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8th grade Mathematics

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Caitlin Reeb TITLE: Constructing Volume of a Cylinder, Cone, and Sphere GRADE LEVEL: 8th Grade CENTRAL TOPIC/THEME: Volume of Circular 3D Shapes; Geometry ESTIMATED TIME: 40 Minutes OVERVIEW: This lesson will help students develop and understand the formula for the volume of a cylinder, cone, and sphere and how they are related to the area of a circle. This lesson is based upon student exploration. PREREQUISITE CONCEPTS: Surface Area Area Volume of a rectangular prism STANDARDS/BENCHMARKS ADDRESSED: 8.G.9 Know the formulas for the volumes of cones, cylinders, and spheres and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems. CONNECTIONS TO OTHER TOPICS/DISICPLINES: Connections to geometry Connections to baking, construction, and many other real world examples OBJECTIVES: Students will learn to distinguish between area of 2-D figures, surface area, and volume of 3-D figures Students will learn the relationships between the volume and surface area of spheres, cones, and cylinders Students will develop their own formula for area of cones and spheres based on the area of a cylinder Uses calculator to compute accurately MATERIALS: 3D clear geometry manipulatives Play dough Desks arranged in groups for group discussion Handout

ENGAGEMENT ACTIVITY: Have students mold play dough into a sphere, a cylinder, and a cone, trying to make the radii the same between the shapes. Review surface area of cylinder while they are constructing. Purpose of play dough is to assess if students know the difference between shapes. Whole Class Discussion Have students point to base of cylinder, cone, and sphere. What about the sphere? Where would we consider the base? (Answer: where the radius is) So then what is the common 2D shape between all of these shapes? (Answer: Circle) INSTRUCTIONAL PLAN: This lesson should be primarily student exploration. Teacher guides lesson in which volume to predict next and acts as an expert when needed, however, students build their own knowledge. Review Surface Area of a cylinder: 2 r2 + 2 r h, where 2 * r2 is the area of both bases and 2 r h is the area of the side (circumference times height). Motivational Activity What is the area of a circle? (Answer: r2) So thats a 2 Dimensional object, we are looking at 3 Dimensional now. What dimension do we need to add to our area? Think-Pair-Share Have students talk to their partner to decide what needs to be added to make our area three dimensional (Volume) Introduce height as layers and draw on board a cylinder and cut into layers. Think-Pair-Share Based on the formula for area of a circle, have students work in groups of two to three students to predict a formula for volume of a cylinder. Show that a cylinder is simply layers of circles so the volume is equal to area of circle 1 + area of circle 2 + .. + area of circle n. So this is just the height multiplied by the area of the base circle, right? Think-Pair-Share Have students write down their predictions of the volumes of a cone and a sphere. Introduce geometry manipulatives. Show that cone and cylinder have the same circumference. This only works if the base areas are the same. Have students share their predictions of volumes. Whole Class Discussion Test out predictions by pouring water into the cone and test how many cone fills it takes to fill the cylinder. How do we write that? (Answer: 3 fills so the volume of a cone is one third times the volume of a cylinder, holds a third of the liquid that a cylinder holds). Repeat with sphere. How many cones will fill up a sphere? (Answer: 2) So then how many spheres will fill up the cylinder? (1 1/3 = 4/3) Introduce volume of sphere as V= 4/3 * r2* h . Show that height in a sphere is the radius. Therefore volumesphere= 4/3* r3 SUSTAINING, CONCLUDING, OR EXTENDING ACTIVITIES: Whole Class Discussion What if we put the three shapes together, what would happen to the volume?

Ticket Out the Door Draw the three 3D shapes and write down their areas without referring to the notes. EVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT: Students will have multiple discussions and will be assessed informally throughout the lesson. Students will hand in an exit slip at the end of the class for the teacher to assess how the lesson went. If the students are able to list all three volumes from memory, the students comprehended where the formulas are derived from. REFLECTION I liked teaching in a class with the desks aligned in a U shape. I was able to walk around the center of the U and see all of the students. With this formation, I also need to be more conscious of my back being turned towards students. While demonstrating with the manipulatives, I tended to show one side and kept my back towards the other side group of students. I need to be more aware of how I am using the board. I mainly used the board for the visualization of formulas, however, when I wrote only a few formulas without erasing, the board became unorganized and did not have a flow to it. If a student came in half way through my lesson and looked at the board to catch up, they would be completely lost. Next time, I would also write my objectives on the board. I am beginning to see more classrooms that do this and I prefer it. Writing the objectives on the board allows students to see where the lesson is going and gives them an overall view for the day. I liked being able to use students to assist me in informally proving the volume formulas. I could have moved around with the manipulatives from desk to desk, instead, I used a middle desk in the center of the U which almost kept me stuck to it. This also required any participants to get up and maneuver around the long U, consuming more time. I, as well as the students, loved using play doh. I should have made them put it at the front of their desk after the engagement activity was complete. Graduate students could not keep their hands off of the play doh for the rest of the course period. Imagine what thirteen or fourteen year old students would do with the play doh had they been trusted with it for the remaining time! I would definitely teach this lesson again. I think it was a good way to show relationships and not simply give a formula for the volume of cones, spheres, and cylinders. With experience, I have learned what I need to improve, as well as change. This lesson uses the work of many educational theorists such as Vygotsky and Piaget who focus on social learning and theorized that students develop a deeper understanding when they construct their own knowledge (Brahier, 49). Students will benefit from the multiple representations and hands on learning. Students need to feel connected to what they are learning (Santa, 2006). Background material and previously learned knowledge need to be incorporated into the learning of new knowledge in order to fully comprehend the material. REFERENCES

1.) Brahier, D J. (2013). Teaching Secondary and Middle School Mathematics (4th ed.) Boston, MA: Pearson, pp.49

https://ublearns.buffalo.edu/@@/79D657463FC783145BCE90C5FD08440E/courses/1/2 129_12808/content/_2375209_1/Santa.pdf

3.) http://www.corestandards.org/

4.) http://www.regentsprep.org/Regents/math/ALGEBRA/AS2/Solids.htm

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