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**Response Data via Tangential Interpolation
**

Sanda Lefteriu and Athanasios C. Antoulas

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Rice University

Houston, TX, USA

sanda.lefteriu@rice.edu, aca@rice.edu

Abstract—System identiﬁcation from frequency domain data

arises in many areas, e.g., in control, electronics, mechanical and

civil engineering and many other ﬁelds. Currently available tech-

niques work well for the single input single output case. However,

for the case of large numbers of inputs and outputs, present

methods are expensive. This paper proposes a new approach

which is based on the concept of tangential interpolation. Our

approach allows the identiﬁcation of the underlying system using

small CPU times. The numerical results we present show that

our algorithms yield more accurate models in less time, when

compared to the column-wise implementation of vector ﬁtting.

I. INTRODUCTION AND MOTIVATION

Measuring the frequency response of a system, be it electri-

cal, mechanical, structural, etc, over a desired frequency range

provides data which can be used to identify the underlying

system. This work employs measured scattering parameters

as frequency domain data, but the approach is general and

can be applied to any kind of system identiﬁcation. The

problem of building a macromodel which approximates given

measurements of the response at various frequencies is known

as the rational interpolation problem and has been studied

thoroughly (see [1] for a survey). Most approaches are based

on least-squares approximations, for instance vector ﬁtting [2],

[3], [4], which is widely used in the electronics community.

Some other algorithms, like [5], [6], [7], enforce passivity by

construction.

Our approach is based on the concept of tangential interpo-

lation, using, as a main tool, the Loewner matrix pencil. We

are able to construct models of low complexity using a small

CPU time and are mainly addressing the case of systems with

a large number of inputs and outputs.

II. THEORETICAL ASPECTS

We start with the simple case of rational approximation

from scalar data: (s

i

, φ

i

), i = 1, . . . , P, s

i

= s

j

, i = j,

and s

i

, φ

i

∈ C. We aim at ﬁnding H(s) =

n(s)

d(s)

, n, d coprime

polynomials, such that H(s

i

) = φ

i

, i = 1, . . . , P. This always

has a solution, e.g., the Lagrange interpolating polynomial.

Our main tool, however, is the Loewner matrix which is

constructed by partitioning the data in disjoint sets:

(λ

i

, w

i

), i = 1, . . . , k and (μ

j

, v

j

), j = 1, . . . , h,

where h, k ≈

_

P

2

¸

such that k +h = P, using the formula:

L

i,j

=

v

i

−w

j

μ

i

−λ

k

, L ∈ C

h×k

.

There are many reasons to use this tool. The degree of

the minimal interpolant is determined from the rank of the

Loewner matrices constructed using all possible partitions.

Moreover, the Loewner matrix has a system theoretic inter-

pretation in terms of observability and controllability matrices.

Finally, for data consisting of a single point and derivatives at

that point, the Loewner matrix has Hankel structure. Thus, the

Loewner matrix generalizes the Hankel matrix.

A. Tangential interpolation

Sampling matrix data directionally on the left and on the

right leads to the concept of tangential interpolation. The right

interpolation data is given as

{(λ

i

, r

i

, w

i

) | λ

i

∈ C, r

i

∈ C

m×1

, w

i

∈ C

p×1

, }, (1)

for i = 1, . . . , k, or, more compactly,

Λ = diag [λ

1

, · · · , λ

k

] ∈ C

k×k

, (2)

R = [r

1

, · · · , r

k

] ∈ C

m×k

, (3)

W= [w

1

, · · · , w

k

] ∈ C

p×k

, (4)

while the left interpolation data is given as

{(μ

j

,

j

, v

j

) | μ

j

∈ C,

j

∈ C

1×p

, v

j

∈ C

1×m

, }, (5)

for j = 1, . . . , h, or, more compactly,

M = diag [μ

1

, · · · , μ

h

] ∈ C

h×h

, (6)

L =

⎡

⎢

⎣

1

.

.

.

h

⎤

⎥

⎦ ∈ C

h×p

, V =

⎡

⎢

⎣

v

1

.

.

.

v

h

⎤

⎥

⎦ ∈ C

h×m

. (7)

The rational interpolation problem consists of ﬁnding a

realization in descriptor form [E, A, B, C, D], such that the

associated transfer function H(s) = C(sE − A)

−1

B + D,

satisﬁes the right and left constraints

H(λ

i

)r

i

= w

i

,

j

H(μ

j

) = v

j

. (8)

The key tools we use for addressing this are the Loewner and

the shifted Loewner matrices, associated with the data. We

refer to [8] for more details on these concepts.

B. The Loewner and the shifted Loewner matrices

Given a set Z = {z

1

, · · · , z

P

} of points in the complex

plane and the rational matrix function H(s) at those points:

{H(z

1

), · · · , H(z

P

)}, we can partition Z as:

Z = {λ

1

, · · · , λ

k

} ∪ {μ

1

, · · · , μ

h

},

978-1-4244-4489-2/09/$25.00 ©2009 IEEE SPI 2009

where h, k ≈

_

P

2

¸

and k +h = P. We build the right and left

data by selecting appropriate sampling directions r

i

and

j

.

The Loewner and the shifted Loewner matrices are deﬁned

in terms of the data (1) and (5) as

L=

⎡

⎢

⎣

v1r1−1w1

μ1−λ1

· · ·

v1r

k

−1w

k

μ1−λ

k

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

v

h

r1−

h

w1

μ

h

−λ1

· · ·

v

h

r

k

−

h

w

k

μ

h

−λ

k

⎤

⎥

⎦∈ C

h×k

, (9)

σL=

⎡

⎢

⎢

⎣

μ1v1r1−λ11w1

μ1−λ1

· · ·

μ1v1r

k

−λ

k

1w

k

μ1−λ

k

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

μ

h

v

h

r1−λ1

h

w1

μ

h

−λ1

· · ·

μ

h

v

h

r

k

−λ

k

h

w

k

μ

h

−λ

k

⎤

⎥

⎥

⎦

∈ C

h×k

.(10)

Each entry above is scalar, as it is obtained by taking inner

products of the left and right data. The following lemma [8]

provides the solution to the tangential interpolation problem

in a simplﬁed case.

Lemma II.1. Assume that k = h, that the matrix pencil

(σL, L) is regular, and that μ

j

, λ

i

/ ∈ λ(σL, L). Then E = −L,

A = −σL, B = V, C = W and D = 0 is a minimal

realization of an interpolant of the data. Thus, the associated

transfer function H(s) = W(σL−sL)

−1

V satisﬁes both left

and right interpolation conditions.

III. MODELING SCATTERING PARAMETERS

Modeling multi-port systems from frequency-domain data

(for instance, scattering parameters) is formulated as a rational

approximation problem as follows. An LTI system approxi-

mately models the data set containing k measurements of the

S-parameters of a device with p input and output ports

⎛

⎜

⎜

⎝

f

i

, S

(i)

:=

⎡

⎢

⎢

⎣

S

(i)

11

. . . S

(i)

1p

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

S

(i)

p1

. . . S

(i)

pp

⎤

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎞

⎟

⎟

⎠

, i = 1, · · · , k,

if the value of the associated transfer function evaluated at

j · 2πf

i

= jω

i

, H(jω

i

), is close to the measured S

(i)

, ∀i.

To obtain a real system, the S-parameters at the complex

conjugate values of the sample points −jω

i

are set equal the

complex conjugates of the measurements S

(i)

, namely S

(i)

.

A. The Loewner matrix pencil in the complex implementation

We use columns and rows of the identity matrix of dimen-

sion p as sampling directions r

i

and

i

, respectively.

Remark. The fact that the p

2

entries of the matrix can be

collapsed into one vector of dimension p makes this method

suitable for devices with a large number of ports.

The right interpolation data can be chosen as

_

λ

i

= jω

i

, r

i

, w

i

= S

(i)

r

i

_

. (11)

for i = 1, · · · ,

k

2

. As right directions, we use r

i

= e

m

∈

R

p×1

, with m = p for i = p · c

1

and m = 1, · · · , p − 1 for

i = p · c

1

+m, for some c

1

∈ Z, where e

m

denotes the m-th

column of the indentity matrix I

p

. Hence, the right data w

i

are columns of S

(i)

. More compactly,

Λ = diag [jω

1

, · · · , jω

k

] ∈ C

k×k

, (12)

R = [r

1

, · · · , r

k

] ∈ C

p×k

, (13)

W= [w

1

, · · · , w

k

] ∈ C

p×k

, (14)

while the left interpolation data are constructed as

_

μ

i

= −jω

i

,

i

, v

i

=

i

S

(i)

_

, (15)

with

i

= r

T

i

and the left data v

i

are rows of S

(i)

. Compactly,

M = diag [−jω

1

, · · · , −jω

k

] ∈ C

k×k

, (16)

L

∗

=

_

∗

1

· · ·

∗

k

¸

, L ∈ C

k×p

, (17)

V

∗

=

_

v

∗

1

· · · v

∗

k

¸

, V ∈ C

k×p

. (18)

After the tangential data have been identiﬁed, the Loewner

and shifted Loewner matrices are built as in (9)-(10).

B. The Loewner matrix pencil in the real implementation

To guarantee that the resulting system is real, the right

interpolation data can be chosen as

_

jω

i

, −jω

i

; r

i

, r

i

; w

i

= S

(i)

r

i

, w

i

= S

(i)

r

i

_

, (19)

for i = 1, · · · ,

k

2

, with r

i

as in Sect. III-A. More compactly,

Λ = diag

_

jω

1

, −jω

1

, · · · , jωk

2

, −jωk

2

_

, (20)

R =

_

r

1

, r

1

, · · · , rk

2

, rk

2

_

∈ C

p×k

, (21)

W =

_

w

1

, w

1

, · · · , wk

2

, wk

2

_

∈ C

p×k

, (22)

while the left interpolation data is constructed as

_

jω

i+

k

2

, −jω

i+

k

2

;

i

,

i

; v

i

=

i

S

(i+

k

2

)

, v

i

=

i

S

(i+

k

2

)

_

.

(23)

for i = 1, · · · ,

k

2

, with

i

as in Sect. III-A. More compactly,

M = diag

_

jω

1+

k

2

, −jω

1+

k

2

, · · · , jω

k

, −jω

k

_

, (24)

L

∗

=

_

∗

1

∗

1

· · ·

∗

k

2

∗

k

2

_

, L ∈ C

k×p

, (25)

V

∗

=

_

v

∗

1

v

∗

1

· · · v

∗

k

2

v

∗

k

2

_

, V ∈ C

k×p

. (26)

Without loss of generality, we assumed an even number of

samples. Next, the Loewner and shifted Loewner matrices are

built using Eq. (9)-(10). As a last step, a change of basis is

to be performed to ensure real matrix entries:

ˆ

Λ =

ˆ

Π

∗

Λ

ˆ

Π,

ˆ

M =

ˆ

Π

∗

M

ˆ

Π,

ˆ

L =

ˆ

Π

∗

L,

ˆ

V =

ˆ

Π

∗

V,

ˆ

R = R

ˆ

Π,

ˆ

W = W

ˆ

Π

ˆ

L =

ˆ

Π

∗

L

ˆ

Π,

ˆ

σL =

ˆ

Π

∗

σL

ˆ

Π, where

ˆ

Π = diag [Π, . . . , Π] ∈ C

k×k

, Π =

1

√

2

_

1 −j

1 j

_

.

IV. IMPLEMENTATION

We use all measurements to construct the Loewner matrix

pencil, in the complex (Sect. III-A) or real implementation

(Sect. III-B). Lemma II.1 assumes that the resulting Loewner

matrix pencil is regular. However, when too many measure-

ments are available, the pencil is singular, so one needs to

project out the singular part. Assuming that ∀x ∈ {λ

i

}∪{μ

i

},

rank (xL − σL) =: n, one can perform the singular value

decomposition:

xL −σL = Y

1

ΣX

1

, (27)

where Y

1

∈ C

k×n

, X

1

∈ C

n×k

and n is the dimension of

the regular part of xL − σL. Furthermore, it is precisely the

order of the underlying system. Using the singular vectors as

projectors, the realization is given as E = −Y

∗

1

LX

1

, A =

−Y

∗

1

σLX

1

, B = Y

∗

1

V, C = WX

1

with D = 0 [8].

This approach is computationally expensive for data sets

with a large number of samples k, as the cost of the SVD

of the matrix xL − σL scales with k

3

. This is overcome by

adaptive approaches presented in [9], [10], [11].

A. Remarks on the D-term, stability and passivity

Our realizations have a zero D-term. Nonetheless, systems

may have D = 0. Suppose the order of the underlying system

with p ports is n and D = 0. This representation is equivalent

to a system of order n +p with E singular, A invertible and

D = 0. The poles of the new system are the n poles of

the original system together with p inﬁnite ones. Given such a

realization, it can be written in the original form by recovering

the D-term. This is illustrated by the examples in Sect. V.

Our algorithms are able to identify the underlying system,

therefore, for data sets obtained from real-world systems, the

resulting models are stable (after extracting the necessary D-

term). Passivity is not enfored by construction, thus out of

band passivity violations may occur. Like in the VF approach,

these can be corrected by an a posteriori passivation enforce-

ment based on ﬁrst-order perturbations, for example [12], [13].

Passivity can also be enforced by contruction in the current

framework, as in [14].

V. NUMERICAL RESULTS

We compare our approach to vector ﬁtting on an a-priori

given system and on one where only measurements are avail-

able, in terms of accuracy and CPU time required to produce

a macromodel. The accuracy was assessed using:

• the normalized H

∞

-norm of the error system, deﬁned as:

H

∞

error =

max

i=1...k

σ

1

_

H(jω

i

) −S

(i)

_

max

i=1...k

σ

1

_

S

(i)

_ ,

where σ

1

(·) denotes the largest singular value of (·).

• the normalized H

2

-norm of the error system:

H

2

error =

k

i=1

_

_

H(jω

i

) −S

(i)

_

_

2

F

k

i=1

_

_

S

(i)

_

_

2

F

,

where ·

2

F

stands for the Frobenius-norm, namely the

sum of the magnitude squared of all p

2

entries.

We used the column-wise implementation of fast, relaxed

vector ﬁtting [2], [15], [16] with the following options:

• the starting poles are complex conjugate pairs with weak

attenuation, distributed over the frequency band

• each column was ﬁtted using 5 iterations.

The experiments were performed on a Pentium Dual-Core

at 2.2GHz with 3GB RAM.

A. A-priori given system with 2 ports, 14 poles and D = 0

We consider a system of order 14 with p = 2 ports and

D = 0 [9], [10]. We take k = 608 samples of the transfer

function between 10

−1

and 10

1

rad/sec (Fig. 1(a)).

Fig. 1(b) shows the ﬁrst 30 normalized singular values of

the Loewner and shifted Loewner matrices (the rest are zero).

The Loewner matrix has rank 14, while the shifted Loewner

matrix has rank 16, so, based on the drop of singular values

(Eq. (27)), we generate models of order 16 with D = 0. To

yield a realization of order 14, VF was given 7 starting poles.

10

−1

10

0

10

1

−80

−70

−60

−50

−40

−30

−20

−10

0

Frequency (rad/sec)

M

a

g

n

itu

d

e

(d

B

)

Singular Value Plot

(a) Original system

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

10

−15

10

−10

10

−5

10

0

index

lo

g

a

rith

m

ic

Normalized Singular Values

LL

sLL

(b) Singular value drop

Fig. 1. Original system and singular value drop of the Loewner matrix pencil

Table I presents the CPU time and the errors for the resulting

models. All proposed algorithms identiﬁed the original system,

while VF did not. If VF is given N = 14 starting poles, the

resulting errors are similar to ours. Each column is ﬁt by the

same poles, so the realization has order n = 28 and each pole

has multiplicity 2. Recovering the original system requires an

additional compacting step [3].

Algorithm CPU (s) H∞ error H

2

error

VF 0.93 1.1324 5.8327e-002

SVD Complex 0.88 1.3937e-010 5.8900e-022

SVD Real 1.82 1.3146e-012 9.4168e-026

TABLE I

RESULTS FOR k = 608 NOISE-FREE MEASUREMENTS OF AN ORDER 14

SYSTEM WITH p = 2 PORTS

B. Example involving measurements

Measurements were provided by CST AG. For examples

with a larger number of ports, see [9]. This set contains k =

200 frequency samples between 5MHz and 1GHz of a system

with p = 16 ports. Fig. 2(a) shows the normalized singular

values of the Loewner and shifted Loewner matrices.

0 50 100 150 200

10

−16

10

−14

10

−12

10

−10

10

−8

10

−6

10

−4

10

−2

10

0

X: 27

Y: 0.03802

index

lo

g

a

rith

m

ic

Normalized Singular Values

X: 28

Y: 0.0008019

X: 43

Y: 0.0009489

X: 44

Y: 7.034e−005

LL

sLL

(a) SVD drop

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

10

−5

10

−4

10

−3

10

−2

10

−1

10

0

X: 27

Y: 0.3705

Hankel SVs of the VF model

(b) HSVs of the VF model

Fig. 2. Drop of the singular values of the Loewner matrix pencil and drop

of the Hankel singular values of the VF model of size n = 352

We notice the same behaviour as in the previous example.

The singular values of the Loewner matrix decay 2 orders

of magnitude between the 27th and 28th, while those of the

shifted Loewner matrix decay 1 order of magnitude between

the 43rd and 44th. This plot allows to identify the order of the

system and suggests that there is an underlying D-term. We

build models of order n = 43 with D = 0, so after recovering

the D-term, we have an order n = 43 − 16 = 27 model.

Table II summarizes the results. Vector ﬁtting was required to

produce an asymptotic D matrix, but the closest order model

to n = 27 was n = 32. To obtain comparable errors, VF

needs to built an order n = 352 model. Fig. 2(b) shows that

the Hankel singular values of the VF n = 352 model exhibit

no decay around the 27th singular value. Thus, reducing to

order n = 27 using balanced truncation (BT), as also done

in [17], leads to unsatisfacorty results. One could also try a

compacting step, as presented in [3].

Algorithm CPU time (s) H∞ error H

2

error

VF (n=32, D = 0) 0.54 1.4315e+000 1.2178e-001

Complex (n=43, D = 0) 0.21 3.4795e-002 2.0945e-005

Real (n=43, D = 0) 0.14 8.3858e-002 3.5407e-005

VF (n=352, D = 0) 3.63 7.9734e-002 7.4647e-005

VF & BT (n=27, D = 0) 5.46 6.5170e-001 5.8586e-002

TABLE II

RESULTS FOR CONSTRUCTING A MODEL FROM A DATA SET OBTAINED

FROM A DEVICE WITH p = 16 PORTS

Our model constructed with the complex approach and the

VF model of order n = 32 are shown in Fig. 3. We also

present plots of the magnitude and angle of two entries of the

S-parameters in Fig. 4. We compare the measured S

3,2

and

S

7,15

entries to the model obtained with our complex approach

and to the order n = 32 model obtained with VF. The reason

behind the poor performance of vector ﬁtting shown in Fig.

3 and 4 is the fact that each one of the 16 columns of the

S-parameters are ﬁt by 32/16 = 2 poles. Thus, each column

shares only two common poles, which is clearly too restrictive.

10

7

10

8

10

9

10

10

−4

−3.5

−3

−2.5

−2

−1.5

−1

−0.5

0

0.5

Frequency (rad/sec)

M

a

g

n

itu

d

e

(d

B

)

Singular Value Plot

Data

Model

(a) Our Approach (n = 43, D = 0)

10

7

10

8

10

9

10

10

−35

−30

−25

−20

−15

−10

−5

0

5

Frequency (rad/sec)

M

a

g

n

itu

d

e

(d

B

)

Interpolating system obtained with VF

Data

Model

(b) VF (n = 32, D = 0)

Fig. 3. Models for a device with p = 16 ports

10

7

10

8

10

9

10

10

−50

−45

−40

−35

−30

−25

−20

−15

−10

Frequency (rad/sec)

M

a

g

n

itu

d

e

(d

B

)

Magnitude of S

3,2

data

our model

VF model

(a) Magnitude of S

3,2

10

7

10

8

10

9

10

10

−200

−150

−100

−50

0

50

100

150

200

Frequency (rad/sec)

A

n

g

le

(d

e

g

re

e

s

)

Angle of S

3,2

data

our model

VF model

(b) Angle of S

3,2

10

7

10

8

10

9

10

10

−40

−35

−30

−25

−20

−15

−10

Frequency (rad/sec)

M

a

g

n

itu

d

e

(d

B

)

Magnitude of S

7,15

data

our model

VF model

(c) Magnitude of S

7,15

10

7

10

8

10

9

10

10

−200

−150

−100

−50

0

50

100

150

200

Frequency (rad/sec)

A

n

g

le

(d

e

g

re

e

s

)

Angle of S

7,15

data

our model

VF model

(d) Angle of S

7,15

Fig. 4. Comparison of the performance in modeling different entries of the

measured S-parameters obtained from a device with p = 16 ports

VI. CONCLUSION

This paper summarizes some of the features of a new

approach to modeling multi-port systems from frequency

domain data. For details, see [9]. It is based on the concept

of tangential interpolation and empoys as a main tool the

Loewner matrix pencil, which is motivated by a system

theoretic consideration [8]. Tangential interpolation was also

adopted for model order reduction [18]. In this note, we

are adressing the issue of large number of ports. Our main

application used the scattering parameters but, due to the

generality of our approach, other kinds of frequency-domain

data can be considered. We compared the performance of

our method to state-of-the-art vector ﬁtting on two numerical

examples and concluded that our approach is faster and,

moreover, identiﬁes the order of the underlying system.

REFERENCES

[1] A. C. Antoulas, Approximation of Large-Scale Dynamical Systems.

Philadelphia: SIAM, 2005.

[2] B. Gustavsen and A. Semlyen, “Rational approximation of frequency

domain responses by vector ﬁtting,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 14,

pp. 1052–1061, Jul. 1999.

[3] ——, “A robust approach for system identiﬁcation in the frequency

domain,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 19, pp. 1167–1173, Jul. 2004.

[4] D. Deschrijver, “Broadband macromodeling of linear systems by vector

ﬁtting,” Ph.D. dissertation, Universiteit Antwerpen, Oct. 2007.

[5] S.-H. Min and M. Swaminathan, “Construction of broadband passive

macromodels from frequency data for simulation of distributed inter-

connect networks,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., vol. 46, no. 4,

pp. 544–558, Nov. 2004.

[6] R. Gao, Y. Mekonnen, W. Beyene, and J. Schutt-Aine, “Black-box

modeling of passive systems by rational function approximation,” IEEE

Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 209–215, May 2005.

[7] A. Woo and A. Cangellaris, “Real-part sufﬁciency and its application to

the rational function ﬁtting of passive electromagnetic responses,” IEEE

International Microwave Symposium, pp. 99–102, June 2007.

[8] A. J. Mayo and A. C. Antoulas, “A framework for the solution of the

generalized realization problem,” Linear Algebra and Its Applications,

vol. 405, pp. 634–662, 2007.

[9] S. Lefteriu and A. C. Antoulas, “A new approach to model multi-port

systems from frequency response data,” IEEE Trans. Comput.-Aided

Design Integr. Circuits Syst., submitted for publication.

[10] S. Lefteriu and A. Antoulas, “A new adaptive approach to modeling

measured multi-port scattering parameters,” in Scientiﬁc Computing in

Electrical Engineering. Springer, 2008, accepted for publication.

[11] S. Lefteriu, “New approaches to modeling multi-port scattering param-

eters,” Master’s thesis, Rice University, Houston, TX, 2008.

[12] S. Grivet-Talocia, “Passivity enforcement via perturbation of Hamilto-

nian matrices,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, vol. 51, pp. 1755–1769,

Sep. 2004.

[13] D. Saraswat, R. Achar, and M. Nakhla, “Fast passivity veriﬁcation and

enforcement via reciprocal systems for interconnects with large order

macromodels,” IEEE Trans. VLSI Syst., vol. 15, pp. 48–59, Jan. 2007.

[14] A. C. Antoulas, “On the construction of passive models from frequency

response data,” Automatisierungstechnik, vol. 56, pp. 447–452, Aug.

2008.

[15] B. Gustavsen, “Improving the pole relocation properties of vector

ﬁtting,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 1587–1592, Jul.

2006.

[16] D. Deschrijver, M. Mrozowski, T. Dhaene, and D. De Zutter, “Macro-

modeling of multiport systems using a fast implementation of the vector

ﬁtting method,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., vol. 18, no. 6,

pp. 383–385, June 2008.

[17] F. Ebert and T. Stykel, “Rational interpolation, minimal realization and

model reduction,” DFG Research Center MATHEON, Tech. Rep. 371-

2007, 2007.

[18] P. Li and W. Shi, “Model order reduction of linear networks with massive

ports via frequency-dependent port packing,” in DAC ’06: Proceedings

of the 43rd annual conference on Design automation, pp. 267–272.

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