly longitudinal pronotal nymphs bars fused adults. 51}. usually found outdoors. longitudinal black bar (-i 3A). recently similar comparative 12A. species. Blattella germanica This species.. Lanka).---. 52C-E "German cockroach. California.---. germanica. Mexico. pi. conditions). usually found indoors. pi. 39) medium-sized thoroughly cosmopolitan. Face pale with indefinite brownish (13D). 13A 13C 13D 13F 58 . United States. (5. originated (Afghanistan. 12. nearly equal in size (13B).

eight nymphal stages usually days. front wings (in 14 Pronotum with uniformly dark central bands (pi. probably frequently German cockroach. brown banded cockroach. 54D&E) (inusual folded position) with 2 transverse brownish bars than 4. Supella longipalpa This cockroach. Dictyoptera) and pale lateral margins. width of pronotum usually not conspicuous unless male artificially displayed (14B). formerly called S. styli inconspicuous (14A). widely-distributed pest temperate Spread through subtropical activities. front wings 2 (14D) conspicuous styli v 14A Supe//a longipalpa 14B Supella longipalpa ^ 14C Ectobius pallidus 14D Parcobiatta 59 . irregularly-transverse pale pronotum.54C). 56A-C). native of Africa. greatly first reported 1902. complete {. days (range days). only infestation German pattern nymphs. 55. If pronotum has paler lateral margins. especially pale margins pronotum separate. posterior (pi. supellectilium (18).5 mm. then its width is without 2 transverse bands (pi. (14C) than 4.Cockroaches (Blattaria.11). cycle days. 54C-E mm.5 specimens). pi.

the 2 styli elongate and well separated (15D). beneath ground bark. pi. (21). cockroach. tawny England. they Established breeding females flightless houses. subgenital plate (15B). Parcoblatta species Parcoblatta. 56A-C-----------------------. bearing single stylus devoid of veins (15A).wood cockroaches. found house York See separate key pallidus. sylvestris Michigan (75. species lapponicus (pi. specimens brought kyotensis. recently (4). outdoor-living. hind wing with triangular apical at apex. Ectobius paltidus species. Europe mainly Massachusetts buildings Several Ectobius. 60 . 17). fly lights. especially spring early they likely buildings adjacent Nearly (short wings). species. male subgenital plate with broad apex.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 15 A small pale cockroach rarely than 9 long. 12C. decomposing logs. hind wing with apex veined (15C). plant (26). chiefly Recently. pi. 55A----------spotted Mediterranean cockroach. but occasionally (49) Specimens almost always than 9 long. See 3D&E. chiefly Europe. primarily species (although buildings). occasionally. tegmina. 55D). occasionally domestic sylvestris (pi. species differ pronolum size. pattern tural They often mold. body proportions. Drawing 15D Parcoblatta 15C Parcobiatta ^r. widespread Japan. 55B&C) widely (37).

g. (Arenivaga spp. Dictyoptera) 16 With anal of hind wings (if present) folded in single flat fold when wings closed (16A.) parts Asia. 16D). importance. postclypeus not notably large 17 16E Parcoblatta pennsylvanica (Blattellidae) 61 . postclypeus notably thick and bulging. and often very large (16C. pi. Polyphaga aegyptiaca pests (7). Polyphagidae polyphagid species Stales.. polyphagid cockroaches. species (e. polyphagids chiefly United States species Florida.Cockroaches (Blattaria. continental nearly worldwide. 56D&E-----------polyphagids. 16B). Drawings saussurei) by With anal wings of hind wings (if wings fully developed) folded like fan when thick (as in 16F) closed (as in 16E).

the terminal nymphs protrude beyond margins Cryptocercus abdominal sclerites. pi. strongly sclerotized. The cockroach. cryptocercid species importance. integument black.Although the established specimens Gulf states. cerci concealed by surrounding terminal tergum and sternum (17A). Panchlora nivea origin. 57A --cry ptocercids. type locality tropical synonymous species (16). at least in males. Blaberidae (btaberids. segments nymphs shiny. SPA). Pycnoscelus surinamensis. family logs (pi.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 17 Wingless. adventive. having recently adults. species species habit Manchuria. York) (Georgia (California Washington) United Slates. pi. blaberid cockroaches)------ 18 18 Body relatively slender (18A) and colored nearly uniform pale green. punctulatus family. Drawings by Usually with wings. 57B ---Cuban cockroach. but may be very small (17C). cerci visible externally (as in 17B). primarily Texas (23). nymphs (50). species breeding pale ships. cryptocercid cockroaches. Cryptocercidae cryptobrownish adults. Body relatively broad (18B) and not green in color- ISA Panchlora nivea 18B Pycnoscelus surinamensis 62 .

59. grain-milling pronotal pattern States. Malaysia) cluding See males females (41. (pi. 58). vaguely resembles 20A Pycnoscelus surinamensis n 63 . Hawaii. pronotum pale except for dark design in central (19C) Body large. Pronotum pale. Indonesia. pi. established (75). pi. 18B.Cockroaches (Blattaria. Nauphoeta cinerea This species. Dictyoptera) 19 Body medium-sized. 57C&D-----------Surinam cockroach. posterior margin of pronotum forming definite obtuse angle (20A). (Burma. especially tropical Africa. 30 or less in length. posterior margin of pronotum not angulate. 40 20 Pronotum blackish except for yellow band of variable width along lateral and anterior margins. ------cinereous cockroach. 57C). only somewhat broadly protruding (206). Pycnoscelus surinamensis widespread. pi. been greenhouses Europe (9). States and segments the nymph dull. the roughened body glossy species Pycnoscelus. parthenogenetic species of countries probably originated Malayan established (USA). and submarginal black band each side. with irregular brown blotches in central area. evidently originally spread widely through localities. Food plants frequently infested. lobster. pronotum solid black with pale anterior each side pronotum with complex central pattern bordered margin (19A) by longitudinal black band (198)----------------------more.

they Sometimes. without distinct keel (22A)--------------------blaberids. 60D) often maintained scientific and laboratory United Slates rarely tropical importance. 64 . sometimes patterned (pi. Blaberidae Embryonic development insects) (and generally eventually i.19C. the typical nymphs appear further type development type ovoviviparous.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 21 Pronotum with sharply-defined. 21A Blaberus 218 Leucophaea maderae "^ Egg Cases (Oothecae) than 17 22 Ootheca poorly-sclerotized. deposited (oviposition) charged body protrudes briefly and incubated body. apparently (39). pi. femur without spines hairs (21 B) ventral margin. States by Pronotum with brownish central design. special eggs hatch.. sometimes solidly short robust spines black. circumtropical especially West States Caribbean Sea. Blaberus with tropical large represented species (B. craniifer. though they pests (9). specialin Oriental Diploptera cockroach. pi. development A Diplopterinae. distinctive cockroaches. (43). gigameus. 60). discoidalis. darkened in outline only. See 2B. femur with ventral margin (21A)------------------giant cockroaches.e. only line of stiff fine Madeira cockroach. punctata (Eschscholtz). 60A&B. often not sharply defined (pi. whitish light brown packet. likely 1950. shieldlike central design. 61). Leucophaea maderae large. blackish. produced by that nutrients. subfamily African species. often long. especially City buildings (75). pi. 60C) Floridaspecies (such 8. offspring develop mother.

they species.Cockroaches (Blattaria. regards families Ootheca than 17 long. egg have differentiate attempted egg btaberids. Polyphagidae the 23 Egg chambers marked by lines. especially of punctata protrudes other blaberids. kind development. termed viviparous. with well-sclerotized. the mother’s body. with oblique respiratory extending completely Blattidae (blattids)tubules plainly evident (23B). usually plainly evident. not by definite lines Egg chambers plainly marked only by indentations the keel ootheca. keel sometimes low. usually high. brown to black packet. extending completely ootheca. with respiratory tubules usually not evident upon Blattellidae (blattellids) than 4 casual inspection (23A). height seldom the keel. phenomenon superficially mammalian fetal support system (44). the embryos ized by the continued nutrients from mother. not distinct keel along the dorsal margin (22B)--------------couplet descriptions Cryptocercidae. Dictyoptera) species Pacific widely distributed. distinctions by ordinary observer. height usually at least 5 24 28 65 .

with the depressions between them evenly rounded denticles (25G)----------------. keel prominent. the longitudinal grooves distinguish Drawings syiveetris (25D) pallidus.Insect and Mite Pests in Food than 10 egg than 4. ventral surface without distinct concavity (25F). side (24A).5 long. Ectobius pallidus of sylvestris is similar shape. sometimes ments a side (24D). pallidus depression. 24D Parcoblatta 25. However. usually with keel usually not prominent (24E). 66 . usually produces five twenty.brownbanded cockroach. This this species. usually with keel usually prominent though small (24B). not long. ventral surface usually with distinct longitudinal concavity invagination (most conspicuous in ventral view) where the sides meet (25B). Supe//a longipalpa glue of cabinets cubation days surfaces. denticles partments rounded (24C) sometimes than 10 egg compartOotheca usually than 4. oothecae. denticles distinct (24F)"-"--------~----------------------------- 25 26 24B Supe//a /ongfpa/pa ^ 24C Ectobius 24A Supe//a longipalpa pallicfus 24E B/aHe//a germanica 24F Parcoblatta Pennsylvania. by also couplet Ootheca (25E) at least 4 long. spread (longer colder).5 24 Ootheca short.Ootheca (25A) 2 to 3 long. keel serrate with blunt denticles separated by unevenly-rounded depressions (25C)----------spotted Mediterranean cockroach.

denticles of keel distinct. Dictyoptera) 26 Ootheca of uniform color. wellthan the other. 26C)---------.Cockroaches (Blattaria. Genus s/affe//a--------------------- 27 26A Parcoblatta 26B Parcoblatta pennsylvanica 26C Parcoblatta lata 26D Blattella germanica 26E Blattella vaga 67 .wood cockroaches. Ootheca not of uniform color. unusual this proportion length (Saussure) deep longitudinal keel just (27). curvature usually distinct (26A). Parcoblatta The egg of species differences of height (42). usually sharply serrate (26B. end (the that held by the ovipositor) paler keel low. ootheca straight slightly curved (26D). denticles rounded (26E).

usually found outdoors field cockroach. temperature) within few hours of.-. 27A Blattella germanica 27B Blattella vaga 28 Number of denticles in keel seldom than 17 (28A). hatching (53). abruptly (27B).---------------German cockroach. is the only which (during period days. oothecal size variable. denticles 27 Usually about 20 egg compartments of keel very low and gradually curved (27A). length seldom than 6 mm..-... Blattells vaga (or just shortly vaga before) hatching (53).Insect and Mite Pests in Food each side. Blattella germanica Of domestic cockroaches that sclerotized oothecae. ootheca almost always less than 13 long--------------------------------Number of denticles than 17 (28B). length more than 7 mm. produce four eight egg during usually being Usually about 16 egg compartments denticles slightly higher and curved each side. depending the ootheca until. female is likely life.-. found indoors in most countries . sometimes Drawings 28A Blatta orientalis 28B Periplaneta brunnea 68 .

with 14 to 22 denticles.Cockroaches (Blattaria. Blatta orientalis Ootheca 8 to 12 long. usually with 14 denticles. ootheca rounded at both ends (30C). Dictyoptera) 29 Ootheca usually 10 to 12. depressions between denticles shallow (SOB) -----------. truncated dorsally at the other (30A).^SS5S 29A Blatta orientalis 29B Periplaneta americana 30 Ootheca 9 to 12 long. usually with 16 denticles.oriental cockroach. depressions between denticles shallow deep (29B) 30 -^c . Periplaneta americana Drawings by SOB Blatta lateralis 300 Periplaneta americana 69 .5 long. Blatta lateralis Ootheca 8 to 9 long. depressions between denticles shallow (29A)------------.---------------Turkestan cockroach. ootheca rounded at one end. with 14 to 22 denticles. depressions between denticles deep (30D) American cockroach.

5 to 16 long and 6. denticles.iNN^^N^. Neostylopyga rhombilolia Spaces between denticles with conspicuous depressions (31 B) 32 ^^^W^ . measuring 13. occurring largest Larger ovoviviparous States. these distances practical species key.^ 31A Neostylopyga rhombifolia 31 B Periptaneta brunnea 32 Ootheca large. Ootheca from 9.5 to 13 long. Periplaneta australasiae brown cockroach. developed denticles (usually 20) separated by deep depressions. keel with 18 to 24 denticles (32A)------------. with depressions clearly evident (31A)---------harlequin cockroach. Periplaneta brunnea smokybrown cockroach.Florida stinkroach. See oothecae of Periplaneta 70 .4 to 7. and oothecal size. of.5 high. Eurycotis floridana oviparous species produced by (see couplet 22). The oothecae species than generally long. keel (32B-D) with 20 to 26 denticles Australian cockroach. Periplaneta futiginosa average differences among these Periplaneta There species contained.(nsect and Mite Pests in Food shallow to not be 31 Spaces between denticles almost straight.

Nat. 1941. S. The biology of six species of cockroaches which inhabit buildings.S. 1955. Hutchinson. 27(2)115-120Buxton. Taxonomic notes Japanese Blattaria. 103(3315)39-56. R. Biology and control. Entomological Society of America. general bionomics. 6(2)133-135. SOG. G. WHO/VBC/82. 3 Asahina. Japanese Jour. Cochran. U. Sanit. Sta. The cockroach. il. Sanit.2. 14(3)147-156. and H. Proc. 18. Ent. Georgia Ent. P. 1963. Bull. 1975. industrial pest. control.G. Pan-Pacific Ent. Positive separation of Blattella vaga and Blattella 1976. Soc. A. Household infestation by the cockroach Aglaopteryx gemma in Georgia. Panchlora nivea (L). S. 2 Asahina. Insecticides and cockroach 8 Committee 1982. Conradi. Expt.E. Dictyoptera) References Cited Asahina..B. K-P.B. Common Names of Insects. On Taxonomic notes of Blattella Hturicollis in Japanthe Japanese Jour.856. 1982. 34(1)121. A Parcoblatta species found in Kyoto. 16 Gurney.B. J. 1953. 1979. London. 15 Gurney. S. Urban entomology. Ent. 451:1-31. 14(2)69-75. and recognition characters of two cockroaches recently established in the United States. G.. Associated Programmes.A. 12 Flock. 44:168-169. Japanese Jour. Blatta fateralis found at Sharpe Army Depot. Biol. Cockroaches. Purdue Univ. and T. W. Med. Pest Control 47(12)16. A. 6 Caruba. Freeman. A Blattella closely allied to Blattella germanica. germanica (Orfhoptera: Blattidae). Jour. Jour. Zool. VII. The cockroach. S. Deay. 44. Distribution. University of California. Zool.J. Japanese Jour.M.O. Proc. Sanit. Zool. Gornam. Sci. A. Common of insects and related organisms. Agr. 1968. 1971.B. and K. 1961. 9 Cornwell. Econ. 10 Cornwell. 1976. Richmond. College Park. A revised list of the Japanese cockroaches of sanitary importance (Insecta. P. v. A laboratory insect and 1968. 1940.. 15(2)61-67. 11 Ebeling. Blattaria). D. Taxonomic notes Japanese Blattaria. Japanese Biattaria.P. The field roach Blattella 13 vaga. 71 . Washington 57(6)285-286.Cockroaches (Blattaria.R. Conradi. Mus. 14 Gould. Notes the Cuban cockroach. Asahina. 1964. London.

1935.M-. 22 Hebard.R. in the United States. Ecological and collecting eight species of Parcoblatta (Orthoptera: Blattidae) and certain other cockroaches. and their allies.. 23 Trans. 389:1-197. /n The insects of Australia. Kansas Ent. Econ. Supella longipalpa (Fabricius) (Dictyoptera. 1943. St. Coop. 21 Hebard. 19 Gurney. Ectobius sylvestris (Poda). of the brown-banded On the scientific cockroach.D. Blattaria. Hebard. 37 McKittrick. Ent. Melbourne University. American Ent. Blattaria. Dubuque. 40(3)267-269. 20(44)752-754. Handbook of pest control. D. America (Dictyoptera. M. Heifer. A. Blattodea. Jour. 27(1)14-20. Econ. 61:111-153. M. American Ent. Soc. Ectobiidae). Handb.B. Martin’s. Mem. The Dermaptera and orthopterous families Blattidae. north of the Mexican boundary. Franzak & Foster. D. 1917. The Blattidae of North America. Insect Rpt. 2:1-284. Soc. 30 Mallis. Soc.J. 1976. 1(43)823-826. W. 18 Gurney. A. 25 Hincks. The spotted Mediterranean cockroach. 10 pi. How know the grasshoppers. Structural features of cockroach egg capsules. The biology of the cockroach. Kansas Ent. Studies in the Orthoptera of Arizona.. The ootheca of Parcoblatta uhleriana. Ident. British Insects 1(5)1-24. 68:239-311. Ectobius paliidus (Oiivier) (Dictyoptera. Blattellidae). Proc. Walker. 1981. 1954. 28 Lawson. York. 26 Hoebeke.A. cockroaches. Coop. Lawson. M.A. Evolutionary studies of cockroaches. 29 Mackerras. Brown.R. F. and D. Soc. pi. The forest cockroach. Cleveland. Notes several cockroaches of southeastern United States and the "palmettobug." Coop. F. Insect Rpt. Trans. European species newly discovered in North 1956.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 17 Gurney. Nickle. Part New genera. Dermaptera and Orthoptera. Plant Pest Rpt. 1963. Blattodea (cockroaches). 1982. Cornell Univ. Expt. 1970. and A. Sta. New 1970. 20 Guthrie. Mem.A. J. F. Blattellidae). 27 1967. Washington 83(4)592-595.J. IV. Agr. Soc. Tindall. M. and T.A. Jour. 72 . 1964.B. 1968. A. Soc. species and geographic American Ent. A. 1968. Carlton. Mantidae and Phasmidae of Texas.B.R. 18(29)684-686.

1945. 19(2-3)202-204. 45 Roth. Soc. and tergal glands of Blattaria. 37 Princis. 1969. K. Ent.M. 1971. 1954. Disease Center.. Ann. 15:75-96. Smithsonian Misc. Stojanovich. 8. 12 pi.. P. Grasshoppers. L.K. crickets and cockroaches of the British Isles. reptiles. Tarsal structure and climbing ability of cockroaches. Ent. Ent.Cockroaches (Blattaria. Sexual isolation in parthenogenetic Pycnoscelus surinamensis and application of the its bisexual relatives Pycnoscelus indicus (Dictyoptera: Blattaria: Blaberidae: Pycnoscelinae). Southwestern Ent. Monthly 61:265-276. Ootnecae of the Blattaria. 1952. Evolution and taxonomic significance of reproduction in Blattaria. Ent. L. pp. Sci. Key to found in the United States. In Pictorial keys arthropods. and W. 33 Piper.D. Soc. Man’s uninvited fellow traveler-the cockroach. Blaberus spp. L.R. domiciliary Aggregation tendency in cockroaches. Soc. Jour. Expt.A. and T. 1968. H. and E.G.: Blattellidae. 119(3)483-517. 47 Roth. [Complete catalogue: parts 3. 44 Roth. Zool. (Blaberidae: Blaberinae). birds and mammals of public health significance. P. Ann. 41 Roth. 7. L.. LM. 46 Roth. and C.M.L. 11.H Robinson. Ann. Dictyoptera) 32 Narasimham. Proc.T. Warne. the first-instar nymphs of 1980.M.. ovarioles. Proc. 1965. London.] 38 Ragge. 1969. K. The male genitalia of Blattaria. uricose glands. Ann. The 1967. 5(1)105-107. 35 Pratt. 122(12)1-49. Roth. 1954. -14. 34 Powell. Additions to the ootnecae.U. Collect. Cockroaches. Washington 55(1)39-40. Ent. 43 Roth. Atlanta. Willis. Rev. 4. D. Wo ist die Urheimat of] Blatta orientalis L. species 1967. Soc.M. The reproduction of cockroaches. System. J. G.R. 1980. On six diagnostic characters of the oothecae of cockroaches (Blattidae). Soc.J.R. 2(2)88-93. 1962-1971. Descriptions and keys five Periplaneta species (Dictyoptera: Btattidae). Ent. A. 6. Orthopterorum Catalogus 13:713-1038. (What is the native home suchen? Opusc.M. Sankaran. 1953. 1970. of Blattella vaga Hebard in Texas. Psyche 76(3)217-250. 13. 73 . Willis. Washington 82(2)212-228. LM. 30 Princis.. America 60(4)774-779. National Communicable 1977. and E. Fam. Ent. America 61(1)83-111. L. Ent. 1-1224. 39 Rehn. 40 Riherd. America 64(1)127-141.

and L. American Ent. 1973. America 51(1)53-69. 141:1-470. University of Hawaii. Riser. 8(4)274-277. R.M. pi. Collect. 54 Wright. and E. 52 Spencer.. Willis. The biology of Panchlora nivea. Jr. American Ent. 51 Roth.R. L. Collect. Soc. Discovery and control of the Turkestan cockroach.R.M. Life history of the brown cockroach. Soc. 74 .Insect and Mite Pests in Food 48 Roth.B. 53 Willis.C.. 1979. Insects of Hawaii. Trans. White.M.G. Honolulu. Observations reproduction and development in cockroaches.. Jour. 1958. 1948. G. E. C. Roth.R. and E. 1960.. L. The biotic associations of cockroaches. 45. with observations the eggs of other Blattaria. Ent.M. Blattidae). the biology of Ectobius pallidus 1957. Georgia 55 Zimmerman.R.D. and E. Stover. 2. L.. Smithsonian Misc.. 134(10)1-147. 50 Roth. E.83:31-37. Ent.G. Willis. pi. pi. C. Soc. Apterygota Thysanoptera. SOG. The medical and veterinary importance of cockroaches. Ann. and L. Pest Control 47(12)14.R.M. Observations (Olivier) (Blattaria. 1957. L. Willis.R. and E. Smithsonian Misc. 4Q Roth.. Willis. Trans. 83:195-207. 1958.

ADULT BEETLES (COLEOPTERA) John M. Kingsolver Systematic Entomology Laboratory Plant Sciences Institute Agricultural Research Service U.S. Department of Agriculture Beltsville MD 20705 .

and ptinids chapters. 76 . and tenebrionids.fnsect and Mite Pests in Food Most of the important species of stored-food beetles (other than those treated elsewhere in this handbook) included in this key. The general key to the larval beetles is given in Chapter 4. dermestids. treated in subsequent culionids. and adult clerids. Adult and larval bruchids. cryptophagids. lathridiids.

ID).Adult beetles (Coleoptera) Head with slender (1A. by Drawings 1D Araecerus fasciculatus IE Acanthoscefides obtectus 1F Acanthoscelides obtectus 1G Oerinestes 1H Oermestes 77 . with transverse carina basal margin of pronotum extending to side margins (1D)-~------Head without beak (1 E-1 H)------------"----"-------"-----interpreted beaked of eye medially emarginate (1 E) and that carina. 1B) broad beak (1C. pronotum Anthribidae Curculionidae. if broad.

. twigs. 938..-------.---.. 4 3A Cryptophagus 3B Oryzaephilus 3C Murmicliu:. Araecerus fasciculatus Distribution: cosmopolitan.-.-. wide variety dry seeds. 62B.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 2 Antenna elbowed (2A).. and lateral margin of pronotum with single tooth (3A). Anthribidae (fungus weevils) . especially damaging See also 1C.-. Curculionidae SEE KEY. ovalis 78 . CHAPTER 13 Antenna not elbowed (2B). stalks. d^ ^ 2A Sitophilus 2B Araecerus fascfcu/atus 3 Anterior angle of pronotum with thickened callosity... 3C) body length variable. Drawing by Kingsolver. fruits. CHAPTER 9 Body length segmentec) Drawing by with Anterior angle of pronotum without thickened callosity.-. and lateral margin of pronotum either without teeth with several teeth (3B. pi.-coffee bean weevil. pi.--.. pi. 110B- ---snout beetles weevils. Cryptophagidae (cryptophagid beetles) --------------------------------------C/yptop/7agus SEE KEY.

See than one-half vertical beetle. Oryzaephilus surinamensis variety of grain products Length of temple much less than half of vertical diameter of eye (6B). pi. fruits. dried fruit.. 63C--sawtoothed grain cosmopolitan.Adult beetles (Coleoptera) 4 Face of HI flat Face of III at most with shallow groove (4A)-(receives femur III) (4B)Drawing Feller 4A Carpophilus 4B dermestid beetle 5 Lateral margin of pronotum with 6 large teeth. products.---------------merchant grain beetle. 63D .--. Oryzaephilus mercator cosmopolitan. ridges only 6 7 5A Oryzaephilus 5B Murmidius ovalis 6 Length of temple (region directly behind eye) equal to diameter of eye (6A). pi. dorsal surface of pronotum with 3 longitudinal ridges (5A).----. wide variety of grain See 6A Oryzaephilus surinamensis 6B Oryzaephilus mercator 79 . Cucujidae (cucujid beetles) (in part)--------with Lateral pronotal margin without prominent teeth (but may be finely serrate) pronotum (5B)----------------2 teeth.

antlike. Body cosmopolitan. spots and/or stripes may be present body is not tortoiselike (7D). without spots stripes (7B). Anthicus ftoralis Body emarginate). body shape hemispherical. eyes Distribution: dried fruit. Murmidius ovafis brown. grain broad. Pronotal sulcus absent (7C). Cerylonidae (=Murmidiidae) (cerylonid beetles)-----"----"-------oval grain beetle. spots and/or stripes present if body is hemispherical (see pi. cosmopolitan. 64B. brown.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 7 Anterolateral antennal sulcus pronotum (near eye) (7A). dry fruits. (not Body not antlike. pi. with pronotum roughly ovate in dorsal view (8A). 9 8A Anthicus floratis 8B Rhyzopertha dornjnica 80 . tortoiselike. Drawing capitate. 65B) 7A Murmidius ovalis 7B Murmidlus ovalis 7C Anthicus floralis 7D Dinoderus minutus 8 Body slender. pi. 64D. pronotum not ovate (8B) ~$\. Anthicidae (antlike flower beetles) necked grain beetle.

66B)--------------------------- 10 Drawing by 10A Crioceris aspa’agi 10B Byturus unicolor 81 . Europe.Adult beetles (Coleoptera) 9 Body very small brown spots elytra and (9A). Drawings than 2 elytral stripes Body shape not strongly (9C). eggptant. without with and pronotal spots (pi. foliage of and. 65B). potato. by introduction. with 10 dark brown stripes pronotum (pi. Leptinotarsa decemlineata gradually (98). Chrysomelidae (leaf beetles) (in part) Colorado potato beetle. body pale yellow.

Front of head without medial and lateral grooves (11B)variable. emargination except Bruchidae. United 13 Tarsal formula 5-5-4------5-5-5 Tarsal formula 3-3-3. N)-----------------asparagus beetle. with 12 black spots elytra. 13 eye Tenebrionidae. Anobiidae. M)---------spotted asparagus beetle. legs orange. scrophulanae). dull red.Insect and Mite Pests in Food each eye (11A). elytra with broad sutural stripe and 3 transverse bars (sometimes separated from sutural stripe into lateral spots) (pi. asparagus. with black knees and tarsi (pi. 82 . and dark metallic blue. Body colors reddish orange. emarginalion (11 A). Crioceris duodecimpunctata Body length: Europe. 4-4-4. (Anthrenus 11 A Crioceris 11 B Trogoderrna 12 Body color orange. Crioceris asparagi Body length: Europe. 11 Front of head with medial groove and with lateral groove Chrysomelidae (leaf beetles) (in part)------------------clubbed.

Europe. Asia klapperichi widely distributed pusilloides Africa.Adult beetles (Coleoptera) 14 Pronotum with raised line parallel to margin (14A). 66D). cosmopolitan. cosmopolitan. stored foods. Cucujidae (cucujid beetles) fin part) -------------------------males. C. pi. pusillus (pi. Pronotum without raised line parallel to margin (14B). Cryptolestes capensis. CHAPTER 5 Median ocellus absent (15B)-- 15A Trogoderma variabile 15B Dermestes 83 . Cryptolestes Seven species. Turkish turdcus. grain. minute. difficult identify: Cape grain beetle. grain beetle. depressed bodies. America. 66B. rusty grain beetle. Australia. Europe. CHAPTER 11 Body Drawing size by 14A Cryptolestes 14B Tribolium brevicorne 15 Median ocellus present (15A)- -dermestid beetles. grain products. Tenebrionidae SEE KEY. pi. grain beetle. 98 darkling beetles. ferruginous. C. America. ugandae 1. Dermestidae (in part) SEE KEY.

by Tarsal formula 4-4-4 5-5-5 (18B)- 18A lathridiid beetle 18B Giischrochllus fasciatus 84 . 94B---minute brown scavenger beetles. 67D----. Florida. pi. only the posterolateral is (1. flour. seeds. asymmetrical club). pi.5 mm) (3. Florida. Tricorynus (=Catorama) roughly comparable paniceum 17 be Texas the Mexico). Dalmatia. Cuba. Body length 3 to 4 Anobiidae (deathwatch and drugstore beetles) Although Stegobium paniceum ricorne (couplet 17) greatest here. Elytron without striae (17B).--cigarette beetle.6 mm) (3). leaves.6 mm) (2.5 body elongate. Neither elylral punctures confusus punctures elytral elytra. cork. Stegobium paniceum dried plant material. Texas). leather. Lathridiidae SEE KEY. pi.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 16 Body length 8 to 10 Dermestidae (dermestid beetles) (in part)-----De/’mestes SEE KEY. CHAPTER 10 Body length Drawing 2. 17 Elytron distinctly striate (17A). Fiji. spices. 17A Stegobium paniceum 17B Lasioderma serricorne 18 Tarsal formula 3-3-3 (18A). species have passing: Kansas potential products spread through ricorne having (the 3-segmented. (eastward United States). products.7-3. France. (Belize. genus species. 67B------drugstore beetle. (Brazil. Mexico.8-2. Hawaii. cosmopolitan.4-4. CHAPTER 5. Lasioderma Distribution: cosmopolitan. herbarius. Germany.

(21 A. America. Asia. Europe. Mycetaea subterranea Synonym: Islands. Tarsal formula 5-5-5. 21 B). 68B. Cucujidae (cucujid beetles) (in part)-----females. Hawaiian moldy grain. Endomychidae (=Mycetaeidae) (handsome fungus beetles) ----------------hairy cellar beetle.Adult beetles (Coleoptera) 19 Pronotum with lateral raised line each side parallel to margin (19A)-----Pronotum without lateral raised lines (i9B)--------------------- 20 21 19A Mycetaea subterranea 19B Ahasverus advena 20 Tarsal formula 4-4-4. pi. depressed beetles. Pronotum without lobes with lobes hooklike and directed forward (21C)---- 25 Drawings by 85 . laterally-directed lobe at each anterior jidae (cucujid beetles) (in part) Small. Cucu22 long. Cryptolestes couplet 21 Pronotum with small.

with side margin lacking teeth except for blunt tubercle at anterior (23A). Ahasverus advena peanuts moldy (cocoa. with side margin serrate. -foreign grain beetle. pi. pi. pronotal angles segment is circular shape advena).Insect and Mite Pests in Food 22 Pronotum wider than long (22A). 68C-cosmopolitan. rudimentary. 68E densely punctate. and sharp. Pronotum strongly narrowed posteriorly. 23A Cathartus quadricoliis 23B Silvanus planatus 86 . Nearclic. (LeConte) similar the apical (subtriangular others). Ahasverus advena. Pronotum longer than wide (22B)-- 22A Ahasverus advena 22B Cathartus quadricoliis 23 Pronotum nearly rectangular. 68D squarenecked grain beetle. grains. Silvanus planatus triangular tooth at anterior (23B). Cathartus quadricoliis cosmopolitan. pi.

tibia III only slightly curved not at all (26B) 27 26B Acanthoscelides obtectus 87 . body setae flat against surface. with segments bristly (25B). Bruchidae (seed beetles) (in part)----groundnut bruehid. Nitidulidae SEE KEY. 1G-I).Adult beetles (Coleoptera) 24 Body color in part metallic blue green (pi. See 9C. Caryedon serratus species also key Chapter Femur III only slightly enlarged not at all. tarsal formula 5-5-5. pi. antennal club posed of 3 symmetrical. pi. matching ventral margin of femur (26A). 69B. Byturidae (fruitworm beetles) raspberry fruitworm. in middle Body color not metallic. tibia III curved. Byturus unicolor Antennal club widespread North segments. elytra often short. CHAPTER 7. body with erect setae. 88---------------sap beetles. exposing pygidium (as in 27A). pronotum but flattened along lateral margins (24B). closely connected segments (25A). CHAPTER 8 Lacking the above combination of characters-------------------- 26 25A Carpophilus 25B Glischrochilus fasciatus 26 Femur III greatly enlarged and bearing large tooth next to to 12 smaller teeth the ventral margin. pronotum but not thin and flattened along lateral margins (24A) SEE KEY. 108B. section through thorax 24A Necrobia rufipes 24B Byturus unicolor 25 Body flattened. pi.

insect and Mite Pests



27 Pygidium exposed beyond truncate elytra; eye emarginate at antennal insertion (27A); pi. 108C-----------------------seed beetles, Bruchidae (in part) SEE KEY, CHAPTER 12
Tarsal 5-5-5, with segment vertical (27A).


Pygidium largely

completely concealed by elytra; eye not emarginate at antennal


(27D), except
horizontal (see by Drawing




27A Acanthosceltdes

27B Acanthoscelides

27C Dinoderus

27D Rhyzopertha

28 Pronotum hoodlike; head vertical, apparently suspended beneath pronotum, and often not visible in dorsal view (28A)---------------------""--

29 34

Pronotum not hoodlike; head horizontal (28B)------------------


Adult beetles (Coleoptera)

29 Antenna without club (29A); pi. 82----------

spider beetles, Ptinidae SEE KEY, CHAPTER 6

Antenna with distinct club of 2 to 4 segments (29B)--


29B Dinoderus

30 Antennal club lopsided

(30A); pi. 70B.

Bostrichidae (false powderpost beetles)-


segments; body cylindrical.

Antennal club symmetrical (SOB)
segments; body elongate,



30A Dinoderus

SOB Lyctus

31 Pronotum with

of teeth (31A); pronotum in dorsal view pointed anteriorly; strong carina (31 B); pi. 70B ..-..------.---.--.----.-larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus


apex of elytron with

Arizona, California, District


Jersey, York, Missouri, (generally Southern States, USA), tropical throughout America; tropical Africa;


Insect and Mite Pests in Food

32 Pronotum with pair of shallow depressions; scuteltum transversely rectangular; elytral setae straight (32A); pi. 70D--bamboo powderpost beetle, Dinoderus minutuB
Distribution: cosmopolitan;
foods, seeds,



Pronotum without depressions; scutellum square (32B); elytral setae curved (32C); pi. 71A-------------------lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica
Distribution: cosmopolitan; foods, chiefly cereals, seeds, and



32A Dinoderus

32B Flhyzopertha

32C Rhyzopertha

33 Antennal club of 2 segments (33A); antennal segment shorter than club; body elongate and depressed; pi. 71 D. Lyctidae (powderpost beetles)

brown powderpost beetle, Lyctus brunneus

vegetable drugs, seeds,

Antennal club of 3 closely-united segments

(33B); antennal segment longer than club; body cylindrical; pi. 72B. Scolytidae (bark beetles) coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei
Distribution: circumti-opical


33A Lyctus

33B Hypothenemus


Adult beetles (Coleoptera)

34 Distinct constriction at base of pronotum

(34A); pi. 72D. Trogositidae (= Ostomatidae) (trogositid beetles) (in part) -------------cadel Ie, Tenebroides mauritanicus
Distribution: cosmopolitan;

flour, meal.



Without distinct constriction between pronotum and elytra



34A Tenebroides

34B Pharaxonotha

35 Median ocellus present; antenna not clubbed; legs long and slender (35A); Dermestidae (dermestid beetles) (in part)------odd beetle, Thylodrias contractus
winglessspecies Dermestidae, Chapter



Median ocellus absent; antenna clubbed; legs not unusually long and slender (35B)


35A Thylodrias contractus

35B Pharaxonotha


insect and Mite Pests in Food

36 Elytron with silky hair (36A); tarsal formula 4-4-4. Mycetophagidae (hairy fungus
b efit es^


Elytron with, at most, short, fine, scarcely visible setae (36B); tarsal formula 5-5-5


36A Typ/iaea




37 Elytral pattern of light and dark transverse bands; elytral setae not in (37A); pi. 73A-------------------------------^(’(argi/s balteatus
Distribution: Australia, Central America;

Europe, Hawaii,

Elytral color uniform yellowish brown, without pattern; elytral setae in definite (37B); pi. 73C----------------hairy fungus beetle, Typhaea stercorea

hyphae in

grain, seeds, peanuls,

37A Litargus

37B Typhaea


Adult beetles (Coleoptera)

38 Elytron with longitudinal ridges (38A); anterior margin of pronotum broadly emarginate (38A); pi. 74B. Trogositidae (= Ostomatidae) (trogositid beetles) (in part) Siamese grain beetle, Lophocateres pusillus
tropicopolitan; fruit.
grain, flour, seeds,

spices, beans,

Elytron without longitudinal ridges (38B); anterior margin of pronotum somewhat rounded (38B); pi. 74D. Languriidae (languriid beetles) .--.,--.-----..--.--.-----IVIexican grain beetle, Pharaxonotha kirschi
Europe, Guatemala, Mexico,

section through


38A Lopbocateres

38B Pharaxonotha


Insect and Mite Pests in Food References Cited Banks. Res.E. 18(3)217-222. Ent. H. Australian Ent. with Ann. tobacco warehouses. America 64(3)752. 1979. M. White. 15(2)71-72. Jour. Cryptolestes klapperichi Lefkovitch in stored products and its identification (Coleoptera: Cucujidae). Stored Prod.j. (Coleoptera: Cucujidae): A rapid technique for preparation of suitable mounts. 1979. 94 . Green. Tricorynus confusus (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) in natural hosts. R. Soc. 1971. Identification of stored product Cryptolestes spp. Jour. Soc.

Department of Agriculture c/o National Museum of Natural History Washington DC 20560 . Anderson Systematic Entomology Laboratory Plant Sciences Institute Agricultural Research Service U.S.LARVAL BEETLES (COLEOPTERA) Donald M.

-.insect and Mite Pests in Food KEY Drawings With distinct. hay leaves. 64A --. wheal.--......------.. fringed at sides (2A). pi.-. head not entirely concealed from above 3 2A Murmidius ovalis 2B Lasioderma serricorne 3 Body grublike. Reference: Body not flattened and fringed (2B). dry plant materials. Murmidius ovalis rice.-----. cosmopolitan.. head entirely concealed in dorsal view. jointed legs (1A)-Without legs (1B) with greatly reduced legs (1C...-...-.-.-. then not grublike) f3C^Urogomphi present 13 <^S) 96 3C Attagenus unicolor .. distinctly curved (C-shaped) Urogomphi (3A)- 4 Body long and slender.-.. nearly straight (3B) (if apparently curved... Cerylonidae (=Murmidiidae) (cerylonid beetles)....oval grain beetle.-. 1D)- 2 Body depressed.

Larval beetles (Coleoptera)

4 Body and head (of dry specimen) with numerous long, soft, hairlike setae (4A)-setae (4B)-----Body and head with distinct short and sometimes
Hook-shaped, dorsal asperities sometimes present (4B).

4A Lasioderma

much of dorsal surface of head (5A); thoracic spiracle 5 Color pattern apparent distinctly distant from anterior margin of prothorax (5B). Anobiidae (drugstore beetles) (in part); pi. 67C------------cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne
cosmopolitan; dried plant animal products, destructiveness variety


Dorsum of head without color pattern except for broad pigmented anterior band anterior margin of prothorax (5D); pi. 85A (5C); thoracic spiracle --,--..-...-.----...--------------------spider beetles, Ptinidae
ptinids attacking





5A Lasioderma

5B Lasioderma


fnsect and Mite Pests in Food

6 Head not retracted into prothorax; spiracles with spoutlike process (6A); hook-shaped asperities present (6B). Anobiidas (drugstore beetles (in part); pi. 67A --------_-----.-----._-------drugstore beetle, Stegobium paniceum
Distribution: cosmopolitan; infests plant products. References: 2,


Head retracted (6C); spiracles oval



hooklike asperities absent

7 VIII abdominal spiracle (the most posterior one) about three times bigger than other most of body surface (7A) abdominal spiracles; setae very sparse -----------------------------powderpost beetles, Lyctidae

VIII abdominal spiracle subequal in size to other abdominal spiracles; dorsal setae (7B)---------------------------------


7B Rhyzopertha


Larval beetles (Coleoptera)

8 Body setae flat, spatulate; segments of thorax and abdomen with dorsal surface divided (8A). Endomychidae (= Mycetaeidae) (handsome fungus beetles); pi. 68A -----..-.--------..----....---hairy cellar beetle, Mycetaea subterranea
Distribution: Europe, America, USSR; feeds granaries,
Islands, Java, warehouses, Reference:

Body setae hairlike, bristly; dorsal surface of
divided into 2

and metathorax and abdomen folds (8B). Bostrichidae (false powderpost beetles)--


8A Mycetaea

Abdominal segments to V each with 3 dorsal folds; body covered with numerous hairlike setae (9A); pi. 71A-----------lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica
cosmopolitan: foods, chiefly cereals, seeds,
wide variety dried


Abdominal segments to V each with 2 dorsal folds; hairlike setae concentrated dorsal and lateral areas of body, sparse absent other body regions (9B)-


9A Fthyzopertha

9B DInoderus


/nsect and Mite

Pests in Food

10 Mandible with

stubby molar process (10A); posterior end of body strongly curved (10B); pi. 70C-------------bamboo powderpost beetle, Dinoderus minutus
Distribution: cosmopolitan; although plant materials, the polyphagic variety strongly stenophagic, thriving only

Mandible with elongate molar process (10C); posterior end of body slightly curved (10D); pi. 70A----------------larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus
Distribution: cosmopolitan; usually


10A Dinoderus

10C Prostephanus

Dinoderus minutus

10D Prostephanus


11 Body covered with hairlike setae; dorsal folds of abdomen with transverse of longitudinal ridges (11A). Anthribidae (fungus weevils); pi. 62A bean weevil, Araecerus fasciculatus
Legs very
(vestigial), barely high magnification (11B). cosmopolitan; References: 1, variety of dry plant

Body sparsely covered with few short setae; dorsal folds of abdomen without transverse of longitudinal plicae (11 C)-

11C Caulophilus


Larval beetles (Coleoptera)

12 Legs present (12A, 12B)-weevil,

seed beetles, Bruchidae (in part)
pisorum (pi.

(pi. groundnut bruchid, Caryedon 109A), bruchids pairs 108A), legless. legs (12A, 12B);

Legs absent (12C)-


12C Caulophilus

flattened (13B, 13C) setae 13 Body covered with long, barbed (13A) ..--..--..---.---.--.--------------dermestid beetles, Dermestidae




Body setae simple, hairlike (13E)------Urogomphi


13C Attagenus
13B Attagenus

13E Byturus


Insect and Mite Pests in Food

14 Abdominal tip pointed (14A)

bearing urogomphi (14B)--

Abdominal tip neither pointed

bearing urogomphi (14C)-

14A Alphitoblus

14B Tribollum

14C Oryzaephitus

15 Yellowish

brownish body integument largely sclerotized, rigid (but may yield to light pressure), and hard (but may be thin and translucent); pi. 99A, 101 A -------.--------------------darkling beetles, Tenebrionidae

urogomphi; others

Body integument largely unsclerotized, soft, and flabby; color may be mostly whitish may be mottled with brown, pink, lavender yellowish, light background---------------------------------------Urogomphi present; abdomen pointed.


16 Urogomphi arising from pigmented plate that appears distinct from the rest of the last abdominal segment (16A)-------------------------Last abdominal segment without distinct plate associated with urogomphi (16B)--



16B Anthicus
17 Pregomphus present (17A); mandible with serrate prostheca (178); pi. 90A

--------------...------......--...--....--sap beetles, Nitidulidae SEE KEY, CHAPTER 8
Pregomphus absent (17C); mandible without serrate prostheca (17D)18


membranous portions of integument uniformly whitish yellowish. cardo much smaller than stipes (18B). body color mottled pink large brown light background (pi. (includes key Ventral mouthparts deeply retracted into underside of head. 87A). References: 10. Trogositidae (=0stomatidae) (trogositid beetles)--------------- 19 103 . products. species). ham. fish. Cleridae (checkered beetles) -ham beetles. Necrobia cosmopolitan. yolk. cheese. maxilla with cardo lavender larger than stipes (18A).Larval beetles (Coleoptera) 17A Carpophilus hemipterus 17B Glischrochilus fasciatus 17C Tenebroides mauritanicus 17D Pharaxonotha kirschi 18 Ventral mouthparts only slightly retracted into underside of head.

. seeds. Lophocateres pusitlus tropicopolitan. grains. Thoracic dorsum without dark-colored (19C).... head with less than 5 ocelli each side (20E) (if there 5 ocelli..---. Byturidae (fruitworm beetles).... large the and metanota (19A)...... Tenebroides mauritanicus cosmopolitan. pi. berries.Insect and Mite Pests in Food the pronotum and 2 each 19 Thorax with dorsal dark-colored areas. Byturus Europe. urogomphi not strongly incurved... mandible with soft bulbous process covered with short setae (20C). grain.. 69A . tubercle located between stronglyincurved urogomphi (19D). mandible either without soft.... not compactly grouped). seta-covered process with elongate process (20F)-- 21 104 . pi. bulbous..-. 72C --cade lie...Reference: Dorsal carinae absent (20D).-.. beans. flour..... 74A----Siamese grain beetle.. meal.[-aspberry fruitworms.. they widely scattered... America.. pi..--.... spices.... head with 5 ocelli (in compact group) each side (20B)....-. 19A Tenebroides mauritanicus 19B 19C Lophocateres 19D pustllus 20 Abdominal terga with 2 transverse carinae (composed of fused tubercles) (20A)...-. flour.--.-. space between urogomphi not marked by tubercle (19B).... especially raspberries loganberries States...

pi. genera urogomphi. 64C-----------------Anthlcus Distribution: Anthicus fforalts. Anthicidae (antlike flower beetles). pi. wheat. Reference: 2 ocelli each side (21 D). and -haystack refuse. lateral urogomphal setae not arising from tubercles (21 F)--- 22 22 Urogomphi joined at their bases and hinged to the last abdominal segment by joint each side (22A). elongate each side of head (21A). lateral setae of urogomphi arise from tubercles (21 C). molar of mandible without soft. cosmopolitan. piles. adults larvae feed decaying plants and fungi. narrownecked grain diverse plant materials beetle. Cucujidae (cucujid beetles) (in part). molar ocellus process bearing hairs (21 B). Urogomphi distinctly separated at their bases and solidly fused to the VIII abdominal 22A Cryptolestes 105 . elongate process (21 E). key (Chapter 3).Larval beetles (Coleoptera) 21 of mandible with soft. 66A----Cryptolestes Cucujid species products notes.

longitudinally ridged (23A). grain. Europe. longitudinal ridges absent {24B)-Litargus balteatus Distribution: Australia. peanuts.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 23 Urogomphus stout. Typhaea stercorea cosmopolitan. without granulation ridges (23C). hyphae Urogomphus distinctly curved at tip. with granular surface often prostheca (23B). feeds grain. 73B---------hairy fungus beetle. with several longitudinal ridges basal half (24A). mandible without retinaculum Mycetophagidae (hairy fungus beetles)-------------------- 24 Urogomphus slender. 106 . conical (curved only at the tip if at all). Hawaii. pi. America. seeds. smooth-surfaced. dible with distinct retinaculum prostheca (23D)------------- 25 23C Pharaxonotha kirschi 23D Pharaxonotha kirschi 24 Urogomphus tapering to straight point (not curved).

mandible with serrate cutting edge.-.... pi...--_-. and elongate. pointed retinaculum (25D).. head dorsally. Chrysomelidae (leaf beetles)Head. Reference: America. light-coloredbody parts each abdominal seg- (26D)------ 28 107 .. Pregomphus absent (25C).-.. vertex rounded (26B). plant products.. legs. with 2 folds visible hypognathous. 74C -. membranous prostheca (25B)..... Languriidae (languriid beetles). key tophagids (Chapter 9).-. flour.. mandible with teeth cutting edge and with broad.. Pharaxonotha kirschi Distribution: Europe. head prognathous.-.. 25D Cryptophagus most abdominal terga (26A)..-. wheat. pi.. 93A information. beans. and dark-colored. body parts often 27 Body slender and straight with only dorsal fold plate ment (26C). Cryptophagidae (cryptophagid beetles).Larval beetles (Coleoptera) 25 Pregomphus present (25A).-Mexican grain beetle. legs.-. 25A Pharaxonotha kirschi 25C Cryptophagus 26 Body stout. vertex at most slightly Head.

Lathridiidae Body apicaliy (28F) pointed (28G). sharply-pointed (28C). the adults fungi growth feed- 28A Oryzaephilus surinamensis 28B Oryzaephilus surinamensis 28C Oryzaephilus surinainensis 28G Microgramme filum 28D Corticaria fulva 28E Corticaria fulva 28F Corticaria fulva 108 . by introduction. strongly dorsally. mandible not partly fleshy bearing long setae (28B). club-shaped (28A). adults and. genera (includes key Antennal segment short (28D). 63A&B---Silvan in Body Reference: straight. Leptinotarsa decemlineata Distribution: North Europe. 65A)-----Colorado potato beetle. abdomen with 3 parallel pigmented plates (pi. pi. 94A----------------minute brown scavenger beetles. potato. foliage eggplant. asparagi scarring growing asparagus: duodecimpunclata develop mainly 28 Antennal segment elongate. Distribution: cosmopolitan (at economically-important species). dorsally: abdomen without pigmented Body moderately stout. pi. moderately lateral plates (pi. feeding by C. fleshy portion of mandible bearing 2 long setae (28E). 65C)------------------asparagus beetles. Crioceris larDistribution: Europe. Cucujidae (cucujid beetles) (in part). species). United States.Insect and Mite Pests in Food of darkly27 Body very stout.

the easily confused legless larvae. labial palp setalike (29A). pi. Body only moderately stout and of pleural (pi. most abdominal terga 30 Curculionids larval stage. Curculionidae (weevils) (in part).Larval beetles (Coteoptera) 29 Labial sclerite forked (29A). (includes keys of pleural weevils. abdomen with folds /30B1------------------------------------------- 33 30B Chalcodermus 109 . abdomen with 3 folds (30A). labial palp with 2 segments (29C). separated species scolylids families bruchids 30 Body very stout and very dorsally (pi. most abdominal terga with 2 folds (298). Genus Sitophilusnotes. species).110A). 113B). key References: 6. 107A-----seed beetles. oval. Bruchidae (in part) Labial sclerite trident. heart-shaped.

--maize weevil. p(. Sitophitus zeamais less uniform width throughout its length (31C. Sitophitus oryzae Labial palp with less than 7 (usually 5) apical sensory papillae (32B). labial palp with at least 5 apical sensory papillae (31 E)---------- 32 32 Labial palp usually with 7 or 8 apical sensory papillae (32A). of 31 D).fnsect and Mite Pests in Food anterior and wider basal 31 Epipharyngeal rod not uniformly wide but with regions (31 A). Sitophifus granan’us 110 . labial palp with less than 5 (usually 3) apical sensory papillae (31 B) ---------------------------. premental sclerite lacking elongate posterior process (32B). Epipharyngeal rod slender. 113B--granary weevil. premental (labial) sclerite with elongate posterior process (32A)--------rice weevil.

head pale except for dark anterior margins and mandibles (33C). Chalcodermus Head without white stripes (but may have angle of frontal unpigmented lobe suture). head setae mostly short (about equal to greatest width of labrum) (34C). outer 4 postdorsal setae alternately long and short abdominal segments to VII (33B). Curculionidae (weevils) (in part)------------------------For bionomic key species 34 Ocelli absent. postdorsal setae subequal in length (33D)------------------- 35 33A Chalcodermus 33C Caulophilus oryzQe 33B Chalcodermus 33D Hypothenemus hampei 34 Head with pair of white stripes projecting posteriorly from frontal suture. pi. 110A--cowpea curculio. head setae mostly long (about equal to greatest width of labrum) (34A). Drawings by Ryan 34B Chalcodermus ^ \^ 111 . head distinctly pigmented dorsal and lateral surfaces (33A).Larval beetles (Coleoptera) 33 Ocelli present. body distinctly tapered from thorax to abdominal apex (34B). Curculio (34D). not i-iiA----------nut posteriorly body tapered weevils. pi.

Guatemala. Micronesia. Curculionidae (weevils) (in part). 112A------broadnosed grain weevil. Peru. prodorsal fold 35A Caulophilus oryzae 35B Hypothenemus hampei 112 . Lanka. Colombia. prodorsal folds segments to VI projecting (in profile) about much other dorsal folds (35A). Hypothenemus hampei Africa. Brazil. pi. Jamaica. prodorsal folds segments to VI distinctly prominent (in profile) than other dorsal folds (35B).Insect and Mite Pests in Food 35 Abdominal segments to Vll with 5 postdorsal setae. Scolytidae (bark beetles). Mexico. Ecuador. Nicaragua. 72A-----------coffee berry borer. East Indies. Caulophilus oryzae Abdominal segments to VI with 4 postdorsal setae. pi.

Howe. A revised key with stored products. M. Neuroptera. 1971. 1954. Ent. J. (954)259-264.. A monograph of the beetles associated with stored products. and P. Insect Rpt. Larvae of British beetles.R. 22(2)1-298. Bangladesh Jour. London. 2ool. 1947.) and Oryzaephilus mercator (Fauv.). Ent. Cutler. Curculionidae. 11 Van Emden. Coop. Siphonaptera. of three species of Sitophilus (Coleoptera: Larvae 1979. Ann Arbor. J. Hall. Hossain. IV. Res. A key for distinguishing the larvae of Ahasverus advena (Waltl).I. Boving. H. 7(2)125-127. Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L. Mature larvae of the beetle-family Anobiidae.H.N. Indian Forest Rec. 1963. 1951. 44(1)85-96. 7(1)45-51. Edwards. Curculionidae). Trichoptera. 8 Kingsolver. Hinton. Coleoptera. 13(15)385-386. Econ. Mecoptera. A. Diptera. Econ. R. Pictorial key for separating larvae of dermestid genera commonly found stored products. Mathur. Ann. 1945. America 40(3)489-517.E. Soc. (New Ser. Various small families. and R. Cathartus quadricollis (Guer. Kingsolver.W. 1954.M. J. (955)265-270. W.) 8(9)227-231. 1943. Larvae of insects. 1970. F. 10 Peterson. Meddel. Groundnut bruchid [Caryedon serratus (Olivier)). Bul.G. Jour. Ent. Immature stages of Indian Coleoptera (25).M. D. Res.H. 20(18)303-304. Larvae of genera of Anthribidae (Coleoptera).) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae). 2 pi. Coop. A. Insect Rpt. Monthly Mag.. 79(952)209-223. 113 .W. British Museum (Natural History).Larval beetles (Coleoptera) References Cited Anderson. Verner. the larvae of Ptinidae associated 1953. Danske Biol. Stored Prod. Part II.

Insect and Mite Pests in Food Notes and Sketches 114 .

S.DERMESTID BEETLES (DERMESTIDAE. COLEOPTERA) John M. Kingsolver Systematic Entomology Laboratory Plant Sciences Institute Agricultural Research Service U. Department of Agriculture Beltsville MD 20705 .

III elongate (2A). (in clothing Face of 111 111 short (2C). and clubbed (2D). probably England. winged. body slender (pi. thick. 76A)--------------------Drawings 3 2A Thyiodrias 2C dermestid beetle 2D Trogoderma versiwior 116 .Insect and Mite Pests in Food KEY Adults Drawings by Adults- Larvae 2 Face of (II not concave. Africa. antenna short. USSR. antenna long. (receives femur III). 75B&C)---------"-odd beetle. bedding) (in food only specimens). not clubbed (2B). Morth America. body broad (pi. Thylodnas contractus wingless. slender.

lacking serrations and spines (4C)------ 4A Dermestes maculstus 4C Dermestes lardarius 117 .Dermestid beetles (Dermestidae. Drawing Distribution. Dermestes maculQtus pattern usually Ventral abdominal skins. with small terminal spine (4A). Coleoptera) 3 Median ocellus absent (3A). hides occasionally by Elytral apex entire. Genus DermestesMedian ocellus present (3B)---------"- 3A Dermestes 3B Trogodei Trogoderma lusum inclusum 4 Elytral apex serrate. 76A dide beetle. cosmopolitan. pi.

-. 6C) 7 8 6A Dermestes peruvianus 6B Dermestes 6C Dermestes friSGhii 118 ....^ 5B Dermestes lardarius 5A Dermestes /ardarius 5C Dermestes 5D Dermestes 6 Abdominal venter without pattern..-. 768 beetle....-. lacking paltern bacon. cosmopolitan. pi..-.-.-.-.larder Abdominal bearing 3 dark spots (5A). lateral sulcus not closely parallel to lateral margin (6B.-....-_... (58).. lateral sulcus of abdominal sternum closely parallel to lateral margin (6A) Abdominal venter patterned.-.-..-.. Dermestes lardarius uniformty colored. Elytron without basal band lighter in color than rest of elytron (5C)-(50) Drawing without (5B) pattern.......-...... tish..-.-... ham.........Insect and Mite Pests Food 5 Elytron with yellowish basal -... sausages. ...

with (not depressed) (7B). with scattered golden setae. by meat. 76D without scattered golden setae. already grains Abdominal color pattern of lateral dark spots ash-gray background. cheese. Coleoptera) 7 Elytral pubescence black. anterior end of lateral sulcus strongly curved toward midline (8B) ------Dermestes frischii Distribution: cosmopolitan. head with rounded media! concavity (7A). Dermestes ater cosmopolitan. pi. pi. England. Abdominal venter with medial and lateral brown spots III (8A). feeding Reference: accidental Elytral pubescence brown yellowish. probably important only kitchens. mushrooms. fish.Dermestid beetles (Dermestidae. anterior end of sinuous lateral sulcus located opposite outer limit of pi. hams. probably occasional 8A Dermestes 8B Dermestes frischii 119 . Dermestes peruvianus Distribution: nearly cosmopolitan. middle spillage. dried fish. 76C--------------------Oermestes hsiemorrholdalis Europe. 7A Dermestes haemorrhoidalis 7B Dermestes peruvianus Q yellowish background. 77B -----------------------black larder beetle. front Peruvian larder beetle.

vestiture of flat scales (9B. elytral scales ovate (10B). 2 to 3 times wide (10D). elytral scales elongate.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 9 Antennal cavity of anteroventral surface of prothorax fully visible in anterior view (9A). wheat. Anthrenus scrophuiariae cosmopolitan. 9C). 1B -carpet beetle. flour. pi. Anthrenus verbasci peanuts. drugs. spices. 1A long varied carpet beetle. 10A Anthrenus scrophulariae 10C Anthrenus verbasci 10B Anthrenus scrophulariae 10D Anthrenus verbasci 120 . vestiture of hairs (9E) 10 11 9A Anthrenus 9B Anfhrenus scrophulariae 9C Anthrenus verbasci 9E Trogoderma 9D Trogoderma granarium 10 Eye notched (10A). Genus Anthrenus----------Antennal cavity not (or only sliQhtly) visible in anterior view (9D). by cosmopolitan. flour. Eye entire (10C). pi. probably important only contaminant. wheat. plants. cereals.

Genus Attagenus---------------Posterior margin of antennal cavity marked by fine. Also. PSI. Dorsal coloration uniformly brown black (pi. Attagenus pellio Distribution: Africa. elongatiilus). Pakistan. toothlike angutation (11B). especially important correctly identify the fchapra beetle. Coleoptera) 11 Antenna) cavity not carinate posteriorly (11A). transverse carina (11 D). flour. posterior margin of coxai plate tit curved sinuate (1 IE). (=A Region. Afghanistan. North America. spices. 79A)-----------------"-----------fur beetle. granarium. should the onomic Services Unit. Genus Trogoderma----------------------separate species of Trogoderma pattern variability species.Dermestid beetles (Dermestidae. confusing important species. cosmopolitan seeds. except for 2 elytra! white spots (pi. smoked meat. Agricultural Center-West. fish. grain. (in dried 121 . especially originating southwestern United States. posterior margin of coxai plate 111 with blunt. casein. Specimens of questionable identity. 2). Europe.-----------------black carpet beetle. 79C) ------------. 13 11 A Attagenus 11B Attagenus 11C Attagenus 11D Trogoderma HE Trogoderma 11F Trogoderma 12 Dorsal coloration uniformly brown brownish-black. products. Attagenus unicolor Attagenus brunneus (= megatoma). peanuts). Key based Trogoderma (7. segment of tarsus III longer than 12 segment (11F). Asia. segment of tarsus lit shorter than segment (11C).

80A----rrooocferma simplex Mexico. 2 to 3 times larger than eye facet. antenna! cavity shining and minutely striate(13C). except for small smooth prosternum (13A).Insect and Mite Pests in Food 13 Antenna! cavity with coarse. Drawings Antenna! cavity finely punctate in mesal two-thirds (each puncture about the size of eye facet) (13B). United States. orantennal cavity coarsely punctate rugose in lateral one-half and striate finely punctate mesally (13D)--------------------------------- 14 13A Trogoderma simplex 0-9 13B Trogoderma versicolor 13C Trogoderma variabile o"9 13D Trogoderma versicolor 9 122 . confluent punctures. pi. grain.

pi. but without clearly defined pattern (14A). Coleoptera) 14 Elytron unicolorous vaguely mottled. SOB khapra beetle. cereal products. segments. 14A Trogoderma granarium 14F Trogoderma omatum 14C 14D 14E 14J Trogoderma variabile Trogoderma granarium anteromediat metasternal process 14B Trogoderma granarium 9 141 Trogoderma (not granarium) 123 . anteromedial metasternal margin lacking nipptelike projection (14B). segments (14C): antennal club female (14D&E). anteromedial margin of metasternal lobe in pubescence tion with nipplelike projection (14I)----------------"-------"Number female Drawings by 15 segments always 11. Distribution: tropicopolitan grain.Dermestid beetles (Dermestidae. antennal five segments (141). segments dry Elytron with definite color pattern (it may be fine and intricate) visible either in maculaboth (14F-H). Trogoderma granarium Number club segments 11.

Trogoderma inclusum Distribution: England./usum incfusum 16B Trogoderma variabiie 124 . pi. 15C) 16 15B Trogoderma ornatum 15C Trogoderma versicolor 16 Inner margin of eye distinctly notched (16A). cornmeal. grain. products. Trogoderma glabrum Elytral pattern highly variable. Inner margin of eye straight very slightly sinuate (16B)--- 16A Trogoderma Trogoderm .Insect and Mite Pests in Food 15 Integument unicolorous (black) black with vague brownish maculations humeri and apical margins only. and subapical bands of lighter macuiation elytra (15B. 80C--------glabrous cabinet beetle. pi. Drawings by Integument bicolorous. at least with pattern of basal. elytral pubescence easily Holarctic. States. grain. milk. submedian and subapical bands (if banding is present at all. submedian. is indicated onfy very vaguely by light-colored pubescence) (15A). with distinct basal. 1D larger cabinet beetle.

basal finely of elytral maculation always band. pi. present. rice. nuts. Basal band loop of elytral maculation always connected to submedian band by longitudinal bands (17D)-------------------with (17E) (17F) tions. loop. wneal). cavity finely (see 18B). Coleoptera) 17 Basal band loop of elytral maculation never connected to submedian band by bands (17A). (17C).Dermestid beetles (Dermestidae. 13C. subapical America. 1C---warehouse beetle. 14J. seeds. 18 18E&F). USSR. antennal cavity compactly joined. 16B. 17D Trogoderma ornatum 17C Trogoderma 17B Trogoderma variabile 17E Trogoderma ornatum 17F Trogoderma versicolor 125 . cereals (corn. Trogoderma varlabile longitudinal band segments (17B). Distribution: milk. partly vaguely punctate-slriate (see punctate (see 18C).

Drawings by rice. seeds. 18A Trogoderma 18D Trogoderma versicolor 18B Trogoderma 18C Trogoderma ornatum 9 18E Trogoderma versicoior 18F Trogoderma versicolor 9 Larvae Drawings by 19 Urogomphi absent (19A)----------Urogomphi present (19B). but vaguely punctate-striate in lateral one-fifth in male (18E) and in lateral one-half to two-thirds in female (18F).insect and Mite Pests in Food 18 Antenna of male serrate (18A). pi. antennal cavity of female polished and finely striate mesally but punctate in lateral two-thirds (18C). antenna! cavity of male polished and finely striate (18B). wheat. 14F. Genus Dermestes- 19A Attagenus unicolor 19B Dermestes macuiatus 126 . Trogoderma ornatum America. pi. antennal cavity dull and minutely punctate. cereals. Trogoderma versicolor Europe. 1E---ornate cabinet beetle. seeds. See 13B. Antenna of male clavate (18D). 800-----European larger cabinet beetle. grain.

pi. spiny. Coleoptera) 20 Each tergum with of coarse.Dermestid beetles (Dermestidae.------------. stout. Sharp club-shaped spiny setae absent (20D.--. 20E. Thylodrias contractus Body short. 75A margin and cluster of spiny. C-shaped (20C). club-shaped setae (20A) along posterior each side. Body also 21A)------ 21 (20F) 127 .------odd beetle. sharp-pointed setae (20B) --.----..

yellow stripe (24A). apex of urogomphus curved anteriorly (24B) ---------------hide beetle. and VII (22A).Insect and Mite Pests in Food 22 Hastisetal tufts inserted "islands" in membrane behind strongly curved posterior margins of abdominal segments V. Dermestes macuiatus Dermestes frischii 19B. 29 30 22B Trogoderma 22A Anthrenus verbasci ornatum 23 Frontal tubercles present (23A) Frontal tubercles absent (23B)- 23A Dermestes maculatus 24 Dorsal midline marked by broad. VI. apex of urogomphus curved posteriorly (24D)------------ 25 128 . Genus Trogoderma References: 3. unsclerotized line (24C). Dorsal midline of thorax and abdomen marked only by thin. Genus Anthrenus----Hastisetal tufts inserted tergal plates (22B).

Urogomphi separated by a distance equal to width at base of retrorse tubercles (usually neither bilobed setiferous) either absent small and inconspicuous. urogomphi 25A Dermestes haemorrhoidalis 25B Dermestes haemorrhoidalis 25C Dermestes peruvianus 25D Dermestes peruvianus 129 . ventral sclerotized well-developed 5 abdominal segments (25B)---------------Dermestes haemorrhoidalis easily urogomphi See urogomphus. retrorse tubercles (each bilobed and bearing medial seta) large and conspicuous last X abdominal terga III to (25A). Coleoptera) 25 Urogomphi separated by distance less than width at base of urogomphus. 5.----Peruvian larder beetle.Dermestid beetles (Dermestidae. last 4 abdominal segments (25D) tral sclerotized well-developed only --------. Dermestes peruvianus inconspicuous. especially terga IX and X (usually absent X) (25C).-----.

---------larder beetle. Dermestes ater 27 Acrotergites with broad setae (each seta with 5 longitudinal ribs) (27A). retrorse tubercles absent from all abdominal terga (26D). retrorse tubercles present at least abdominal tergum VI (26B). Dermestes lardarius Urogomphus straight (26C). pi.insect and Mite Pests in Food 26 Urogomphus curved posteriorly at apex (26A). Attagenus peltio Acrotergites with slender setae only (each seta with (27C). abdominal ovate (27B) tergite Vill with most setae subrectangular fur beetle. 77A----------------------black larder beetle. abdominal tergite VIII with either lanceolate than 3 longitudinal ribs) linear setae (27D)--- 28 27A Attagenus pellio 27C Attagenus unicolor 27D Attagenus brunneus 130 .

|ack carpet beetle. abdominal sterna with yellowish sclerotized Winery p ... pi.------carpet beetle. Anthrenus verbasci See -^ 29A Anthrenus scrophulariae 29B Anthrenus verbasci 131 .---. Ijrunneua} etongatulus previously c^28A Attagenus brunneus 28C Attagenus unicolor 28B Attagenus brunneus 28D Attagenus unicolor 29 long hastisetal heads (29A). 78--------... Coleoptera) 28 Integument of head and dorsum of body light brown.|.Dermestid beetles (Dermestidae. (now piceus.......----.-. abcio^T"nal sterna "^branous (whitish Tan^p^T^’ transparent).^iecl carpet beetle... setae of vm sternite with .. Anthrenus scrophularlae heads (29B).. setae of VIII sternite with 8 to 12 ribs (28A) -Attagenus Tergal between margins (28B).. Attagenus unicolor Tergal megatoma (now between unicolor} margins (28D).. brunneus ’"^"^"L0^6^ (28C)-2 3 ribs and drs"m f body reddish brown.

setae of segment not reaching apex of segment of fully-extended antenna (31B)- 35 31A Trogoderma granarium 31 B Trogoderma variabile 132 . mesally-di reeled spicisetae (30B)-----Trogocferma simplex Setae of basal antennal segment at least three-fourths long antennal segment (30C). mesally-directed tergal setae absent (30D)---------------31 30D Trogoderma variabile 31 Setae of basal antennal segment almost completely encircling segment (not bunched mesal side). setae of antennal segment reaching surpassing apex of segment when antenna is fully extended (31A)-----------------Single (31A) Trogoderma granarium segment absent. leaving one-third of lateral surface bare.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 30 Setae of basal antennal segment less than half long antennal segment (30A). flat. tergites with short. 32 Setae of basal segment bunched mesal side.

Coleoptera) 32 Antecostal suture of abdominal segment VIII usually absent (32A). Trogoderma granarium Labium with cup (32B). but in those instances when is present. Antecostal (32C) only 33 (32D) (as 32A8.Dermestid beetles (Dermestidae.C). epipharyngegl papillae See also couplet Antecostal suture of abdominal segment VIII present Distal (32B) epipnaryngeal papillae. 32A Trogoderma granarium 32B Trogoderma granarium ’goderma lusum 133 . is weak and interrupted at several points Rhapra beetle.

--g|abrous cabinet Terga creamy yellow. Trogoderma versicolor 35 Disc of thoracic and anterior abdominal terga usually with very few hastisetae. terga of large spicisetae (35A).. epipharyngeal papillae 6 (see 32D)------------- 34 Western Hemisphere-------------larger cabinet beetle. Thoracic and anterior abdominal terga usually moderately dense with hastisetae.. Trogoderma glabrum 34 -. terga of large. 81 usually with only single warehouse beetle. Trogoderma inctusum Eastern Hemisphere-- --European larger cabinet beetle. pi.--. 30C. erect spicisetae (35B) usually with 2 ornate cabinet beetle. Trogoderma ornatum 35A Trogoderma variabile 35B Trogoderma ornatum 134 . Trogoderma variabile also A..Insect and Mite Pests in Food 33 Terga medium to dark brown bluish gray. epipharyngeal papillae 4 (see 32B) beetle.-.-.

. 1960. Jr. R. P. Rees. Bul. and other Dermestes spp. Proc. R. Biology and taxonomy of the Nearctic species of Trogoderma (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). Ent.J. (Col. 135 .S. haemorrhoidaiis [1976]. Notes and pictorial key for separating khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium) larvae from all other Nearctic species of the genus. Americana 45(3)141-235.S. R. Econ. Beal. 111(1328-1330)1-14. Washington DC. Department of Agriculture. 1954. Ann.U. California Pub. B. Insect Rpt. Monthly Mag. Tech.E. Beal. 1970. E. 1956.. 1961. North American 1947. Dermestes peruvianus Cast. and identification of Trogoderma larvae (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). Jr. Ent. Ent. Soc. the Descriptions. Beal. Ent.S-.R. A taxonomic and biological study of species of Attagenini (Coleoptera. R. 10(2)35-102. Univ. biology. Jr. America 49(6)559-566. Kust. Ent. Jr. 11(6)61-62. Spangler. 1228.Dermestidae) in the United States and Canada.. Washington Dermestidae). D. Taxonomy of the larvae of species of the Genus Dermestes (Coleoptera: Soc. Dermestidae). pi.S. Co(eoptera) References Cited Beal. 1975 49(1)1-14.S-. Coop.Dermestid beetles (Dermestidae.. Synopsis of the economic species of Trogoderma occurring in the United States with description of species (Coleoptera. Dermestidae). 5 Peacock.

/nsect and Mite Pests in Food Notes and Sketches 136 .

COLEOPTERA) Theodore J. Department of Agriculture c/o National Museum of Natural History Washington DC 20560 . Spilman Systematic Entomology Laboratory Plant Sciences Institute Agricultural Research Service U.S.SPIDER BEETLES (PTINIDAE.

approximately 20 of which have been included here. dimorphism is absent. in houses and warehouses in Canada. minimal is made of them in this key. Excellent accounts of the biology and habits of the species of economic importance published by R. wasps. Howe and collaborators from 1949 to 1959 in series of 17 articles entitled Studies Beetles of the Family Ptinidee. but since these scales easily abraded. and many animal materials. Besides readily feed equally plant being found in human foods. The taxonomy of the Ptinidae of economic importance in the world. the largest genus. short taxonomic articles of them (1) includes key to the ptinids that (1-3}. those abrecorded pests. 86A) and stout females (pi. Not all 20 in sent pests that do not very minor North America. by Hatch (6) for the Pacific Northwest. the geographic focus of the key presented widely distributed. therefore. usually hairy bodies and slender legs. They especially attracted to moisture and to bird and mal excrement. Many of the pest species spread by cosmopolitan. with fragments of their dead bodies. but the actual loss of weight due to feeding is small unless the ptinid population is enorIn addition to damaging food. When sexual 86B)-as to stout. birds. with keys and illustrations. both males and females absence of sexual dimorphism In the past. food-handling businesses. but sexual dimorphism in species of Ptinus. each the sexually dimorphic species is determined separately. and Ptinids often infest foods. ptinids indirectly spoilage by contaminating food with trass. combe plicates specific identification. and with the silk they to spin cocoons. In the following key of sexual dimorphism character is not used./nsect and Mite Pests in Food Because of their relatively small. warehouses. bat caves. Keys and illustrations published by Papp and Okumura (10) for California. The last complete treatment of the taxonomy and identification of the Ptinidae of North America published by Fall in 1905 (4). 138 . and by Hisamatsu (8) for Japan. it of the necessary. to have both species at hand to make the key work. the presence has been used sometimes key character. hence the The family contains moderate number of species. and mammals. Ptinid infestations. to be separate species. Several published by Brown good. and houses. Identification to genus is rather simple. often follow other kinds of infestations. Ptinids mainly scavengers. here.W. presented by Hinton (7). by Freude (5) for tral Europe. The shape and distribution of patches of white scales the elytra of many species of Pft’nus have often been used in keys. therefore. All parts of the series cited in the final summary article by Howe (9). they have been found in the nests of bees. globular. The different-slender males (pi. the ptinids resemble spiders.

elytra dull Elytra less than 2 times of setae moderately shiny. and without striae longitudinal wide abdominal sterna (1B. 82A&B)setae posteriorly.Spider beetles (Ptinidae. without setae with only collar of dense setae at base and few scattered of setae (pi. with appressed scales and/or striae longitudinal 139 . impunctate. 1C. elytra polished. Coleoptera) KEY TO ADULTS Drawings by Elytra than 2 times wide abdominal sterna (1A). "ID).

-. posterior produced laterally each side of 3 Elytra with basal tomentose collar deeply interrupted at middle and midtine (3A)._-.-. associated grains. seeds. posterior lateral third produced laterally --. cayenne pepper... seeds. not interrupted (3B) --.-.-. insects.. Palearclic regions...._-^-. mainly appears psylloides Europe.^-..--northern spider beetle.----.----e/bbiufn aequinoctiale angle. Africa.-. 82B--~-------American spider beetle. opium.--._-. Asia. Ethiopian.-. America. species many species may separated forming strongly third sloping -hump beetle. Neotropical. 82A)-Papers by (8) long femur ill (2A). --Gibbium (see reference Chapter 28) Gibbium psylloides specimens previously identified actually aequinoctiale. trochanter almost pronotum and elytra without setae (pi.-.. includes aequinoctiale Australian.. Mezium americanum cosmopolitan. feeds. reported from seeds. Elytra with basal tomentose collar entire. carpet.--. Nearctic.-./nsect and Mite Pests in Food 2 Abdomen with 4 visible sterna (2A).-. Gibbium psylloides fossas forming right Median weakly angle. pi. decaying plant animal 3A Mezium americanum 140 .-.-. products. Mezium affi’ne Distribution: Europe. Oriental. This interpretadistributions past species associations impossible.

dried plants. seeds. associated Africa. elytra covered scales with appressed broad setae and with erect setae (pi. also 1B.Spider beetles (Ptinidae. dried valerian Scales and setae of pronotum (5C) and elytron (5D) subequal in size. Coleoptera) 4 Area between antenna! insertions broad Area between antennal insertions and flat (4A. without erect setae (pi. elytra covered with appressed broad scales. America. 4C)and usually carinate (4D. herbs. 4E) 5 Scales of pronotum (5A) obviously broader than those of elytron (5B). red pepper. 4B. 83A) ---Sphaericus gibboides Europe. 83B&C) 5A Sphaericus gibboides 5B 5C Niptus hololeucus 5D Trigonogenius globufum 141 .

bran. tartar.. with apical one-half expanded (6C). associated wheat. argol.-. dust. old clothing. piles. 1-0. 83B)----"-"---------golden spider beetle.Insect and Mite Pests in Food Femur Hi slender. South America. Europe. extending to 111. appressed setae (6D). reported from wool. beans. books. from hulls. burlap sacks. with uniform. seeds... 6C Trigonogenius gfobuium 6B Niptus hololeucus 6D Trigonogenius globulum 142 . wheat. 4B. seeds. spices. milo. rhubarb roots.. belladona roots.-. brushes. elytra and pronotum covered with golden appressed setae (pi.--. but with apical one-third expanded (6A)... linen. oats. 83C). antenna shorter. oafs. pronotal surface irregular (pi. pronotum evenly (pi.-. except tropics. artificial silk. bread. Trigonogenius globulum Distribution: Africa. paper. elytra and pronotum covered with gray and brown appressed setae (pi.-. cotton. barley. 83C) . tea. extending to middle of visible abdominal sternum 11. seed. spices.--globular spider beetle. oppressed setae (6B).. barley. drugs.-. flour.. with mat of confused. Niptus hololeucus cosmopolitan. Femur 111 stout. North America. cork. feathers... flour. silk. seed. reported meal. sponges. raisins. antenna long.-. casein.-. 83B). grains. cotton. sugar.. leather. cottonseed meal. fruit. caraway meal.

rats. yeast. rusks. apricots ginger. raisins. seeds. wheat flour. of setae easily Elytral surface mostly visible and longitudinal appressed setae may be present (pi. fishmeal. furs. sausage flax. beans. sultanas. Europe. 8 Elytral surface completely obscured by vestiture of dark golden oppressed setae. flour. feed. See 4D. food. 84----Pseudeurostus hilleri Distribution: Canada. nutmegs. associated feeds. 85B)---------------Australian spider beetle. turkey starter. products. apex reaching elytral margin (7A). 86A) though 9 9 Surface of pronotum partially obscured by 2 dense clumps of erect golden setae Drawing by Surface of pronotum visible through vestiture of horizontal. hops. oatmeal.Spider beetles (Ptinidae. poultry feed. almonds. figs. pepper. starch: herring meal. soy grits. barley. Ptinus ocellus Synonym: cosmopolitan. Coleoptera) 7 Trochanter III long. carpets. 143 . of setae seen only vaguely because of background of appressed longitudinal setae (pi. oats. hay. casein. bran. inclined. reported meat. Japan. some of which may form clumps (9C. 9D) erect setae. paprika chocolate powder. seeds. wheat. iye. insects. feces. pi.

fruit. furs. ginger. animals. ptinus extending gandolphei Seta of strial puncture longer. raisins. 86B--------female. tobacco. figures body USSR. cantharides. paper. grains. reported seeds. pepper. pollen specimens. Pt/nus raptor sexually dimorphic species in pi. with punctures and/or granules between and laterad of dense setal clumps (10B). cosmopolitan. leather. bird nests. grains. contained within puncture only slightly beyond posterior border of puncture (11 A) body sexually dimorphic species similar California. pollen America. roots. bread. 11 Seta of strial puncture of elytron very short. seeds. Europe. feeds. beehives. yeast. nests. 4E. pi. paprika dates. animal skins. pepper. extending well beyond posterior border of puncture and reaching at least next puncture (HB)------------------- 12 11 A Ptinus gandolphei 144 . figures pi. See feathers. flour. cereal. seeds. Pronotal surface dull.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 10 Pronotaf surface between and (aterad of dense setal clumps shiny and without punctures granules (10A)-------------Canadian spider beetle. ground barley. flour. straw. Ptinus fur Distribution. whitemarked spicier beetle. whole flour.

feathers. alfalfa. dallisgrass..-. also Erect setae of alternate and intervals subequal in length and usually equally slanted (14B).. brown spider beetle.. dead animals. Ptinus villiger sexually dimorphic species body form figures shown pi.---. 86.. Synonym: hinetlus. powdered leaves of reported from vetch.. dried fruit.... pi...-.. Ptinus fur See couplet 145 ..^. milo. beans. meal. and Jaborandi. rye. 86B) Body slender. feeds. soybean meal. Ptinus clavipes sexually dimorphic species similar body form specimens figured pi. spinach..Spider beetles (Ptinidae. North America. books. 12C) 13 13 Body stout. rice. Distribution: Asia. elytra parallel-sided (pi. dried mushrooms. flour. farina.---.. associated wheat (lour. sunflower. 86B-------female. root. chamomile Longest setae on anterior two-thirds of elytral intervals shorter than last segment of tarsus III (12B.. feeds... cornmeal. 14 86A)------------------- 15 14 Erect setae of alternate intervals of elytron one-third to one-half as long (and usually more erect than) setae of intervals (14A) --------. barley....feniale. cornmeal... Distribution: cosmopolitan. Europe.. elytra oval (pi. associated wheat..-. Coleoptera) 12 Longest erect setae anterior two-thirds of elytral intervals long longer than last segment of tarsus III (12A)-"----"--hairy spider beetle. cantharides: cotton. skins... whitemarked spider beetle.

86A n\a\e.fnsect and Mite Pests in Food 15 Pronotum with slender. Ptinus fur Pronotum with erect anteriorly-directed. the 2 "V" (15A). Ptinus clavipes 146 . dense often joined forming "U" See couplet of posteriorly-inclined yellowish setae. brown spider beetle. pi. golden setae either side of midline (these setae not densely spaced and at most form only the vaguest suggestion of rows) (15B)-----------------male. whitemarked spider beetle.

1959. 2 Brown. 147 . 1959.J. In Teredilia.E. Conclusions and additional remarks. Ent. 60-74). Bull.T. by H.J. Die Kafer Mitteleuropas. EntStudies Res. Lamellicornia. and allied genera in North America (Coleoptera: Ptinidae). Pselaphidae and Diversicornia. Seattle. Niptus Boield. Agric. Soc. Band 8. A preliminary study of the Ptinidae of California. Trans. K. American Ent. Revision of the Ptinidae of boreal America. 6 Hatch.Spider beetles (Ptinidae. C. S.A. II. 48(4)228-248. 31(4)331-381. 1959. 10 Papp.W. University of Washington Press. XVII. H. The beetles of the Pacific Northwest. and poorly known species of Some Coleoptera. W. 1961. H. H. 72(6)115-122. Diebskafer (pp. English summary). Bull. M. Heteromera. Harde. 91(10)627-633.C. Coleoptera) References Cited Brown.W. Res. Fall. 1905. 50(2)287-326. W. pi. Ageha 11:14-20 (in Japanese. 3 Brown. California Dept. H. and G. 1940. W. Canadian Ent.H. Bul. 1970. A key the species of Ptinidae occurring in dwellings and warehouses in Canada (Coiaoptera). The Ptinidae of economic importance. 5 Freude. Canadian Ent. The Ptinidae of Japan (Coleoptera). 31(2-3)97-296. Goecke & Evers. 1969.. Hinton. Krefeid. Lohse. Famine: Plinidae. 1941. Canadian Enl. ed. 1944. Hisamatsu. Okumura. Part III. 9 Howe. Freude. beetles of the family Ptinidae.J.S. 76(1)4-10. and G.

fnsect and Mite Pests in Food Notes and Sketches 148 .

Kingsolver Systematic Entomology Laboratory Plant Sciences Institute Agricultural Research Service U. Department of Agriculture Beltsville MD 20705 .S.CHECKERED BEETLES (CLERIDAE. COLEOPTERA) John M.

fish. violacea is rarely KEY TO ADULTS Color of thorax. thorax. associated with spoiled meat. and sionally with cured ham and bacon. pi. cheese. pi. 1G--------------. Necrobia feed larvae of other insects and in stored foods.blacklegged ham beetle. and abdomen metallic blue 2 green. Necrobia ruficollis Color of head. and elytral shoulders reddish yellow. 11. 87B-------"-----redlegged ham beetle. 1H ---redshouldered ham beetle. Both adults and larvae molds. color of legs reddish Legs reddish. Necrobia rufipes Legs dark. pi. color of head and apical three-fourths of elytra metallic blue green.Insect and Mite Pests in Food These three species. legs. ail cosmopolitan in distribution. Necrobia violacea 150 .

COLEOPTERA) Walter A. Conned Department of Entomology and Applied Ecology University of Delaware Newark DE 19717 .SAP BEETLES (NITIDULIDAE.

Nitjdula rufipes (L. Sap beetle larvae. Normally.) and N. This is handy taxonomic feature. especially those belonging to the genus Carpophtlus. Specimens with distended abdomens (from engorgement with food from having been killed in fluids) generally than the normal number of exposed present segments behind the elytra (9D). prognathous larvae bearing continuous urogomphi (pi. if any. symbiont of result of cactus flowers reported from stored foods misidentification. C. would be exposed normally. Gtischrochitus fasciatus/ Nitidula bipunctata. the associated trochantins exposed (10B). Hinton also mentioned four other in North America but not in association species that with stored foods: C. it does not in females (6B). the anal plate (23B). pilosellus. All members of the genus Nitiduta feed North American fauna rion.Haptoncus tuteoius (6A) is exceptional in that the last two terga largely sclerotized whether not. C. The articulating surfaces and the membrane concealed adjoining segment necting tergite to under normal conditions. With this information in mind. These structures become posed when the abdomen is distended. On the dorsum of each normally exposed segment is large sclerite tergite. the taxonomist must judge how many segments. dorsal sclerite consists of only relatively band at the posterior margin. A normally concealed segment may have but The immature stages of six species have not been described: Carpophilus fumatus. and Haptoncus llavidus. luteolus is cealed exposed. Male nitidulids have small. but it must be used with caution. pailipennis (Say). discoidal supplementary seg- All the other nitidulids associated with stored foods have orthosomatic (or nearly so). but distended specimens frequently countered. C. Omosita colon (L).Insect and Mite Pests in Food The adults of those nitidulids that infest stored foods (2-4) have five tarsal segments each leg. (L. maculatus. A pair of pregomphi (23A) protrudes from the anal plate just in front of the urogomphi. may often be difficult to identify to species. Some genera have truncate elytra that expose one more segments of the abdomen (2B-D). genera the supplementary segment is also visible the dorsal side of the abdomen (6A).). segments to III have hairy pads usually dilated. The presence of dorsal membranous behind the elytra indicates abdominal distention (9D). sexpustulatus. ment In the ventral surface of the abdominal apex (11B). C. covering much of the dorsal surface of abdominal segment IX. The front always (6E) and transverse. only the pygidium of H. and N. The tergite of the apical segment is termed the pygidium (28. 152 . carrion feeder not known to invade buildings. The urogomphi (22E) with sclerite. Hinton (4) discussed four species that do not occur in North America and not included in this key: Carpophitus fiavipes. immaculatus. Segment IV is modified but comparatively small (see couplet illustration the underside 6E). ziczac. There are six species in but only the two recorded from stored foods (dried meats) included in this key. 90A). 2C).

Sap beetles (Nitidulidae. usually with median notch 4 5 3A Gliscbrochilus quadrisignatus 3B Haptoncus luteolus 153 . the articulation marked by fine. Co(eoptera) Adult specimen-Larval specimen- 2 Abdomen normally entirely concealed by elytra (2A). curved groove (3A)anterior margin (3B)-------Labrum free. pygidium alone exposed (2B)------------’--------------------------Abdomen normally with apical 2 3 segments exposed dorsally behind elytra (2C. 3 8 of pygidium 2C Carpophilus freemani 2D Carpophilus humeratis 3 Labrum fused to ctypeus. 2D1--------------------------------------See which illustrates segment.

Insect and Mite Pests in Food 4 Elytron either with 2 conspicuous orange-yellow spots (4A) with conspicuous spot (posterior) and group of few small spots (humeral region) (4B). 88A -. black. sides of pronotum and elytra fringed with hairs eye facet (5D)------------long longer than the diameter of 154 . appearance. pi. the humeral group of small spots) (4C). 4A Glischrochilus 4C Glischrochilus fasciatus quacSrisignatus 5 Labrum strongly notched and definitely bilobed (5A). temperate inconspicuous. nearly with 3 blunt points (never appearElytron with 2 conspicuous spots.-Glischrochilus quadrisignatus light Body elongate. integument weakly shiny. marginal fringe sides of pronotum and inconspicuous absent (5B)----------------Labrum shallowly emarginate (5C). pi. quadrisignatus size. Similar (except geographic California fasciatus). 88Bing -Glischrochilus fasciatus G.

.8 mm. length 4. Haptoncus luteolus Elytra abdomen both penultimate tergum pygidium above. north County). stout. color dark brown. 88C . (6E). length 1. only pygidium (6A) (absent plementary segment abruptly female.. pi. 88D------Lobiopa insularis elytral margins explanate (6D).Sap beetles (Nitidulidae.--------------------yellowbrown sap beetle. color dull yellow to brown.. subtropical. elytron short. dorsum with dull yellow margins and many ill-defined light yellow areas.5 to 8 mm. Coleoptera) Body oblong in shape (6A). tibia Hemisphere. 6B). backward-curving setae. apical Haptoncus with several species dilated (6C).7 to 2. and tropical Distribution: temples Carolina America. pi.-. California (El Body oval in shape (6D). Pronolal apical 155 . County). subtropics tropics (El Carolina and America.

Insect and Mite Pests in Food 7 Elytral fringe (7A). Canada). body color uniform Distribution: tropics nearly Hemisphere. widely occurring California North America. 89B Western Hemisphere (Central 2B. transverse. North Carolina America. yellow zigzag bands. front sinuate posterior angles. subtropics Oklahoma. elongate. pi. body color dull light to dark brown. pi. 89A-----------------/W/c/u/a bipunctata Northern Hemisphere. Virginia. Quebec Elytral fringe wide (equal to width of reflexed elytra! flange) (7B). elongate segments exposed behind elytra. elytra with obscure. pi. body color dull brown to nearly black. each elytron with obscure orange-red spot. less elongate (8B). pygidium longer than wide (8A). 8 Body form narrow. 89C nearly margin. pygidium transverse (8C). Genus Carpophilus- 8A Conotelus stenoides 8B Carpophilus hemipterus 8C Carpophilus freeman/ 156 . Texas. Body form broader.

Sap beetles (Nitidulidae. pygidium may sometimes telescope penultimate tergum antepenultimate pest carpophilids (9B). smooth and shining (if so. with shoulder. pest species that tional completely sclerotized antepenultimate tergum normally exposed. 89D-------------pineapple sap beetle. pi. North America. penultimate. then dorsal body color is uniformly the may be abnormally distended. texture. posterior terga. Coleoptera) 9 Normally 3 abdominal terga exposed (9A). tergum. subtropics. the penultimate tergum. exposing beetles. reported Western Hemisphere (California) by Normally 2 abdominal terga exposed (9C). body color black. Moreover. North Carolina California (Tenama County). telescope tropics dividuals. by abnormal distention (90). dorsum dull and finely reticulate between punctures. starting antepenultipygidium. hindmost. usual terga (9D). exposed tergum largely membranous. tinged with red. segment penultimate segment (9B). exposing normal contracted. rarely. Carpophilus humeralis specimens color. dorsum feebly shining. or. comparison 9A Carpophilus bumerQlis 157 . penultiCarpophilus pygidium normally tergum completely sclerotized humeralis exposed behind the elytra (9C). smooth between obscure orange patch each punctures. (9B).

finely 12 coarsely punctate.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 10 Mesosternal disc bisected by impunctate medial longitudinal ridge band f10A)---------------------------------------- Mesosternal disc undivided down the middle (-IOB)---------------slightly protuberant. 158 .

America. pi. pi. Coleoptera) 11 Elytra with distinct pattern (11A) of light and dark areas. 90B -dnedfruit beetle. with Elytra without distinct pattern. except temperate regions. angles pseudosclerite melasternum. (not established 11C Carpophilus obsoletus 12 Axillary space present (12A)--The axillary space. Carpophilus hemipterus background moderately (not shining) conspicuous dark light hairs. 90C- entire elytra may be lighter -----Carpophilus obsoletus Dorsal body black. Axillary space absent (12B)- 159 . east). Distribution: tropics yellow su&tropics. but humeral regions in color than rest of dorsum (11C). (Fresno County) America. plementary segment typical cosmopolitan. rusty sometimes brown. rusty elytra.Sap beetles (Nitidulidae. posterior lip posterolateral expansion cavity. inconspicuous pale shining. See chusetts black.

tibia III of male gradually enlarged distally (14D). body Propleural punctures deep. moderately Distribution: tropics subtropics. conspicuous pale yellow America. conspicuous pale yellow hairs. with obscure margins (14A). elytron usually orange-yellow large dull. pi. segment only slightly longer brown. moderately spot margins. 91sap beetle.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 13 Propleuron punctate (punctures may be shallow. tropics and subtropics. tibia 111 of male abruptly enlarged distally (14B). Carpophilus dimidiatus segment 11. elytra pronotum rarely lighter lighter median elytron. (or more) longer dark body nearly black. with indistinct margins) (13A)-Propleuron impunctate and either smooth granulose (13B)----------- 14 15 13A Carpophilus pilosellus 13B Carpophilus freemani 14 Propleural punctures shallow. with distinct margins (14C). America. 14C Carpophilus dimidiatus 14B Carpophilus piiosellus 14D Carpophilus dimidiatus 160 . Carolina California (Placer County). 91------------Carpophilus pilosellus II. pi. (Yolo County).

pi. 91-----------Carpophilus maculatus body light dull. Washington. inconspicuous dorsal body shiny light light York scantily subtropical Hemisphere. 16 Prosternum punctate only each elytron with 2 light (an elongate patch along the suture and basal patch) usually joined together (16B). originally dark brown. inconspicuous gold tropical parts Hawaii. elytral light the suture (16D)-----------elongate patch 17 y- 16A Carpophilus maculatus 16C Carpophilus mutilatus 16B Carpophilus maculatus 16D Carpophilus freeman/" 161 . posterior margin 16 midpoint posterior lip posterior end. 92A-The posterior margin axillary posterolalerally point middle of point beyond -----Carpophilus marginellus metepistermahogany. temperate parts America.Sap beetles (Nitidulidae. Axillary space small (1 SB)--"-------------------------axillary space appears relatively large. metepisternal cavity. farther midpoint 15A Carpophilus marginellus 15B Carpophilus mutilatus and immediately in front of the prosfernal process (ISA). moderately world. Coleoptera) 15 Axillary space large (15A). pi. from Prosternum entirely occurring almost entirely punctate (16C).

Pronotal punctures separated by distance equal to less than their diameters (17C). California.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 17 Pronotal punctures separated from each other by distance equal to greater than twice their diameters (17A). dull. temperate regions. See New York. pi. moderately clothed with inconspicuous yellow Distribution: cosmopolitan except arctic America. along lateral margin. 9C. Dakota. elytra body dull yellow except for cuticle scutellum.. lateral extremities of prosternum weakly punctate granulose (17B).9D. lateral extremities of prosternum strongly and densely punctate (17D)----- 18 17A CarpophHus freemani 17B CarpophHus freemani 17C CarpophHus mutilatus 17D Carpophilus mutilatus 162 .---Carphophilus freemani brown. 91--------------------.

elytra. 91 Carpophilus mutilatus impunctate pronolum. moderately inconspicuous yellow Distribution: tropical. head. yellow orange-yellow. may be inconspicuous absent) (18D). only 18B Carpophilus mutilatus 18A Carpophilus mutilatus 18D Carpophilus fumatus 18C Carpophilus fumatus 163 . Coleoptera) 18 Prosternum entirely punctate (18A). vestiture. femur. body brown. femur III with small. without swelling (18B). pi. pronotum. Virginia regions. elytral promargin large median head: elytral cloudy discoloration. abrupt swelling trochanter (swelling usually larger in males. subtropical. posterior margin. cuticle dull. temperate America. the midline just behind the anterior Prosternum punctate except for small the inner margin the margin (18C). also (Tehama County). pronotal punctation tropics subtropics. 91------------------------------Ca/popft/’/us fumatus Color.Sap beetles (Nitidulidae. pi.

with posterior angles obtuse (19A).Insect and Mite Pests in Food 19 Pronotum distinctly moderately anteriorly. paler scantily clothed inconspicuous light Distribution: Europe. Central America. obscurely other cuticle slightly shining. moderately inconspicuous light pale temperate regions Georgia America. America. pronotal part pale. USA. 92C Carpophilus ligneus rusty-brown (tinged red). See Hemisphere. portion eiytral large. pronotum in lateral view (19B). shoulder disc. pi. pronotum slightly depressed (19D). Pronotum about wide anteriorly posteriorly. cuticle dull. Mississippi River Body ^3 19A Carpophitus lugubris 19B Carpophilus lugubris d__b 19C Carpophilus ligneus 19D Carpophilus ligneus 164 . 92B -dusky sap beetle. Carpophilus lugubris Body rusty-brown elytron usually margins clothed (tinged red). pi. with small sinuation before the subacute posterior angles (19C). Hampshire Washington.

a. dorsal papillae prominent. they for sidered asperities 24 (20D)--------- dorsal they key. each with apical ocelli present side head. Coleoptera) 20 Abdominal dorsum with sclerites bearing papillae (20A).^’7 20A Haptoncus luteoius sran"’es 20B Conolelus stenoides 7^ 20C Cerpophllus humeraiis 20D Carpophilus bemipterus ^ 21 Abdomen with lateral tubercles.Sap beetles (Nitidulidae. Abdominal dorsum without ornamentation other than setae Although marginellus difficuft asperities. Abdomen without lateral tubercles inconspicuous dorsal papillae (21B)-present of 21 A Lobiopa insularis 21B Conotelus stenoides 165 .a^’f’o-^. papilla ^^^"^’^"i?1^ / ty-. granules (20B).

Insect and Mite Pests in Food 22 Head with 3 large. each abdominal tergum with 8 short. Head with 2 small ocelli each side (22C). only pest species genus. longitudinal rows of papillae (22D)------yellowbrown sap beetle. all sharing base (22B) Body length tergum also papilla-bearing side (22B). of Gillogly (found genus including California). Caution: The distinguish H. Caution: characters this couplet may generic may distinguish species from Lobiopa. However. equal-sized ocelli each side (22A). with each sclerite bearing 3 papillae. Haptoncus luteotus Body length pregomphus couplet be the form papillae arising base (22E). 4^ J41^M-i^ 22B Lobiopa insularis /W’%^W 22D Haptoncus tuteotus 166 . each abdominal tergum with pair of contiguous sclerites (each nearly square in outline) meeting the midline.

Carpophilus humeraiis Body length pregomphus anal plate" 23A Conotelus stenoides 23B Carpophilus humeraiis 23C Carpophilus humeraiis 167 . urogomphus simple (23C)--------pineapple sap beetle. the apex urogomphus 2-branched.Sap beetles (Nitidulidae. each branch with bristle arising at (23A)-------------------------------Conote/ys stenoides Body length Each abdominal tergum with paired sclerites bearing 2 to 12 asperities (23B). Coleoptera) 23 Each abdominal tergum with granules arranged in circular and rectangular patterns.

A). 21A. pregomphus spiracular prominent (longest (24A. Urogomphus unbranched (24C)" urogomphus may (note seta-bearing lateral lateral 25C. apicaily pointed branches. inward. and lacking lateral processes (25A. Savage. 25B) Body length posteriorly but based ings Pregomphus directed strongly (25B). upward. 25 tubercle. agree entirely provided by Urogomphi longer. widely separated. each with lateral process (25C)- 26 168 . truncated posterior. 24A Glischrochilus quadrisignatus 24B Glischrochilus quadrisignatus 24C Carpophilus ligneus 25 Urogomphi short. segment Vlll).Insect and Mite Pests in Food 24 Urogomprius branched (24A. 24B). lateral lobe. 24B)~ Body length beyond -Gfischrochilus quadrisignatus urogomphus into nearly equal.

paired weakly developed (may Urogomphus not dilated. lateral process small (27B)------ 28 27A Carpophilus obsoletus 27B Carpophilus lugubris 169 . Coleoptera) 26 Space between urogomphi wide (26A) Space between urogomphi (26B)" 26A Carpopbilus obsoletus 26B Carpophilus dimidiatus 27 Urogomphus dilated inner surface.Sap beetles (Nitidulidae. curved. lateral process large (27^-Carpophifus obsofetus Body length Pregomphus visible).

Insect and Mite Pests in Food 28 Urogomphi abruptly narrowed about midway beyond lateral process. point. moderately developed (usually tergum larvae). with inner margins subparallel (28A)-------------------Carpopft/’/us marginellus Body length gradually transversely may Pregomphus deflexed. minute asperities patches couplet 20). incurved. visible (28B: Urogomphi gradually narrowed from lateral process to apex (28C)------- 29 170 .

Coleoptera) 29 Urogomphus incurved (29A). Carpophilus hemipterus Body length pregomphus See 20D parallel 28C. Urogomphus not incurved.Sap beetles (Nitidulidae. surface of plate (29D). mesonotal and metanotal sclerites absent (29C). 90A--------------driedfru it beetle. the apex spinelike (29C). pi. mesonotal and metanotal sclerites strongly developed (29A)---------------------dusky sap beetle. 29D Carpophitus hemipterus 171 . midline (visible along preserved specimens) (29B). Carpophilus lugubris with Body length fresh specimens.

SOB)---------------------------Carpopft/’/us mutilatus Carpophilus fumatus Body length parallel Pregomphus abruptly deflexed. each urogomphus broadly rounded and bearing stout slightly dilated 30A Carpophilus mutilatus 306 Carpophilus mutilatus 30C Carpophitus dimidiatus SOD Carpophilus dimidiatus 172 . USA. urogomphal apex peglike (30A. inner margins apex.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 30 Inner margins of urogomphi divergent from base to apex. very characters for separation only In the Inner margins of urogomphi generally parallel for most of their length. anal plate species (306).

dimidiatus pilosellus separate. often inner margin of urogomphus appears to have slight bulge before apex (31 B) sap beetle.Sap beetles (Nitidutidae.5 times the width of urogom- phus. larvae mm) larger (length mm). See also pilosellus (length 31A Carpophilus freemani 31 B CarpophHus dimidiatus 173 . Carpophilus dimidiatus Carpophilus pilosellus C. Coleoptera) 31 Urogomphi separated midway along their length by 1. urogomphi bulging apicatty (31A)----------Carpophilus freemani Urogomphi separated by less than width of urogomphus. very similar helpful.

Savage provided distribution records for the West Coast.Q. Delaware Q^ Agr. 174 . 17(2)65-72. Dr. Richard S. The author gratefully acknowledges the help given to him by all three of these individuals.G.Anatomical and systematic study of mature larvae of Nitidulidae (Coleoptera). Meddel. A.S. H. 1962. A monograph of beetles associated with stored products. (Department of Entomology. Rozen. 1951. Department of Agriculture. Zack. Saalas.) 318(1956)1-67. A key Carpophllus sap beetles associated with stored foods in the United States. U. Pullman) and Mrs. Plant Pest Rpt. Iris Savage (California Department of Food and Agriculture. 3. 1977. Kingsolver (Agricultural Research Service’s Systematic Entomology Laboratory. Uni. ’"""’1957: ’Nitidulidae ^p. Ent. U.fnsect and Mite Pests in Food Acknowledgments References Cited Boving. British Museum (Natural History). W.. Nitidulidae). of Delaware. Ent. Jr. and J. Fenn. London. Hinton. Washington DC) and Mrs. Sacramento) critically reviewed the manuscript. Washington State University. pgch.A.3 connell. John M. Ann.E. 2(23)398-404. Dr. Coop. 1945. Zur Kenntnis der fruheren Entwicklungsstadien Carpophilus tigneus Murray (Col.

S.CRYPTOPHAGID BEETLES (CRYPTOPHAG1DAE. Kingsolver Systematic Entomology Laboratory Plant Sciences Institute Agricultural Research Service U. Department of Agriculture Beltsville MD 20705 . COLEOPTERA) John M.

Precise identification usually requires removal and observation of the male genitalia. their presence in food represents accidental contamination.Insect and Mite Pests in Food Cryptophagus is the only genus of the family Cryptophagidae associated with stored foods. This key to four species is based the work of Woodroffe and Coombs {1). key to 40 North American species. The species difficult to identify. 176 . Members of the genus Cryptophagus associated with molds.

suberect obliquely-raised hairs of all hairs length (1 B)------------------obliquely-raised and of Drawings by Kingsolver. Width of pronotum lateral teeth (2B) anterior angles than greater -. Cryptophagus Distribution: Canada. Cryptophagus acutangulus Holarctic. 2A Cryptophagus acutangulus 2B Cryptophagus 177 .. Coteoptera) KEY TO ADULTS Elytra! pubescence of hairs of approximately equal length.-.-.--... habitats.-.Cryptophagid beetles (Cryptophagidae. 2 Width of pronotum greater at level of anterior angles than at level of lateral teeth (2A) -----------acute-angled fungus beetle.--. sometimes. cluding moldy grain.--. products and Drawings adapted by United Stales.--.--.-------.sigmoid fungus beetle. entirely decumbent (except.----. laterally) (1A) Elytral pubescence either of longer.--.-.-.

-.. and C.--.E. Margin of pronotum evenly rounded slightly sinuate. Drawings stored products. not angled at lateral tooth. Pub. Coombs..--. Misc. 1961.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 3 Margin of pronotum angled at lateral tooth. callosity present but not prominent and not right-angled posteriorly (SB) Distribution: cosmopolitan.-.-----------.-. 178 . G.---.cellar beetle. 3A Cryptophagus cellaris 3B Cryptop vatens Reference Cited Woodroffe. callosity at anterior angle of pronotum minute right angle (3A)..--. Cryptophagus ceffaris products. A revision of the North American Cryptophagus Herbst (Coleopfera: Cryplophagidae). 93B prominent. pi..W.-. Soc. cosmopolitan. Ent. its posterior forming . America 2(2)179-211.

Kingsolver Systematic Entomology Laboratory Plant Sciences Institute Agricultural Research Service U. Department of Agriculture Beltsville MD 20705 Fred G. Andrews Laboratory Services/Entomology Division of Plant Industry Department of Food and Agriculture 1220 N Street Sacramento CA 95814 . COLEOPTERA) John M.MINUTE BROWN SCAVENGER BEETLES (LATHR1DIIDAE.S.

180 . their presence in stored foods indicates moldy conditions. their occurrence in such commodities may be considered accidental contamination. Since these beetles do not teed directly stored foods.Insect and Mite Pests in Food Lathridiids mycophagous.

Europe. 94B----------------------------4c//sten?/a watsonf Distribution: Africa. abdominal segment separated from metasternum by suture (1B)----------------------2 1A Adistemia watsoni 2 Seventh interval at elytral shoulder without prominent carina. Madeira. scutellum not apparent (2A). prominent carina. abdominal segment fused to metasternum between legs III (1A). sometimes narrowly. America.Minute brown scavenger beetles (Lathridiidae. Coxae and separated. Canary Islands. North America. Coleoptera) KEY TO ADULTS Drawings by Coxae and contiguous. eye facets coarse. granular (2B)------------------Seventh interval at elytral shoulder with sharp. scutellum obvious 3 Drawings by 2B Dienerella filum 20 Cartodere constncta 181 . pi.

moderately deep. Europe. Hemispriere- Africa. Kinssolver. 956--Centra) -Oienerefia ruficoHi’s Europe. p(. Drawing by Cushman. anterior half of pronotal disk with broad. America. head with median channel widened posteriorly (3B). Margin of pronotum not constricted (4B) 4A Oieneretia rufiCQllis 4B Dienerella fififormis 182 . head without median channel (3D)--------------------Drawings by 4 ^1 ^L 3A Dienerella fslum 3C Dienerella rufioollis 3B Dienerella filum 3D Dienerella ruficollis 4 Margin of pronotum constricted (4A). anterior half of pronofal disk without depression. pi. by Zealand. Anfennal club with 3 segments (3C). oval depression.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 3 Antennal club with 2 segments (3A).

elytral striae 5 and 6 complete. and 7 costate (6A). Japan. elytral striae 5 and 6 merge forming single stria posteriorly (6D). Africa. 96A-Dienerella costulata Distribution: Europe. extending from base to apex (6B). 6A Dienerelta costulata 6B Dienereila costulata 6C Dienerella filiformis 6D Dienerei/a fififormis 183 . Elytral intervals not costate (6C). USSR. pi. America. posterodorsal surface of head with triangular depressed (5B). 95C----------------------Dienerella arga Europe. Japan.5. pi. Coleoptera) 5 Eyes normal with 15 to 20 facets (5A). North America. 6 Etytral intervals 3.Minute brown scavenger beetles (Lathridiidae. pi. 96B-----------------------D/e/?e/’e//a filiformis Europe.

pi. elytra separately rounded at apex (8B).-.--. pronotum distinctly constricted (7B).-.--.-.-. pi. by 8A Lathridius protensiGoltis 184 . elytra slightly produced at apex (8A). median depression of pronotal disk shallow and elongate..Insect and Mite Pests in Food 7 Antennal club 2-segnnented (7A). 97C squarenosed fungus beetle.. 97B Lathridius protensicollis Distribution: USA. Cartodere constricta Distribution: cosmopolitan.----plaster beetle.. median depression of pronotal disk round and deep. cosmopolitan.---. Antennal club 3-segmented (7C). Lathridius mi’nutus posteriorly....-.. Pronotal margin straight..--. pronotum not distinctly constricted (7D)----- 8 7A Cartodere constricta 7C Lathridius protensicollis 8 Pronotal margin sinuate.. 97A .---.-. pi..--.

< "1 DARKLING BEETLES (TENEBRIONIDAE. Spilman Systematic Entomology Laboratory Plant Sciences Institute Agricultural Research Service U. Department of Agriculture c/o National Museum of Natural History Washington DC 20560 .S. COLEOPTERA) Theodore J.

the larvae of the Elateridae click beetles. ficicola. Kaszab (IS) for Central Europe. foveicoitis. The exact food preferences of most of these beetles in stored foods have not been determined. The key that follows is the first to deal with the larval tenebrionid pests that infest stored foods. Although adults quite small. Information distribution. and simple tarsal claws. Tribofium information Bulletin. Several species unknown in the larval stage and therefore do not appear in the key to larvae. A few species have adapted to and have become pests in stored dry food products. Many such pests have been transported to all parts of the world. the forecoxal cavities closed behind. occasionally missing. Tenebrionid pests usually infest grains and cereals. they usually be easily recognized by the habitus illustrations in Part 3 of this Handbook. in foods stored by small mammals. in caves. two of the more important being Van Emden (37) for the British Isles and Hayashi (17} for Japan. and P. must be mounted microscope slides. Because their general appearance is often quite distinct. segment IX. Tensbrio molitor./nsecr and Mite Pests in Food The Tenebrionidae. Pafonnus humeratis. Identification of the larvae is not simple. they usually attack broken damaged grains. is large family of mostly dark species having 5-5-4 tarsal formula. genalis. literature the subject is scattered. commonly called darkling beetles tenebrionids. 101A) are called false wireworms because of their resemblance to wireworms. ecological. Some structures of the smaller such species. Many generalized keys to species of tenebrionids have been published. Unfortunately. and in insect nests probably predisposes of them to become pests in foods stored by people. and genetic experiments. Literature vast that Tribolium is serial journal. C. is needed to coordinate data. Perhaps the adults and larvae subsist mainly mold. these Alphitobius viator. laesicollis. Coelopalorus carinatus. These beetles usually live in soil in dry under the bark of dead trees. P. larval tenebrionids have been only poorly studied. This is not unreasonable hypothesis because species live in moldy situations in nature. the specific differences often be with only hand lens. and Brendell (3) for the British Isles. Some larvae quite small even when mature. and T. such setae. The biologies of only few species known. Keys to adult tenebrionids in stored foods have been provided by Lepesme (22) and Freeman (10). Boddy (2) for the Pacific Northwest of North America. General discussions biological information the biology of pest tenebrionids have seldom been colTwo useful references lected under single Lepesme (22) and Cotton (8). P. Some of the those by important Blatehley (1) for Indiana. Apsena ruiipes. Some tenebrionid pests also scavengers. and useful characters. Lepidocnemeptatia sericea. as legs. References to the biologies of individual genera cited at the appropriate species place in the determination key that follows. Larval tenebrjonids (pi. Not all tenebrionids known in the larval stage and only few keys to larvae have been published. The most obvious and easily used character is the apex of the abdomen. 99A. It has often been said that grain must be moldy partially spoiled for species to develop. 186 . and bibliographic references for each larval pest species may be found under the species in the key to adults. food associations. Palorus cerylonoides. confusum are rather well known because of their in physiological. Tribolium castaneum. Because most of them cannot gnaw through the hard outer covering of whole grains. Their presence in bird and mammal nests. this bulletin is for excellent the genus. Identification of adult darkling beetles associated with the food industry is rather simple because the species scattered in several tribes and various genera. This often be well enough with strong hand lens.

not long body not covered with scales (at most covered with setae but epidermis (pi. rice. 4 5 11 longitudinal ridge (pi. only interval 7 with coarse. with 2 more broad. (spoiled). than VA length). various grains: gin trash. without ridges (4B). rice. chick cornmeal (moist). Coleoptera) Adult specimens-Larval specimens 2 Tibia extremely broad (width at apex almost great length). yellowish-reddish. figs. reported grain. transverse bands that often incomplete (pi. feeds. wheat. IF)------------------------------obscured) 2A Lepidocnemeplatia sericea 26 Alphitobius diaperinus 3 Elytra bicolored. beans. Tibia moderately to broadly expanded apically (width at apex than half tarsus (2B). apical spurs of tibia very long (one spur almost long tarsus (2A). body completely covered to obscure the epidermis) (pi. decaying vegetable 7. grain products. Elytra unicolored (sometimes with setae of different color than epidermis but epidermis of only color) (pi. milo. 98B)------------------------each lateral interval (4A) 4 Elytron with fine (though distinct) longitudinal ridge Elytral intervals flat convex. also reported United States.Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae. Alphitophagus bifasciatus Distribution: cosmopolitan. 98A) with scales scalelike setae (so dense Lepidocnemeplatia sericea Distribution: raisins. barley. barley. 104A) Drawings by 187 . milo. spurs of tibia short. fungi. lF)----twobanded fungus beetle.

pi. Drawings 6 ^7 5A Apsena rufipes 5C Tribolium audax 6 Pronotum with lateral bead continuous with anterior bead ^ 5B Apsena rufipes 5D Tribolium audax (6A). 18.-. raisins.--.. metasferand 111 at least twice diameter of long (distance between II) (5D). associated feeds. Distribution: States. elytra with lateral borders parallel subparallel (pi.-----------fig engraver beetle.-. 98C).. cutting Drawings by Canada oats. Pronotum with lateral bead reaching only to corner.-. 98C giant flour beetle. field and storage). elytra (distance between arcuate (pi.-. then seeming to disappear under anterior border (6B)------------------------------- 7 6A Tribolium brevicorne 188 .....--. Tribotium brevicorne feed. Apsena rufipes California. 98B) with lateral borders rounded -.-. metasternum short and coxa III less than diameter of 11) (5B).. honey comb. reported 26. Genus Tribotium 11..Insect and Mite Pests in Food 5 Maxillary palpus with apical segment broadly triangular (5A). figs (in Maxillary palpus with apical segment parallel-sided narrowed distally (5C).--.-.

7A&6. flour. peanuts. head with carina (eye at narrowest point without facets eye. grains. dried fruit.-. wheat. oats.--. dried vegetables. dried 5. associated wheat. graham flour. raisins. reported hulls. baking cashews. Europe.. almonds. rice. cottonseed. Coleoptera) 7 Antenna clavate (7A). head without carina eye.. poultry feed. reported from cotton. pronotum widest at half-length (pi. rye.-. powdered milk. flour.-. alfalfa meal. bran. walnuts.-. prod11. safflower meal. sunflower seeds. Epistoma rounded at eye (8C).98D) --. 22. groals. chocolate. meal. Tribolium destructor Distribution: Africa.-. ginger. Drawings by by 189 . wool. eye with shallow constriction (eye at narrowest with at least 4 facets) (7D) Drawing by Distribution: cosmopolitan (but perate and regions).falge black flour beetle. eye divided with deeply constricted 2 facets) (7B)-------- Antenna capitate (7C). barley. starch. mixed feeds. semolina. 11. oatmeal.Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae. America. breakfast cereals. root. bran. biscuit.-----. 8. grain products. grains. snuff.------. vetch seed. flour. cornmeal. powder. beans. pulp. beans. with large punctures centrally pronotum (8D) and in elytral striae. oats.

raisins. Drawings by Apical antennal segment subtruncate (9C). barley. eye small. oilcake. 8. almonds. mixed feeds. grain spillage. eye large. snuff. wheat. reported seed. grains. 9C. extending medioventrally farther than to region behind lateral angle of maxillary fossa (9D)------Body 10 9A Tribolium castaneum 9B Tribolium castaneum I’) A-’>/ 10 Many confluent punctures between eyes (10A). grain products. eye extending medioventrally to region behind lateral angle of maxillary fossa (10D). barley. 190 . dog food. flax. USA. pi. Brazil walnuts. body slender (pi. grains (broken). wheat. cinnamon. grain products. lentils. eye not extending medioventraily to region behind lateral angle of maxillary fossa (10B). 11. Tribolium madens Europe. grain. flour. 100B) black flour beetle. flour. 100A) American black flour beetle. lapioca. 5C&D. cereals. ilour. 11.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 9 Apical antenna! segment strongly arcuate (9A). 4A. cornmeal. 22. extending medioventratly nearly to maxillary fossa (9B). beans. body robust (pt. Tribolium castaneum Body (in North America associated Distribution: cosmopolitan southern areas). mustard. rice. fruit. nutmeg. reported logs. gin trash. pineapple plants (decayed). 15. seed. millet. meal. sultanas. root. chillies. safflower seed. Tribotium audax America. bran. beans. recently reported from Canada. Africa. chips. peanuts. 99C -----red flour beetle. milo. flax seed. ginger. References: 11. dried figs. See No confluent punctures between eyes (10C).

Drawings by Pronotum with large and small punctures overall (12B)----- 12A Neatus tenebrioides 191 . America. associated reported from products. trees. cereals. squirrel -Neatus tenebrioides barley.Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae. 100C-grain. Coleoptera) 10A Tribolium audax 10C Tribolium madens 108 Tribolium audax 10D Tnbolium madens 11 Length 10 to 25 Length 3 to 7 12 Pronotum with very large punctures laterally and small punctures overall (12A). pi.

Tenebrio obscurus cosmopolitan. Drawings by flour. 101D-----------------dark mealworm. meat. 101C yellow mealworm. bread. potatoes. gin trash. pi. phosphate References: 8. crackers. See gin Many pronotal punctures contiguous (13D). feeds. tibia weakly expanded apically (13E). products. 9. reported sweepings. feathers. 13A Tenebrio molitor 13D Tenebrio obscurus 14 Elytron with pseudopleuron gradually narrowed. feeds. integument dull ("matte finish"). soda ash. sometimes reaching apex (14A)Elytron with pseudopleuron abruptly abbreviated before apex (14B)-------- 14A Platydema ruficorne 14B Sitophagus hololeptoides. 8. tibia moderately expanded apicatly (13B). ineal. integument weakly shining.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 13 Pronofal punctures not contiguous (13A). Tenebrio molitor pupa pi. 9. meal. References. with blunt rounded edge dorsatfy apical half (13F). pi. pulp. tobacco. 192 . with sharp edge dorsally apical half (13C). grain. Distribution: cosmopolitan. barley. grain. bran. cobs. fruits. reported cottonseed.

Oregon. 102A fig darkling beetle. eye emarginate (16A. sugar beets. persimmons. IOOD)-----------redhorned grain beetle. strawberries. associated fruits. eyes small. eyes large. Bfapstinus discolor Distribution: (British Columbia) USA (California. pi. separated by distance subequal to width of eye (18A) Head widest anterior to eyes. 16B) divided (16C)------Length 3 to 3. raisins.5 mm. separated by distance greater than 3 times 19 18A Palembus dermestoides 193 . grapes. moldy). weakly shiny. figs. Idaho. Dorsum without setae (17B) 17B Alphitobius diaperinus 18 Head widest at eyes. Utah. Washington). eye entire (16D)--------------------" 16 17 22 16A Alphitobius diaperinus 16B Alphitobius laevigafus 16C Blapstinus discolor 16D Palorus subdepressus 17 Dorsum with dense recumbent setae (17A). Nevada. Coleoptera) 15 Body broad and oval (lateral borders strongly curved). hairy (pi. dorsal surface shiny. grain (damp. dorsal surface satiny black and hairless (pi. tomatoes. 103A)----------------------------16 Length 5 to 7 mm. associated shorts.Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae. Body elongate (lateral borders almost parallel-sided). Platydema ruficome America. also4B. peaches.

associated with wheat. peanuts. cottonseed. Body dull. chocolate. rice. pronotum with anteromedial bead (19B). wheat. 16A. oatmeal. products. pronotum without anteromedial bead (19D). also reported from bran. 102C-------------Pa/embus dermestoides pantropical. barley. 103A~--------------lesser mealworm. bread. 20 Body shiny. grain (damp moldy). cereals. reported seed. biscuits. tibia broadly expanded apically (SOB). feeds. drugs. black gram (urd). pi. Antenna with broad segments moderately asymmetrical (19C). tibia (moderately (200) weakly expanded 194 . wheat. yeast. tobacco. reported meal. pods Tarrorindus (Florida). potatoes. silkworm skins. pi. flour. pronotum with large punctures usually separated by distance greater than diameter of puncture (20C). Atphitobius diaperinus Distribution: cosmopolitan. 102B --------------. oats. oilseed products.-------------pa/embus ocufans Distribution: panlropical. roots. flour. peanuts. bones. jujube fruits. pi. yeast. chips. royal jelly.17B. poultry litter. 21..fnsect and Mite Pests in Food 19 Antenna with broad segments symmetrical (19A). pronotum with small punctures separated by distance much greater than diameter of puncture (20A). Cass/a spp. dried pollen. copra. beans. linseed. meal. yeast apples. gum dammar. 76.

pi. tibia moderately expanded apically (21 C). cereals. oilseeds Pronotum with lateral borders subparallel toward posterior angles. feeds.Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae. damp fruits. Reference: animal products. antenna with segments VI to X asymmetrically panded apically (21 B). tibia weakly expanded apically (21 F). moldy grain. pi. mixed nuts. products. legumes. pronotal puncdense (21 D). tropical Africa. poultry litter. antenna with segments V to X asymmetrically expanded tures toward apex (21 E). pi. cottonseed. Distribution: cosmopolitan. reported products. pi. illupe nuts. Coleoptera) 21 Pronotum with lateral borders distinctly narrowed toward posterior angles. 104A&B) flat (22B. sugar beets. 105A-C)-Elytron with interval 7 rounded 22A Coelopalorus foveicollis 22B Paiorus subdepressus 195 . associated reported ginger 22 Elytron with interval 7 carinate (22A. 103C roots. grain. pronotal punctures less dense (21A). Afphitobius laevigatus bran. 103B black fungus beetle. spices. peppers. peanuts.

when dense. illupe nuts. oats. pi. usually oval (25A)------------------Pa/or/nus humeratis Distribution: Oriental Region. copra. punctures between eyes. pi. bark. See burrows logs. spillage reported stores. Pronotum without lateral depressions (24B)------------------------ 25 24A Palorus laesicollis 24B Pa/orus subctepressus 25 Head without fine carina (though sometimes with wrinkles) adjacent to top of eye. clypeogenaf suture ending within anterior border at junction of anterior and lateral borders. illupe flour. Hawaii). Africa. sago Head with fine carina adjacent to top of eye. round and not deep (25B) 26 196 . 104A-- -Coelopalorus foveicollis East Africa. pi./nsecf and Mite Pests in Food 23 Pronotum with deep lateral depressions (23A). associated nutmeg. peanut cake. Trinidad. chips. associated with reported (broken cobs. deep. associated with shorts. 105B-------. punctures between eyes dense. imported (Alabama. clypeogenal suture ending posterior to lateral borders.References: 13. References: 73. --Coelopalorus carinatus 23A CoeiopaSorus foveicollis 23B Coefopaforus carinatus 24 Pronotum with deep lateral depressions (24A). Distribution: Oriental Region.Palorus iaesicotlis kernels). Reference: nuts. feed. grain products. Pronotum without lateral depressions (23B). nuts. cowpeas. 104BDistribution: Oriental Region.

Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera)

25A Palorinus

25 B Palorus

26 Pronotal punctures with setae (26A)-Setae

-Palorus genalis
pronotal punctures. Africa, CenRegion; imported rice, nutmeg, Indies; flour, tapioca, peanut cake,


illupe ginger,

(cattle feed).

Pronotal punctures without setae (26B)-

26A Palorus

26B Palorus subdepressus

27 Clypeus with borders strongly raised laterally and dorsally to antennal insertions, ing a distinct depression posterior to border (27A, 27B); pi. 105A depressed flour beetle, Palorus subdepressus

wheat, rice,

sorghum, peanuts,

seed, 16D, 22B,

flour, grain, pollards, nuts, illupe (cattle feed), reported copra,

of logs. References: 73,

Clypeus with border at most slightly thickened (not strongly raised) laterally and dorsally to anfennal insertions, with depression posterior to border vague shallow


Insect and Mite Pests in Food

28 Eye small (28A); pi. 105C--

---smalleyed flour beetle, Palorus ratzeburgii

flour, cosmopolitan; barley, rice, cereals, cereal products, grain, grain prodmeal, caraway seeds, ucts, bread, peanuts, lentils, oats, split macaroni, semolina,
tapioca, powdered ginger;
milk, almonds,




References: 4, 13, 14,

See also

Eye large (28B)
28B Patorus


29 Pronotum with lateral borders moderately to strongly convergent to base (29A)

Africa; associated sorghum; also reported

wheat, peanuts, spillage.

Pronotum with lateral borders subparallel to weakly convergent to base (296)
-.-.-----..-.-.-..-.-.-.---------------------Pa/orus ceryionoides
Africa, Oriental Region; mills; reported lupe nuts. rice,









30 Length at least 6.5 mm; ridge of pseudopleuron easily visible in dorsal view (30A) Length less than 4 mm; ridge of pseudopleuron hidden in dorsal view (30B)----

31 32

r y30A Cynaeus

< ~^



Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera)


Pronotum covered with fine punctures (31 A); apex of antenna surpassing base of pronotum by length (or more) of last segment (pi. 10GA,)---Sitophagus bololeptoides
Surface shiny; only epistoma (pi. 106A) (epistoma simple sally America, Madeira, females). Distribution: America, USA (Arizona, California, ico, Panama, Indies; associated Florida, Texas), copra, avocados, limes, cereals, nutmeg, tomatoes, peanuts, reported gumboSee ponderosa. Reference:

Pronotum with

punctures laterally and fine punctures medially (31 B); apex of antenna falling short of pronotal base by the length (or more) of last 2 segments (pi. 103D)"----------"-----"larger black flour beetle, Cynaeus angustus

simple, unarmed epistoma (pi. 103D). wheat, America; associated


reported from

barley, sorghum, grain, figs; soybeans, Reference:

31 A Sitophagus

31 B Cynaeus

32 Length of head before eyes much greater than Vz distance between antenna short (length less than distance between eyes) (pi. 104C)

eyes (32A);

-.--.--.--.-.-----.-..--longheaded flour beetle, Latheticus oryzae
cosmopolitan; barley, rolled feeds,

wheat, flour,

barley, milo, rice, grain products, cereals, beans, raisins, chips, oatmeal, bran,
6, 22,


Length of head before eyes not greater than Vs distance between eyes (32B); antenna than 1.5 times distance between eyes) (pi. 106B). Genus long (length Gnatocerus------------------------------------Mandibles Reference:


(see 34A&B).

32A Latheticus

32B Gnatocerus


Insect and Mite Pests in Food

4 tubercles between eyes; epistoma 33 Males; mandibles with horns; head with 2 incised anteriorly (accommodating dorsaliy projected mandibular horns) (33A; pL

Females; mandibles without horns; head without tubercles between eyes; epistoma not incised (33B)-------------"--"--------------33A Gnatocerus




33B Gnatocews
cornutus <?

34 Mandibular horns broad and finely serrate (34A); pi. 106B ....------.--.-------broadhorned flour beetle, Gnatocerus cornutus
flour, bran, cosmopolitan; commeal, farina, semolina, pancake ffour, oatmeal, rolled barley, miio, rice, rice, cereal, products, feeds, ginger, spices, biscuit, bread, dog biscuit, yeast cakes; reported cake, seed, meal, pyrelhrum flowers, powder, 22, 23, gin products, 25,

Mandibular horns slender and simple (34B); pf. 106C -sienderhorned flour beetle, Gnatocerus maxiltosus
wheat, cosmopolitan; cornmeal, rice, feeds, peanuts, nutmeg; reported from pods. pumpkin


34A Gnatocerus

34B Gnatocews

35 Eye deeply incised (composed of only

2 facets at narrowest) (35A) "broadhorned flour beetle, Gnatocerus cornutus

Eye moderately incised (composed of

than 2 facets at narrowest) (35B) .---..-..-..--..--.--.------sienderhorned flour beetle, Gnatocerus maxitlosus

35A Gnatocerus

35B Gnatocerus
maxiHous Q


Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera)

36 Last abdominal tergum with 2 acute processes (urogomphi) (36A, 36B)----Last abdominal tergum narrowed to single acute blunt process (36C, 36D)-

36A Palorus

36B Lalheticus

36C Alphltophagus


37 Urogomphus short (length approximately 1/5
urooomDhi) /37A

less length of last tergum including


Urogomphus long (length 1/3 to 2/3 length of last tergum including urogomphi) (37C,

37A Palorus




37B Palorus

37D Latheticus oryzae


Insect and Mite Pests



38 Tibiotarsus with 4

5 ventral setae (38A); thoracic terga and 111 and abdominal tergum each with distinct anterior transverse carina raised line (38B); last each side abdominal tergum with 2 short stout setae base of urogomphi (38C 38D1-------------------------------------Drawing



Tibiotarsus with ventral seta (38E); thoracic terga and III and abdominal tergum without anterior transverse carina raised line (38F); last abdominal tergum

without short stout setae

each side (38G, 38H)-------------


38A Tenebrio

38B Tenebrio

38E Palorus

38F Palorus

38C Tenebrio

38G Palorus





with lateral borders strongly converging posteriorly (40D).--. pi. 39A Tenebrio obscurus 39B Tenebrio molitor 40 Last abdominal tergum with ventral to urogomphus inclined approximately 45 from horizontal (40A). Tenebrio molitor See 38C&D. and without colorless longitudinal medial line (40B) .depressed flour beetle.---------. with lateral borders moderately converging posteriorly (40B).Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae. 101A ----------------------yellow mealworm.. Palorus ratzeburgii 37A. 203 . Tenebrio obscurus See Trochanter with 2 short stout ventral setae (39B). Coleoptera) 39 Trochanter with short stout ventral seta (39A)--dark mealworm. Palorus subdepressus Last abdominal tergum with ventral to urogomphus inclined approximately 70 from horizontal (40C).----. and with colorless longitudinal medial line (40D) lleyed flour beetle.

dark apically (41 C. Latheticus oryzae basally. H)- A^ 41A Latheticus oryzae <^C 41E Tribolium audax 41 C Latheticus oryzae 41 D Latheticus oryzae 41 B Latheticus oryzae 41 F Tribolium audax 41 H Tribolium audax 204 . thoracic tergum through Antennal segment approximately 1/2 long raised line abdominal tergum VII each with distinct anterior transverse 41 (41 F). thoracic and abdominal terga urogomphus light distinct anterior transverse carina raised line (41 B). urogomphus uniformly colored (41 B. beetle. 41 D)---longheaded flour (41E)./nsecr and Mite Pests in Food 41 Antennal segments and lacking white subequal in length (41A).

abdominal terga to IV with 2 long setae each of setae (43B)--------black flour beetle. Tribolium castaneum side in anterior 44A Tribolium brevicorne \ 44B Tribolium destructor \_ 205 . abdominal terga to IV with 3 long setae each of setae (43D)-------red flour beetle.Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae. Tribolium madens side in anterior Femur with 3 ventral setae (43C). Coleoptera) 42 Abdominal segments to IV each with 2 setae above and 2 below imaginary line drawn posteriorly from spiracle (42A)---------------------Abdominal segments to IV each with 3 setae above and 3 below line drawn posteriorly 43 42A Tribolium castaneurrt 42 B Tribolium audax 43 Femur with 4 ventral setae (43A).

pi. mesothoracic spiracle oval (46B). 99A----------------contused flour beetle. Tribolium destructor Tibiotarsus with posterodorsal seta (46D). Tribolium confusum 46D rribolium confusum 46C Tribolium destructor 46F Tribolium confusum 206 . Tribolium brevicorne See also Tibiotarsus with 2 ventral setae See (45B)"-American black flour beetle. mesothoracic spiracle round (46E). each side in posterior of setae abdominal terga to IV with 6 7 long setae (46C)-------------------false black flour beetle. each side in posterior of setae abdominal terga to IV with 4 5 long setae (46F). Triboliuin audax 41E-H. 45A Tribolium brevicorne 45B Tribolium audax 46 Tibiotarsus with 2 posterodorsal setae (46A).insect and Mite Pests in Food 45 Tibiotarsus with ventral seta (45A)--------giant flour beetle.

tergum 48 Abdominal tergum without anterior transverse carina of last abdominal segment with blunt apex (48B) --------------------------fjg darkling beetle. Blapstinus discolor 207 . raised line (47C)-51 Thoracic terga 47A Neatus tenebrioides 47B Blapstinus discolor 47C Cynaeus angustus raised line (48A).Darkling baetles (Tenebrionidae. Coleoptera) 47 Thoracic terga and III with distinct anterior transverse carina and III without anterior transverse carina raised line (47A.

.lesser mealworm.... last abdominal tergum with short setae (approximately 15) each side (49C....-.....-^.._-.. last abdominal tergum with longer and fewer setae (approximately 6) each 50 Abdominal sterna to Vll with 3 setae laterally (50A).^.-.........^............. tibiotarsus with 4 fewer setae eye spot ventrally and at least short thick seta in addition to long slender setae posteriorly (49F)..-....-...... 49D) Neatus tenebrioides See also 48B&C..-..._..-... tibiotarsus with 5 ventrally and only long slender setae posteriorly (49B)...-.-._.... Drawings by Head with each side (49E).Insect and Mite Pests in Food setae Head with 2 eye spots each side (49A)..._. last abdominal tergum with seta adjacent to apex not extending to apex (50B....-.. Alphitobius diaperinus Drawings by Abdominal sterna to VII with 2 setae laterally (50C). last abdominal tergum with seta adjacent to apex also 49H) beyond (50D.-...... also 49G) fungus beetle.-_-.... -. Alphitobius laevigatus 208 .

52B)Last abdominal tergum with posterolateral seta not surpassing apex (52C..-.. 52 F 53 54 52A Sitophagus hololeptoides 52C Gnatocerus maxillosus 52D Alphitophagus bifasciatus 52B Sitophagus hololeptoides 52E Gnatocerus maxillosus 209 .. 52D. Coleoptera) 51 Last abdominal tergum with each side apex (51A.-..---. Cynaeus angustus Last abdominal tergum without each side apex pair of short setae 51 Dl---------------------------~------------- (51C. 51 B) pair of short setae ..-.--.Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae.-..--.-....-.-.-.-larger black flour beetle.. 52 52 Last abdominal tergum with posterolateral seta far surpassing apex (52A....

-.-. abdominal terga to IV without setae (53A) and Vll and VIII without short setae (53B) ------..7/osus ^\ ^ 210 .---.-----. Platydema ruficorne See 51C&D...-...-.. and Vll and Vlll with (53D)-----------------------------S(’tophaous hololeptoides See 53A Platydema ruficorne 53C Sitophagus hololeptoides 53B Platydema ruficorne 53D Sitophagus hololeptoides 54 Abdominal terga VII and Vlll with short setae (54A) .. abdominal terga to IV with 2 setae in anterior and 3 setae in posterior short setae (53C). Abdominal sterna to IV with 2 long setae in anterior corner.------.-.---.--redhorned grain beetle.. 2 in posterior corner.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 53 Abdominal sterna to IV with long seta in anterior (53A).-. and between the (53C). Gnatocerus maxiffosus Abdominal terga Vll and Vlll without short setae (54B)--- 55 54A Gnatocems max.slenderhorned flour beetle.-...

55D)--- 55A Alphitophagus bifasciatus 55B Alphitophagus bifasciafus 55C Paiembus 55D Paiembus dermestoides dermestoides 56 Mesothoracic spiracle oval (56A). abdominal terga VI) and Vltl obviously darker than terga to VI-----------------------------Pa/emibus ocularis Mesothoracic spiracle round (56C). Coleoptera) 55 Last abdominal tergum with apex suddenly narrowed (55A.Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae. spiracle of abdominal segment obviously larger than spiracle of segment (56D). Alphitophagus bifasciatus 36C. 55B) twobanded fungus beetle. abdominal terga to VIII light colored--- 57 56A Paiembus ocularis 56B Paiembus ocularis 56C Paiembus dermestoides 56D Paiembus dermestoides 211 . spiracle of abdominal segment subequal in size to spiracle of segment (56B). Last abdominal tergum with apex gradually narrowed (55C.

Ident. Butler. Chittenden.An illustrated descriptive catalogue of the beetles (exclusive of the Coleoptera Rhynchophora) known to in Indiana. 10(2)282-287. 96(2)25-28. Family Tenebrionidae. 73-94. London 100(10)249-273.W. F.H. W. 1965. Bull. 1910. P. R. Macrodactyles. Ent. British Insects 5(10)1-22. Gnatocerus comutus 57A Pa/embus 57B Gnatocerus cornutus dermestoides References Cited Blatchley.).N. Trans. Coleoptera. pp. Hatch. 2 Boddy. Tenebrionidae.M. Seattle. The long-headed flour beetle (Latheticus oryzae Waterh. The iwo-banded fungus beetle. Chittenden. Soc. Jour. 1918. Abdominal terga to IV with seta above and setae below imaginary line drawn posteriorly from spiracle (57B)-----broadhorned flour beetle. Ent.J. /n The beetles of the Pacific Northwest. with comparative notes Tenebrionidae in general (Coleoptera). 1975. 1917. D. 3 Brendell. 1949. 212 . USDA Bur. Palpicornes.S. Part 4.D. Minnesota. M. 17th Rpt. The confused flour beetle (Tribolium confusum Duval). Econ. Chapman.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 57 Abdominal terga to IV with 3 setae above and 3 setae below imaginary line drawn posteriorly from spiracle (57A)-----------------Pa/embus dermestoides 55C&D. Ent.H. Nature.H. Handb. and Heteromera. Indianapolis. 56C. University of Washington. Observations the biology of Palorus ratzeburgi Wissman. by M. F. State Ent. 1911.

1980. 110(1325-1327)241-243.L. Biology of the lesser mealworm.W. Freude. In Teredilia. K.T. British Mus. stored grain pest. Decker.L. Krefeld. George.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Res. 32 pi.G. D. 95:1-37. Simco.). Die Kafer Mitteleuropas. species of Palorus and Biological studies Triboltum Coelopalorus with comparative notes and Latheticus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Palembus Casey senior synonym of [1975]. Stored Prod. Sci. Band 8. 20(4)385-402. A guide to their identification. by H. Sta. 10 The meal USDA Tech. 1966. Expt. 1967. Ser..G. and G. Res.G.G.A. Stored Prod. Iowa State Coll.H. The biology of Cynaeus angustus Lee. 213 . A revision of the genus Palorus (sens. Bul. 1980. Minneapolis. 1967. 19(2)59-148. Freeman. 1969. USDA Tech. Tenebrionidae).Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae. and R. (ed. R. 11 Good. A 16 Halstead. ed. Enf. 15 Halstead. A contribution to the knowledge of the larvae of Tenebrionidae occurring in Japan (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea).. 498:1-57. 19 Kaszab.H. Burgess. Lohse. Jour. Jour. Alphitobius viator Mulsant & Godart in stored products and its identification (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Univ.C. Pests of stored grain and grain products. species of Tribotium from North America previously confused with Tribolium madens (Charp. 1974. H. 2(4)273-313. Bul. Common insect pests of stored food products. 1948synopsis of the genus Tribolium Macleay. Stored Prod. Coleoptera) 8 Cotton. Bull. 1)1-41. D. Insecia Matsumurana (suppl. Res. British Museum (Natural History). 1967. 6th ed. 17 Hayashi.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). 1969. 16(2)67-70.. Heteromera. Monthly Mag. Jr. J.E. 13 Halstead. Tenebrionidae (pp. Harde.T. 18 Hinton. 1936. 159:1-12.S. Rpt. 20 Krall. St. suspected reservoir of avian leucosis. D. N. with the evolution of its speciesremarks groups (Coleoptera. Goecke & Evers. and G. Jour.. Res. Economic Series No. and J. 1946. London. 229-264). Cotton.) Ent. 1963. 21 Lancaster. 15. Familie.. Bull.H. P. 14 Halstead. Jour. 1929. 12 Green. Martianus Fairmaire (Col. Ent. M. R. The flour beetles of the genus Tribolium. tat. (Nat. D. Hist. 39(1)13-55. Lamellicornia. Tenebrionidae). 2.A.H.E. 4(4)295-303. J. Arkansas Agr. N.

Notes the broad-horned flour beetle (Gnathocerus (Echocerus) cornutus. Larvae of British beetles. 1980. [19451. Developmental biology of field and laboratory populations of Latheticus oryzae Waterhouse (Coleoptera. Aryeetey. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Jour. D. F. The biology of Tribolium. Soc. Jour.A. and E. D. 30 Took Hing Chua. 16(2)55-56. 19(3)139-140. P. and 1978. B. 29 Sokoloff. Life history and biology of Echocerus cornutus (Fab.). Roy. 28 Shepherd. Stored Prod. Ent. Lechevalier. Fabr. 1972-78. 1. Econ. 1925. and Tribolium spp. Chandrapal. Ent. Proc. D. 3. Ent. Soc. 1978). 214 . vol. (998)161-171. A. 1949. Tenebrionidae. Jour. Res. Stored Prod.. VI. Edinburgh 21(1)14-18. R. A simple method for the separation of Gnatocerus spp. (vol. Econ. G. 1975. 23 Morison.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 22 Lepesme. J. Jour. 39:52S-527. 2. Biology of Gnathocerus Jour. 14(2-3)81-86. Oxford University. Stored Prod. 1977. 83(997)154-160. vol.). Tenebrionidae) under various conditions of temperature and humidity.J.D. The influence of restricted food supplies the development of larvae and the fecundity of Palefnbus dermestoides Fairn. vol.A.Q. 42(2)229-231. 27 Rowley. 1924. 1983. Phys. Res. 26 Polk. 25 Pimentel. 31 Van Emden. Washington State Ent.I. 24 Nowosielski-Slepowron. produits industriels entreposes. 17(10)572-577. Res. 1972. 1947. Overwintering management for control of the giant flour beetle (Tribolium brevicornis) in alfalfa leafcutting bee nests. 1944 Les coleopteres des denrees alimentaires et des Paris. Monthly Mag. (Tenebrionidae). Proc.

SEED BEETLES (BRUCHIDAE.S. COLEOPTERA) John M. Department of Agriculture Beltsville MD 20705 . Kingsolver Systematic Entomology Laboratory Plant Sciences Institute Agricultural Research Service U.

larvae feed internally. Adults easily recognized to species. in chapter 4). infestation may not become apparent until the adults emerge. The most important taxonomic feature of larvae is the shieldlike labial reduced to which the labial palpi plate (sclerome) pair of setae (see couplet illustration 29A. The mandibles of the larvae rounded apically and lack teeth (2). 108A. 109A) absent (pi. white yellowish grubs with legs reduced (pi. Since the family (Fabaceae). 107A). 216 . Some species The larvae plump. especially those in the bean often infested by bruchids. not separable in the larval stage. but the larvae difficult to determine to genus with reference specimens available for comspecies. parison. adapted from 2.Insect and Mite Pests in Food Seeds of many food plants.

Seed beetles (Bruchidae. pi. tropical America. III ranges to scarcely wider than femur III (1 B)----------in width from 2 1A Zabrotes subfasciatus 1B Acanthoscelides obtectus 217 . 107B&C Mexican bean weevil. Apex of tibia III without movable spurs (fixed spines may be present). III much wider than femur III (1A). India. Coleoptera) KEY TO ADULTS Drawings by Apex of tibia III with 2 movable spurs. Zabrotes subfasciatus Africa.

----. 1080--bean weevil. with large tooth and 11 12 smaller teeth ventral margin.-.----. than 4 teeth ventral margin of femur 111. matching curvature of femur 111 (2A).). seeds tropics.-. Caryedon serratus tropics. ventral margin of femur III with 3 4 teeth inside tibia 111 and teeth outside tibia 111 (3A). (Pftaseo/us spp. peanuts (Arachis hypogaea} Africa. tibia 111 curved. Acanthoscelides obtectus cosmopolitan.). 3C) internal teeth and 4 218 .-groundnut bruchid. Mexico. 108B . Drawing by With leg 111 in closed position.---------.. Drawings by Femur III not greatly enlarged. tibia 111 nearly straight (2B)------------------------------ 3 With leg 111 in closed position.--. [Tamarindus indica) Caribbean islands. acacia (Acac/a India.insect and Mite Pests in Food 2 Femur III greatly enlarged. pi. Cass/a legumes (Fabaceae) ()).-. ventral margin of femur 111 with external tooth (3B. spp. pi.

Bruchus pisorum cosmopolitan. garden [Pisum sativum). pronotal margin with tooth (4B).--pea weevil. pi.------------.--.---------. pronotal margin with teeth (4D) 5 4A Bruchus pisorum 4C Callosobruchus 4B Bruchus pisorum 4D Callosobruchus 219 .Seed beetles (Bruchidae. 109B --. Coleoptera) 4 Femur III with external tooth only (4A). Femur III with external tooth and internal tooth (4C).---.

by 5A Callosobruohus chinensis 5B 5C 5E 5F 5D Callosobrucbus maculatus Callosobruchus chinensis Callosobruchus maculatus 220 . including pigeon (Ca/anus ca/an). bean {Vigna angularis). Catlosobruchus chinensis Distribution: cosmopolitan. 1K Chinese pea weevil. pi. weevil. 1J cowpea weevil. male) serrate (5C. weevil. unguiculata). weevil. Drawings hyacinth bean. legumes. bean. adzuki (V. continuous patch of white hair (5A). antenna serrate (5E. hyacinth (Dolichos /ab/ab). female). (V. 5F). legumes. garden bean. radiQta}. Dorsal margin of abdominal segments to V with diffuse yellowish whitish hair not in dense patch (5D). Catlosobruchus msculatus cosmopolitan. pi.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 5 Dorsal margin of abdominal segments to V with dense. antenna pectinate (5B. (We/a /aba). garden (Phaseolus vulgaris).

rufimanus. Econ. 221 .S1977. B. Insect Rpt. Bull. 20(18)303-304. in the continental 1970. Coteoptera) References Cited Kingsotver. Insects not known to United States. 31(2)133-142.M. pisorum (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). and 6. Coop.Seed beetles (Bruchidae. Comparative descriptions of the final larval instar of Bmchus brachislis. Coleop. J. Pfaffenberger. G. Groundnut bruchid (Caryedon serratus (Olivier)).

/nsecf and Mite Pests in Food Notes and Sketches 222 .

I0 WEEVILS (CURCULIONIDAE.S. Department of Agriculture c/o National Museum of Natural History Washington DC 20560 "Deceased . COLEOPTERA) Donald R. Whitehead* Systematic Entomology Laboratory Plant Sciences Institute Agricultural Research Service U.

mangiferae (Fabricius). Pests of cola nuts from Africa include Balanogastris kolae and several species of Sophmrhinus. Fruits of apple. cherry. and eaten by various species of Coccotorus. Acythopeus curvimstris potential immigrant from Eurasia. is major pest throughout parts of the world except in Africa where eaten by several other species of sweet potatoes Cytas. at least two species of Metamasius pests. Small fruits. peach. The pepper weevil. is immigrant from Mexico. Liparus coronatus (Goeze) and Mecaspis alternans (Herbst) potential immigrants from Eurasia. is indigenous. Sugarcane. Nuts. In other species. These losses in storage to be pantry pests. Peas and beans eaten in the field by various species. The carrot weevil./nsect and Mite Pests in Food stored The few kinds of weevils customarily considered among those keyed and illustrated in product pests the weevils most likely to this chapter. The melon weevil. primarily preharvest. S. Peppers. Other Curculio of from Eurasia species potential immigrants. native and exotic. pests North lists only highlights. in this adults unlikely to be countered. pear. of Apion and (Boheman). Carrots. The cowpea curculio and the pecan weevil keyed and illustrated examples of preharvest food pests. and at least the seed weevil. Two potential immigrants Palaeopus costicoilis from the West Indies and Elytroteinus subtruncatus (Fairmaire) from the Pacific region. Sweet potatoes. Orchard fruits. but at least indigenous species of Anthonomus feeds cranberry fruits. North American nuts attacked by various indigenous species of Conotracfiefos and Curculio. especially those from tropical America and Eurasia. Their foods subject to postharvest attack and injury. and Pafaeopus costicollis Marshall. The following survey of additional. 224 . Legumes. may in numbers during storage. In the American tropics. Most other weevils that food pests develop along with their hosts and likely to have left the crop by harvest to be nearly ready to do time Some species leave before pupation. Two species of the Oriental genus Sternochstus develop in other develops in fruits. Anthonomus eugenii Cano. The sweet potato weevil. Other species of Conotrachelus eat guava fruits in tropical America. Cyfas (Summers). Root and Stem Crops is Beets. which has spread to Pacific islands. The Andean genus Premnotrypes includes 12 known pests but of unknown species. At least four species of Brachycerus potential immigrants from Mediterranean Europe. which also infests yams. Potatoes. Several other kinds of weevils infest sweet potato tubers. recent immigrant from Eurasia. lormicarius elegantulus Fruit Crops Cucurbits. sugar beets. and Tachypterellus in North America and Furcipus in Eurasia. The emphasis is American pests and possible future immigrants. Most berry weevils attack buds rather than fruits. pupation in the host. Conoplum tracnetus. Avocado fruits in tropical America tacked by various species of Conotrachelus and Heilipus. is indigenous. Bothynoderes punctiventris (Germar) major pest in central Europe. notably the sweet potato weevil. including two West Indian species. Ban’s fepioW Germar is destructive. Craponius inaequsilis. mango seeds. The grape curculio. A few inspecies. Onions. Listronotus oregonensis (LeConte). Euscepes postlasclatus (Fairmaire). Yams. particularly of Injured overripe sugarcane. and adults may be found in the market place. Other potential Chromoderus fasciatus immigrants from Eurasia (Muller) and Conorrhynchus mendicus (Gyllenhal). most of which immigration potential. has spread to Hawaii and the West Indies. is Chalcodermus. atTropical fruits. Horseradish.

deeply punctured dorsally. finely punctate USA. emerge maturity. ground. tarsal claws fused basally. variously sculptured. tarsal claws not toothed Body by 3 sculpture various. species develop develop commercial growing fruit. Coleoptera) Prosternum with deep groove which receives snout (1A). 1A Chalcodermus 2 Snout long (about longer than body) and very slender (2A). Dislribution: USA. hickory America Mexico (7). Adults oviposit developing pods. the the ground. iioB-------------------cowpea curculio. 111 B--------------------"pecan weevil. Distribution: species pecans. tarsal claws free basally-Body brown. 225 . drop pupate. Chalcodermus Body black. develop fruit. Snout relatively short (much shorter than body) and stout (2B). pi. legumes. pupate drop Drawing Prosternal groove absent (1B). Curculio caryae densely Body yellowish brown. tarsal claws long toothed. cowpeas Caribbean region. emerge. pi.Weevils (Curculionidae. dorsally. fruits.

Drawings called Snout cylindrical. yams). For seeds. USA. Genus Sitophilus- 3B Caulopbilus oryzae 3C Sitophitus 3D Sitophilus 226 . just in front of eye (3C). 112B broadnosed grain weevil. antenna inserted base of snout. notably products (ginger. pygidium largely exposed. ing freshly stored develops pest principally of ripenspecimens may species damaged grain. funicle with 6 segments. with dorsal margin curved. antenna inserted middle of snout. older literature. pi. C. antennal club with basal segment not shiny (3B). Caulophilus oryzae Distribution: region. with dorsal margin straight. antennal funicle with 7 segments. pygidium not exposed.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 3 Snout short and stout. fruits. perhaps casionally intercepted elsewhere. far in front of eye (3A). club with basal segment shiny (3D).

nearly circular. elytra! longitudinally. 3. antennal insertion separated from eye by distance subequal to width of scape (posterior margin of scrobe distinct from front margin of eye) (4B) various. otherwise food pest. 1. minute. Coleoptera) antennal insertion. 5 227 . 5. its dorsal margin not plane frons. antennal insertion nearly contiguous with front of eye (posterior margin of scrobe adjacent to eye) (4A). Sitophilus linearis punctures small. 7. its dorsal margin plane 4 Snout (in profile) not arched frons. tures. 113A------tamarind weevil. species develops often intercepted States ports entry. elytrsi equally raised. strongly basally pantropical. Snout arched antennal insertion. pi.Weevils (Curcutionidae.

food pest. with spaces between punctures generally vals much than striae. not separated from ridges (5B). strial punctures small. pi. elytra) interlong wide). large. with spaces between punctures generally flat. whole grain. Sitoph/lus granarius Distribution: cosmopolitan. not quadrangular. not strongly transverse another by encroaching upon intervals. 5. wide.Insect and Mite Pests Food long 5 Pronotal punctures widely separated. 5. strongly raised basally (5B). elongate (about twice wide). encroaching strial strongly large. striae. nearly circular (much less than twice (5C). small. punctures (50). and 7 not strongly raised basally upon intervals. intervals than wide wider about intervals elytral (5A). intervals 3. transverse ridges (5D)--------another by separated from 6 5B Sitophilus granarius 5C Sitophilus zeamais 5D Sitophilus zeamais 228 . quadrangular. not forming longitudinal rugae and 7 3. major Pronotal punctures closely spaced. 1130---------"-"----granary weevil.

6C). SitophHus pronotal mostly longitudinally elliprelatively dull. with apex pression acute (6G. pronotal relatively shiny. infesting infest field. major Drawing by ^ ^ Q---- 6A 6B SItophllua oryzae 6C 6F 6G Sttopbiius zeamais 6H 229 . tical. with apex rounded (6B. 114A rice weevil. kinds distinguishing these species However. pest. only all pest. seeds. Distribution: cosmopolitan. distinguished by by the given smaller paler oryzae species.Weevils (Curculionidae. given for male genitalia completely oryzae infestations. free sclerite of aedeagus large. pronotal elytral moderately strong microsculpture. with distinct longitudinal imeach side of midline (6F). 6H). pi. punctures usually present along midline of pronotum (6J). they infest grain grains. Upper surface of median lobe of aedeagus flattened. midline of pronotum usually puncture-free (6E). free sclerite at base of median lobe of aedeagus small. grains. pi. grain. Y-shaped sternite VIII (spiculum ventrale) of female with lateral lobes parallel-sided and rounded apically (6D). Sitopbilus zeamais pronotal disc mostly circular. 114B---------------------maize weevil. with elytral whole microsculpture. Coteoptera) 6 Upper surface of median lobe of aedeagus evenly convex (6A). lobes of sternite VIII of female gradually and evenly tapered and vaguely acute apically (61). major key. cosmopolitan.

Ent. Monograph of the genus Curoulio in the New United World (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Washington 84(1)81-84. 1969. Proc.R. Foods of Caulophilus spp. D. Soc.Insect and Mite Pests in Food References Cited Gibson. Misc. Part States and Canada.P. particularly the broadnosed grain weevil. 1982. L. 230 .. C. Pub. America 6(5)239-285. oryzae (Gyllenhal). Ent. based interception records (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cosoninae). Whitehead. Soc.

Department of Agriculture c/o National Museum of Natural History Washington DC 20560 .ADULT MOTHS (LEPIDOPTERA) Douglas C.S. Ferguson Systematic Entomology Laboratory Plant Sciences Institute Agricultural Research Service U.

2 Hind wing with long fringe (fringe hairs at least long wing breadth/2).Insect and Mite Pests in Food KEY Drawings by Hind wing with short fringe (fringe hairs less than half the wing). Pyralidae (pyralid moths). Sc and Rs clearly separate divergent before and beyond end of discal cell (1B)--- 19 1B Endrosis sarcitrella 232 .------------------------Caution: fringe hair length Corcyra cephaionica Ephestiodes gilvescentella may approach wing breadth/2. Sc and Rs either closely parallel fused to the breadth of long point beyond discal cell (1A).

wing color diffuse pattern marginal shading. (2A). forewing length (=antemedial) lines. 2-0 moth.Adult moths (Lepidoptera) 2 Both front and hind wings crossed by 2 narrow. separate the forewing darker (chocolateusually Wavy white lines absent. present forewing only (2B) without. wavy white lines . Pyralis farinali’s the posterior (= postmedial) pale apical purplish-brown). forewing length 3 Tongue absent (3A) rudimentary (if present.---------^-----.--.-----meal white lines. pi. gray white. then shorter than twice the diameter 11 Tongue present and well developed (longer than twice the diameter of the eye) (SB) 233 .-------.

female. greater moth. Paralipsa gularis Tongue absent (6C)..-. discal spot absent (see 7B) 234 . forewing with conspicuous black discal spot (6B).Insect and Mite Pests in Food 4 Labial palp long longest leg spur) and protruding (4A)--"-long (about Labial palp either distinctly shorter than longest leg spur if nearly long.--. stored nut moth.--..-.-. Galleria mellonella 6 Outer margin of forewing (SB)----------------------- Tongue present but reduced (about equal in length to labial palp) (6A). pi...--. 2L -. pi. 2M fem ale.-------.--. then folded transversely against face (not protruding forward) (4B)----------- 5 8 4A Corcyra cephalonica 9 4B Paralipsa gularis 5 Outer margin (termen) of forewing (5A).

Adult moths (Lepidoptera) 7 Breadth of forewing greater than 4 mm. Corcyra cephalonica 8 Porewing breadth 5 to 7 mm. Aglossa caprealis Breadth of forewing less than 4 mm. forewing light gray-brown. Cu of hind wing apparently 3-branched (8B)---------------------------- 9 8B Achmia griseiia 235 . rice moth. Cu of hind wing apparmoth. 2M-----. Galleria melloneita ently 4-branched (8A). termen of forewing convex. pi. termen of forewing concave. almost without pattern (7B). pi. 2H---------------female. forewing with pale antemedial and postmedial lines variegated. greater Forewing breadth less than 5 mm.male. darker brown background (7A) murky meal moth.

very short. pincerlike. 2L---------------------. forewing almost without markings (see 7B)--------Porewing grayish-brown. stored nut moth. 2H-----------------"--male. upcurved and closely appressed to front of termen head (tip often concealed in frontal scale tuft) (see 9C). pi. Paralipsa gularis inconspicuous. middle (9B). Tongue absent (9C).insect and Mite Pests in Food 9 Tongue present but very short (9A). pi.--male. Achroia grisella Labial palp inconspicuous. forewing with yellowish patch palps brown. 10 10 Labial palp conspicuous though short (length not exceeding diameter of eye) (1 OA). rice moth. labial palps of mate transversely incurved. forewing grayish- (9B) spot. hind wing with (10C). Corcyra cephalonica 236 . hind wing of male with termen (10B). pi. 2C-------------lesser moth.

distal two-thirds dark colored) (13A). Amyelois transite/la 3B. pi.-. longest hind wing branching fringe hair of hind wing almost equal to wing breadth/2 (12A) --. 2F..Indianmeal moth. only wing Scales: Among deep pink coppery-red interpunctella scales the forewing.--------------dusky raisin moth. 2G-----------.Adult moths (Lepidoptera) 11 Cu of hind wing apparently 4-branched (11A)---navel orangeworm. longest fringe hair much shorter than wing breadth/2 (12B)------------------------- 13 13 Forewing distinctly bicolored (basal one-third light colored. Forewing without contrasting basal and distal colors (13B)- 13A Plodia interpunctella 13B Vitula edmandsii serratilineella 237 .-. Plodia interpunctella species pertains diagnostic stored-food moths. Ephestiodes gilvescentefia Ma+s and Cui branching closer to discal cell than to termen. Cu of hind wing apparently 3-branched (TIB)-------------- 12 12 M^s and Cu-i of to termen than to discal cell.

.-./nsect and Mite Pests in Food extensile 14 Forewing of male without costal fold (14A). Anagasta kuehnieHa Forewing usually pattern lines spot (14D).-.-. costa of valve with only short terminal process (14C).-. valve either without terminal costal also 15A.-. ovipositor much elongated (14B).-.. 15C. 17C) or.. the midpoint of the costal margin (see 17A) is also prominent process located Forewing 15 (14H) pattern. ovipositor short (14F).---. 2-1 . there process (14G.-.--Mediterranean flour moth.. Forewing of male with costal fold (usually folded under and oppressed against tower wing surface) (14E).... 238 .-. if terminal process is present.--. p(.-.. See Drawing by Ferguson.

gnathos apically bifurcate (16D). with simple (not dentate) lines (16C). 239 . with dentate transverse lines (16A). V’ltuta edmandsii serratitineella Forewing less than 9 long. gnathos not bifurcate apically (16B) ----------------------driedfruit moth. Valve with costal process (15C). Ephestia elutella 1A. ovipositor bluntly attenuated (15B)---obtuse (15D). 14E. Drawings by Ferguson.Adult moths (Lepidoptera) 15 Valve lacking costal process (15A). ovipositor broadly rounded 16 15C Cadra cautella 16 Forewing nearly always than 9 long. 2J--------------tobacco moth. pi.

ductus bursae with spiral rings of sclerotin (17B)------------raisin moth. Cadra figulilella 240 .Insect and Mite Pests in Food 17 Length of costal process of valve subequal to width of valve (17A).

Adult moths (Lepidoptera) middle of costal margin (18A). bursa with 2 to 4 (rarely tus bursae not continuing 5) signa (lamina dentata) (18B)---------------almond moth. sclerotized bands extending from sclerite of ductus bursae onto bursa copulatrix. bursa usually less than 5 signa (18D)--------------carob moth. Cacfra calldella with 241 . sclerite of duc18 Costal process of valve located to bursa copulatrix. Gacfra cautella Costal process of valve located beyond middle of costal margin (18C).

with apex rounded wing buff to dark buff-brown. Gelechiidae spot (gelechiid moths)-----------. Oecophoridae 21 (oecophorid moths)---------------------------- 20A Sitotroga cereate. Sitotroga cerealella Hind wing regularly tapered.Angoumois grain moth. sickle-shaped. and projecting anteriorly (horizontal declivent). projecting upward. with sharply-pointed apex. nearly straight. forewing pale ochreous brown. sharp-pointed. but sometimes with diffuse black distal end of discal cell and (or) another the apex (pi. Tineidae (tineid moths)---------- 22 19A Endrosis sQrcitrella 19B Monop/s c/’ocfcap/(e//a 20 Hind wing abruptly attenuated. foredark spots./a SOB Endrosis sarcitreila 20C HofmQnnophila pseuctospretella 242 . blunt-pointed. 20C). head rough-haired (19B). often unmarked. usually with 2 bluntly pointed (SOB. 2E). termen (20A). head smooth-scaled f-IQA^ PO Labial palp short.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 19 Labial palp long.

speckled with dark brown. forewing with 3 diffuse or distinct dark brown spots (21 B). hind wing with 7 veins whiteshouldered house moth. forewing buff-brown to dark buff-brown (pi. 2B). Head. Endrosis sarcitrella See 1B.pI. and labial palp brown. thorax. 2N). with black 3 tip.Adult moths (Lepidoptera) 21 Head and pronotum conspicuously white (pi. and usually with 2 blackish spots (21 A). with broad cream-colored inner margin and central spot (22A). Hofmannophila pseudospretella 21 A Endrosis sarcitrella 21B Hofmannophila pseudospretella 22 Forewing dark brown. labial palp mostly white. hind wing with 8 veins brown house moth. 2D----------------------------Mo/70p/s crocicapitella See Forewing neither mostly dark brown with definite spot (22B) 23 22A Monopis crocicapitella 22B Tineola bisselliella 243 . forewing shining buff..

pi. pi. Tineola bisaeltlella Forewing buff with dark dusting and Irregular brown markings and with about 6 dark chocolate-brown spots (23B).nsect and Mite Pests in Food 23 Forewing pale ochreous buff.. Nemapogon graneita 23A Tineoia bissettieiia 23B Nemapogon granetta 244 . entirely unmarked (23A). 2A -----------------------webbing clothes moth. 2K reddish-brown ----------------------European grain moth.

LARVAL MOTHS (LEPIDOPTERA) Donald M.S. Department of Agriculture c/o National Museum of Natural History Washington DC 20560 . Weisman Systematic Entomology Laboratory Plant Sciences Institute Agricultural Research Service U.

Insect and Mite Pests in Food KEY Drawings short secondary setae. 21. 26. 14. 18. 1B diagrammatic 2 Two setae in prespiracular group of prothorax (2A)-------Three setae in prespiracular group of prothorax (2B)------- ^-^ 2A diagrammatic 2B diagrammatic 246 . abdominal segments not divided into several annulets (1 B). Brassicaceae. abdominal segments divided Body and head with (at least dorsally) into several annulets (1A). This only butterfly species key. Pieridae (whites. Body and head with primary setae only. Other t-epidoptera 5. Distribution: Europe. 115A. 17. Pieris rapae yellowish middorsal stripe yellowish stripe through the spiracles. )0. 26. sulfur butterflies)--------------------imported cabbageworm. 29. 11. pi. 20. 5. North America (imported). 24. 15.

Larval moths (Lepidoptera) 3 Abdominal segments to VIII with seta LI behind and L2 below spiracle (3A). 7 s ^ ^ L2 3A noctuid ^ 3B noctuid 3C pyralid 3D Pyralls farinalis 3E Ostrinia nubHailS 247 . penellipse (3E). Pyralidae (pyralid moths) crochets in complete circle (3D) References: 4. Noctuidae (owlet moths and underwings)------3. crochets in mesoseries (36). 4 Abdominal segments to VIII with setae L1 and L2 close together below spiracle (3C).

... pinacula of setae SV1 and SV2 well separated segment (5A) 5 6 ----.. Trichoplusia ni Distribution: Americas.-.-...-. H5B-------------------silver Y moth.......-. H5B)-------------------------Normal prolegs present abdominal segments ill and VI (pi. North Africa... SV2 and V1 grouped closely about proleg segments HI and (V.. Europe.-..--. seta V1 separated from SV1 and SV2 (5B).-. setae SV1.... general feeder.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 4 Normal prolegs present abdominal segments V and VI (absent vestigial segments III and IV) (pi..-. Autographa gamma Asia. 8. Indies. 115C)----"-5 Vestigial prolegs present abdominal segments III and IV. pi. cabbage Vestigial prolegs absent on abdominal segments 111 and IV.. pinacula of SV1 and SV2 fused all segments segments to IV..cabbage looper.-.-...-. ? ^ \ ? \ r 5A Trichoplusia (ventral view) 5B Autographa gamma (ventral view) 248 .-..-.-.-...-.

Larval moths (Lepidoptera)

6 Mandible with broad plate

oral surface

(6A); integument smooth; pi. 1150 cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae

Distribution: Asia, Europe;


Mandible without broad plate

oral surface (6B); integument with short sharp spines;

pi. 116A

earworm, tomato fruitworm, Helicoverpa
beans, Americas, West Indies; tomatoes, plants.


6B Heticoverpa

7 With sclerotized ring around seta SD1 of mesothorax (7A) Phycitinae (phycitine


ring (78).

Without sclerotized ring around seta SD1 of mesothorax (7C)"Sclerotized ring segment








^/ ^^ ^








^(R) /

7B diagrammatic

7A diagrammatic

7C diagrammatic

V ^

<2i /


Insect and Mite Pests in Food

8 Head rugulose. yellow yellowish-brown, with darker pattern of coalesced spots (8A) Head smooth, uniformly yellow to brown, without darker pattern (SB)------

9 10

8A Acrobasf’s

QQ Plodia interpunctellQ

mesothorax pale 9 Head pale yellow with pale brownish pattern; sclerotized ring yellow (9A)-----------------cranberry ^ruitworm, Acrobasis vaccinii




Head yellowish-brown with brown to dark brown pattern; sclerotized ring mesothorax dark with pate posterior margin (98) ,_-..-.-..-pecan nut casebearer, Acrobas/s nuworella

9A Acrobasis

9B Acrobasis


Larval moths (Lepidoptera)

10 Coronal suture absent (10A); sclerotized rings around seta SD1

mesothorax (10B)


abdominal segment VIII incomplete

navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella
Distribution: walnuts,

West Indies;


mesothorax (10D) Coronal suture present (10C); sclerotized rings around seta SD1 and abdominal segment VIII complete-----------------





10D diagrammatic


fnsect and Mite Pests in Food

11 Seta SD2 level with seta SD1

Seta SD2 below seta SD1

most of abdominal segments to VII (11A)--most of abdominal segments to VII (11B)-----

11A Vitula edmandsii

11B diagrammatic




12 Sclerotized ring around seta SD1 mesothorax elongated dorsoposteriorly (12A); abdominal segments to VIII large and brown (12B) pinacula -.---.------.,----------.,-dusky raisin moth, Ephestiodes gilvescentella

America; in

Sclerotized ring around seta SD1 mesothorax irregularly rounded (12C); pinacula may not be pigmented) (12D) segments to Vlll small (may -.---.-_--,------,------driedfruit moth, Vitula edmandsii serratilineella
fruit, honey,


USA; Reference:

12A Ephestiodes

12B Ephestiodes

12D Vitula edmandsii


Larval moths (Lepidoptera)

13 Abdominal segments to VIII apparently without pinacula (concolorous with body and not evident) (13A); pi. 116B---------Indiannieal moth, Plodia interpunctella
cosmopolitan; fruit products- See




Abdominal segments to VIII with small pigmented pinacula (13B). Genera Cadra nagaste







r^ ^^ ~\

13A Plodia interpunctelia

13B diagrammatic

14 Abdominal segment VIII with seta SD2 separated from spiracle by 2 to 3 times the horizontal diameter of the spiracle (14A)-------------------Abdominal segment VIII with seta SD2 separated from spiracle by distance equal to the horizontal diameter of the spiracle (14B)------------------



14A diagrammatic

14B diagrammatic


Insect and Mite Pests In Food

15 Spiracle of abdominal segment VIII

enclosed by the sclerotized large the ring around seta SD1 (15A)----Mediterranean flour moth, Anagasta kuehnietia
nearly cosmopolitan;
grain vegetable products.

broad the enclosed by the Spiracle of abdominal segment VIII 2/3 less sclerotized ring around seta SD1 (15B)--------tobacco moth, Ephestia elutella
nearly cosmopolitan; vegetable products.


16 Seta D2 of abdominal segments to VIII 2 to 2.5 times the length of seta D1 (16A); pi. 116C-------------------------almond moth, Cadra cautella

vegetable products.

Seta D2 of abdominal segments to VIII 3 to 5 times the length of seta D1 (16B)


16A Cadra cautetta


Cadra figulilella nearly cosmopolitan. region: carobs.Larval moths (Lepidoptera) 17 Distance between setae V1 mesothorax twice less than the distance between seta V1 and III (17A)-----------------raisin moth. c^ o 17A Cadra tigulllalla o’^o 17B Cadra calidella 18 Abdominal segment with sclerotized ring around seta SD1 (18A). nuts. (18C)- 22 ^ \/ 18A Paralipsa gularis 0 / 18C diagrammatic ^ 255 . seeds. mesothorax 3 to 5 times the distance between seta Distance between setae V1 III (17B)----------------------carob moth. dried fruits. Galleriinae (galleriine moths)----------------------------segment sclerotized ring (188). 19 Abdominal segment without sclerotized ring around seta SD1 Seta abdominal segment sclerotized ring. Cac/ra calidella V1 and Distribution: fruits.

Stemmata absent (20C). missing. pi. Achroia grisella 20B Gaileria mellonella 20A Gaileria mellonella 20C Achroia grisella 20D Achroia grisella 256 . mandible with 2 apical teeth and ventral subapical tooth (19D)------------------- 20 21 20 Head with 4 stemmata each side (20A). spiracle with black peritreme.-greater moth. tribution: cosmopolitan. in honeycombs. 117A-------. lesser honeycombs caudal margin moth. mandible with 3 apical group bisetose teeth and ventral subapical tooth (19B)--~------------------Subventral group unisetose and metathorax (19C). spiracle with yellowish peritreme of uniform thickness (20B). thicker (20D)------nearly cosmopolitan.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 19 Subventral and metathorax (19A). Galteria mellonella Stemmata fused.

Pyraustinae (pyraustine moths) Ventral prolegs with crochets in complete circle (22C). pinacula of setae D1 and D2 segments pigmented (21B)-----------------stored nut moth. See vegetable 0^. 21 Sclerotized ring around seta SD1 caudal margin. Corcyra cephalonica Distribution: cosmopolitan. abdominal segment IX with 3 setae in lateral group (22D). abdominal segment IX with seta in lateral group (22B). See also vegetable products. pi. abdominal spiracular peritreme of uniform thickness. pinacula of setae D1 and D2 spiracular peritremes thicker abdominal segments not pigmented (21 A). 117B rice moth. Pyralinae (pyraline moths)- 23 257 . ^> ^ 21 A Corcyra cephalonica 0^ 21B Paralipsa gularis ^ / -^a 22 Ventral prolegs with crochets in penellipse (22A). Paralipsa gularis nearly cosmopoliti products. Sclerotized ring around seta SD1 abdominal segments and VIII complete.Larval moths (Lepidoptera) abdominal segments and VIII not complete.

pale in Distribution: Americas. stemma closer Head capsule without shieldlike extension to stemma than to stemma III (23D)------------------------ 24 24 Head with pigmented triangular spot at genal angle. West Indies. cucumbers. See beans. USA. stemma 23 Head capsule with shieldlike extension equidistant from stemmata and III (23B).Insect and Mite Pests in Food base of antenna (23A). pi. mandible with projection the lateral margin (24B)-------------melonworm. 118A-----------pickleworm. squash- Head without pigmented triangular spot at genal angle. cucumbers. 117C borer. West Indies. 258 . gourds. cantaloupes. USA. gourds..-------------~-----European many Distribution: Europe. Diaphania nitidalls Pinacula dark early instars. Diaphania hyalinata Central America. squash. pale Distribution: South America. cantaloupe. base of antenna (23C). mandible without projection lateral margin (24A). 23C. pumpkins. Ostiinia nubilatis . plants. pi.

pi. Pyralis farinal/s Stemmata See also fused. pi. 118C------------------------. abdominal segment IX with 2 subventrat setae (25D). 118B-----------------------meal moth.Larval moths (Lepidoptera) 25 Head with 4 pairs of stemmata (25A). Setae L1 and L 2 segments to VIII close together below spiracle (26B)--- 29 \ / \ s <^ \ / [^ [ 6 w / / 26A diagrammat ^ ^ S/1’ iy / 6B diagrammati 8-" ^ ef 259 . 27 References: 16. Aglossa caprealis Distribution: nearly cosmopolitan. abdominal segment IX with subventral seta (25B). Distribution: cosmopolitan. VI usually missing.--murky meal moth. Tineidae (clothes moths)-------------------spiracle. dried vegetable products- Head with 6 pairs of stemmata (25C). rotting vegetable damp grain 26 Setae L1 and L 2 abdominal segments to VIII distant from each other below spiracle (26A).

hair. animal products occasionally Subventral setae in nearly vertical line and metathorax (28C). dried fruits. Head with pair of stemmata (27C) and metathorax each with 2 subventral setae (27D)---------------------- 28 28 Subventral setae in nearly horizontal line and metathorax (28A). grain. Europe.fnsect and Mite Pests in Food and metathorax each with 27 Head with 6 pairs of stemmata (27A). Nemapogon granella Distribution: nearly cosmopolitan. 260 . feathers. textiles dried vegetable Africa. subventral seta (27B)------------European grain moth. abdominal segment IX with 2 lateral setae (28B). head with pair of stemmata -----------------------------------Monopis crocicapitetia Distribution: Asia. wool. mushrooms. TIneola btsselliella Distribution: cosmopolitan. pi. stemmata absent. stemmata absent. 119A ----------------------webbing clothes moth. USA. abdominal segment IX with 3 lateral setae (28D).

plums. tarines. Tortricidae (leafroller moths)---------------19. peaches. Spinneret 5 to 6 times long wide (31 C). 25 to 30 crochets ventral prolegs (31 D) 32 Body length ^n 31A Grapholifa molesta 31B Grapholita motesta ^ 31 D Grapholita packardi 261 . apricots.Larval moths (Lepidoptera) 29 Paired setae 02 of abdominal segment IX single pinaculum (29A). quinces. cherries. Distribution: widespread apples. 30 to 40 crochets long (31B)----------------------oriental fruit moth. Graphofita molesta Body length temperate regions. 30 Paired setae D2 of abdominal segment IX not single pinaculum (29B)---- 36 29A diagrammatic (dorsal view) 29B diagrammatic (dorsal view) 30 Anal fork present (30A)-Anal fork absent (30B)- 30B diagrammatic 31 Spinneret 7 to 8.5 times ventral prolegs wide (31A).

5 times their greatest diameter. Cydia iatiferreana Distribution: Canada. Mexico. chestnuts. ples. dish pigment (32A)---------------cherry truitworm. ples cherries fruits of See C&D. brownish. USA. cherries. Anal shield yellowish pale brown. USA. Europe (introduced).Insect and Mite Pests in Food suffused with red32 Anal shield brown. plums. Grapholita prunivora Canada. seta V1 very close to (33B) 34 . Coxae 111 about their diameter apart. 0^ 33A Cydia 262 0 -8 0 ^0 ^ latiferreana 33B Cydia (ventral view) (ventral view) . Graphotita packardi USA. seta V1 well separated from (33A)--------tilbertworm. 32A Grapholita packardi 32B Grapholita prunivora 33 Coxae 111 separated by distance equal to about 1. pinacula of posterior segments usually suffused with reddish pigment (32B)-lesser appleworm. pinacula of posterior segments brownish.

Cydia riigricana Distribution: Minor. Pinaculum of seta SD1 abdominal segments to VII not elongated anterior to spiracle (35B)--------------hickory shuckworm. Canada. Cydia caryana Canada. head yellowish-brown overlaid with 34 Spinneret 6 to 6. pi. head yellow-brown without darker pattern 35 34A Cydia pomonella 34B Cydia caryana abdominal segments to VII usually elongated anterior 35 Pinaculum of seta SD1 to spiracle (35A)------------------------pea moth.Larval moths (Lepidoptera) wide (34A).5 times long darker pattern. Europe. pods. quinces. Cydia pomoneHa Distribution: nearly cosmopolitan. 119B----------------codling moth. apples. chestnuts. USA: hickory See 35A Cydia nigricana 35B Cydia caryana 263 . USA. Spinneret 5 times long wide (34B).

Cosmopterigidae (cosmopterigid moths) ---------------------pink scavenger caterpillar. Oregon). seta SD1 of abdominal segment IX not pinaculum with D1 (36D)-------- 37 ^ ^ ^ e^ 36A Pyroderces riteyi 36C diagrammatic 36B Pyroderces riteyi 36D diagrammatic ^ 37 Setae D1. cotton. apples Sorbus berries. Seta SD1 of abdominal segment Vlll above and in front of spiracle (36C). 120A. Canada (British Columbia). 119C. D2. D2. Indies.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 36 Seta SD1 of abdominal segment Vlll directly in front of spiracle (36A). Argyresthiidae (argyresthiid moths)--apple fruit moth. Argyresthia conjugella Europe. and SD1 of abdominal segment IX single pinaculum (37A). seta SD1 of abdominal segment IX same pinaculum with D1 (36B). pi. Pyroderces rileyi Mexico. dried fruits. Setae 01. pi. (California. USA. and SD1 of abdominal segment IX not single pinaculum (37B) 38 ?^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^w ^ 37A Argyresthia conjugella 37B SUolmga cereaie!!a 264 .

pi.-.-.. Oecophoridae (oecophorid moths)--------------"--------------- 39 39 Head with 2 pairs of stemmata (39A).-whiteshouldered moth. well developed.-.-. often indistinct. many See also 38C... pi. submentum with targe oval pit (39B) --. prolegs distinct. Sitotroga cereatella nearly cosmpolitan.-. submentum without large oval pit (39D)..Larval moths (Lepidoptera) 38 Seta D1 equidistant from setae 02 and SD1 abdominal segment IX (38A). vegetable products. with only 2 to 4 crochets (38B).. 120B... Seta D1 closely associated with and anterior to D2 abdominal segment IX (38C). bulbs. giving appearance nearly cosmopolitan. with many crochets (38D).-. decay- Head with 4 pairs of stemmata (39C)... 120C ---brown house moth. Gelechiidae (gelechiid moths}------An goumois grain moth._---.--. Endrosis sardtreila nearly cosmopolitan: ing fruit.. ventral prolegs short.. HofmannophHa pseudospretella Stemmata and fused fused.-.. stored 265 .. narrow.. kernels of grain.

Contrib. pi. and species. Trans. Soc. of lepidopterous larvae. Proc. 111. Baker.S. 1567:1-12. 6 Crumb. Akademie-Verlag. Cunningham. H. 1930. Agr. (Lepidoptera. Ent.E. Crumb. Res. 1975. 18(3)171-178. 34(3)163-212. Nearctic budworms of the lepidopterous genus Heliothis. H.. T.E. 43:1-161. P. Jour. The Plusiinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of America north of Mexico emphasizing genitalic and larval morphology. C. A. lepidopterous Keys for the identification of quarantine. 1978. Noctuidae). Bull. Papers Ent. pupae. Dept. U. and H. Roy. U. A key to the larvae of (Lepidoptera. Res. with phylogeny of the Lepidoptera. nubilalis Hiibner) and its with description of larvae. Department of Agriculture. A guide their identification. U. 2617(16)1-88. The classification of lepidopterous larvae. H. Ent. and Res. Occ. Common insect pests of stored food products.E. 1963. Grapholita funebrana Treitschke and G. Economic Series No. C. On the homology and nomenclature of the notes the 1946. Ent.E. 1960. Proc. S. Tech. 1960. Bull. H. Eichlin. Agr. 15. (ed. ed. Pyralidae) associated with stored related species. 1135:1-356. Berlin.). Natl.~G. Univ. Ent. Note American allies. U. importance. 1926. T. 13 Heinrich. H. 266 . Agr. Tech. Berlin. The larvae of the Phalaenidae.B. 54(2)175-188. 3 Beck. 16 Hinton.S. The larvae of the Lepidoptera associated with stored products. Die Larvalsystematik der Eulen (Noctuidae). Die Raupen mitteleuropaischer Pyraustinae Ent. London A38(10-12)212-222. products. London. Lab. Roy. 1955. species of Phycitinae 1963. Dept.B. 70 Fracker. Washington DC. 15 Hinton. British Museum (Natural History). California Dept. larvae frequently intercepted ARS-33-20-1.W. 21:1-73. 1963.D. Soc.D.R. 11 Freeman. 47(2)251-346.B. S. Ent. H.E. Notes the larvae and pupae of two fruit moths. the adult and larval Plusiinae of California (Lepidoptera.D. molesta Busck (Lepidoptera: Otethreutidae). Mus.Insect and Mite Pests in Food References Cited Aitken. 2d. Pyralidae). Bollmann. But.S. Guide Bull. 8 Eichlin. 1980. London 97(1)1-37. 12 Hasenfuss. 1943. the European borer (Pyrausta 1919. Die Larvalsystematik der Zunsler (Pyralidae). Beitrage 5(5-6)521-639. Res. 1956. Bull. S.S. Food Agr. The larvae of the species of Tineidae of economic 1956. Ent. Capps. 14 Hinton. Akademie-Verlag.

Acrolepiidae. Trans. Hoikusha. Hist. Canada 88:1-83.M.H. The dried-fruit moth (Vitula edmandsae serratilineelta Ragonot). Larvae of insects. U. K. Berlin. E. S. 31 Zimmerman. G. H. California Dept. 1916. Mem. Gn. 267 . Hist. S. 5:1-13. 91(suppl. 1959. Die Larvalsystematik einiger Kleinschmetterlingsfamilien (Hyponomeutidae. Illinois State Lab. Osaka..T. Nat. 1966. Incurvariidae und Adelidae). with parasites of the larvae. Larval sketches of Microlepidoptera. et al. Ent. vol. (Lepidoptera. 30 Werner. and W. Soc. and Plodia. Die Larvalsystematik der Wickler (Tortricidae und Carposinidae). 55(4)180-186. 22 Neunzig. H. 18 Issiki. (including Sfrymax Dyar). pi. Bul. Ann Arbor. 2. Sacramento State Col. Microlepidoptera. A classification of the Lepidoptera based characters of the pupa. 9. 23 Neunzig. 28 Swatschek.Larval moths (Lepidoptera) 17 Issiki. Part Lepidoptera and plant infesting Hymenoptera. Bull. chiefly North American. Edwards. Gn. E. 1972. 20 MacKay. M.An introduction to Nearctic species. 1. Ent. Orthoteliidae. Nat.R. 1958. 1973. G. 1932. Honolulu. A. Key to the lepidopterous larvae found in stored foods in California. 1948. B. Akademie-Verlag. APHIS/PPQ 81-47. Hoikusha. 21 Mosher. parts and 2. Berlin.T. O. 10)1-338. 1457:1-158. Early stages of Japanese moths in colour.W. 1958.R. Department of Agriculture. 1978. Canadian Ent. Washington DC. Larvae of the North American Olethreutidae (Lepidoptera). 27 Richards. 1589:1-119. Osaka. 19 MacKay.S. Taxonomy of Acrobasis larvae and pupae in eastern North America (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Key for the identification of frequently intercepted lepidopteran larvae. D. 1975. M. Bull.G. Tineidae. vol.. USDA Tech. Bull. S. 29 Weisman.. Insects of Hawaii. 25 Okumura. Agr. University. 26 Peterson. USDA Tech. 1979. London 80(2)169-250. Early stages of Japanese moths in colour. Akademie-Verlag. Ser. 1972. 1986. 24 Okumura. vol. 12(2)17-159. pest of dried fruits and honeycombs. 1951. et al. A contribution the study of the genera Ephestia. Thompson. Systematics of immature phycitines (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) associated with leguminous plants in the southern United States. Phycitidae).H. Soc.

Insect and Mite Pests in Food Notes and Sketches 268 .

Gagne Systematic Entomology Laboratory Plant Sciences Institute Agricultural Research Service U.S.FLIES (D1PTERA) Raymond J. Department of Agriculture c/o National Museum of Natural History Washington DC 20560 .

The keys given here to flies groups of 270 . Feeding by the larvae often hastens further decay by fostering growth of secondary decomposers such bacteria and fungi. others require the microscope. Most of the structures referred to in the visible to the unaided eye keys require of dissecting than hand lens. More complete. For example. flies often associated with food designed to separate to generic taxa at least to family level and in specific level. Some larvae feed inside plant tissues and therefore often go unnoticed when the plants bought for food prepared for storage. (3). in many cases. 5). larvae) may be found in McAlplne et at. Larvae may develop rapidly in media.frisecf and Mite Pests in Food attracted to perishable foods Many kinds of flies larvae which they feed and deposit their eggs (maggots). 2. The key characters and the descriptive notes used to separate larvae pertain to full-grown larvae. 4. blow fly larvae (Calliphoridae) may reach full growth in three days under optimal conditions. technical keys to family and generic levels tor adult flies (and. This key is compiled from several (1.

4B). body and wings densely haired. freely articulated (2A) Antenna with 3. 3 Mothlike. 121 C). often dissimilar. much of the body smooth and shining.Flies (Diptera) Adult specimen-Larval specimen 2 Antenna with 7 to 16 segments. wings held flat erect body (see 4A. 2A Sciaridae 2C Muscidae 2B Scenopinus fenestral’is body (pi. 2C). with wings held rooflike wing veins evenly distributed. each segment discrete. 2C) segment less similar. wing veins stronger and concentrated in anterior part of wing 3C Sciaridae 271 . not stronger anteriorly than elsewhere (3A) ---------------------------------moth flies. and 3 5 annulate (2D) (2B. segments (2B. Psychodidae Drawing Not mothlike.

4B Sciaridae 272 ..-. antennal length longer than thorax (4B)------------------------da rkwinged fungus gnats.-. just beyond Cecidomyiidae...-. antennal length much shorter than thorax (4A) ---.. with 7to 12 segments. wing pests anywhere there cecids would edible only portions Antenna elongate and flexible. Mycophila infesting genera key point (the Sciaridae..-.--. Henna.--.-.-. R.-. segments). beyond tip.... Scatopsidae Species cecidomyiid genera Heteropeza. Sciaridae See also 2A.-.-..-minute black scavenger flies..-. with 16 segments.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 4 Antenna ctublike.

. body beelike.Flies (Diptera) 5 Wing with spurious vein (5A). Enstslis tenax species [ikely Wing without spurious vein (5B). body not beelike---- 6 Wing with strong veins anteriorly and weak. dorsal arista (7C) 7A Henrietta 7B Scenopinus fenestralis 7C Muscidae iiiucens 273 . Syrphidae (flower flies) drone fly. 122A. 7B) Antenna with long. pi. dorsal arista (7A.------------------. 123C&D -.-humpbacked flies.-. Phoridae 7 Wing veins not appreciably stronger anteriorly than elsewhere (6B)------- 6A MegaseHa 7 Antenna without long.-. pi.-. oblique veins posteriorly (6A).---.-..

fruit products include Tephritids likely Ceratitis Anastrepha Rhagoletis spp. wing not patterned (9B) (may be spot . 124B&C. pi. Scenopinidae (window flies) -------------------------------Scenopinus spp.. Stratiomyidae (soldier flies) ------------black soldier fly. 125A. Hermetia illucens similar species likely See also Discal cell long.Sc 9B Ps//a 274 . capitata.(nsect and Mite Pests in Food S Discal (central) cell rounded with several veins issuing from it (8A). Thorax and abdomen usually brown to black. with only 2 veins issuing from it (8B). pi.

Flies (Diptera) 10 Antennal segment without longitudinal suture (10A). calypteres of wing absent inconspicuous (10B)------------------------------Antennal segment with longitudinal suture (10C). wing with large calypteres (10D) 11 15 10A Drosophila 10C Musca domestica 10D Phaen/cia 11 First segment of tarsus III wider and shorter than segment (11A). Sphaeroceridae (small dung flies) -------------------Leptocera spp. First segment of tarsus III longer but not wider than segment (11B)-----12 11A Leptocera 11B PlopMa 275 . pi. 125B.

126A&B). 14 Strong oral bristle present (14A). 127A. subcostal vein ending in costa (14B). 126C). Psifa species likely 276 .fnsecr and Mite Pests in Food 12 Arista plumose (12A)----------Arista simple with inconspicuous hairs (12B) 12A Drosophiia 12B Piophila casei 13 Abdomen conspicuously narrowed at base (pi. pi. Drosophilidae (small fruit flies)-------------------Droaophila See 10A. subcostal vein ending in radius (14D). 127B. pi. subcostal vein complete (13A) black scavenger flies. Sepsidae Abdomen not conspicuously narrowed at base (pi. Piophila casei Strong oral bristle absent (14C). subcostal vein incomplete (13B). Psilidae (rust files)--------------------carrot rust fly. Piophilidae (skipper flies)---------------cheese skipper.

14D Psila 15 Hypopleuron bare (15A). Hypopleuron with of strong setae (15D)" Median (Mi. Muscidae (muscid flies)’ Median vein (Mua) straight gently (15B). (15C).z) strongly forward apex (as 15C). 15B Muscina 15D diagrammatic 15C Musca domestics . except spp.

129B--house fly.-.-.-.-^.-... Fannia canicularis This is ...-.-.......-..-. Musca domestica 10C- Vein M-i+z straight weakly curved apically (17B) 18 17A Musca c/omest/’ca 17B Muscina 78 .-.-....-.....-.....-.-. pi.insect and Mite Pests in Food 16 Vein 3A sion of strongly curved forward that it would intersect with hypothetical exten- Cu2+2A well before wing margin (16A)...-..-. 128B fly. Vein 3A straight only weakly curved (16B)------------------ 17 17 Vein M-i+2 strongly bent forward apically (17A)...little house of species likely found.-.....-. pi.

131B. grayish-black. 130B- -bronze dump fly. black. body dull colored. Ophyra ----dump fly. Notopleuron with 2 setae (21 B). 130APalpus black-----20 Legs predominantly red.Flies (Diptera) 18 Median vein straight (18A). with tip of scutellum reddish. the abdomen with checkered pattern. bronze. Muscina stabulans --Muscina assimilis 21 Notopleuron with 3 4 setae (21A). pi. Genus Ophyra---------Median vein curved apically (18B). Ophyra leucostoma -false stable fly. Sarcophagidae (flesh flies)Sarcophaga spp. pi. blo blue. body dull. body shining green. body shining. Calliphoridae flies)---------------------------------- 22 21 B diagrammatic 279 . Genus Afusc/na---------------------------- 19 20 18B Muscina 19 Palpus yellow. pi.

Insect and Mite Pests in Food 22 Base of stem vein (R) ciliate (22A) Base of stem vein (R) bare (22B) 22B Phoenicia S3 Coxa III pilose posteriorly (23A)Coxa III bare posteriorly (23B)-- 23B diagrammatic 280 .

presuturat acrosticat bristles vestigial. Texas megacepbala. pi. appeared Costa Rica shortly before 1978 has since spread through Mexico Oklahoma. Phormia regina Mesothoracic spiracle (25A) with black hair. established hairy maggot fly. pi. Peru) 24A Cochtiomyia maceltaria 24B Chrysomya rufifacies 25 Mesothoracic spiracle (25A) with orange hair. 132BSee . the New World. clavate (24B).econdary screwworm.Flies (Diptera) 24 Palpus short. filiform (24A). 133E&F---Old World screwworm flies. widely species monly lay eggs (2). a/biceps. rufifacies. chloropyga (Brazil. Chrysomys spp. Cocbliomyia macelfaria Palpus long. not differentiated from surrounding hairs (25C) Holarctic blow fly. South C. the Body length: Old World. Cbrysomya. Protophormia terraenovae 25A diagrammatic 25B Phormia regina 25C Protophormia 281 . presutural acrostical bristles well developed (25B)---------------------black blow fly. C.

Genus PhaeniclaLower calypter with long. thorax with crinkly yellow hair among the bristles ---------------------------cluster fly. thorax without crinkly hair--- 27 27 Lower (proximal) calypter bare (27A). dark pile (27B)------- 27A Phaeni’cia 27B Calliphora 282 . Pollenia rudis Eye comparatively large in relation to head (26B).Insect and Mite Pests In Food 26 Eye comparatively small in relation to head (26A).

Phaenicia sericata See also Metasternum bare (28B)--------------bronze bottle fly. Cynomyopsis cadaverina Body length: 9-14 Scutellum with 4 strong lateral bristles each side (29B).Flies (Diptera) 28 Metasternum setose (28A)--Body length: -----green bottle fly. Phoenicia Body length: cuprina 28B Phaenicia cuprina 29 Scutellum with 3 strong lateral bristles each side (29A) blue bottle fly. Genus Calliphora--- 30 29A Cynomyopsis cadaverina 29B Calliphora 283 .

basicosta (SOB) yellow to orange cosmopolitan blue bottle fly. basicosta (SOB) black- 31 30B Calliphora 31 Buccal hairs (31 A) mostly black. Calliphora vtcina Body length: Buccal integument (30A) black./nsect and Mite Pests in Food 30 Integument of bucca (30A) reddish anterior half. Calliphora terraenovae Body length: Buccal hairs (31 A) mostly reddish orange. tibia with 2 posterior bristles (31 B) Nearctic blow fly. tibia with 3 posterior bristles (31 C) Holarctic blue bottle fly. Calliphora vomitoria Body length: 31 A 284 .

long capsule. 124A ------black soldier fly. inconspicuous against hosts. tiny. sclerotized head capsule (mouth hooks may visible! /32B) may not be 32A Hermetia illucens 32 B Musca domestica 33 Large larva (15 to 20 mm) with long. conspicuous setae all body segments (33A). shaped "breast bone" located ventrally Most mushroom-infesting species minute. Hermetia illucens species likely See Small larva (less than 8 mm). either mostly glabrous Drawing pubescent (31B)---- 34 33A Hermetia illucens ^orirzm: 33B Soenoplnus 285 . their bright genus Mycophila Larva without definite. lightly-sclerotized distinctive spatula. Stratiomyidae (soldier flies). pi.Flies (Diptera) 32 Larva with definite. present. sclerotized head capsule (32A)-- (Cecidomyiidae) would key point.

. 34A Scatopsidae 34C Sciaridae 34B Psychodidae 35 Posterior spiracles at ends of long... 121A&B flies..-....-.-.. posterior spiracles flush with body wall (34C)----------criironomid midges (Chironomidae [Tenpoint..-. Psychodidae .. usually prominent anterior functional posterior prolegs..... membranous processes (34A) at tip of sclerotized tube (34B)~-----------------------Body smooth...-.-....... spiracles...^rninute black scavenger flies...-..-...-_...Insect and Mite Pests in Food 34 Body fuzzy..-... pi..-...... dorsolateral tubes (35A) ..-... posterior spiracles at tips of long.-.-..-._-. Midge complete capsule.^.-. Midge larvae occasionally appear dipedidae]) would key storage ponds... Scatopsidae Body length: Posterior spiracles at end of long median tube (see 34B)...-...t^oth 35A Scatopsidae 286 ....

brown head capsule (36A).Flies (Diptera) 36 Larva eellike. often feathery lobes most segments (37A. conelike. without conspicuous lobes Drawing each segment (37D) by 37A Fannia canicularis 37B Fannia scalaris 37C Megaselia 37D Anastrepha 287 . conspicuous setae absent darkwinged fungus gnats. Body length: Larva robust. Sciaridae Body length: 36B Sciaridae 37 Body less depressed. 39 Body cylindrical. short but last segment. with diminutive. with long. Scenopinidae first 3 segments and spicuous setae present (window flies)-------------------------------Scenop/nus spp. with large black head capsule (36B).

Phoridae (in part) See 37C.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 38 Body about 5 long. pi. anterior spiracle branched (38B). 123A&B --------------------------humpbacked flies. pi. less flush with body surface Drawing (39A) at 40 46 (39C. See 38A Megasella 38B Fannia 39 Posterior spiracles small. 39D)--- 288 . anterior spiracle simple (38A). located either peglike tubercles the end of long tail (39B) Posterior spiracles large. Body about 10 long. 128A. Muscidae (muscid flies) (in part) ---------------------------------Fannia spp.

pi. 122B. telescoping tail (41 A). Posterior end of body than slightly extended (41 B) 42 42A Drosophila 42B P3ila 289 .Flies (Diptera) 40 Anterior spiracles located dorsal surface of body (40A) -leafminer flies. Enstalis tenax species likely found. Agromyzidae Body length: Anterior spiracles located 40A Agromyzidae sides of body (40B)----------------40B Piophila case/ 41 41 Posterior end of body extended long. Syrphidae (flower flies)--------------------------drone fly.

123A&B ------------------------humpbacked flies. Phoridae (in part) See 37C. (43B)---also -black scavenger flies.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 43 Anterior spiracle tube with many retractable branches protruding from tip (43A) small fruit flies. 44B 45B Piophila easel 45A Megaselia ^^rn~~rTT’T~v~> ^^^iJ^A^ 290 . 38A. last abdominal segment 44 Posterior spiracles located without lobes (44A). Piophila casei Body length: 40B. pigmented cones. Piophilidae (skipper flies) cheese skipper. Sepsidae B. Larva with lobes only last segment (45B). Drosophilidae Body length: See Anterior spiracle branched from base Body length. Psilidae (rust flies)----------carrot rust fly. pi. last abdominal segment with lobes 44A Psila 448 Ptophila case/ 45 Larva with lobes most segments (45A). Psila Body length: species likely similar be 42B. Posterior spiracles located membranous cones. 43A Drosophila 43B Sepsidae sclerotized.

Muscidae (muscid flies) (in part) house fly. Body length: Posterior spiracular plate unpigmented (except for peritreme. pi. Musca domestica 328. 129A. if present) (46B)-- 47 46A Muscina stabuians 46B Musca domestics 47 Posterior spiracles with sinuous slits (47A). Posterior spiracles with straight silts (47B) 47B Calllphora 48 47A Musca domestica 48 Peritreme absent from posterior spiracular plate (48A)----. Tephritidae Body length: Peritreme present around posterior spiracular plate (48B)----- 49 48A Anastrepha 48B Calllphora 291 .-fruit flies. when present) (46A). Muscidae (muscid flies) (in part)-------------Muscina spp.Flies (Diptera) 46 Posterior spiracular plate completely pigmented (except for openings and button.

Anthomyiidae (anthomyiid flies)-Spiracular button. margin spiracular plate. spiracular slits essentially vertical in orientation (51A). 134E. spiracular slits directed towards midventral line (51 B). the Posterior spiracles with slits approximately parallel (49B)--Spiracular 50 the spiracular plate. flies) (in part) Body length: Peritreme of posterior spiracle complete (SOB) with only weakly sclerotized f50C^--------------------------------------Drawing 51 50A Ophyra SOB Calliphoridae 51 Posterior spiracular plates set in cavity. Sarcophagidae Drawing Posterior spiracles not set in cavity. edge 49A Hylemya 49B Calliphora 50 Peritreme of posterior spiracle with 2 unsclerotized (50A). 131A------------------flesh flies. -Hylemya spp.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 49 Posterior spiracles with 3 short slits positioned almost perpendicular to another (49A).. pi.^-.ophyra spp. present. Calliphoridae (blow flies)---"---------------- 52 292 .. Muscidae (muscid . pi.

53D Phaenicia 53C Cynomyopsis cadaverina 53F Phaenicia sericata 293 . Cynomyopsis cadavarina Body length Cailiphora spp. peritreme less strongly sclerotized (53E.: See’also 47B. 53C)-----------------Calllphora spp.Plies (Diptera) 52 Posterior spiracles with complete peritreme (52A)--" Posterior spiracles with incomplete peritreme (52B) 52A Calllphora H 52B Cochllomyia maceitana 53 Accessory sclerite of cephalopharyngeal skeleton present (53A). 516. 53F). blue bottle fly. 48B. peritreme of posterior spiracles strongly sclerotized (53B. 134A-D---------------------------------Phaenicia spp. Accessory sclerite absent (53D). pi.

spiracular slits without lateral swellings (55B) black blow fly. pi. 133A-D oid World Body length: Body segments sometimes flies. Chrysomya spp. 132A-secondary screwworm. Peritreme of posterior spiracle only moderately thick (54B)--Body segments 55 54A Chrysomya indistinct 55 Button absent posterior spiracles. pi. Phormia regina 55A Cochliomyia macellaria 55B Phormia regina 294 . Cochliomyia maceltaria Button distinct posterior spiracles.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 54 Peritreme of posterior spiracle very thick (54A). walls of posterior spiracular slits with lateral swellings (55A).

Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Communicable Disease Center.S. An introduction to the study of insects. H. DeLong. Neuroptera. Part II. Fly larvae: Key to importance. Ann Arbor. Edwards.D. Triplehorn. 1947 The flies that myiasis in [1948]. 1981. C. Atlanta. Saunders College. Coleoptera. Larvae of insects. Peterson. 3 McAlpine.J. Pratt. 1951. and C.J.Flies (Diptera) References Cited Borror. A. Agriculture Canada.T. Diptera. 2 James. Department of Agriculture. species of public health 1962. Miscellaneous Publication 631. M. 1981. U... 295 . D.M. Monograph 27. Philadelphia. Washington DC. Siphonaptera. Ottawa. D.A. vol.F-.E. Stojanovich. 1. Mecoptera. et at. J. Trichoptera. Bennington. and E.

fnsect and Mite Pests in Food Notes and Sketches 296 .

S. Department of Agriculture c/o National Museum of Natural History Washington DC 20560 .ANTS (FORMICIDAE. Smith Systematic Entomology Laboratory Plant Sciences Institute Agricultural Research Service U. HYMENOPTERA) David R.

When soldiers the smaller forms. The sexual castes (males and females) may be very abundant at the time of swarming (they normally seen outside the nest only at swarming time). Also. About 50 of these food-industry have reputation for being household buildings. Wings present. defend the colony. Ants may nest in Larvae (fig. but general feeders taking whatever they find during foraging trips. these described below. 17. Wings and wing scars absent. with wings distinct ocelli. 17. Three castes are usually present: workers. antennae elbowed but scape sometimes rather short. size workers all about the in polymorphic species there is considerable size range in the worker caste. mouthparts reduced. with rest of the abdomen. The key given here is limited to the subfamilies and to of the genera and species of household pests occurring in North America.3). It is the worker caste that may be observed foraging for food in food storage areas. commonly gourd-shaped. Thoracic legs lacking. head usually reduced in size and bearing disproportionately large eyes and large ocelli. take and forage for food. Those species with termed monomorphic. About 580 species and/or subspecies of Formicidae in North America north of Mexico (1. 135-150). females (queens). without horny projection at apex of abdomen. 28). Workers (fig. and males. and the minors. hairs of various sizes and shapes usually abundant body. Workers the most abundant of the three castes. but they do not forage for food do the workers.4).2). pi./nsect and Mite Pests in Food recognized by the constriction at the base of the two nodes in the abdomen and by the presence of that constricted distinctly differentiated from the elbowed. The largest forms are called soldiers. Morphologically similar to workers but usually larger. 17. Ant larvae tiated from those of other Hymenoptera. storage many They often forage for food in food Some ants prefer sweet substances. the antennae the first segment (scape) unusually long. Males (fig. Illustrations of the less well taxa (all of these from 3) given in chapter 27. genital appendages usually protruding.1. They they of the colony. with slender neck and small head capsule. ocelli lacking very small. under objects. minor workers. minors commonly structurally different from present they most commonly encountered. 298 . 17. others do not. They often attracted to lights in buildings. 2). Additional taxonomic and biological information may be found in the references at the end of this key (see also oh. with the thorax enlarged by the wing and with three wing musculature. Larvae of species spin cocoons in which the pupal stage is not easily differenpassed. Females (fig. Ants soil. struct the nest. in wood pests (3).

Feller.1. Hymenoptera) mandible Figure 17. dorsal view. ^ormica exsectoides Forel. Allegheny mound ant. Worker. [Redrawn from 3 by C.Ants (Formicidae.) 299 .

Teframorium caespitum.2. lateral view./nsect and Mite Pests in Food Figure 17. (Drawing by C. Feller.) 300 . pavement ant. Female.

Ants (Pormicidae. Hymenoptera) Figure 17. (Drawing by C. Tetramorium saespitum. Feller.3. pavement ant. Male.) 301 . lateral view.

4 Larva. Feller. (Drawing by C. larger yellow ant.Insect and Mite Pests in Food Figure 17. Acanthomyops interjwtus.) 302 .

pi. eyes usually large and multifaceted (2C). Hymenoptera) KEY TO WORKERS Drawings by Pedicel with 2 segments (1A)Pedice! with segment (1B)-- 1A myrrnicine B Indomyrmex humilis 2 Frontal carinae close together. antennae inserted away from mouth. antennae inserted very close to mouth. 143A&B. 135A-C army ants.Ants (Formicidae. eyes absent very small and ocellus-like (2A). not covering antenna! insertions. each with lobe that partially sertions. 136-142. Myrmicinae (myrrnicine ants)---------"--Propodeal spines present (2D) 3 2A army 2C myrrnicine 2B diagrammatic 2D myrmicine ant 303 . antennal inFrontal carinae widely separated. pi. Dorylinae Propodeum usually unarmed (28).

. species introduced from South ants.3 shelves. usually with 4 to 6 facets (pi. invading cabinets. 136B&C).Insect and Mite Pests in Food Myrmicinae 3 Antenna with 10 segments.’s (pi..-. They ant. Body workers polymorphic. pi. with 3 Antenna with than 10 segments. Solenopsis 304 . Eye large. includes foraging United States. 137A --.----------------------fire usually long blackish. either without distinct club (3C) 4 segments forming club (3D)----------------------Propodeal spines present (3E) absent. 136B&C.--.-. feeding They apparently prefer foods high protein buildings. 3A Sotenopsis 3B diagrammatic 3C Aphaenogaster fulva 3D Crematogaster ashmeadi 3E myrmicine 4 Eye small. workers monomorphic---So/enops.. long) and yellowish They omnivorous.--. 136A). Sotenopsis throughout (1. Stales. species usually may soil buildings. the last 2 segments forming Propodeum Drawings distinct club (3A)--- (3B). 136A). multifaceted (pi.

-..-.-.5-4 3-segmented club (see 3D).... impunctate. body 8 7A myrmicine ant 7B Tetramorium 305 . raised margin in front of antennal insertion (7B)...-. 7 Clypeus without sharp.. 138A&B) --..-.--...-.. raised margin in front of antennal insertion (7A) ---.-.. Propodeum with spines (5C)--------Clypeus (5D)..... Crematogaster.-. Ochetomyrmex...-.other species of Monomorium species pbaraonis. Hymenoptera) 5 Propodeum without spines teeth (5A)"---- Clypeus usually bicarinate (5B).-.. Monomomm pharaoms Body light yellowish....... apartment buildings... 137B) pharaoh ant...... Pheidole. 137C....-....-.Ants (Formicidae. Atta........ places food commercially. widely distributed found by cities United States hotels.-..-..... feeds buildings variety Integument shining. sometimes with transverse striations posterior margin of head and epinotum (pi. Genus Teframor/um-------------------"------Antenna length: 2.. representatives Aphaenogaster..... groceries.-..------. ^cC\^C 5A diagrammatic 5C myrmicine ant 6 Integument (except for abdomen) uniformly finely punctate and subopaque (pi..other species of Myrmicinae Body length and antennal pi. representatives buildings storage Posterior border of ciypeus forming sharp.-------.

Tetramorium caespitum species throughout Europe metropolitan ting wood. pi. household foods. feed ot homes. p(. Dolichoderinae (dodchoderine ants). 144--------------------Acidopore present (terminal. Formicinae (formicine ants). they may caespitum. head and thorax with longitudinal striations.Insect and Mite Pests in Food 9 Head without antennal sulcus (p(. southern does 9 Gaster with distinct constriction between the first and second gastric segments (9A) pone rine ants. Ponerinae Species associated subfamily industry. 143A). the States. and usually surrounded by fringe of hairs) (10B). 143C. 145-150--------------- 11 14 10A dodchoderine 10B formicine ant 306 . objects. circular. subapical. head and thorax usually rugulose. largely soil. Head with antenna! sulcus (pi. body color brownish to black--------pavement ant. nivorous. preferring grease. color yellowish brownish---------------other North American species of Tetramorium species States. they buildings. 143B). and ventral) (1 OA). Gaster entire (9B)-- 10 9A ponerine 9B Iridomyrn’lex humilis 10 Acidopore absent (anal slit is transverse.

Genus Tapinoma---view 12 and gaster (11A)- Petiolar node suberect to erect. regions higher latitudes. 144C) 307 . objects food persistent the Propodeum not twice high long (pi. soil. pest soil. legs. omnivorous. Hymenoptera) Dolichoderinae 11 Petiolar node vestigial (11 A). heated buildings. and gaster whitish to yellowish. 143C -odorous house ant. 144C&D)--other species of Dolichoderinae hairs.Ants (Formicidae. Iridomyrmex humilis usually posterior by hairs. 144B) Argentine ant. and sites. pi. feeding variety household foods preferring Canada. United States.4 to 3. usually easily in profile (11B)- 11 A Tapinoma sessile 11 B Iridomyrmex humilis 12 Body uniform light brown to black. propodeum posterior usually (pi. pi. prefers habitats: 13 Propodeum in profile short (about twice high long) (pi. propodeum Distribution: widely California. wide variety plant cavities. bark. 144D) elevation. especially almost any sweets.3 long. 144A-------------Tapinoma melanocephalum widely distributed by the world. stumps. wood. wide variety substances. objects. length 1-3 to 1. ground. 2. (pi.5 mm. antennae. Tapinoma sessile Mexico. Head and thorax brownish black. Southern States found mostly wide variety habitats.

throughout wood.. species large mounds. often founyellowish Acanthomyops walls. omnivorous. thorax irregularly curved 15 14A Camponotus 14B formicine ant 15 Eye closer to posterior margin of head than to base of mandible (15A). 150A----------------------other species of Formicinae scape usually large subfamily with United Stales. thorax in profile usually evenly curved (14A). 147C. is only when begun wood. pi. pi. 149. throughout open fields. virtually buildings food prefer Eye closer to base of mandible than to posterior margin of head (15B). Genus 16 Antennal hairs. 146. kinds of food taking virtually Drawings Antenna inserted at in orofile f14B^ very posterior margin of clypeus. buildings usually monly rot. 147A&B--------------carpenter ants. Camponotus Mostly larger species ranging length States. 145. commonly jects search food. Lasius spp. 15A formicine 15B Paratrechina 308 .Insect and Mite Pests in Food Formicinae 14 Antenna inserted far from posterior margin of clypeus. Some. 148. enlarge adjacent households.

The ants of North America. Mus. Paratrechina longicornis Suberect hairs usual!/ Distribution: widely by world. In Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico. Bull. 150B) crazy ant. (Harvard) 104:1-585. USDATech. throughout regions States. M. 3 Smith. Krombein et al. variety buildings locations trash. by K. body robust (pi. 57 pi. 1965. House-infesting ants of the eastern United States. 1950.Ants (Formicidae. found only north. vol. objects preferring Antennae and legs not disproportionately long. often pests References Cited Creighton. pp. Zool. piles. But. 150C) other species of Paratrechina Stiff hairs always present tibiae species key present scape. 2 Smith. Washington DC. Hymenoptera) 16 Antennae and legs disproportionately long. Formicidae. D. 1326:1-105. the ground.) in pi. body slender (pi. 2.V. buildings.R. 1979. 135-150 309 . soil. Smithsonian Institution. mostly occasional here: they Stales.R. (Note: Illustrations from this bulletin. W. ed. 1323-1467. Comp.S.

(nsect and Mite Pests in Food Notes and Sketches 310 .

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