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GRASP 1.01 Copyright (c) 1997, Superior Software Solutions ReadMe.

Txt This file list the changes that were made to the program after the manual was sent for printing. Please read through this file before using the program. Changes to ADD MEMBER program mode ================================== 1. Whenever a new member is added such that its starting or ending point (node) lies directly on another existing member, a new node is inserted at that point and the existing member is split into two members. New member is then attached to the newly inserted node. However there is no change to the condition when there exists a node and a new member is added such that it passes over that existing node. In this case the new member is NOT split in two members but remains a single member extending from the user defined location. Changes to NODE MOVE and NODAL COORDINATES program mode ======================================================= The following explanation applies to relocation of nodes using NODE MOVE and NODAL COORDINATES program modes. In case of NODE MOVE, the node is relocated by dragging it to the new location. Whereas, for NODAL COORDINATES mode, the node is relocated by editing the nodal coordinates. Whenever a node is relocated following conditions are checked. 1. If a node is relocated to a point where another node already exists, one of the two nodes must be deleted as there can be only one node at any one location. Grasp will delete the relocated node and will keep the node already present at that location. This means that the boundary conditions of the existing node will be valid. All the members connected to the relocated will be attached to the existing node at that location. In case there exists a member between the relocated node and the existing node, it will get deleted. 2. Whenever a node is relocated such that its new location lies over an existing member (not attached to that node), the existing member will split the new position of relocated node. All the members attached to that node will still be attached to it. However the splitted members will now be attached to that node as well. 3. Whenever a node is relocated such that one or more members overlap other member, one of the two overlapping members must be deleted. In such a case Grasp will show a dialog box with shape and member properties of the two members. You to select one of the two members that should be deleted. Changes to Colors in Customize dialog box =========================================

No Bending Moment or Shear Force in case of Trusses ================================================== 1. Refer to Section Intermediate Points for Detailed Calculations in Chapter 3 of the manual. Self weight of truss members is generated as member load in global negative Y direction. it can only have axial forces in members. 2. Copy current view of structure on screen to clipboard for export ================================================================ 1. If a member load is being applied in axial direction of the member. nothing will change. Microsoft Excel. its member end forces contain only axial forces. SELECTED BACKGROUND. 3. Maximum Positive Span Bending Moments in Members ================================================ Now positive bending moments are determined in every span and are shown in the member forces table and the printed results. Therefore. For trusses. 2. Member Loads in Trusses ====================== 1. Self Load Generation in Trusses =============================== 1. Microsoft Paint or any other program capable to insert bitmaps. You must select different colors for (i) Member and (ii) Selected Member. Location of the section where maximum moment occurs in any . You can use this command to copy the current view of the structure to the clipboard. This is the color of the background of selected item in. These two can not have same colors. if you choose Bending Moment or Shear Force plots either from the View menu or the toolbar buttons. When a structure is solved as Truss. Member Loads dialogs and Wizard main window. no shear and moment results are available. However. you can have member loads applied directly on members. Once copied. it may have different values of axial force at its two ends. A new command is added to the Edit menu. the copied bitmap image may be imported to Microsoft Word. One new item added to Color list. 2. You must select different colors for (i) Node and (ii) Selected Node. This is "Copy Current View". in such cases the applied member load is transferred to member end nodes without any moment transfer. When a structure has been analyzed as a truss.1. However these member loads are transferred to nodes for solution without any moment transfer. Member Properties. In the Member End Forces Table from the Tables menu. This value is picked from the computed results at the Intermediate points for detailed results. Temperature loads are also treated with calculation of axial fixed end forces without any moment transfer. there can only be present axial forces in members. These two can not have same colors. only axial forces will be displayed. Grasp however calculates axial forces at two ends of every member. In case a structure is analyzed as a truss. Therefore.

3 (Math co version). Detection of Specified units in MF Data ======================================= Microfeap operates in consistent units. units may be entered for reference for length and force. Grasp reads the user specified units and then chooses one of the following system as. These files include . To see units for various items select those from the Units command in Options menu. However. the default units for that system shown in third column are chosen for data reading. To be able to load any Microfeap data into GRASP. Microfeap Data Conversion ========================= Grasp can read the data files generated by Microfeap II P1 version 3. . MM SI Units MM M. Importing Microfeap Data ======================== Microfeap II P1 v 3. . and similar other loading files. those files are no longer needed. However. To do that use the "Import Data" command in the "File" menu. Interpreted Nodal Coordinates in MF Data ======================================== Nodal Coordinates are interpreted as coordinates in a global right hand Cartesian coordinate system. File . If user has specified units to something other than Length Units below. KN SI Units Ton. Force Units Grasp Selects -----------------------------------------KIP. CM. Kg Metric Units However if none of the above is selected then units default to US customary units. . it is shown in the system default settings for that unit system. IN US Customary units IN M.ELE.DIR.members is also printed in hard copy of results. MM Metric Units MM Once data is loaded. Use the subcommand "Microfeap 3. Material properties are only the properties of a material and does not contain any information . COO. Interpreted Material and Section Properties in MF Data ====================================================== In Microfeap. CM.BOU.31 Data". these are two separate things. all the required data files must be present at one location.CON. Length Units Grasp Selects Default --------------------------------------------------FT.Save option. K US Customary units N. once data is saved in Grasp using. Material defines the section as well as material properties whereas in GRASP. Following length units are interpreted for each of the three available units.3 data can be imported to GRASP.

The following values are assumed for the two. In addition to modulus of elasticity. "Dead Load". Property Grasp Default values --------------------------------------------------Section Total Depth 1 in (US units) or 1 mm otherwise Location of centroid 0. if need be.. GRASP scans the MF materials with same modulus of Elasticity.about the cross section properties. The following are assumed for data read from MF files.5 in (US units) or 0. if there are more than one Dead Load cases in MF data. Material 3. Therefore.000065 (All systems of units) Material data read from Microfeap is passed through a second scan for different section properties. There can not be any externally applied loads in Self Load as it is meant for self load which is generated internally by GRASP. its loads are entered in the second mandatory case. Therefore. Property Grasp Default values --------------------------------------------------Material Names Material 1.. GRASP however. . etc. its unit weight and coefficient of thermal expansion. with area and inertia read from MF data. the first one read is interpreted as "Dead Load" and the second load case is added as a new load case. If user has any load cases named as "Dead" or "Dead Load". The starting and ending node can however be located anywhere on the x-y plane. You may however turn it on from the Loading menu. . W (unit weight) 0 Alpha 0. Interpreting Load Cases ======================= In GRASP there are three mandatory load cases. Grasp defines all section types to be of User Specified type. needs two more values for each section. In grasp calculated section properties can be entered in User Specified section type. Self load generation for the data is also turned off. Please see Global and Local Axis in chapter 2 of the manual. Grasp needs a name of material. Grasp swaps the starting and ending nodes of a member. These are Self. Therefore. The values are read for member cross section area and inertia.5 mm otherwise from top Member Orientation (Member Local Axis) ====================================== In MF you can have member local axis defined from the staring node to ending node. However. These are required when you select the option to show the member outlines from the view menu. Dead and Live loads. GRASP however uses a consistent convention of local axis. These are section total depth and location of section centroid from top fiber. no load is read into this load case. Material 2. It then uses same material for all the members which are defined with that modulus of elasticity.

In case. Microfeap assumes member loads are applied w. In case of more than one load cases with "Live". For all load cases that do not contain "Dead" or "Live" loads as mentioned above a new load case is added and all the loads corresponding to that load case are stored in that load case. Nodal Loads =========== Nodal Loads are applied in global axis in both the system therefore. those are simply read and applied on defined nodes in the same load case. The following approach is used for data conversion. Member Loads ============ As explained above in member orientation. For all the other encounters new load cases are added. Same name is used in Grasp for clear identification. In Grasp member loads may be applied with respect to either of global or local axis system. this adjustment will ensure the correct interpretation of location and direction.In the same way if there is a load case named "Live" or "Live Load". Grasp takes temperature at member top and bottom fibers of a member. Therefore. However. Microfeap temperature strains are converted to Top and bottom temperature s using the default values of alpha=0. the loads from the first encountered load are stored in the Grasp mandatory "Live Load". it may switch starting and ending nodes of a member. Temperature Loads -----------------Applied Temperature loads are converted to Grasp Temperature loads. The uniform load is based upon the section properties and the density read from the MF file. the member load orientation and location may be different than the one defined in MF data. For this reason. resulting in correct analysis results.r. Concentrated Loads -----------------Applied concentrated loads are converted to Grasp loads in member loads applied in Global X or Y directions. If a member is adjusted for orientation. Grasp has a consistent local axis convention.0000065 and section total depth to be equal to 1 in (US units) or 1mm (SI or metric units). However. Uniform Loads ------------Applied uniform loads are converted to Grasp loads in member loads applied in Global X or Y directions. the location of this load may also be adjusted. the orientation of any member is adjusted. Volume Loads -----------------Applied volume loads are converted to Grasp uniform loads on that member applied in Global X or Y directions. corresponding member loads may also need the adjustment. Grasp performs this automatically. its loads are stored in the Live Load of Grasp data. Saving Data in Grasp ==================== .t global axis.

Now in the Member array window user gets three following choices for the Direction of generated array of members. This has been tested and fixed. Del key acts as clicking the Delete in the Edit menu. "Import Microfeap 3. In some cases the truss reactions were not right. Corrected the default values of material properties. Using this feature you may delete multiple members at a time. Multiple nodes at one location are eliminated whenever structure is analyzed or saved. However. In some cases the detailed results window caused an error.01 ================== Following changes have been incorporated in the newer release. Select all the members that are to be deleted and press the DEL key. Once data is converted load it using the "Import Data" option of the "File" menu. For older versions of data either convert the data to version 3. Member Array New Features ------------------------Member array feature of Grasp has been improved. Member loads for multiple loads has been fixed and tested. This version removes that discrepancy. Horizontal 2.3 data". Select Members and then click on Delete. Importing Microfeap Data for other then version 3. MF original data files are not required. Advanced Previously available option goes in third choice listed above. Horizontal ---------Use this feature when you want to generate multiple similar members on the same floor or level of a building. 1. Loads shall be applied to all of the members. This removes the error that sometimes occurred that 'Data could not be read properly' as well. the first two options may be used for simple generations along global x or global y direction. To generate members on right si de . Changes for v 1. Vertical 3. Now you may select multiple members and then apply the loads.3 using some utility or Microfeap 3.3. user should save it as GRASP structure data file using either of the "Save" or "Save As" options of File menu. Once that is done.31 ==================================================== Grasp reads data saved by Microfeap P1 II version 3. Use the subcommand. The underlying report engine has been improved for better consistency.Once data is loaded in Grasp.3 .

2. Press and release the left mouse button. Newly generated members have length. the dialog b ox will show a vertical. Horizontal array may be generated for 1. Choose the Horizontal Array by clicking on it (located near the top o f this dialog box). how the newly generated members may look corresponding to each of these types of members. 1. the dialog b ox will show a vertical. The Member Array dialog box will appear on the screen. The Member Array dialog box will come up on the screen. Choose the Horizontal Array by clicking on it (located near the top o f this dialog box). 5.) 2. a horizontal and an inclined members on left side of this dialog. The Member Array dialog box shows members of all such types and also how an array of such members will look like when the horizontal option is selected. In the box near the lower left corner type in the typical spacing between newly generated members. 1. Change the program mode to Select Members. To generate similar members in horizontal direction. Once the horizontal array is selected. Zero spacing is not allowed. Inclined members. On the right side of these members are also shown. In the box rear the lower right corner type in the number of member to be generated. (You should not be in the Select Members mode before this. CAUTION: If you generate a horizontal array of horizontal members. Select all the members for which you want to generate arrays. To generate arrays of multiple members in horizontal direction. Once the horizontal array is selected. Choose Array of members either from the structure menu or click on th e the corresponding button in the toolbar. Click on the Generate button. Horizontal members. 3. either from the Edit menu or by clicking on the corresponding button in the toolbar. 6. the members will not be generated correctly. 4. the dialo g box will disappear and the members generated.of the original member use a positive spacing or use negative spacing to generate members towards left of the original member. . 3. If a spacing smaller than the member length is used . Move the mouse pointer over the member that you want to generate. On the right side of these members are also shown. how the newly generated members may look corresponding to each of these types of members. If the data entered is valid. Vertical or 3. section properties and orientation similar to that of the original member. the spacing between newly generated members must be at least equal to the length of the member. 2. a horizontal and an inclined members on left side of this dialog. Either choose Member Array from the Structure menu or press the corresponding button in the toolbar.

To generate similar members in vertical direction. The Member Array dialog box will come up on the screen. the dialog box will show a vertical. Click on the Generate button. The Member Array dialog box shows members of all such types and also how an array of such members will look like when the vertical option is selected. If the data entered is valid. (You should not be in the Select Members mode before this. the dialo g box will disappear and the members generated. a horizontal and an inclined members in the low er portion of this dialog box. If a spacing smaller than the member length is used . how the newly generated members may look corresponding to each of these types of members. If the data entered is valid. Inclined members. Newly generated members have length. In the box rear the lower right corner type in the number of member to be generated. 5. section properties and orientation similar to that of the original member. Change the program mode to Select Members. 1. Vertical -------Use this feature when you want to generate members on different stories or different levels. 1. Move the mouse pointer over the member that you want to generate. Zero spacing is not allowed. 6. Vertical or 3. 6. 4. In the box near the lower left corner type in the typical spacing between newly generated members. In the box rear the lower right corner type in the number of member to be generated. 2. Press and release the left mouse button. Select all .4. CAUTION: If you generate a vertical array of vertical members. Above these members are also shown. Once the vertical array is selected. the dialo g box will disappear and the members generated. Either choose Member Array from the Structure menu or press the corresponding button in the toolbar. Click on the Generate button. Vertical array may be generated for 1. Horizontal members. 3. Choose the Vertical Array by clicking on it (located near the top of this dialog box). 5. the spacing between newly generated members must be at least equal to the length of the member. In the box near the lower left corner type in the typical spacing between newly generated members. the members will not be generated correctly.) 2. To generate members at a level higher than the origi nal member use a positive spacing or use negative spacing to generate members below the original member. To generate array of multiple members in vertical direction. either from the Edit menu or by clicking on the corresponding button in the toolbar.

Above these members are also shown. user can have truss members in a frame structure. Once the vertical array is selected.01 for Mfeap data import ======================================== Following changes have been incorporated in the newer release related to impor t of Mfeap data. In the box near the lower left corner type in the typical spacing between newly generated members. If the data entered is valid. For example. 6. starting and ending nodes) by which new members shall be generated. Using this feature you can precisely define increment along global x and y direction (of both. Changes for v 1. a horizontal and an inclined members in the low er portion of this dialog box. This small values is either of the two following situations. . if you have one beam of 5 meter and want to generate another beam of 4 meters on its side. Advanced -------This feature allows you to have newly generated members in different size and/or in different orientation than the original member. Grasp assigns a very small value of inertia to all the members originally with zero inertia. 3. Similarly. The Member Array dialog box will appear on the screen. When such a data is imported into Grasp. All the discussion pertains to this Advanced feature. Choose Array of members either from the structure menu or click on th e the corresponding button in the toolbar. a slight modification is done to the original data. Click on the Generate button. However. you will have to use this feature. in Mfeap.the members for which you want to generate arrays. This is modelled by assigning zero moment of inertia to that member. the dialo g box will disappear and the members generated. if all the columns (vertical members) in a story are 4 meter long. Choose the Vertical Array by clicking on it (located near the top of this dialog box). use this feature. If you want to generate another story of similar columns which are 3 meter long. Zero Inertia -----------In Grasp. In the box rear the lower right corner type in the number of member to be generated. user can not enter a zero value of inertia. how the newly generated members may look corresponding to each of these types of members. the dialog box will show a vertical. 4. 2. 5. See section "Generating an Array of Members" in chapter 4 of the manual.

Load along global axis per unit of horizontal or vertical length. As Grasp considers load applied per unit of member length. then let us see ho w this will be interpreted by Grasp.6). Similarly. Also note that the load applied in direction 1 in Mfeap appears as load in Global X direction in Grasp. It s length is 10 meters. consider the vertical load (direction 2) in the example above. Vertical loads are considered positive in Grasp if applied in negative Y direction. The total load on the member sums up to 10KN/m * 8m = 80KN (along -ive Global Y direction). Then it assigns 1/100 of that smallest inertia to all the members having zero inertia in the structure.01 mm^4 (Metric & SI units). Load along global axis direction per unit of inclined member length. Mfeap considers direction 1 load of 5KN per meter of vertical length over a length of 6 m.01 in^4 (US units) or 0. If at least one member has a nonzero inertia. In Mfeap if there is a member load of 5KN/m in direction 1 and a load of -10 KN/m in the direction 2. The total horizontal load is 5KN/m * 6m = 30KN. in Grasp uniform member loads are applied in. The following example illustrates this difference and shows how Grasp converts such data to its own system. If a member starts at (0. In Mfeap the uniform loads are applied in. So the intens ity shall become 80KN / 10m = 8KN/m. This load shall be distributed over an inclined member length of 10 meters. Thus the intensity of same load shall become 30KN/m / 10m = 3KN/m.0) and extends to (8. However. 2. Member or Element loads ----------------------There is a slight difference in expressing the member loads in Grasp as compared to Mfeap. Example in SI units. In Grasp the same load shall be spread over the inclined length of 10 meters. If all the members in the structure have zero inertia then all the members are assigned a value of 0. then Grasp looks for the smallest values of moment of inertia being used in the structure. Note that this load appears in Global Y direction. .1. In Mfeap a load of -10KN per horizontal meter is being applied over a length of 8 meters.