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Structure and Tectonics of the Peruvian Andes

Regional Geological Data and Implications for Exploration

Russell Mason


• Geological data captured from 1:100000 maps. • Polygons labeled according to age and basic rock type


• Mineral deposit data - location, type • Geochronology data - location, age, rock type • Remote sensing - Landsat

Interpretation of Structures from Data

Assumptions: • that linear shaped margins or contacts of tectonostratigraphic units are fault controlled • Structures that influence the shapes and locations of tectono-stratigraphic units are likely to be important structures (as a subset of lineaments)

.Interpretation of Structures from Data Aim: To identify structures that have important geological significance and tectonic context.

Interpretation of Structures from Data Lineament analysis (Butler 2007) .approx 20 000 objects .

Interpretation of Structures from Data: Examples Fault controlled basins influence areal distribution of sediments and volcanics Major basin boundary faults can be very large structures Segmented basins indicate transfer structures .

Interpretation of Structures from Data: Examples Basement uplift along regionally significant structures Inverted basin margin faults Figure from Vaughan Stagpoole. Andy Nicol. Richard Cook GNS website (New Zealand) . Rob Funnell.

Interpretation of Structures from Data: Examples Horst boundary faults at margins of basement uplifts Figure from CCOP EPF website .

• It is anticipated that such structures may have been extensional during basin formation but have been reactivated during contractional deformation. • This interpretation is specifically concerned with those structures that affect the tectono-stratigraphy – it is assumed that these will be large and potentially long-lived structures and whose definition using other datasets may not be obvious. long-lived structures have the potential to localise magma and associated mineralising fluids and therefore influence the location of mineral deposits .Interpretation of Structures from Data: Summary • The shape and distribution of many tectono-stratigraphic units indicates that their contacts are controlled by faults. • It is also postulated that large.

Pre-Cambrian Distribution of Precambrian outcrops in Peru and their likely extent under shallow cover. .Tectonics Peru .

.Pre-Cambrian Structures interpreted from the shapes of Precambrian basement.Tectonics Peru .

Pre-Cambrian • Coastal block separate to main areas of preCambrian outcrops • Differing Paleozoic stratigraphy on the coastal PreCambrian basement to that of the main PreCambrian basement suggests different Paleozoic histories • Main Pre-Cambrian (Maranon Rise) form(ed) a contiguous part of the Amazonian craton while coastal block (Arequipa Block) was accreted to the margin pre-Mesozoic .Tectonics Peru .

Paleozoic Paleozoic and Pre-Cambrian rocks with structures interpreted from the distribution of Paleozoic rocks.Tectonics Peru . Paleozoic rocks are partly contiguous with Pre-Cambrian rocks. .

• Volcanics at base of Ordovician may reflect the presence of an outboard arc at this time perhaps associated with the accretion of the Arequipa Block.Paleozoic • End Paleozoic commonly marked by hiatus • Paleozoic essentially passive margin to Amazonian craton or back arc to subduction zones that accreted terranes through the Paleozoic.Tectonics Peru . • Proto-Andean margin essentially in place at end Paleozoic .

Tectonics Peru .Mesozoic • Development of Marianas-type subduction zone with back arc extension • Significant development of back-arc rifts and basins .

Mesozoic Jurassic •Shelf carbonates central and west •Volcanics in north and south but absent in central part •Late Jurassic continental sediments due to uplift of shallow marine shelf Structure •Shallow marine basins (shelf env) controlled by back-arc extensional faults •Volcanics location .Tectonics Peru .shape of arc? •Late Jurassic inversion (Vicusian Orogeny) ?increased convergence rate? •Inversion caused erosion of carbonates to form continental deposits Late Jurassic continental sediments Mid Jurassic marine sediments Triassic–early Jurassic marine sediments Early Jurassic volcanics Interpreted faults .

Mesozoic Cretaceous • Cretaceous sedimentation coincident with earlier Jurassic sedimentation • East of Maranon high continued continental sedimentation to early Cretaceous Cretaceous rocks in shades of green Maranon high Jurassic to Cretaceous back-arc sea .Tectonics Peru .

.Mesozoic Mid-Cretaceous •Deposition of >6km Cretaceous volcanics in the Huarmey-Canete trough.Tectonics Peru . •Otherwise Creatceous sedimentation dominated by shallow marine conditions. a back-arc rift.

Cenozoic • Cenozoic characterized by current day continental Andean-type margin as distinct from the Mesozoic Marianas-type subduction zone • Arc and back-arc in compression • Cordillera becomes emergent .Tectonics Peru .

Cenozoic Tertiary Volcanics •Single elongate arc •Significantly wider in the vicinity of and south of the Abancay Deflection •Due to migration of flat slab geometry during Tertiary (James and Sacks. .Tectonics Peru . 1999).

Tectonics Peru .Cenozoic Tertiary Volcanics •Faults interpreted have an approximate conjugate arrangement •High level brittle structures developed .

Structure .Fold Belts Interpreted fold axes from map data •Two main fold belts: Incaic and sub-Andean .

Fold Belts Interpreted fold axes from map data •Faults interpreted from fold axis segmentation •post-folding offset of fold axes •Syn-folding strain accommodation structures •Pre-folding basement structure influenced fold development. .Structure .

Abancay Deflection Paleozoic rocks and interpreted fold axes in the vicinity of the Abancay deflection .Structure .

Abancay Deflection Interpreted extent of Pre-Cambrian basement •Pre-Cambrian basement structure (ie. Re-entrant) may be responsible for the deflection •Nazca ridge influence? •Flat slab geometry to north .Structure .

•Fault bounded .Structure .Intermontane Basins Tertiary continental sediments highlight a zone of intermontane basins.

Intermontane Basins Present day development of small intermontane graben .Structure .

Intermontane Basins Intermontane basin observed in Landsat image .Structure .

.Forearc Basins Fore-arc basin developed during Tertiary are onshore with continental sedimentation in the south.Structure .

Structure .Forearc Basins Fore-arc basins also developed offshore during the Tertiary in northern Peru (?turbidite filled) .

.Landsat interpreted structure Despite the common assertion that Landsat interpreted features (linear and circular) are associated with mineral deposits .difficult to observe here.

2007) from aster data •Structures smaller scale than those interpreted in this study. .Aster data Structures interpreted (by Mayor.

Structure from intrusive rocks The Coastal Batholith – Intruded mainly during Cretaceous – Geochron 100Ma .55Ma (some workers to 30Ma) – Geochron suggests younging to the north – Represents zone of focussed crustal extension during emplacement .

Structure from intrusive rocks Paleozoic intrusives – Interpreted faults .

Structure from intrusive rocks Tertiary intrusives – Interpreted faults .

Definition of major structures All interpreted structured colour coded for age from which tectono-stratigraphic unit they were interpreted – Highlights zones of longlived structural activity (overlapping structures) Tertiary intermontane and fore-arc basins faults Tertiary volcanics faults Cretaceous faults Jurassic faults Triassic – Jurassic marine sediments faults Paleozoic intrusives faults Paleozoic faults Precambrian faults .

Definition of major structures Major faults defined where several interpreted faults overlap .

Definition of major structures Major faults defined where several interpreted faults overlap – Major faults from Mesozoic and Tertiary only units .

Occur in zones that are sublinear and are on or near. without regard to their type or age. or . . interpreted major structures. but similarly oriented to. and .Generally do not occur where there are no major structures.Forming in zones of different frequency that are bounded by interpreted major structures.Mineral deposits and major structures Mineral deposits. have a distribution that can be described as: .

Mineral deposits and major structures Porphyry and related deposits – Occur in Tertiary volcanic arc – Difficult to relate deposits to individual major structures .

Mineral deposits and major structures Porphyry and related deposits – Show better spatial relationship to Tertiary aged structures .

Southwestern Resources (MISOSA) projects Tintaya and Antay faults .

Southwestern Resources (MISOSA) projects Huachocoi and Azulcocha faults Sami. Sumaq. Marcia Claims Josnitoro Claims .

Southwestern Resources (MISOSA) projects Minaspata and Antay faults may form major underlying structure through the Liam JV area .

Southwestern Resources (MISOSA) projects Canta claims adjacent to Santander major fault .

the Sami. groups of claims on or near the Tintaya Fault. .Because major faults interpreted here are considered prospective for mineralisation they should be considered as part of exploration area selection criteria. . . . . .Conclusions The conclusions of this study can be summarised as follows: . .Major structures are those where data indicates they have been active over extended periods of geological time.Regional structures can be related to the tectonic evolution of the Peruvian Andes. . Sumaq and Marcia areas and the Josnitoro areas. Major structures may exist in the area and fieldwork may help quantify the relationship between locally developed and regional structures.The Antay area comprises several major faults and their intersections and is considered highly prospective for porphyry and porphyry-related deposits. Kim.Many major structures are spatially related to mineral deposits and should be considered prospective unless determined otherwise.The Liam JV area is notable for its lack of major structures although this is thought to be due to thick successions of Tertiary volcanics that obscure earlier-formed structures.Structures can be interpreted from regional geological data. These include Condorama.Several other Minera del Suroeste SAC project areas are considered prospective from a structural point of view.