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Outline

1 2 3 4 5 6 What Are the 6 S’s? Sound Pressure Sound Materials Sound Power Sound Source Identification Sound Quality Source-Path-Receiver

Sound Engineering

7

Six S’s
Do I meet quality objectives? Sound Pressure
SLM, Leq, Octave, Loudness, AI,..

The Real world! You’re either meeting the requirements or you’re not
What material should I use to reduce the levels? Sound Materials + Components
absorption, transmission loss in-tube, in-situ, in-room

Do I meet standards?
Sound Power & Pass-by Noise
Pressure & intensity based In-room, in-vehicle, near track

Sound Power Requirement

Sound Quality
You’ve met your requirements and now want to improve the sound quality

You have not met your requirements and need to solve them fast

Source Identification

Does it sound right? Why is it annoying? Sound Quality
replay/filter, psycho-acoustic metrics, objective & subjective evaluations

Where is the sound coming from? Sound Source Localization
intensity – beam forming holography – focalization

What is the root cause? Source? Path? Source-Path-Receiver
Transfer path Analysis Acoustic Source Quantification Vibro-acoustic modal analysis

Source Ranking

Solution

Acoustics in a Nutshell – Source-Path-Receiver

Acoustics in a Nutshell – Source-Path-Receiver

Receiver

Path

Source

Receiver
• Sound Pressure • Sound Quality

Path
• Sound Intensity •Sound Source Localization •Sound Materials+Components

Source
• Sound Power

Six S’s
Do I meet quality objectives? Sound Pressure
SLM, Leq, Octave, Loudness, AI,..

What material should I use to reduce the levels? Sound Materials/Components
absorption, transmission loss in-tube, in-situ, in-room

Do I meet standards?
Sound Power & Pass-by Noise
Pressure & intensity based In-room, in-vehicle, near track

LMS Sound Pressure
Does it sound right? Why is it annoying? Sound Quality
replay/filter, psycho-acoustic metrics, objective & subjective evaluations

Where is the sound coming from? Sound Source Localization
intensity – beam forming holography – focalization

What is the root cause? Source? Path? Source-Path-Receiver
Transfer path Analysis Acoustic Source Quantification Vibro-acoustic modal analysis

Sound Pressure

What is Sound? Physics
pressure fluctuations which propagate through an elastic medium (air, liquid, gas, solid) Any vibrating action which moves the particles of the medium (vibrating plate, loudspeaker,…) may act as a sound source (=structure born noise <-> airborne noise) The pressure fluctuations are propagated through the air with the speed of sound (c = 343 m/s @ 20ºC)

What is Sound? Speed of Sound Period and Frequency Wavelength Pressure and Decibels Frequency Content

• Octave and third Octave Bands • A-, B-, C- and D-weighting • Interference • Combining Sources

λ = cT =

c f

Freq 34 Hz

Wavelength 10 meter 1.0 meter 0.1 meter

Frequency (Hz) & period (s): 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz Wavelength (m):

1 f= T

340 Hz 3400 Hz

λ = cT =

c f

Propagation of Sound
Diffraction
Diffraction is the bending of a sound wave around the edges of obstructions (barrier, opening,…) in the path of the wave Bending due to diffraction is highly selective with respect to frequency Long wavelength, low frequency sounds are less affected by barriers and openings than short wavelength, high frequency sounds Examples: Highway barriers fail in reducing low frequency truck noise If music is played in a joining room with a partially intervening partition, the bass portion will dominate behind the barrier Diffraction around human head
shadow beam

Appendix – Auditory Range
L dB 130 120 110 100 90
effects of diffraction at low frequencies : (a) behind a barrier, (b) through an opening

PAIN THRESHOLD

HEARING DOMAIN

80 70 Adult male 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

MUSIC

Adult Female

Children

SPEECH

effects of diffraction at high frequencies : (a) behind a barrier, (b) through an opening

HEARING THRESHOLD 20 Hz 50 100 200 500 1k 2k 5k 10 k 20 kHz

log10 ( 2 ) p ref p ref Hearing threshold 1kHz Calibration Pain threshold 20*10-6 Pa 1 Pa 20 Pa Human hearing is rather logarithmic => dB values 120 dB Decibel “Funny” Math Example 1 – Decibel “Funny” Math 6 dB = Double Sound Pressure Level Sound Source 1 2 Pa = 100 dB Sound Source 2 2 Pa = 100 dB Source 1 + Source 2*? ? ? * Assume coherent sources Example 1 – Decibel “Funny” Math Example 2 – Decibel “Funny” Math Sound Source 1 2 Pa = 100 dB Sound Source 2 2 Pa = 100 dB Source 1 + Source 2 4 Pa = 106 dB 100 dB + 100 dB = 106 dB! * Assume coherent sources Sound Source 1 10 Pa = 113 dB Sound Source 2 2 Pa = 100 dB Source 1 + Source 2*? * Assume coherent sources . log10 ( 0 dB 94 dB RMS pressure _ _ 2 p p ) = 10.Sample Sound Levels Sound pressure level Instrumentation Sound Pressure Level (dB reference = 20*10-6 Pa or 2e-05) SPL = 20.

00 Hz 3000.01 Pa Amplitude 0.Overall Level: 100 dB 2.00 60.9 dB * Assume coherent sources Adding Sources Together Summation of Coherent Sinusoidal Sound Sources 1000 Hz .00 Hz 3000.00 Pa Amplitude 0.00 + 100 dB (2 Pa) at 2000 Hz 2000 Hz .Overall Level: 100 dB 2.00 0.0e-6 0.00 1000 Hz .00 0.5 dB * Assume coherent sources Sound Source 1 10 Pa = 113 dB Sound Source 2 2 Pa = 100 dB Sound Source 3 2 Pa = 100 dB Source 1 + Source 2 + Source 3* 14 Pa = 116.00 Pa Amplitude Summation of Incoherent Sinusoidal Sound Sources 1000 Hz .00 100 dB (2 Pa) at 1000 Hz 0.00 Pa Amplitude + 100 dB (2 Pa) at 1000 Hz * Incoherent Makes a Difference! 60.Overall Level: 100 dB 2.00 * In Phase Summation of Coherent Sinusoidal Sound Sources 1000 Hz .Overall Level: 100 dB 2.Overall Level: 100 dB 2.00 106 dB (4 Pa) Overall Summation of Coherent Sources: 106 dB 4.5 dB 113 dB + 100 dB = 115.00 Pa Amplitude Coherent vs 100 dB (2 Pa) at 1000 Hz 0.00 Pa Amplitude + 100 dB (2 Pa) at 1000 Hz * = Pa Amplitude 100 dB (2 Pa) at 1000 Hz 2.00 Hz 2000.00 0.00 0.0e-6 1000 Hz .00 Hz 2000.00 0.00 0.00 Hz 2000.Overall Level: 100 dB 0.Example 2 – Decibel “Funny” Math Example 2 – Decibel “Funny” Math Sound Source 1 10 Pa = 113 dB Sound Source 2 2 Pa = 100 dB Source 1 + Source 2 12 Pa = 115.9 dB 113 dB + 100 dB + 100 dB = 116.00 Hz 2000.00 * In Phase .00 Hz 2000.

20 Pa Amplitude Decibel “Funny” Math 100 dB Overall Level + 0.11 100 dB Overall Level 2000 Hz .00 Hz 24000.20 100 dB Overall Level + 0.no gain/attenuation.00 Hz 3000.82 Pa) Overall Pa Amplitude 100 dB (2 Pa) at 1000 Hz 0.00 0.00 Hz 3000.00 Overall Level of Random Signal2: 100 dB 0.Overall Level: 100 dB 2.00 0.00 Rules of Thumb A-Weighting 10 dB = Perceived twice as loud 3 dB = Minimum perceived change Filter with similar attributes to ear Simple curve shape.20 Pa Amplitude 2. attenuates low frequencies 1000 Hz .00 Hz 24000.00 Overall Level of Random Signal2: 100 dB 6 dB = Double Sound Pressure Level 3 dB = Double Sound Power Level 0.00 + 100 dB (2 Pa) at 2000 Hz = 103 dB (2.00 Hz 24000.00 Hz 3000.00 Pa Amplitude 89.20 Pa Amplitude 0.00 Hz 24000.11 100 dB Overall Level = 0.00 Hz 24000.Summation of Incoherent Sinusoidal Sound Sources 1000 Hz .00 Summation of Incoherent Sources: 103 dB 2.28 Pa Amplitude 0.11 0. used for microphone cals .11 0.00 Summation of Incoherent Random Sound Sources Overall Level of Random Signal1: 100 dB 0.00 103 dB Overall Level Overall Level of Random Signal1: 100 dB Overall Signal of Random Signal2: 100 dB Summation of Random Signals Overall Level: 103 dB 0.Overall Level: 100 dB 0.9e-6 0.00 Pa Amplitude 0.11 0.00 Pa Amplitude Summation of Incoherent Random Sound Sources Overall Level of Random Signal1: 100 dB 0.00 0.

(2 3 ) N Band limiting frequencies: with N = …. is found by dividing the mean square pressure in that band by the bandwidth flower =10 .and C-weighting are similar to A-weighting in concept. is the sum of the mean square pressures of the different bands: p = ∑ pi _ _ 2 n 2 i =1 8000 Band limiting frequencies of octave bands: 16000 • The spectral density of an octave or third octave band.e.fc 0.C.100.-1.0. The lowest frequency at which an anechoic room can be used depends on the room volume and the depth of the wedges A very large room (several m’s) with 1-2 m wedges is effective down to 100 Hz anechoic room Flat. reflecting floor Sound-absorptive walls and ceiling To test sources that are normally mounted on or operate in the presence of a reflecting surface (e. It attributes more significance to the 1-10 kHz region 1/n OCTAVE filter Filter bandwidth (about % of the center frequency) 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 Octaves 16 31.2. the equal loudness contour which passes 40 dB at 1 kHz. Is most often used B.-1. The frequency ratio of the highest note to the lowest one in an octave is 2:1 The reference octave band: 1000 Hz as centre frequency The octave band centre frequencies have the following relation to the 1000 Hz band: f c = 1000.f c f upper = 100.05.-2.5 Traces: 2/2 63 1/1 70% 1/3 23% 1/12 6% Center Frequency (Hz) 50 100 200 400 800 1600 3150 6300 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 80 160 315 630 1250 2500 5000 3 Pressure dB/2e-005 [Pa] 8000 10000 12600 16000 20160 gain (dB) 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 Frequency [Hz] 2 Logarithmic frequency scale frequency (Hz) X2 1 Basic Acoustics Octave and third Octave Bands Octave bands Grouping frequencies in octave bands provides a crude form of analysis suited for broadband sounds.fc −0.…) Roller bench inside: sound power TPA ASQ pass-by noise semi-anechoic room with roller bench … .and D-weighting BACKUP Octave analysis – Constant % bandwidth 1/3 octave A-weighting corresponds to the 40-phone curve. but correspond to the 70.… Basic Acoustics BACKUP Octave and third Octave Bands Third octave bands BACKUP 31.-2.Basic Acoustics A-. the mean square pressure per Hz.10 0.15 octave and third octave bands Propagation of Sound Anechoic Room Propagation of Sound Semi-anechoic Room Highly absorbing surfaces Source radiates as in a free field Almost no reverberation To measure: sound power of source directivity pattern of radiating source Anechoic rooms are more effective at high than at low frequencies.0.g. cars.15 fupper =10 .2 N with N = ….1.5 The third octave band centre frequencies have the following relation to the 1000 Hz band: 1 63 f c = 1000. which do not contain dominant frequencies The word octave is borrowed from music where it refers to a span of eight notes (‘do’ to ‘do’).1N = 1000. f c 500 1000 Pressure and spectral density 2000 4000 • The mean square pressure of a sound. i.… road noise third octave spectrum measured: synthesized:` 125 250 f lower = 10 −0.3 N = 1000.and 100-phone equal loudness contours D-weighting has been introduced for the purpose of measuring aircraft noise.e.1.2.B-. described in octave or third octave bands. i.05.

GOSH. OSHA. in-vehicle. AI. the frequency response to wide-band noise shows several peaks corresponding to the room modes. The European Union's Council Directive 86/594/EEC. Human Vibration Directive 2002/44/EC. non-parallel walls Diffuse field: nearly uniform sound intensity To measure: sound power of sources Sound absorptive properties of materials Sound transmission through building elements typical reverberation room Sound Source Sound path Other Terms NearField FarField At low frequencies. the individual modes begin to overlap and are less obvious To make the room response more uniform at lower frequencies.. The Noise Emission Directive 2000/14/EC. Octave. At higher frequencies. Sound Power Testing – Why & When What material should I use to reduce the levels? Sound Materials/Components absorption. transmission loss in-tube. psycho-acoustic metrics.Propagation of Sound Reverberation Room High-reflecting. in-room Do I meet standards? Sound Power & Pass-by Noise Pressure & intensity based In-room. low-frequency sound absorptive elements and rotating diffusers are often used Basic Acoustics Standing Waves node anti-node first harmonic: λ = 2L second harmonic: λ = L third harmonic: λ = 2L 3 2L 4 LMS Sound Power fourth harmonic: formation of a standing wave λ= fifth harmonic: λ = 2L 5 • nodes: destructive interference for λ= • anti-nodes: constructive interference 2L n f = nc 2L Six S’s Do I meet quality objectives? Sound Pressure SLM.. UL. objective & subjective evaluations Where is the sound coming from? Sound Source Localization intensity – beam forming holography – focalization What is the root cause? Source? Path? Source-Path-Receiver Transfer path Analysis Acoustic Source Quantification Vibro-acoustic modal analysis Sound path Sound Source . Loudness. in-situ. Leq. Noise at Work Directive 2003/10/EC Does it sound right? Why is it annoying? Sound Quality replay/filter. near track Sound Pressure – Not a predictable indicator of strength of source Sound Power is the ‘Universal’ Acoustic metric Quantifies the acoustic potential of an object independent of: Environment Operator distance Acoustic field Can be used to predict sound pressure Preferred use – Certification Blue Angel.

… How to measure Sound Power? ISO3741 .regions . hydraulic))...products . splash proof test.industries .customer (internal) Hand-held power tools EC/2000/14 CE marking ISO15744 ISO7779 . sound power test.. ECMA-109 . IS03743 ISO3744 ISO3745 .. .. ISO3746 IT & Telecommunication equipment ISO7779.Electrical safety test... drop test.regions . ECMA-74 ISO9296 . Market definition Operating condition of test object Limits or label? Reporting templates Calculation microphone setup precision environmental correction Market specific: .11 & IEC1260 Microphones Sound Pressure Levels Octave bands Computer & Business Equipment ISO9296.industries .. Electrical .Protecting the Workforce The EU has created following directives dealing with noise and vibration in the working environment Human Vibration Directive 2002/44/EC Noise at Work Directive 2003/10/EC Noise Emission Directive 2000/14/EC Implemented in national legislation by 2010 (2014 for agriculture and forestry) Pressure on manufacturers and suppliers New quality norm can be competitive advantage Can become a branding identity Often products must be ISO certified Pressure on end-user or employer Limit daily exposure of employees to noise/vibration Switch to tools generating less noise/vibration Hierarchy of Standards Market Specific Standards & Regulations Market definition Operating condition of test object Limits or label? Reporting templates Market specific: . ECMA-74 ISO9296 . ECMA-74 Instrumentation IEC60651 & IEC60804 ANSI S1.products .The Importance of the “Sound Power” Test How? Two methods to determine sound-power Pressure based Regulations Comply with target specification Comply with Market Specifications Declaration of certification Intensity based Intensity Probe ISO 9614 Complex & time consuming More engineering inside Regulations Microphones around object ISO 37xx-series fast & easy One number Comparison Compare equipment (same / different types) Compare with competitive product Purchasing parameter in the selection process Product Engineering Engineering Verification of the developed product Indicator for developing quieter product Quality control in production Product Comparison Quantification Certification In-situ use Troubleshooting Products Concerned with Sound Power Test EU Directive . ISO3742 . ECMA-109 .customer (internal) EC/2000/14 CE marking ISO15744 ISO7779 . . Non-electrical (ISO 15744 (pneumatic. ECMA-109 .

electronic memories and controllers. construction. … (57 categories) Obligation for “marking & limit” or “marking” only (labeling products) Categories Product subjected to “limiting” (maximum SP level) Products subjected to “marking” (indicate SP level on every system) Keyboards Personal computers Workstations Card readers Printers & scanners Punchers Tape storage units Disk storage units Displays Facsimile machines Standard defines how to determine sound-power Measure pressure at by-stander position How to handle: impulsiveness & tonal components How to average different operating conditions of a printer or copier Blue angel ‘quality label for Computer’ (based on compliance with ISO 7779) Must comply to sell in Europe Strong impact on importing regions Sets reference on exporting regions Electronic units (processors.1L'pi ⎛S ⎞ ⎤ ⎥ − K1 − K 2 + 10 log⎜ ⎟ ⎜S ⎟ ⎦ ⎝ 0⎠ Calibration Average pressure over microphones K1 correction for background noise • At least 6 db above background • Recommend is 15 dB above background K2 correction for test environment • Reverberation increases SPL S area of measurement surface (S0= 1m2) • Measurement distance decreases SPL Measurement ISO Report .Computer & Business Machines CD and DVD ROM Drives EU Directive EC/2000/14 – Sound-power for outdoor equipment European directive for outdoor equipment: gardening. containing electronic circuits.Market Specific Standards & Regulations ISO 7779 . power supplies with cooling parts) Microform readers Self service automatic teller machines Enclosures or rack systems Driven by harmonization & comfort European Directive EC/2000/14 : Outdoor equipment Noise LIMITING Builders hoists compaction machines Compressors concrete breakers and picks construction winches Dozers & Dumpers Excavators excavator-loaders Graders hydraulic power packs landfill compactors Lawnmowers lawn trimmers/edge Trimmers lift trucks Loaders mobile & tower cranes motor hoes pave-finishers power generators welding generators Subjected to Noise MARKING Aerial access platforms brush cutters builder’s hoists building site band saw machines building site circular saw benches chain saws pressure flushers and suction vehicles compaction machines concrete or mortar mixers construction winches conveying and spraying machines conveyor belts cooling equipment on vehicles drill rigs equipment for loading and unloading silo’s or tanks on trucks glass recycling containers grass trimmers/grass edge trimmers hedge trimmers high pressure flushers high pressure water jet machines hydraulic hammers joint cutters leaf blowers & collectors lift trucks mobile waste containers pave-finishers piling equipment pipe layers piste caterpillars power generators power sweepers refuse collection vehicles road milling machines Scarifiers shredders/chippers snow-removing machines with rotating tools suction vehicles Trenchers truck mixers water pump units Sound Power Measurement Test Sequence Measurement Overview Microphones spread over a surface enveloping the test object (typically half-spherical) Calculate sound power Sound Power – test sequence Well defined test sequence 1st Step: ISO selection Size of the source Character of noise Grade of accuracy Application of data Acoustical information Test environment General Definitions Experimental setup ⎡1 Lw = 10 log ⎢ ⎣N ∑10 i =1 N 0.

etc) Octave calculation method & weighting Acquisition time Single or batch measurement Data management General Definitions Sound Power – test sequence Experimental setup Calibration Microphone selection As specified in IEC60651 .Approximation method (ISO 3744) Temperature & static pressure ISO Report Sound Power – test sequence Configuration of measurement surface Spherical 6/12 & 10/20 Rectangular Cylinder Cylinder + sphere Full sphere – ISO6798 General Definitions Sound Power – test sequence Typical configuration General Definitions Experimental setup Experimental setup Bystander & operator (# & position) – ISO7779 Detailed requirement for microphone positioning Calibration Calibration Measurement Measurement ISO Report ISO Report Sound Power – test sequence Sound Power – test sequence Required during each series of measurements General Definitions Calibration of the entire measuring system At one or more frequencies Over the measuring frequency range Experimental setup Acoustical calibrator: Accuracy of +/.Sound Power – test sequence Selection of specific ISO standard Data acquisition parameters Hardware setting (signal conditioning. bandwidth.Measure reverb time according to ISO 3741 .5 dB Verification once a year (at least) Calibration Measurement Extra flexibilities Auto detection of microphones Audible & visual feedback Tolerance on calibration value Comparison with previous values ISO Report .Comparison method (ISO 3741) .2 dB during test period Environmental parameters K2 correction – a measure of reverberation decay time • Calculation methods: .0. IEC60805 (accuracy. stability & frequency response) Measurement Sensitivity must not change more than 0.

Sound Power – test sequence Global Sound pressure levels during equipment operation Sound pressure level of the background noise Sound pressure level during “sound source” operation . F3 & F4) ISO Report Discrete tones • To identify tones masked by the noise in the critical band • Determine discrete tone prominent if 10 dB above the audibility threshold Operating modes • Expert / standard operator • Password protection Sound Power – test sequence Sound Power – test sequence Sound Source Description of the sound source. humidity & pressure Experimental setup Calibration Instrument Test equipment (name.replaces measuring the reverberation time Sound Power – test sequence General Definitions Experimental setup Test duration 30 seconds for f ≤ 100 . ISO Report Final statement State full conformity with the procedure .160 Hz 10 seconds for f ≥ 200 Hz Repetitive operation cycles. throughput) Calibration Additional / Optional measurements Impulsiveness • To decide whether the noise contains significant impulsive components • If impulsive noise index ≥ 3 dB impulsive Measurement Measurement Feedback & quality status ISO Report • Graphical representation of microphone positions • Overload indicator per microphone • Visual feedback on conformity to ISO standard (Compliance. directivity index. S/N. discrete tones.1 L'pi ⎛S ⎞ ⎤ ⎥ − K1 − K 2 + 10 log⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎦ ⎝ S0 ⎠ General Definitions General Definitions correction for background noise correction for test environment (reflecting planes) area of the measurement surface in m2 reference surface areas 1m2 Experimental setup Experimental setup Calibration Measurement control • • • • Start / Stop / Record / Accept & Reject Automatic data storage & management Simultaneous verses batch measurement Parallel measurements (e. directivity. operating conditions. data annotations (time & date). etc) Calibration of microphones Measurement Data Microphone locations. LW (per Octave). total sequence Calibration Measurement Background noise “Lb” Measurement when the equipment is not operating Subtract from the operational situation “Lc“ (at each measurement points and each frequency band) Correction is required if 6 dB > Lb <15 dB of Lc ISO Report Sound Power – test sequence Calculation of the Sound Power Level ( “A” weighted) ⎡1 Lw = 10 log ⎢ ⎣N K1: K2: S: S0: Sound Power – test sequence Actions during the measurement No specific ISO actions during the measurement Common sense & experience Expected flexibility Oscilloscope • On-line presentation of data (SPL. impulsiveness.only for comparison method ISO3741 . mounting conditions & location in the test room General Definitions Environment Dimensions and physical properties of the test room Acoustical qualification of the test room (as described in ISO) Temperature. frequency response.g. F2. tabular & plot of the corrected LW . background noise. type. minimum of 3 cycles Varying operation cycles. LP (per Octave). manufacturer) Acquisition specifications (bandwidth. 1/3 & 1/1 Octaves. etc) • Level indicator for each microphone ∑10 i =1 N 0. Octave band level.

Leq. transmission loss in-tube. because the energy will flow in some directions but not others Intensity is dependent on the source’s properties and the distance from the source . What is Intensity? What material should I use to reduce the levels? Sound Materials/Components absorption. Loudness. psycho-acoustic metrics. in-room Do I meet standards? Sound Power & Pass-by Noise Pressure & intensity based In-room.. in-situ. near track Sound intensity is the average rate of sound energy transmitted in the specified direction through a unit area (1 m2) normal to this direction at the point considered. Octave. AI.Sound Power – test sequence Sound Power Simulation – Why? Sound Power is the ‘Universal’ Acoustic metric Predict Lw earlier in the development cycle Quickly predict effects of changes without requiring a physical prototype Can be used to compare results later in the development cycle Acoustics in a Nutshell – Source-Path-Receiver LMS Intensity Receiver • Sound Pressure • Sound Quality Path • Sound Intensity •Sound Source Localization •Sound Materials+Components Source • Sound Power Six S’s Do I meet quality objectives? Sound Pressure SLM. Intensity = Pressure x Particle Velocity Force Distance Energy Power ⎡Watts ⎤ × = = 2 ⎥ Area Time Area × Time Area ⎢ ⎣ m ⎦ Does it sound right? Why is it annoying? Sound Quality replay/filter.. in-vehicle. objective & subjective evaluations Where is the sound coming from? Sound Source Localization intensity – beam forming holography – focalization What is the root cause? Source? Path? Source-Path-Receiver Transfer path Analysis Acoustic Source Quantification Vibro-acoustic modal analysis Sound is a vector quantity that has both magnitude and direction.

8° so a phase mismatch of ± 0. which verifies the mesh adequacy .3° will cause a significant error in the intensity Pressure Residual Intensity Index (PRII) Upper frequency Limit Spacer distance : < 1/6th of the wavelength Pressure Residual Intensity Index (PRII) – quantifies the phase mismatch Defined as a “noise floor” below which measurements cannot be made Caused by a small phase difference between the 2 signals. applying a bias error correction factor (K) Grade of Accuracy Bias Error Factor (dB) 10 10 7 Precision (Grade 1) Engineering (Grade 2) Survey (Grade 3) PRII Measurement ISO Quality Checks ISO 9614 Field Indicators ensure the quality of the measurements and meshes Notice the PRII Index is small at the low and high octave bands. which tells how diffuse or reactive a field is • Small value = good measurement conditions • Large value = probe not aligned well or measuring in a diffuse field F3: Negative partial power indicator Examines the difference between measured intensity and pressure while taking the direction of the intensities into account.Applications of Sound Intensity Measurement Equipment Mic Signal Conditioning Card for SCADAS III USB Remote for Test. which gives amount of extraneous noise • Positive direction = intensity from source under investigation • Negative direction = intensity from extraneous sources F4: Non-uniformity indicator Indicates the measure of spatial variability that exists in the field.5 m and the change of phase over a 12mm spacer is only 0.Lab Spacers Sound Power Determination Noise Source Localization: Mapping and Ranking Transmission Loss of Structures Sound Absorption of Materials and Structures Specific Acoustic Impedance Measurements Measurement of Radiation Efficiency of Sources Mic Signal Conditioning Card for SCADAS Mobile Measurement Considerations Frequency Limitations Lower Frequency Limit Phase mismatch between microphones Typically < 0.3˚ degrees for matched probe microphones Ex: At 63 Hz the wavelength is approximately 5. which is to be expected because the phase difference for intensity microphones is large in these frequency ranges F2: Surface pressure-intensity indicator Examines the difference between the pressure and the absolute values of intensity. which is interpreted as intensity along the spacer Measured in an intensity calibrator which gives the same signal to both mics (0 intensity) Phase change in degrees along the spacer distance must be over 5 times the phase mismatch for accuracy within 1dB Dynamic Capability Index (Ld) – gives a limit to the Pressure Intensity Index that can be measured with accuracy.

requires experienced personnel Expensive equipment compared to free field microphones Six S’s Do I meet quality objectives? Sound Pressure SLM. and Focalization Strengths Allows measurement of energy flow (intensity = vector quantity) No influence of environment: what flows in from one side flows out from another side can cope with extraneous noise (other sources in the background) no need for special test room (anechoic. semi-anechoic or reverberant room) or specific test conditions Weaknesses Frequency range is limited compared to measurements based on sound pressure Time consuming. in-situ.. Leq. Loudness. Beamforming. What material should I use to reduce the levels? Sound Materials/Components absorption. near track LMS Acoustic Arrays Does it sound right? Why is it annoying? Sound Quality replay/filter. in-room Do I meet standards? Sound Power & Pass-by Noise Pressure & intensity based In-room. in-vehicle. AI. transmission loss in-tube.Intensity Analysis Overall Intensity Level of Speaker from 100 to 4100Hz Software Presentation Techniques Operational Deflection Shapes Sound Intensity of Speaker at 720Hz Measurement Considerations Strengths and Weaknesses Source Identification Once you identity your issue (either via Sound Power or Sound Quality) you need to find the source Multiple techniques are available today Sound Pressure Mapping • Not very accurate • Time consuming Sound Intensity Mapping • Very accurate and well accepted technique • Calculate Sound Power from results • Time Consuming Array Acoustics Techniques • Accurate results • Very fast testing (typically less than a minute) • Compelling graphical output • NAH. psycho-acoustic metrics. Octave. objective & subjective evaluations Where is the sound coming from? Sound Source Localization intensity – beam forming holography – focalization What is the root cause? Source? Path? Source-Path-Receiver Transfer path Analysis Acoustic Source Quantification Vibro-acoustic modal analysis ..

Is this source identification ? Intensity Measurements Acoustic Sound Source Localization Evolution Positive Supported by ISO/ANSI standards Widely accepted and used in industry Supports Power Calculations Negative expensive intensity probe measurements normally in far-field (low spatial resolution) TIME CONSUMING for troubleshooting Holography •Predominant 10 years ago •Array bigger than object •High frequencies require high mics LMS has solutions for all 3 domains Beamforming • Array smaller than object •Double frequency for same mics •Far field only •Poor spatial resolution at low freq Focalization • Same as Beamforming • Extend to Nearfield Holography vs focalization Holography Array Examples ☺ Very good resolution at any frequency with holography Great number of microphones or positions for HF ☺Good resolution on for HF ☺ Fewer microphones required for HF poor resolution in LF NAH Focalization Solution: Use NAH for LF Double the frequency range on the SAME data by using focalization .

Lab & Scadas Delay depends on the radius not distance Array configurations for Beamforming SNAP ON MICS INFRARED DISTANCE SENSOR WIDE ANGLE LENS . Easy Setup c Fast and Accurate Stationary and Runup S ( f ) ≈ ∑ Pj ( f )e j =1 N ikR j with kRj = 2Πfτ j Uses Test.What is Beamforming? Assumption: antenna measures planar waves => Farfield measurement Time signal simultaneously recorded at a number of microphones Source What is Focalization? Assumption: antenna is in the near-field => measures spherical waves => Time signal simultaneously recorded at a number of microphones S What is Focalization? Assumption: antenna is in the near-field => measures spherical waves => Time signal recorded at a number of microphones LMS Acoustic Array: Just Point and Shoot Nearfield and Farfield 400 to 6000 Hz s (t ) ≈ S Rj D 1 N ∑ p j (t − τ j ) with τ j = d cos Θ j =1 N Quick.

Octave.5. transmission loss in-tube. in-room Do I meet standards? Sound Power & Pass-by Noise Pressure & intensity based In-room. in-situ.Where is the sound coming from? LMS interior SSL: SW What are the challenges in doing the interior SSL? Readable pressure results Accurate propagation Interactive displays Sound Source Localization Source Identification dB A(P a) 100 89 81 _641800rpm _droit 1-[4. psycho-acoustic metrics. near track The next step in product characterization – make your product ‘sound’ better When just having the ‘quietest’ product is not enough “The Sound Power values are the same but this product ‘sounds’ better” Quantifies the human perception of product sound Psychology + Acoustics = Psychoacoustics Varies based on age. Loudness.2580 Hz]-d -0. etc Can be used as a Brand Recognition differentiator Does it sound right? Why is it annoying? Sound Quality replay/filter.000 . objective & subjective evaluations Where is the sound coming from? Sound Source Localization intensity – beam forming holography – focalization What is the root cause? Source? Path? Noisy Fridge A Fridge C Source-Path-Receiver Transfer path Analysis Acoustic Source Quantification Vibro-acoustic modal analysis Fridge B Sounds ‘right’ Looks ‘right’ Perceived Quality .700 s] [ 2340 . Leq.. What is Sound Quality? What material should I use to reduce the levels? Sound Materials/Components absorption. demographics.. socio-economic status. in-vehicle.47 40 Structural Noise Problem Accurate FE Model • Correlation and Pre-Test Aero Acoustic Problem CFD based Input Accurate Loads CAE based Loads Test Based Loads Or a combination Solutions: Simple box or sphere mesh generated in software used for trucks & trains Picture wrapped around mesh Library of simple meshes for different car interiors Import mesh generated with other program Special sheet to position sphere against mesh/picture LMS offers the best solution on the market with respect to: • Visualization • Interactivity • Accuracy (from a geometry and technological viewpoint) Source Ranking – Why & When Natural next step after Source Identification Find out how much energy each major noise source is radiating Pay attention to frequency content ala Sound Quality! Rank noise sources to: Find the worst offender and attack that first Determine which sources are irrelevant Get an idea of the ‘acoustic landscape’ LMS Sound Quality Six S’s Do I meet quality objectives? Sound Pressure SLM. AI.

Roughness. ID. etc) DF = Difuse Field FF = Free Field ID = Independent of Direction .2009 Binaural Recording and Equalization DIGITAL BINAURAL HEAD Accounting for Torso and Ear Digital. Tone to Noise Ratio Don’t forget the classic acoustic metrics Jury Testing Controlled listening tests with real customers Statistically analyze results to find what customers prefer Use results to refine your product and specifications BINAURAL HEAD BINAURAL HEAD Mic1 Mic2 Binaural = 2 Ears Directional Sound Effects 106 fit for the future . 104 db. FF) Range (94 db. Not Analog SPDIF or AES-EBU Embedded information on 16th bit: Sound Field (DF.copyright LMS International .Making the ‘Subjective’ Objective Sound Quality – Why & When Measurement Use a binaural head to record true stereo Measure in a ‘realistic’ environment Follow good acoustic testing practices Analysis Listen to the sound Apply filters to remove artifacts…’What If’ Use Psychoacoustic Metrics like Zwicker Loudness.

ScadasMobile – VS8 Digital/Analog Card Digital Playback and Equalization Digital Playback Equalization Unique Serial # On VS8 Card.rate on scale of 1 to 10 Engineers sent from fan supplier How do their ratings compare to others? Worse Same Better Sound Metrics Sound Metrics Engineers from fan supplier How do their ratings compare to others? Getting closer to product launch date How do the ratings compare to previously? Worse Same Better Better! . last two channels can switch between Analog and Digital to read Head data directly Sound Metrics Sound Metrics Subjective Testing: A Story Noise problem for IT server design 10 servers chosen for jury testing .5 good/5 bad 30 people listen .

no gain/attenuation. used for microphone cals 6 dB -> Twice the amplitude (sound pressure) 76 dB vs. same magnitude. sharpness. different frequencies Which is louder? You cannot hear 20 Hz! 200 Hz Individual preferences: sportive sound (low/high frequency) A-Weighting Loudness Filter with similar attributes to ear Simple curve shape. known also as “psychoacoustics” Better! Human perception – psycho-acoustics The human hearing is not linear Sensitivity is frequency dependent: most sensitive in speech range => A-weighting Sensitivity is level dependent => curves of equal loudness Human perception also depends on level & frequency spectrum: broadband noise/tonal component. 54 dB Not intuitive that 6 dB (or 10 dB perceived) is twice as loud . 70 dB 60 dB vs.Sound Metrics Sound Metrics Getting closer to vehicle launch date How do the ratings compare to previous? Sound Metrics attempt to predict the subjective response of people in an objective manner The field is still evolving. modulations. attenuates low frequencies 1000 Hz . music/machine 20 Hz Loudness 2 tones. roughness. transients context: day/night. masking effects variation: fluctuation.

Loudness – Sones & Phons Loudness .Mark VII Loudness ISO532B .Mark VI Equal Loudness Curves 1 sone = 40 phon 2 sones twice as loud as 1 sone SPL (dB) Steven’s Mark VI 4 sones twice as loud as 2 sone Phons 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 Sones 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 frequency (Hz) Loudness .Zwicker Loudness .Masking Steven’s Mark VII Articulation Index SIL and PSIL Percentage of syllables understood Ranges from 0 to 100% Rates how much a given sound interferes with human speech .

Max at 70 Hz Roughness and Fluctuation Strength Engine Harmonics Let’s take two sweeping sine tones over 10 secs: 10 Hz to 100 Hz 11 Hz to 110 Hz 110 600 Hz 600 500 Hz 5th order 6th order 400 Hz What is end modulation frequency (at time 10)? 10 Hz! Hz 300 Hz What is initial modulation frequency (at time 0)? Hz 4th order 200 Hz 60 Hz 50 Hz 3th order 2nd order 1st order 600 RPM 150 Hz 100 Hz 1 Hz! 0 0 seconds 10 ! 40 Hz 30 Hz 20 Hz 15 Hz 10 Hz0 6000 Jury testing : why ? Quantifying subjective quality on statistical basis Understand how quality perception depends on the profile of the listener Correlation of objective measurements with subjective quality perception Development of “Strong and Powerful” Sound Metric 132 copyright LMS International .2009 .Roughness and Fluctuation Strength Roughness and Fluctuation Strength What does the sum of a 400 Hz sine wave and 405 Hertz sine wave look like? What do you hear? Measure of Modulation Fluctuation 0-20 Hz. Max at 4 Hz Roughness 20-300 Hz.

5 1 4 4 6.5 3.5 6.5 & 5.00 4.60 0.41 Kendall's RCC vs Consistency 1.10 0.00 Experience Briefed Vehicle 1 Vehicle 1 Modif 1 Vehicle 2 Vehicle 3 Vehicle 4 Vehicle 5 Vehicle 5 Modif 2 2 10 0 Ins.40 0.00 6.5 4.5 5 6 5.5 7 2 2 4 3 1 1.5 5 3 7 4 3 1.20 0.2009 Results of Initial Jury Test Consistency of Results from Initial Test Kendall's RCC vs Consistency 1.7000 Concordance 0.72 -1.00 4.80 Concordance 0.5 4.00 6.00 13.0000 0.00 18.5 5 3 4 6 1.5 boosted Vehicle 2 with resonance filtered out Vehicle 4 with increased loudness Vehicle 4 with orders 3.04 1.5 6 7 6 1 6.00 Score 41.4000 0.5 7 2.00 Real Values 0.00 7.00 12.40 0.5 1 1 6.5 5 3 5 7 2 1 5 5 3 4 7 2 1 6 5 1 4.2000 0.60 0.00 2.00 Consistency 0 1 1 9 8 0 0 9 0 6 9 10 4 0 9 4 0 10 10 4 5 1 1 0 0 4 0 1 2 0 0 6 0 0 1 10 6 6 10 10 0 6 10 10 5 9 9 4 0 .00 1. Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 6 5 3 6.5 0 No 3 1 7 2 5 6 4 10 No 7 6 1 3 3 5 3 1 1 0 1 0 0 Ins.5 3.96 -0.5 Signal 1.5 4.60 0. Ins.5 1 1 2 1.30 0.44 -1.20 0.00 2.5 5 5 4.5 6.70 0.5 6.5 4 7 5 5 2 3.6000 0.00 0.00 0.1000 0.5 1 2 6.5 5.5 2.00 3. 6 and 9 boosted Conditioning Equalization for equal global loudness 1 1 0 0 0 4 5 1 6 133 copyright LMS International .5 3 2.5 7 3 7 2.5 3 5 4 1 2 7 6 3.5 3.5 4 4 2 1 2 1 2 2 6.5 4.5 6 4.90 1.5 3 4 5 1 2 7 6 0.5 0 No 3 5 4 1 2 7 6 3 No 3.00 5.00 5.5000 0.20 0.00 0.Jury Test Methods : Paired Comparison Jury Test preparation All possible pairs from a set of stimuli are exposed to the jury in random-like sequence For every pair.5 6 7 3 No 3 5 4 2 1 6 7 0 No 2 4 6. Yes 3 3 2 4.5 6.0000 0. subjects are asked to indicate which stimulus (A or B) is superior for some given criterion Pro : Possible with multiple subjects Works fine for ‘naive’ subjects Easy method for analysis Contra : Limited to about 15 stimuli Test takes a lot of time A B C D E F G A B C D E F G Total 1 1 0 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 2 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 - 9 Sound samples 5 original samples Vehicle 2 with orders 2.8000 Total 0.5 5 0 Yes 3 5 7 2 1 5 5 3 No 3 4 7 2 1 6 5 0 0 0 Yes Yes Yes 2.5 6.80 1.00 7.5 2 1 6.40 0.5 3 5 4 1 2 7 6 2 5 4 2 2 6 7 3 5 4 2 1 6 7 2 4 6.00 53.80 0.5 1 4 4 6.5 7 6 6.00 51.3000 0.9000 Juror 10 Juror 11 Juror 12 Juror 13 Juror 14 Juror 15 Juror 17 Juror 19 Juror 16 Juror 18 Juror 1 Juror 3 Juror 5 Juror 6 Juror 7 Consistency – Compared to Self Concordance – Compared to Group Eliminate inconsistent people from final analysis! Juror 8 Juror 9 Juror 20 Juror 2 Juror 4 0.00 3.63 -1.00 Consistency Reduced Jury Set A linear model Convert jury testing scores to a real valued function Bradley-Terry model to map jury test results onto this scale.5 4 1 2.5 6.50 0.00 22.84 1.5 1 2 6.5 3 4. Juror 10 Juror 12 Juror 13 Juror 15 Juror 19 Juror 2 Juror 5 Juror 8 Juror 9 Juror 20 Total 3 4 5 1 2 7 6 Vehicle -1 Vehicle-1 modif 1 Vehicle 2 Vehicle 3 Vehicle 4 Vehicle 5 Vehicle 5 modif 1 3 4.

52 0.76 0.21 0.10 0.18 0.80 2.63 8.18 34.90 0.12 0.28 0.75 0.17 0.82 0.38 64.15 0.58 53.28 0.44 -1.09 52.35 60.36 0.90 60.15 0.10 55.19 0.53 0.25 0.87 58.09 -0.84 1.96 -0.87 58.94 5958.03 -0.48 63.46 7.98 1.14 0.68 1.35 7.02 0.80 1.41 0.21 0.83 1.77 0.74 0.38 0.07 32.29 67.53 0.00 73.19 0.10 0.28 0.15 0.73 1.00 70.80 1.65 0.70 0.06 60.19 0.06 -0.02 57.19 0.45 0.43 0.10 -0.15 0.14 1.83 -0.03 55.00 72.20 0.94 0.20 0.61 68.91 64.46 -0.02 0.54 0.92 31.00 72.58 53.28 0.36 68.18 28.91 60.37 0.51 62.09 0.97 69.38 4.57 -5.00 70.21 0.87 0.24 0.02 0.22 1.0114 63.26 0.03 0.65 0.06 0.58 0.00 72.43 1.16 0.01 -7.13 0.60 0.05 55.07 -0.19 0.38 0.27 66.84 -0.77 6180.25 5297.43 53.72 -1.48 -1.54 4241.51 0.10 60.18 0.62 2.07 0.65 34.02 0.10 55.Correlation with Metrics Metric for Strong and Powerful Vehicle-1 modif 1 Vehicle 5 modif 1 Significantly present in the signal No overlap in phenomena Sufficient dynamics % Ord 12 PSIL PSIL/Zwicker) SIL AI % half Imp_Peak %half/%even % oth even Sharpness % odd Order 8 %even/%odd Order 12 Imp_OccRate %even/(%half+%odd) SB Imp_RiseRate Order 4 Odd Roughness Imp_Duration CRP Half % Ord 8 Other Even % even Fluct_strength % Ord 4 0.88 59.06 0.77 0.12 0.16 -0.43 52.41 Extra bend for equal length = “smooth sound” Correlation 96% Rear of Car Sound Quality via Simulation Replay the simulated sound levels of various club designs Sample A LMS Sound Materials/Components Sample B .39 -0.14 0.26 0.02 0.46 8.93 29.09 0.63 -1.58 8062.09 59.65 0.01 * Regression Correlation Vehicle -1 Vehicle 2 Vehicle 3 Vehicle 4 Vehicle 5 % HALF ORDERS – 5.86 0.38 1.19 5742.10 0.03 0.26 69.03 7.0114 63.0112 64.81 67.40 69.92 49.06 0.51 0.09 59.83 0.03 0.94 13.62 62.17 64.77 0.25 0.04 57.85 2.68 0.22 0.33 1.62 62.76 0.12 0.24 * * * * * Verification with real values (model) Physical Modifications Metric * 100 Real Value Unequal runner in intake manifolds Unequal runner in exhaust manifold Change firing order of engine Presents packaging challenge Example: Transverse engine for exhaust • Wraparound exhaust • Modifications to transmission Requires decisions early in program Signal Vehicle 2 Vehicle 2 modif 1 Vehicle 1 Vehicle 3 Vehicle 5 Vehicle 4 Vehicle 4 modif 1 3.23 0.0063 62.74 0.17 0.92 29.32 0.94 0.16 0.03 49.70 0.68 0.63 7.49 -0.73 0.88 0.04 1.62 -0.15 0.23 -0.93 2.89 67.65 0.63 -0.26 0.0058 63.35 0.33 -8.85 57.13 PSIL/Zwicker + 9.19 -0.26 0.00 72.96 5555.29 0.86 64.37 57.51 0.53 -0.97 5.51 0.10 60.0104 63.87 58.21 0.81 0.82 66.10 60.18 0.88 -0.18 0.78 0.53 0.76 0.51 0.66 0.10 11.04 3.04 3.01 0.13 0.64 67.04 58.0111 64.03 55.

roughness. Octave. low sound reduction index TL Hz • 4-microphone • Transfer Matrix method TL of sound barrier mats . Loudness. Leq.g. psycho-acoustic metrics. porosity.Six S’s Do I meet quality objectives? Sound Pressure SLM.. objective & subjective evaluations Where is the sound coming from? Sound Source Localization intensity – beam forming holography – focalization What is the root cause? Source? Path? Source-Path-Receiver Transfer path Analysis Acoustic Source Quantification Vibro-acoustic modal analysis Test om larger samples or complete objects like doors 1 or 2 rooms pressure & reverberation Test om larger samples or complete object 1 or 2 rooms intensity N.1: extremely hard surfaces (e. near track Absorption 2-mic transfer-function method Test on small samples or mufflers Impedance tube (Kundt tube) FRF based method ISO 354 standard Sound Transmission Loss 4-mic transfer matrix ISO 10534-2 ASTM E1050 Mainly used for mufflers ISO 140-3 Does it sound right? Why is it annoying? Sound Quality replay/filter. In general. low absorption α > 0.9: highly absorbent material (e.g. flow resistence. in-vehicle. in-situ. foam. steel.… • echo: time delay of 0. high absorption Typical effects in a room: Convex surface: dispersion Concave surface: focusing dispersion Convex surface 0 100 1000 frequency (Hz) 1000 0 Parallel surface: • standing waves: gives large variation in sound pressure from node to anti-node focusing standing waves and echo Absorption characteristics of a material depend on a number of parameters: thickness. Instrumentation: Measurements setups for material testing.. Combine source localization & sound transmission loss testing LMS solutions are available via specials Propagation of Sound Reflection Incident sound wave on a surface: (a) part of it is reflected (b) part is absorbed (c) part is transmitted Reflected energy absorbed incident energy Propagation of Sound Absorption absorption coefficient Absorption coefficient α is defined as: absorbing material transmitted energy 1 100 mm 50 mm 30 mm α = 1− E reflected Eincident α < 0. dense concrete.…): high reflection.05 s is serious enough to confuse or irritate a listener in a room Standing waves and echo’s can be avoided by use of rough. non-parallel. transmission loss in-tube. there is a better sound insulation at higher frequencies Cases: thick concrete wall: high resistance to passage of sound. AI.…): low reflection. What material should I use to reduce the levels? Sound Materials/Components absorption. in-room Do I meet standards? Sound Power & Pass-by Noise Pressure & intensity based In-room. acoustically soft walls Concave surface foam Propagation of Sound Transmission Transmission coefficient τ (-): Acoustic material testing using impedance tube τ= E transmitte d E incident Absorption • 2-microphones sound insulation against environmental noise Sound transmission loss or sound reduction factor TL (dB): 1 TL = 10 log( ) τ • transfer-function method • ISO 10534-2 and ASTM E1050 Sound Transmission Loss TL is a measure of the noise reduction in decibels for specific frequency ranges. frequency.A. high sound reduction index TL thin plaster wall: low resistance to passage of sound.

As you can see the transmission loss curves closely match each other Transmission loss obtained from Sullivan & Crocker Transmission loss obtained from Virtual. W. Crocker (predicted and measured) in their paper ‘Analysis of concentric-tube resonators having unpartitioned cavities’.Impedance tube Sound Transmission Loss: 2-room method Covers a wide frequency range with only 1 tube/measurements: 50 .00 CAE Predicted Test Measured -20.00 0. J.Lab CAE: Transmission Loss 40.00 / dB . Sullivan and M.5700 Hz Design for optimal signal/noise quality High signal: Stable & distortion free JBL driver (max.00 Hz 2500. 150 dB) Low Noise: Heavy and thick-wall brass design Tube length > 20 * diameter (required for pure plane wave) Extendible for Sound Transmission Loss Sending room: N mics (typical 6) Source (loudspeaker) Test variance between mics in sending room (quality criteria) Overload check Receiving room Average pressure M mics Back ground noise check S/N ratio quality criteria Re-use of room reverberation characteristics Transmission Loss with Muffler CAE: Transmission Loss To do this we compared results obtained by J.