Applications 766

Direct-current installations usually have different types of sockets, switches, and fixtur es, mostly due to the low voltages used, from those suitable for alternating current. It is usually important with a direct-current appliance not to reverse polarity unless the device has a diode bridge to correct for this (most battery-powered devices do not).

This symbol is found on many electronic devices that either require or produce direct current. The Unicode symbol for direct current is U+2393 (⎓ ). DC is commonly found in many low-voltage applications, especially where these are p owered by batteries, which can produce only DC, or solar power systems, since solar c ells can produce only DC. Most automotive applications use DC, although the alternat or is an AC device which uses a rectifier to produce DC. Most electronic circuits requir e a DC power supply. Applications using fuel cells (mixing hydrogen and oxygen togeth er with a catalyst to produce electricity and water as byproducts) also produce only D C. Through the use of a DC-DC converter, high DC voltages such as 48V to 72V DC can be stepped down to 36V, 24V, 18V, 12V or 5V to supply different loads. In a telecommuni cations system operating at 48V DC, it is generally more efficient to step voltage down to 12V to 24VDC with a DC-DC converter and power equipment loads directly at their native DC input voltages versus operating a 48VDC to 120VAC inverter to provide pow er to equipment. Many telephones connect to a twisted pair of wires, and internally separate the AC co mponent of the voltage between the two wires (the audio signal) from the DC compo nent of the voltage between the two wires (used to power the phone). Telephone exchange communication equipment, such as DSLAM, uses standard -48V DC power supply. The negative polarity is achieved by grounding the positive terminal of power supply system and the battery bank. This is done to prevent electrolysis dep ositions.

Less insulation require.1. A DC system has no skin effect so we can utilize entire cross section area of line conductor. 4. 6. A DC system require less insulation than an AC system because of less potential stress for same work ing voltage.Number of conductors. Absence of capacitance in DC system leads to less power loss because there will not be charging and discharging of capacitance. Frequency In DC system. Connection will n ot also require synchronization. DC system does not introduce a reactance in the line.absence of capacitance. A DC system has no inductance as a result the voltage drop in DC system is less than that of AC syste m for same load and sending end voltages and hence a better voltage regulation. while DC is only a real number. 11.Absence of inductance. Susceptance DC system does not introduce susceptance in the line thus removing the effect of charging cur rent. 5. . Reactance. A DC system requires only two conductrs as compare to three for ac system. the frequency is zero. thus no frequency variation to monitor. 3. 7. 8. thus simplif ying the analysis. 10. 9. 2.NO skin effect. Resistance DC system reduces the amount of resistance in the line. the power is just the real component. Power In DC system. Analysis Analysis of AC system always involved complex numbers.

1. Currently. AC to DC Rectification 2. there are no difficulties in synchronizing and sta bility problems. stable. The Electric power transmission was in DC due to the follo wing advantages. A DC System has a less potential stress over AC system for same Voltage lev el. the transformation of DC voltage into another level involves 3 steps. . there are very low voltage drop in DC transmi ssion lines comparing with AC (if both Load and sending end voltage is same ) There is no concept of Skin effect in DC transmission. Therefore. In DC Transmission system. easy to anal yze than AC system. DC to AC Conversion DC Transmission: Some times ago. easy to monitor.If DC system has the ability to transform voltage into various levels. In High Voltage DC Transmission lines. efficiently. There is no interference with communication system. In DC System. there are no Dielectric losses. Corona losses are very low. Therefore. AC to AC transformation. and most importantly. Advantages of DC Transmission Advantages: There are two conductors used in DC transmission while three conductors re quired in AC transmission. a DC line requires less insulation. small cross sectional area conductor required. There are no Inductance and Surges (High Voltage waves for very short time ) in DC transmission. the DC transmis sion system will the more efficient. and 3. In DC Line. Due to absence of inductance.

Electric power can’t be produce at High (DC) Voltage. The level of DC Voltage can not be change easily. So we can not get desire voltage for Electr ical and electronics appliances (such as 5 Volts. we can not step the level of DC Voltage (As Transformer can not work on DC) There is a limit of DC Switches and Circuit breakers (and costly too) Motor generator set is used for step down the level of DC voltage and the efficiency of Mot or-generator set is low than transformer. 9 Volts 15 Volts. so the system makes complex and costly. 20 and 22 Volts etc) directl y from Transmission system. For High Voltage transmission. .Disadvantages: Due to commutation problem.

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