From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search
Front view of Chora Church
Rear view of Chora Church The Church of the Holy Saviour in Chora (Turkish Kariye Müzesi, Kariye Camii, or Kariye Kilisesi — the Chora Museum, Mosque or Church) is considered to be one of the most beautiful surviving examples of a Byzantine church. The church is situated in Istanbul, in the Edirnekapı neighborhood, which lies in the western part of the municipality (belediye) of Fatih. In the 16th century, during the Ottoman era, the church was converted into a mosque and, finally, it became a museum in 1948. The interior of the building is covered with fine mosaics and frescoes.
1 History 2 Interior o 2.1 Narthex 2.1.1 Exonarthex 2.1.2 Esonarthex o 2.2 Naos o 2.3 Parecclesion
. to the south of the Golden Horn.• • • • •
3 Notes 4 See also 5 References 6 Literature 7 External links
Sketch map of the church interior
Sketch map of the interior plan of the Chora Church The Chora Church was originally built as part of a monastery complex outside the walls of Constantinople. Literally translated.
However. hē Ekklēsia tou Hagiou Sōtēros en tēi Chōrai). Chora. From that time on. Alexius's third son. the church became incorporated within the city's defences. as the mosaics in the narthex describe Christ as the Land of the Living (ἡ Χώρα των ζώντων. considered the protector of the City. was brought to Chora in order to assist the defenders against the assault of the Ottomans. The original church on this site was built in the early 5th century. hē Chōra tou Achōrētou). The last part of that name. In 1328. This and frequent earthquakes in the region have taken their toll on the artwork. In 1958. Due to the prohibition against iconic images in Islam. Theodore was sent into exile by the usurper Andronicus III Palaeologus. Atık Ali Paşa. the mother-in-law of Alexius I Comnenus. the mosaics and frescoes were covered behind a layer of plaster. Underwood. and stood outside of the 4th century walls of Constantine the Great. the Grand Vizier of Sultan Bayezid II. However. it was opened to the public as a museum — Kariye Müzesi. sponsored a programme of restoration. Early in the 12th century. (Greek ἡ Ἐκκλησία του Ἅγιου Σωτῆρος ἐν τῃ Χώρᾳ. hē Chōra tōn zōntōn) and Mary. The church was rebuilt by Isaac Comnenus. two centuries after. The mosaic-work is the finest example of the Palaeologian Renaissance. that the church as it stands today was completed. Theodore's impressive decoration of the interior was carried out between 1315 and 1321. from the Byzantine Institute of America and the Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies. Thomas Whittemore and Paul A. the Mother of Jesus. but retained the name Chora. became the shortened name of the church. he was allowed to return to the city two years later.
. During the last siege of Constantinople in 1453. Around fifty years after the fall of the city to the Ottomans. However. The artists remain unknown. the building ceased to be a functioning mosque. when Theodosius II built his formidable land walls in 413–414. referring to its location originally outside of the walls. The majority of the fabric of the current building dates from 1077–1081. perhaps due to an earthquake. and lived out the last two years of his life as a monk in his Chora Church.church's full name was the Church of the Holy Saviour in the Country: although "The Church of the Holy Redeemer in the Fields" would be a more natural rendering of the name in English. ordered the Chora Church to be converted into a mosque — Kariye Camii. as the Container of the Uncontainable (ἡ Χώρα του Ἀχώρητου. it was only after the third phase of building. the Icon of the Theotokos Hodegetria. The powerful Byzantine statesman Theodore Metochites endowed the church with much of its fine mosaics and frescos. the church suffered a partial collapse. The name must have carried symbolic meaning. In 1948. when Maria Dukaina. rebuilt the Chora Church as an inscribed cross or quincunx: a popular architectural style of the time.
but what it lacks in size. Exonarthex
Mosaic of the journey to Bethlehem
Mosaic of the enrollment for taxation before Governor Quirinius
. and the side chapel or parecclesion. The building divides into three main areas: the entrance hall or narthex. The Chora Church is not as large as some of the other Byzantine churches of Istanbul (it covers 742. painted dome of the parecclesion of Chora Church. the main body of the church or naos. west door of the Chora Church opens into the narthex.The Virgin and child.5 m²).
The main. It divides northsouth into the exonarthex and esonarthex. The building has six domes: two in the esonarthex. it makes up for in the beauty of its interior. one in the parecclesion and three in the naos.
John the Baptist bearing witness to Christ. 15. It is a transverse corridor. 9. Joseph's dream and journey to Bethlehem. 12. 16. The mosaics that decorate the exonarthex include: 1. mother of John the Baptist. Jesus Christ. 5. Enrollment for taxation.
. Nativity. Two frescoes of the massacres ordered by King Herod. 11. Flight into Egypt. Virgin and Angels praying. Inquiry of King Herod. Christ taken to Jerusalem for the Passover. Journey of the Magi. Joseph dreaming. The southern end of the exonarthex opens out through the esonarthex forming a western ante-chamber to the parecclesion. Mothers mourning for their children. 7. Flight of Elizabeth. which is partially open on its eastern length into the parallel esonarthex. return of the holy family from Egypt to Nazareth. Three more Miracles. 10. Miracle. 8. 2. birth of Christ. 14. 3. 6. 4 m wide and 23 m long.The exonarthex (or outer narthex) is the first part of the church that one enters. 4. Esonarthex
Mosaic of enthroned Christ with Theodore Metochites presenting a model of his church
The mosaic in the lunette over the doorway to the esonarthex portrays Christ as “The Land of the Living”. 13.
Its central. The esonarthex has two domes. eastern door opens into the naos. whilst another door. north dome of inner narthex
Close-up of the Virgin Mother with child. at the southern end of the esonarthex opens into the rectangular ante-chamber of the parecclesion. Like the exonarthex. 1. The smaller is above the entrance to the northern corridor. a door from the esonarthex leads into a broad west-east corridor that runs along the northern side of the naos and into the prothesis. but it is slightly shorter. At its northern end. Enthroned Christ with Theodore Metochites presenting a model of his church. 18 m long. the esonarthex is 4 m wide. 2.Mosaic of the Virgin Mother with child. Saint Peter. south dome of inner narthex The esonarthex (or inner narthex) is similar to the exonarthex.
. dome of the parecclesion
Mosaic of Christ Pantocrator. running parallel to it. the larger is midway between the entrances into the naos and the pareclession.
Joseph had to leave for six months on business and when he returned the Virgin was pregnant and he is suspicious of that. Christ and the Virgin Mary (without John the Baptist) with two donors below. 3. Joseph taking the Virgin to his house. The Virgin blessed by the priests. 10. 12. The Virgin receiving bread from an Angel. 7. Religious and noble ancestors of Christ. Zechariah praying. 15. 2. 14. and her parents. Joseph leaving the Virgin. 6. 2. The Virgin entrusted to Joseph. Annunciation of Saint Anne. Annunciation to the Virgin at the well. when it was the time to marry for the Virgin. 11. 13.
. The Virgin given affection by her parents. 4. Meeting of Joachim and Anne. Some of them are as follows: 1. Saint Paul. 8. Rejection of Joachim's offerings. 4.Saint Peter mosaic 1. The Virgin receiving the skein of purple wool. 5. Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple. First seven steps of the Virgin. as the priests decided to have the attendant maidens weave a veil for the Temple. praying for a sign showing to whom she should be given. High Priest Zechariah called all the widowers together and placed their rods on the altar. the angel of the Lord announcing to Anne that her prayer for a child has been heard. Deesis. 3. The mosaics in the first three bays of the inner narthex give an account of the Life of the Virgin. Birth of the Virgin Mary. 9. Genealogy of Christ.
Jesus Christ. Before ascending to Heaven. Koimesis. which is linked by short passage to the bema. The largest dome in the church (7. which is reached via the parecclesion.Mosaic of the Koimesis in the Naos The central doors of the esonarthex lead into the main body of the church. symbol of Mary's soul. 2. the Virgin Mary with child. Theodokos.
View into the parekklesion
. 3. Jesus is holding an infant. Two smaller domes flank the modest apse: the northern dome is over the prothesis. the Dormition of the Virgin. 1. the southern dome is over the diaconicon.7 m diameter) is above the centre of the naos. her last sleep. the naos.
3. or parecclesion. and Solomon. Two panels of Moses. 4.The Anastasis fresco in the parekklesion of the Chora Church. ^ Ousterhout ^ and therefore sometimes incorrectly referred to as "Saint Saviour" ^ Van Millingen
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Chora Church
• • •
Icon of the Hodegetria Monastery of the Panaghia Hodegetria Church of the Virgin Pammakaristos
Van Millingen. London: MacMillan & Co. 2. Jesus is enthroned and on both sides the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist (this trio is also called the Deesis). 3. is standing in the middle and pulling Adam and Eve out of their tombs. and off this passage can be found a small oratory and a storeroom.5 m diameter) in the church graces the centre of the roof of the parecclesion. David. Christ. who had just broken down the gates of hell. The parecclesion was used as a mortuary chapel for family burials and memorials. Byzantine Churches of Constantinople. To the right of the esonarthex.
. 2. the last judgment. Others are righteous kings. Alexander (1912). Anastasis. Behind Adam stand John the Baptist. Heavenly Court of Angels. The second largest dome (4. A small passageway links the parecclesion directly into the naos. the Resurrection. The parecclesion is covered in frescoes: 1. doors open into the side chapel. Second coming of Christ. Virgin and Child.
Constantinople: Capital of Byzantium. ASIN B000WMDL7U Paul A. Harvard University Press (1958). The Sacred Image East and West. Restoring Byzantium: The Kariye Camii in Istanbul and the Byzantine Institute Restoration. (1997). Kariye: The Chora Church. Kariye (Chora). ISBN 978-088402-165-0 Saint Saviour in Chora. ASIN B000RBATF8
Media related to Chora Church at Wikimedia Commons
• • • • • • •
Columbia University | Restoring Byzantium | The Kariye Camii in Istanbul and the Byzantine Institute Restoration Byzantium 1200 | Chora Monastery Interior and exterior pictures in http://rubens. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. The historical monument of Kariye. Step by Step. Underwood. London-Istanbul: Scala. ISBN 1-884919-15-4 Robert Ousterhout (Editor).anu. Wallach Art Gallery (2004). Miriam & IRA D. University of Illinois Press (1994). Kariye Mosque.edu. Turkey Travel Planner by Tom Brosnahan. ASIN B000FK8854 Cevdet Turkay. Net Turistik Yayinlar A. ISBN 975-6899-76-X. Istanbul.
• • • • • •
• • • •
Chora: The Kariye Museum. The Architecture of the Kariye Camii in Istanbul. (1964). Ousterhout. ASIN B0007JHABQ Semavi Eyice. Bollingen (1966). ISBN 978-975-479-444-1 Çelik Gülersoy. Hambledon/Continuum (2007). ISBN 978-0-252-02096-4 Robert G.S. (1988). Net Turistik Yayinlar (1987). Kariye Mosque Church of Chora Monastery. Türkiye Turing ve Otomobil Kurumu (1966). BYZANTINE MOSAICS OF CHORA MONASTERY Chora Museum Website 41°01′52″N 28°56′21″E
. ASIN B000IBCESM Edda Renker Weissenbacher. Underwood. A Turizim Yayinlari Ltd. The Art of the Kariye Camii. ASIN B000RMMHZ2 Jonathan Harris. (1988). ISBN 978-975479-045-0 Feridun Dirimtekin. The Kariye Djami in 3 Volumes. Third Preliminary Report on the Restoration of the Frescoes in the Kariye Camii at Istanbul.au Photos with explanations visit info Kariye (Chora) Museum. ISBN 978-1-84725-179-4 Krannert Art Museum. Robert (2002). Leslie Brubaker (Editor).•
Ousterhout. ASIN B000IUWV2C Paul A.
[show] • v • t • e
Churches and Monasteries of Constantinople
[show] • v • t • e
Church-Mosques (Kilise-Camiler) in Istanbul
[show] • v • t • e
Byzantine Empire topics
[show] • v • t • e
Museums in Turkey
Categories: • Churches and monasteries of Constantinople • Mosques converted from churches in Istanbul • 1080s architecture • Churches in Istanbul • Museums in Istanbul • Byzantine sacred architecture • Byzantine art • Constantinople • Fatih • Religious museums in Turkey • Byzantine museums in Turkey
• • • •
Create account Log in Article Talk
• • •
Read Edit View history
• • • • • •
Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia
• • • • •
Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia
Toolbox Print/export Languages
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
العربية Български Català Deutsch Ελληνικά Español Euskara Français Hrvatski Italiano Македонски മലയാളം Nederlands 日本語 Norsk bokmål پنجابی Polski Português Русский Српски / srpski Türkçe
additional terms may apply.• • • •
• • • • •
. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. By using this site.