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Chapter 20 Entropy and the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics

Things to learn
 We define the concept of entropy and understand the 2nd law of thermodynamics (Entropy never decreases)  We will understand engines and refrigerators as devices interconverting heat and work.

20-2 Irreversible Processes and Entropy Irreversible process Inverse process is improbable ! Fig 20-1 free expansion [entropy is increasing] Entropy : multiplicity of a system Reversible process Inverse process happens [entropy is invariant] .

20-3 Change in Entropy Irreversible process .

Reversible process .

Entropy calculation .

SP 20-1 .

.CP 1 Water is heated on a stove. Find the entropy changes of the water as its temperature rises.

CP 2 Find the entropy changes of the two processes of an ideal gas. .

SP 20-2 .

Entropy as a state function Entropy change is independent of the path. we know the Entropy change. Once we know i and f states. .

SP 20-1 Once again free expansion Gas was the only system (closed). Entropy of the closed system has been increased! Æ irreversible process Corresponding Reversible process Gas + Reservoir was the closed system Entropy of the closed system has been unchanged Æ reversible process Reservoir gave the same dQ to gas at the same T .

20-4 The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics The entropy of a closed system never decreases Reversible process : constant Irreversible process : increasing .

Problem 18 .

(gasoline explosion) Through the expansion of gas. (outside the engine) . (rotate the crank) Partial heat (QL) is lost to the colder reservoir.20-5 The entropy in the real world Heat Engine Heat (QH) is supplied from the hotter reservoir. work W is performed.

= the most efficient engine. .The Carnot Engine = ideal engine (reversible). No energy loss due to friction and turbulence.

The Carnot Engine (Work) Work = Heat in – Heat out .

The Carnot Engine (Entropy) .

The Carnot Engine (Efficiency) Perfect engine impossible .

SP 20-4 .

Input : Work (compressor) Output : QL (heat lost by the cold reservoir) .20-6 Refrigerator Refrigerator is cooling a cold reservoir cooler.

Perfect Refrigerator Æ impossible Perfect Refrigerator is cooling without input Work . Æ violates the 2nd law of Thermodynamics Æ impossible .

 If εX > εC. couple X to Carnot refrigerator:  Violate the 2nd law of thermodynamics .20-7 The efficiencies of real engines  No real engine has efficiency greater than εC.

20-8 A statistical view of entropy  Macroscopic definition • dS=dQ/T  Microscopic definition • S=k ln W    k=Boltzmann constant W=multiplicity W=1 for each microscopic configuration .

Multiplicity calculation S=k ln W Count the number of ways to distribute balls in the two partitions .

Multiplicity calculation As n Æ ∞. system tends to make a transition into a state with more multiplicity. Æ Second law of thermodynamics . the peak value of the W becomes sharper and sharper at n1=n2=n/2 Entropy (log multiplicity) becomes maximum at this point For a system with a large number of particles (order of mol). which has a larger entropy.