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Grammar Reference–Level 1

Unit 1
be—statements Affirmative
I am (I’m) You are (You’re) He/She/It is (He’s/She’s/It’s) We are (We’re) They are (They’re) from New York.

Negative
I am not (I’m not) You are not (You aren’t/You’re not) He is not (He isn’t/He’s not) We are not (We aren’t/We’re not) They are not (They aren’t/They’re not) from Tokyo.

be—yes/no questions and information questions Yes/No questions
Am I Are you Is he/she/it Are we Are they from Kyoto? Where

Information questions (What, Where, When, How old)
am I are you is he/she/it are we are they from?

Unit 2
Articles a/an Plural nouns
We use a before singular nouns, e.g., a singer. We use an before singular nouns that begin with a vowel, e.g., an artist. Before plural nouns, we don’t use a or an, e.g., doctors.

Possessive nouns—’s and s’ To make a possessive noun…
…add ’s to singular nouns, e.g., Brittany’s …add s’ to plural nouns, e.g., sisters’ Note: Richard’s a car mechanic. = Richard is a car mechanic. Richard’s car is here. = possessive noun (the car belongs to Richard.)

Unit 3
Simple present—statements and yes/no questions
We use the simple present to describe things that are generally true or permanent situations.

Affirmative/Negative
I/You/We/They He/She/It like / don’t like buys / doesn’t buy

Yes/No questions
Do I/you/we/they music. Does he/she/it like music? Yes, No, Yes, No,

Short answers
I/you/we/they he/she/it do. don’t. does. doesn’t.

Spelling: Change y to i for verbs ending in consonant + y, e.g., He/She studies.

Simple present—information questions Question word
What/Where/ When/Why/Who

Auxiliary
do does

Subject
I/you/we/they he/she/it

Verb
watch/do/etc. …?
D.R. © Macmillan Publishers, S.A. de C.V. 2010

R. take—taking. I always play well after I do that. To talk about the duration of events until I stay in the dressing room until the other players leave./ No.. double the final consonant. several. plan—planning. Yes.. really. Where is working? Are you/we/they are Spelling: When the verb ends in e. D. after To talk about the order of events before after I always touch the grass before I start to play. drop the e before adding –ing.g. I’m not.A. 2010 . I always play well./ No. he isn’t. e. There are several/some/many/a lot of festivals in my city. Clauses with until. before..g.. We use until to talk about an event that continues up to another event or a specific time. know. e. Diana is rarely late. need). any. Are there many/any/a lot of festivals in your city? Negative You should not/shouldn’t visit on Mondays. S. I always play well. You probably shouldn’t go to the zoo.g. de C. e. Information questions am I he she it you we they Is he/she/it working? Yes. When the verb ends in consonant-vowel-consonant. We use before with the second event. e. Note: Don’t use to after should. © Macmillan Publishers.. 2 We form the present progressive with be + verb –ing 3 We don’t use the present progressive with some verbs. or after comes first./ No.g. like.Grammar Reference–Level 1 Unit 4 Frequency adverbs 0%    100% never   rarely   sometimes   often   usually   always Note: Frequency adverbs come before the verb be. They come after other verbs. Unit 6 Present progressive 1 We use the present progressive with situations or events that are happening now or around now. they aren’t.g. many Affirmative Negative Questions should Affirmative You should go to Harrods. Yes/No questions Am I Short answers Yes.g... and probably) usually come after the modal verb should and before shouldn’t in statements: e.V.g. Affirmative/Negative I He/ She/It You/We/ They am/ am not is/ is not are/ are not working. Don’t use do with negatives or questions. e. (e. You should probably visit the museum. We often go to the movies. We use after with the first event. I am. want. There is a cool festival in my city. Information questions What should I see in London? Adverbs of certainty (definitely. There aren’t many/any/a lot of festivals in my city. After I do that. before. After I do that. Punctuation: Use a comma if the clause with until. he is. a lot. Unit 5 there is/there are with some. they are.

g. S. For adjectives that end consonant-vowel-consonant. Add –er. Affirmative/Negative I/You/ He/She/It/ We/They can can’t (cannot) swim.. would have.Grammar Reference–Level 1 Unit 7 can/can’t—ability We use can to talk about ability.. less popular. these. can’t. interesting—more interesting. D.V. would want. e. would need. Use a/an before singular count nouns. 2  For adjectives that end in -y. e. Short answers I/you/ he/she/it/ we/they can.g. small—smaller. Questions and negatives do not use the auxiliary do. fast—fast. slow—slowly. use Let’s + base form. double the final consonant and add -er. de C.g. would love. I don’t want a banana. I want a banana. e.R. Formation of adverbs: 1  We usually form the adverb by adding -ly to the adjective. Do you want some/ orange—oranges Do you want a banana? any bananas? Count nouns have singular and plural forms. beef Do you want some/ rice any rice? Noncount nouns do not have a plural form. chip—chips I don’t want any bananas. good—better Unit 9 Count and noncount nouns Count nouns Singular Plural Examples Noncount nouns Examples I want some rice. bread I don’t want any rice.g. 3  There are some irregular adverbs. Yes/No questions Can I/you/ he/she/it/ we/they Yes. e. (cannot) can/can’t with adverbs of manner 1  Adverbs of manner describe an action. fat—fatter.. e. funny—funnier. 2010 . bad—worse. old—older. 2  Adverbs usually come after the verb.A. less hot. Unit 8 this. less cold. Do not use a/an before noncount nouns... happy—happier.g. Affirmative Negative Questions I want some bananas. She can sing beautifully.g. e. e. e. that. swim? No.. funny—funnily. we change the -y to -i and add –ly.g. Infinitive phrases Statements for expressing desire I would like/I’d like to … I would love/I’d love to … Questions for inviting Would you like to …? Do you want to …? I want to … Note: Use the infinitive (to + base form) after would like. Use more or less.. popular—more popular. those Singular nouns this that Plural nouns these those Use to talk about things that are close to the person who is speaking to talk about things that are not very close to the person who is speaking Comparative adjectives One syllable adjectives Two syllable adjectives ending in –y Adjectives with two or more syllables Irregular adjectives We use less with all adjectives. © Macmillan Publishers. thin—thinner. good—well. To make a suggestion. quick—quickly. She can’t dance well. e.g. e..g.. Change the y to i and add –er..g.

Did you like Brennan’s? Yes. it wasn’t.) Object pronouns Subject pronouns Object pronouns I me you you he him she her it it we us you you they them Unit 12 Present progressive as future We use the present progressive to talk about definite plans. S. he is. What are you going to do tonight? We’re going to play cards. I did. Verbs ending in –e: add –d (prepare—prepared).) Main clause Steve learned to work with crocodiles when clause when he was older. going to We use going to for future plans. it was. (Don’t use a comma. when clause When Steve was older.V. What did you do on the weekend? Where did you go? Negative statements Yes/No questions Short answers Information questions The food wasn’t very good.A. Negative I’m not going anywhere./No.R. we use a comma. D. Verbs ending in consonant + -y: Change -y to –ied (study—studied) *See past tense endings of other irregular verbs on page 127 of the Student’s Book. We’re not going to have a test next week. The when clause can come first or second in a sentence. he isn’t./No. Questions What are you doing this weekend? Affirmative I’m going shopping. Is Victor going to study tomorrow? Yes. de C. How was your weekend? Unit 11 Simple past with when clauses The action in the when clause happened at the same time or before the other event in the sentence. be + going to + verb Affirmative statements Negative statements Questions I’m going to improve my English.Grammar Reference–Level 1 Unit 10 Simple past—affirmative statements Regular verbs Base form answer carry Simple past form answered carried eat go Irregular verbs* Base form Simple past form ate went Spelling: Most verbs: add –ed. (Use a comma. Simple past—questions and negative statements be Other verbs The menu didn’t have a very big selection. 2010 ./No. © Macmillan Publishers. If it is first. Main clause he learned to work with crocodiles. I didn’t. Was it expensive? Yes.