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AQA Biology AS Condensed Notes Chapter 3: Cell Structure and Membranes

Animal Cell Structure
All cells contain organelles
 Organelles are part of cells and each one has a specific function  You can see organelles and their internal structure with an Electron Microscope

Different organelles have different functions
Plasma Membrane Made mainly of lipids and proteins Regulates substances in/out, has receptor molecules Nucleus nucleolus ribosomes Double membrane with pores, contains chromatin and DNA controls cell activities, pores allow access, makes

Lysosome Surrounded by membrane Contains digestive enzymes, used to digest foreign cells or worn out cell components Ribosome Floats free/attacked to RER made (protein synthesis) Site where proteins are

Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough and Smooth, rough is covered in Ribosomes Smooth synthesises and processes lipids, Rough folds and processes proteins Golgi Apparatus Fluid filled flattened sacs lips/proteins, makes lysosomes Packages new

Mitochondria Double membrane, inner folds to form cristae. Inside is matrix, contains respiration enzymes Does aerobic respiration.

image (from microscopes) = 5mm.Analysis of cell components Magnification is size.2 micrometers  Maximum useful magnification of x1500 2. Light Microscopes  They use light (yeah. that’s right)  They have a lower resolution that electron microscopes  Maximum resolution of about 0. Electron Microscopes  Use electrons instead of light  Have a higher resolution so give more detailed images .05mm = 100 (therefore x100 magnification)  Resolution is how detailed the image is  More specifically it’s how well a microscope distinguished between two points that are close  If a microscope lens can’t separate objects. therefore 5mm / 0. specimen = 0.05mm. resolution is detail  Resolution is important (otherwise image is blurry)  Magnification is how much bigger an image is than the specimen  Calculated with “Magnification = Length of Image / Length of Specimen  Example. increasing magnification just causes blurriness There are two main types of microscope – Light and Electron 1.

000 Electron microscopes are either “scanning” or “transmission”  Two types of electron microscopes 1.0001 micrometers. which is 2000 times that of light microscopes  Maximum useful magnification of about x1.500. which gather in a cathode ray tube to form an image  Shows the surface of the specimen and can be 3D  SEM’s can be used on thick specimens. which is good  But give lower resolution images than TEM’s Cell fractionation separates organelles  Organelles need to be separated before you can look at them under a microscope  Cell Fractionation does this . Maximum resolution of about 0. Transmission Electron Microscopes  TEM’s use electromagnets to focus a beam of electrons which his passed through specimen  Dense parts of specimen absorb more electrons. Scanning Electron Microscopes  SEM’s scan a beam of electrons across specimen  This knocks of electrons from specimen. which looks darker on the image you get  TEM’s give high resolution images which is good  However can only be used on thin specimens 2.

Homogenisation – Breaking up the cells  Can be done by grinding cells in blender or vibrating them  This breaks up plasma membrane and releases organelles 2. Each time pellet is made up of lighter and lighter organelles . Supernatant again drained into different tube and respun at even higher speed 5. respun at higher speed. Process repeated and repeated till all organelles separated. poured into another tube. Cell fragments are poured into tube. which is put in centrifuge and spun at low speed separating heaviest organelles (Nucleus) to bottom of tube. Three steps: 1. Filtration – Getting rid of big bits  Homogenised cell solution filtered through gauze to separated tissue debris like connective tissue  Organelles are much smaller so pass through gauze 3. 2. Forms thick “pellet”. rest of organelles stay suspended in supernatant (fluid above) 3. Ultracentrifugation – separating the organelles  To separate an individual organelle you use ultracentrifugation 1. Supernatant drained off. Mitochondria then forms pellet 4.

like tiles in a mosaic Triglycerides are a kind of lipid  Lipids in membrane’s aren’t Triglycerides but need to know how they relate to Phospholipids  Triglycerides have 1 molecule of Glycerol with 3 molecules of fatty acids attached to it .Plasma Membranes Substances are exchanged across plasma membranes  Cells need to take in substances that they need and remove toxic substances to survive  Plasma membrane controls what substances enter or leave cell Plasma membranes are mostly made of lipids  Structure of all membranes is basically the same  Composed of lipids (mainly phospholipids). proteins and carbohydrates (usually attached to lipids and proteins)  Fluid mosaic model proposed in 1973 to describe arrangement of cells in plasma membrane  In model. Phospholipid molecules form continuous double layer (bilayer)  This double layer is fluid because the phospholipids are continually moving  Protein molecules are scattered through layer.

resulting in different properties Phospholipids are similar to triglycerides  The lipids in plasma membranes are mainly phospholipids  Phospholipids are similar to triglyceride except one fatty acid is replaced by a phosphate group  The phosphate group is hydrophilic (attracts to water) . which causes tail to “kink”. Therefore the fatty acid is “saturated” with Hydrogen  Unsaturated do have some double bonds between the carbon atoms in their tail. saturated and unsaturated  Saturated don’t have any double bonds between the carbon atoms in their tail. Variable “R” hydrocarbon tail Triglycerides are formed by condensation reactions  Ester bond forms between glycerol and fatty acid at one of three bonding sites on glycerol  This is a condensation reaction. Fatty Acid molecules have long “tails” made of hydrocarbon  Tails are hydrophobic and repel water  Tails therefore make lipids insoluble in water  All fatty acids have same basic structure but hydrocarbon tail varies Carbon atom links fatty acid to glycerol. molecule of water is released  Process happens twice more to form a triglyceride Fatty Acids can be saturated or unsaturated  Two kinds of fatty acids.

 Particles diffuse down a concentration gradient  Diffusion is a passive process – no energy is needed . the more noticeable the milky colour will be Exchange across plasma membranes Diffusion is the passive movement of particles  Diffusion is the net movement of particles (molecules or ions) from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration  Molecules diffuse both ways. The 2 fatty acid tails are still hydrophobic (repels water)  This gives is the double property of repelling water on one side and attracting it on another. but net movement will be to area of lower concentration  This continues until particles are evenly spread through the liquid or gas  The concentration gradient is the path from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. then pour the solution into water  Any lipid will show up as milky emulsion  The more lipid there is. This is important in the plasma membrane Use the emulsion test for lipids  If you want to find out if there is fat in any particular food. use the emulsion test  Shake the test substances with ethanol for a minute.

the faster the rate of diffusion  The thickness of the exchange surface – the thinner the exchange surface. but large solute molecules can’t  Pure water by definition has highest possible water potential. the faster the rate of diffusion  The surface area – the larger the surface area the faster the rate of diffusion  Microvilli increase surface area for faster diffusion in epithelial cells of intestine.g. Can increase surface area by 600 times  More particles can therefore be exchanged in same time. as long as they can move freely through the membrane  E. Particles can diffuse across plasma membranes. increasing rate of diffusion Osmosis is diffusion of water molecules  Osmosis is diffusion of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane. oxygen and CO2 are small enough to pass through spaces between phospholipids The rate of diffusion depends on several factors  The concentration gradient – the higher it is. All solutions have a lower water potential than pure water . from an area of high water potential to an area of low water potential  Water potential is the potential (likelihood) of water molecules to diffuse out of or into a solution  A partially permeable membrane allows some molecules to pass through it but not all  Plasma membranes are partially permeable  Water molecules are small enough to pass through plasma membrane.

Different protein channels facilitate diffusion of different charged particles (also specific .g. a large molecule attaches to a carrier protein in the membrane  Then. amino acids and glucose. the protein changes shape  This releases the molecules through to the opposite site of the membrane Protein channels form pores in the membrane for charged particles to diffuse through (down their concentration gradient).Facilitated diffusion uses carrier proteins and protein channels  Some large molecules e. and charged molecules e.  Like diffusion. chloride ions can’t diffuse directly through the phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane  Instead they diffuse through carrier proteins or protein channels in the cell membrane – this is facilitated diffusion. facilitated diffusion moves particles down a concentration gradient  It’s also passive – doesn’t use energy Carrier proteins move large molecules into or out of the cell. down their concentration gradient. Different carrier proteins facilitate the diffusion of different molecules (they’re specific)  First.g.

and moves the molecules across membrane releasing it on other side.Active transport moves substances against a concentration gradient  Active transport uses energy to move molecules and ions across plasma membranes.  Only difference is energy is used (ATP) to move the solute against it’s concentration gradient These are proteins that carry single molecules. AGAINST a concentration gradient Carrier proteins are also involved in active transport  Process is pretty similar to facilitated diffusion  Molecule attaches to carrier protein. Co-Transporters are a type of carrier protein  They bind to two molecules at a time  The concentration gradient of one of the molecules is used to move the other molecule AGAINST its own concentration gradient. protein changes shape. The products of carbohydrate digestion are absorbed in different ways… .

to absorb carbohydrate digestion products across intestinal cells:  When carbohydrate is first digested.  This causes sodium ions to diffuse from lumen into cell.g.  This creates a concentration gradient (for sodium ions) between the lumen of the intestine and the epithelial cells along the edge – there’s now a higher concentration of sodium ions in the intestine lumen. For example. facilitated diffusion and active transport are all used in the process of absorbing the products of digested carbohydrates (e. diffusion stops (due to its passive nature)  Rest of glucose is absorbed by active transport  Sodium ions floating in the epithelial cells are transported out of the epithelial cells INTO THE BLOOD by the sodium-potassium pump. down that concentration gradient. facilitated diffusion.  They do this via sodium-glucose co-transporter proteins  The co-transporter carries glucose into the cell with sodium. Concentration of glucose in cell therefore increases. In this way. Cholera The Cholera bacterium is a prokaryotic organism . glucose).All these processes are essential in the body (diffusion. diffusion. there’s a higher concentration of glucose in small intestine than in blood – a concentration gradient  Glucose moves across epithelial cells of small intestine into blood by diffusion  When the concentration in the lumen of intestine becomes lower than concentration in the blood.  Glucose diffuses out of the cell into the blood down that concentration gradient through a protein channel by facilitated diffusion. active transport).

The DNA of a bacterium floats free in the cytoplasm. not all bacteria have one. hair-like structure that rotates to make the bacterium move. as well as what all the organelles inside are for The cell wall supports the cell. It’s made of a polymer called peptidoglycan. They contain genes for things like antibiotic resistance.g. Some bacteria have a capsule made up of secreted slime. the plasma membrane is mainly made of lipids and proteins. bacteria The structure of Prokaryotic cells is important to know. and can be passed between bacteria. The flagellum (plural flagella) is a long. Just like in a eukaryotic cell. But. It controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell. There are two types of organisms – Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic  Prokaryotic organisms are made of a prokaryotic cell (they’re singlecelled)  Eukaryotic organisms are made up of eukaryotic cells (are multicelled)  Eukaryotic cells are complex and include all animals and plants  Prokaryotic cells are smaller and simpler e. They’re not always present in bacteria. . present as one long coiled-up strand. Plasmids are small loops of DNA that aren’t part of the chromosome. It helps to protect the bacteria from attack by immune cells. It is circular DNA.

 Cholera bacteria produce a toxin when they infect the body. across the epithelial cells and into the small intestine lumen by osmosis (to even up the water concentration)  The massive increase in water secretion into the intestine lumen leads to really.  Sodium ions are included to increase glucose absorption (sodium and glucose are co-transported into the epithelium cells in the intestine). really bad diarrhoea  This causes the body to become extremely dehydrated Oral rehydration solutions are used to treat diarrhoeal diseases  People suffering from diarrhoeal diseases like cholera need to replace all the fluid that they’ve lost in the diarrhoea  The quickest way to do this is by inserting a drip into a person’s vein  Not everywhere in the world has access to a drip so an Oral Rehydration Solution is used instead Oral Rehydration Solution:  An oral rehydration solution is a drink that contains large amounts of salts (such as sodium ions and chloride ions) and sugars (such as glucose and sucrose) dissolved in water.Cholera bacteria produce a toxin that affects chloride ion exchange. This lowers the water potential of the lumen.  Chloride ions move into the small intestine lumen out of the epithelial cells. which causes havoc. really. .  The toxin causes chloride ion protein channels in the plasma membranes of the small intestine epithelial cells to open.  Water moves out of the blood.

so good for developing countries. and they don’t know which they’re on. better treatment was available AQA Biology Revision .  An ORS is cheap and doesn’t require training. Getting the concentration of ORS right is essential for effective treatment. however some think patient has right to know and decide on the treatment they’re going to have. New oral rehydration solutions can be tested on humans  Due to the importance of ORS. there’s no way of knowing if it’s better than the old one  Therefore.  Blind trial is usually used – some patients in hospital with diarrhoea are given new ORS. scientists have to prove it’s safe/better than old ORS  This is achieved by clinical testing on humans There are some ethical issues here:  Diseases mostly effect children. improved ORS is always carried out  However. The two can then be compared. research into developing new. The Parent makes the decision for the child (child doesn’t get a say in participating)  Scientists however believe trials must be in children if treatment is to be shown to be effective against a disease that mainly affects children. so trials involve children.  Scientists say blind trial is important to prevent bias that may skew data as a result of patients knowing what treatment they’re on  When new ORS is trialled. some given old. there is a risk of patients dying even though the original.

Here are five important points. cells that make proteins need lots of ribosomes Epithelial cells in the small intestine are adapted to absorb food efficiently. exchange surface cells have folds to increase surface area. The cells on the surface of the villi have microvilli to increase the surface area even more. Here are some tips.  Structure – How might the structure help it’s job e. You can use the fluid mosaic model to explain membrane properties In the exam there may be a question in which need to use knowledge of the fluid mosaic model to explain why the plasma membrane has various properties.Chapter 3: Cell Structure and Membranes How Science Works Notes Cells have different Organelles depending on their function In the exam. there might be a question requiring the application of knowledge on organelles in a cell to explain why it’s particularly suited to its function. They also have lots of mitochondria – to provide energy for the transport of digested food molecules into the cell.g.g. 2. . muscle cells need lots of mitochondria. The walls of the small intestine have lots of finger-like projections called villi to increase the surface area of the intestine. 1. 3. transport cells have lost some of its organelles to make more space  Organelles – How the organelles help it’s job e.

the hormone insulin binds to receptors in the membranes of liver cells – this tells the liver cells to absorb glucose. sodium ions etc) 2) The membrane controls what enters and leaves  Protein channels and carrier proteins in the membrane allow the passage of large/charged substances that wouldn’t normally be able to cross the membrane  Different cells have different channels/carriers.g.  e. the membrane of a nerve cell has many sodium-potassium carrier proteins (Which help to conduct nerve impulses)  muscle cells have calcium protein channels (which are needed for muscle contraction) 3) The membrane allows cells to communicate  Membranes have receptor proteins  These allow cells to detect chemicals released by other cells  The chemicals signal to the cells to respond in some way  e.g.1) The membrane is a good barrier against most water-soluble molecules  Phospholipids are the major component of the membrane’s bilayer  The hydrophobic tails of the phospholipids make it difficult for water-soluble molecules to get through the membrane (glucose.  This cell communication is vital for the body to function properly and in unison  Different cells have different receptors in their membranes 4) The membrane allows cell recognition  Some proteins and lipids have short carbohydrate chains attached to them .

those of bacteria) 5) The membrane is fluid  The phospholipids in the plasma membrane are constantly moving  The more unsaturated fatty acids in the phospholipid bilayer.  These molecules tell white blood cells the cell is your own.g.  White blood cells only attack cells that they don’t recognise as self (e. They’re called glycoproteins and glycolipids. the more fluid it becomes  Cholesterol fit in between phospholipids of the bilayer – making it less fluid  Cholesterol is important as it makes the cell membrane more rigid and stops it breaking up .