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Module (4)/week (9b) 

Group technology | Methods of form part families | Different code system - OPTIZ, MICLASS with examples | Production flow analysis 4.5 Group Technology Group technology is a manufacturing technique and philosophy to increase production efficiency by exploiting the “underlying sameness” of component shape, dimensions, process route, etc. Why Group Technology?  Average lot size decreasing  Part variety increasing  Increased variety of materials with diverse properties  Requirements for closer tolerances Benefits of Group Technology Reductions in  Throughput time  Set-up time  Overdue orders  Production floor space  Raw material stocks  In-process inventory  Capital expenditures  Tooling costs  Engineering time and costs  New parts design  New shop drawings  Total number of drawings  Easier to justify automation  Standardization in design  Data retrieval  Easier, more standardized process plans  Increases in quality

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Module (4)/week (9b)  Fig 4.10 : (a) Production system types Fig 4.10 : (b) Types of production and choice of process related to product quantity and volume 2    .

sequence . batch production. the method of holding the part. and number of operations. Usually. Fig 4. these attributes are based on geometric and/or production process characteristics. The identification of a family of parts that has similarities permits the economies of scale normally associated with mass production to be applied to small-lot. Geometric classification of families is normally based on size and shape.11: (b) Parts grouped by manufacturing processes 3    . Therefore.Module (4)/week (9b)  4. The type of operation is determined by such things as the method of processing.11: (a) Parts grouped by geometric shape Fig 4. the tooling.11 show families of parts grouped by geometric shape and by production process. For example. while production process classification is based on the type. successful grouping of related parts into families is a key to implementation of the group technology philosophy. and the conditions of processing. Fig 4.6 Methods for Developing Part Families Group technology is begun by grouping parts into families based on their attributes.

” A pack is a group of parts with identical process routings. the only practical way to accomplish this step is to code the data collected in step 1 onto computer cards.6. 4. The scope defines the population of parts to be analyses. It is merely a plot of the process code numbers for all the packs that have been determined. the part number and the machine routing (operation sequence) for every part. is collected. Second. However. Additional data. Since PFA uses manufacturing attributes rather than design attributes to identify and form part families. 4. (a) Data collection The first step in PFA procedure is to decide on the scope of the study and to collect the necessary data. it can overcome two possible anomalies. such as lot size. the disadvantages with this method of part family formation is that it accepts previously set routes sheets without consideration of its being logical or consistent.6. A sorting procedure would be used on the cards to arrange them into “Packs. yet it is the curtail step in the procedure. (b) Sorting of process routings This is the second steps were parts are arrange into groups according to their similarity of their process routings.1 Tacit judgment or visual inspection This is a simple and crude method of examining and grouping parts and machines through the bare eye according to the judgment of an inspector. For large number of parts in the study. Once the population is defined. parts whose geometries are similar may requires different process routings (Fig. (d) Analysis This is the most subjective and difficult step in PFA. The procedure in Production flow analysis can be organized into the following steps. (c) PFA chart The processes used for each pack are next displayed graphically on a PFA chart.2 Production Flow Analysis Production flow analysis (PFA) is a method for identifying part families based on the sequence of operation and machine routing needed to produce the part. parts whose basic geometries are quite different may have similar or identical process routings (Fig. 4. the minimum data needed in the analysis.6 Three techniques to form part families 4.Module (4)/week (9b)  4. Classification of parts into families is simply made by looking at their shapes and these shapes are usually design features. there is no mechanism for rationalizing the manufacturing routings. time standards. might be useful for designing machine cells of the desired production capacity.11a).11b). and annual production rate. These data can be obtained from the route sheets. The difficulty comes from the amount of information that must be processed accurately to 4    . First.

12 (a): Component – machine chart Fig 4. Fig 4.12 (b): example of production flow analysis.Module (4)/week (9b)  facilitate the formation of manufacturing cells that are dedicated to specific-part family production. 5    .

Module (4)/week (9b)      Fig 4. (Source: http://www.com/gt-production_flow_analysis.13: Example of production flow analysis.strategosinc.htm) 6    .

V1 D1 -M1 M 2 .5 7 . M .D1 Times (min) 9 .V 2 . 104. V . Vbore } 1 2 1 2 1 2 =  {D .M 1 . Dem. 101 102 103 104 105 Routing D1 -M1 .10 .11 . M  Rank order clustering Step 1: Calculate the total column width for each column 7    . Mill . Mill . Vbore . V } 1 2 1 2 1 2 Operation Routing Summary Part No.12 Ave.D2 V1 .12 . M . 100 250 700 100 200  Create a PFA matrix. 105} m = {Drill . D . Drill .12 .14 7-9 8 . 102.V1 D2 -M2.14 5 .Module (4)/week (9b)  Example : Let’s consider 5 parts (n) and 6 machines (m) n = {101. 103.

go to step 3. Otherwise.Module (4)/week (9b)  Step 2: If W is in ascending order. Step 3: calculate the total row weight. w i Step 4: If w is in ascending order. otherwise. i i 8    . rearrange the columns to make W fall j j in an ascending order. stop. arrange rows to make W ascend.

M1.11 .12 Ave.Module (4)/week (9b)  Step 5: Stop and make Cells and Part families Cell 1: {D1.10 .12 . D2. V1}. 105} Cell 2: {V2. M2}.14 7-9 8 .V 2 .V1 D1 -M1 M 2 . {102.V1 D2 -M2. Dem.D1 Times (min) 9 .12 . 100 250 700 100 200 103  101  103  101  D1  M1 V1  102  105  105  104  102  D2  M2 V2  104  9    . {103.D2 V1 .14 5 . 101. 101 102 103 104 105 Routing D1 -M1 .M 1 .5 7 . 104} Part No.

(c) Mixed Code Most of the commercial parts coding system in industries are a combination of the two pure structure (i. 10    . On the other hand. Within each of these shorter chains. Hybrid codes are typically constructed as a series of short poly codes. according to a set of rules or principles. poly codes and mono codes).12(b). The hybrid is an attempt to achieve the best feature of both polycodes and monocodes. The objectives are to group together similar parts and to differentiate among dissimilar parts. but one or more of symbols in the complete code number are used to classify the part population into groups. and the next digit will define a feature related to the feature defined in the second digit and so on. the third digit describe there is internal hole. Thus. the fourth digit describe the type of hole and so on. A typical attribute code is illustrated in the table below. A typical hierarchical code structure is shown in Fig 4. the first digit may always describe external shape of the part. As we can see from the table. These symbols should have meanings that reflect the attributes of the part. Thus. the value of any given digits (or position) within the code does not depend on the preceding digits. Another name of this type of symbol is polycode. the digits are independent. each digit and each value in the specific digit has a specific meaning. such as steel. all of them can be grouped into three basic types: (a) Monocode (or hierarchical structure) In this type of code structure. This hybrid coding seems to best serve the need of both design and production. the second digits will define a feature related to steel (like carbon constraint). This can be helpful in recognizing parts with similar processing requirements. sometimes called families. for example. Thus if the first digits define the type of material used.12(a) the polycode is “22213”. the second digit describe internal shape. each code number is qualified by the preceding digits (characters). Herein.e.Module (4)/week (9b)  4. A large number of classification and coding systems have been developed for group technology applications. For the example shown in Fig 4. the use of polycode allows for convenient identification of specific part attribute. The problem associated with polycode is that the code tends to be relatively long. thereby facilitating analysis (information processing). Coding of a part is the process of assigning symbols to the part. as in the hierarchical structure. grouping and classifying parts into family is made by examining and analyzing the design and/or manufacturing attributes of each parts.6. (b) Attribute or Polycode or Chain-type Structure In this type of structure. the interpretation of each symbol in the sequence is fixed and represents one feature.3 Classification and Coding Classification of parts is the process of categorizing parts into groups.

12(a) 11    .14: (a) A spur gear Fig 4.14: (b) hierarchical code for spur gear shown in Fig 4.Module (4)/week (9b)  Fig 4.

14: (d) Hybrid code structure 12    .14: (c) Attribute code example Fig 4.Module (4)/week (9b)    Fig 4.

htm) 13    .strategosinc.15: Example of casting coding and classification (Source: http://www.Module (4)/week (9b)  Fig 4.com/gt-coding_classification.

A.Module (4)/week (9b)  4. and Accuracy of the work part. are used by the specific organization to include those characters that are specific to the organization. The first five digits are called the form code and indicate the design or the general appearance of the part and hence assist in design retrieval.75. C. The coding system uses the following digital sequence: 123456789ABCD The basic code consists of nine digits that can be extended by additional four digits. These last four digits are also called supplementary code.16: OPITZ code structure Example 1: For the part design in Fig 4.7 Opitz coding and classification system This classification and coding system was developed by H. Opitz in 1970 at Aachen Technology University in West Germany. The extra four digits. Later. Fig 4. overall diameter 1.4 (code 1) Digit 2: External shape . 4 more digits were added to the coding scheme. Material. called the secondary code. and D. in order to increase the manufacturing information of the specific work part.25.a rotational part that is stepped on both with one thread (code 5) 14    .17(a) define the "form code" using the Opitz system Digit 1: The total length of the part is 1.16. L/D = 1. B. The general interpretations of the nine digits are as indicated in Fig 4. and respectively represent: Dimensions. All four are integers. Original shape of raw stock.

Module (4)/week (9b)  Digit 3: Internal shape .a through hole (code 1) Digit 4: By examining the drawing of the part (code 0) Digit 5: No auxiliary holes and gear teeth (code 0) Code: 15100 Fig 4. 0.) Code: 111052302 15    .17: (a) Example of OPITZ code for a rotational component Example 2: For the part design in Fig 4.17: (b) Example of OPITZ code for a mild steel forged round rod Digit 1: Digit 2: Digit 3: Digit 4: Digit 5: Digit 6: Digit 7: Digit 8: Digit 9: 1 (Rotational parts.) 1 (External shape element.5<L/D<3.) 1 (Internal Shape element.) 3 (material is mild steel.17(b) define the "form code" using the Opitz system Fig 4.) 2 (Accuracy in coding digit. smooth or stepped to one end.) 5 (Auxiliary holes. stepped to one end. < diameter <=100 mm. radial.) 0 (No surface machining.) 2 (50 mm.) 0 (Internal form: Round bar.

MICLASS is also be made by using design and manufacturing attributes of the work part. standardize process routing. Those supplemental digits provide a flexibility to accommodate broad applications. This will includes. Such as lot size. The total number of digits used in MICLASS classification system may vary from 12 to 30 digits. cost data.9 Types of layout Maine Shape Shape Element Position of Shape element Main Dimension Dimension Ratio Auxiliary Dimension Tolerance Code Material Code Fig 4. The first twelve digits are a universal nature and can be applied to any work part.18: (a) Product layout. manufacturing and management function. The system was developed in such a way that to standardize a number of different design. and was developed by the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) of Holland in 1969. The other 18 digits which is called supplemental codes can be used for data that are specific to the particular company. automate process planning.7 MICLASS System The name MICLASS stands for Metal Institute Classification System. 16    . standardization of engineering drawings. The design attributes used in the first twelve digits of MICLASS classification are as follows: 1st digit 2nd and 3rd digit 4th digit 5th and 6th digit 7th digit 8th digit 9th and 10th digit 11th and 12th digit 4. The digits can be divided into two.Module (4)/week (9b)  4. and operation sequence. Like Opitz classification system. easy of retrieval drawings based on their classification code. selection of parts for processing on a particular machine groups and machine tool investment analysis.

Module (4)/week (9b)  Fig 4. Fig 4.18: (c) GT cell 17    .18: (b) Functional layout.

18: (d) GT flow line (Note: L: Lath.Module (4)/week (9b)  Fig 4. G: Grinding Machine. and D: Drilling Machine) 18    . M: Milling Machine.