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  MOTET

 Musicians at Nôtre-Dame created this new genre in the early thirteenth century      

  MOTET 
Motets originally consisted of  newly written Latin words  added to the upper voices of discant clausulae.  The earliest texts were often a  textual trope of the clausula.   

  MOTET 
The French word for “word” MOT inspired the name for the genre.      

  MOTET  The Thirteenth-Century Motet is a  polyphonic works with one or more texted voices  added to a pre-existing tenor.       . which is set in a modal rhythm.

  MOTET  Motets are identified by a compound title comprising the first words of each voice from highest to lowest.     .

  MOTET  Motets are identified by a compound title comprising the first words of each voice from highest to lowest.  Factume est salutare / Dominus   .

      .  MOTET  The motet became the  leading polyphonic genre for both sacred and secular music.

  MOTET  The Early Motet (to ca. 1250)        .

  MOTET  Based on the discant clausula       .

  MOTET  Based on the discant clausula The new text tropes the original chant text Phrasing of original clausula shapes phrases of added text    .

  MOTET  Sung during the Mass or as  independent entertainment      .

  MOTET  Factum est salutare / Dominus      .

  MOTET  These existing motets were reworked  New texts added to duplum in Latin or French no longer linked to liturgical context   .

  MOTET  These existing motets were reworked  New texts added to duplum in Latin or French no longer linked to liturgical context  Other voices (triplum) added with texts of their own .

  MOTET 
Early Motets (to ca. 1250)  Double Motet: a motet with two added texts above the tenor  (Double motet = three voices)  

  MOTET 
Early Motets (to ca. 1250)  Triple motet: a motet with three added texts above the tenor   (Triple motet = four voices)  

  MOTET 
The “Additive” Motet   Original duplum discarded and another one (or more) composed.    

  MOTET   “Original” Motets composed “from scratch”       .

  MOTET   “Original” Motets composed “from scratch”  Chant tenor from clausula set in modal rhythm     .

  MOTET   “Original” Motets composed “from scratch”  Chant tenor from clausula set in modal rhythm  Duplum / Triplum added above tenor   .

  MOTET on “Dominus” of “Viderunt omnes”   .

  MOTET          melisma .

  MOTET  “Factum est salutare / Dominus” ∨ “Fole acostumance / Dominus”  same tenor (2x)     .

  MOTET  “Factum est salutare / Dominus” ∨ “Fole acostumance / Dominus”  same tenor (2x) new duplum…    .

  MOTET  “Factum est salutare / Dominus” ∨ “Fole acostumance / Dominus”  same tenor (2x) new duplum… with secular text..   ..

  MOTET 

“Factum est salutare / Dominus” ∨ “Fole acostumance / Dominus” 
same tenor (2x) new duplum… with secular text... in French 

  MOTET 
“Super te / Sed fulsit / Dominus”  Tenor “Dominus” (first half 2x) Duplum / Triplum with texts from Latin poem    

  MOTET 
“Super te / Sed fulsit / Primus Tenor / Dominus” based on “Super te / Sed fulsit / Dominus”     

  MOTET  “Super te / Sed fulsit / Primus Tenor / Dominus” based on “Super te / Sed fulsit / Dominus”  with added untexted “primus tenor”    .

  MOTET  Motets in later thirteenth century        .

  MOTET  Motets in later thirteenth century  By 1250 three voices are typical      .

or French & Latin    .  MOTET  Motets in later thirteenth century  By 1250 three voices are typical Upper voices with texts in Latin or French.

  MOTET 
By 1270 the tenor is now called the 

CANTUS FIRMUS 
   

  MOTET 
By 1270 the TENOR is now called the 

CANTUS FIRMUS
= A pre-existing melody   

  MOTET 
By 1270 the TENOR is now called the 

CANTUS FIRMUS
= A pre-existing melody  Melody predominantly CHANT 

1280)  Innovations in notating RHYTHM   .  FRANCONIAN NOTATION   Franco of Cologne  Ars Cantus Mensurabilis (c.

  FRANCONIAN NOTATION   Noteshape signifies relative duration      .

  FRANCONIAN NOTATION   Noteshapes are:       .

  FRANCONIAN NOTATION   Noteshapes are:        + Double long .

tempora) is the basic unit  Long = 2 or 3 tempora Breve = 2 or 3 tempora     .  FRANCONIAN NOTATION   The tempus (pl.

tempora) is the basic unit  Long = 2 or 3 tempora Breve = 2 or 3 tempora  Franconian system included signs for rests   .  FRANCONIAN NOTATION   The tempus (pl.

  FRANCONIAN NOTATION           .

  FRANCONIAN NOTATION           .

  FRANCONIAN NOTATION           .

  FRANCONIAN NOTATION   With Franconian notation score notation not needed  voices written in parts rather than score format     .

  FRANCONIAN NOTATION  DUPLUM      TRIPLUM TENOR     .

  FRANCONIAN MOTETS   Motets written in Franconian Notation  Written in style made possible by  Franconian Notation     .

  FRANCONIAN MOTETS   Motets written in Franconian Notation  Written in style made possible by  Franconian Notation  Each voice has distinctive rhythm  Rhythm no longer shaped by Modal Rhythm .

  FRANCONIAN MOTETS   Adam DE LA HALLE (c. 1240-1288?)  De ma dame vient / Dieus comment porroie / Omnes    .

  FRANCONIAN MOTETS   Tenor “Omnes” > Gradual Viderunt Omnes (4) x 3       .

comment porroie     .  FRANCONIAN MOTETS   Tenor “Omnes” > Gradual Viderunt Omnes (4) x 3  Duplum (Motetus) > Dieux.

comment porroie  Triplum > newly composed with quotes from songs  .  FRANCONIAN MOTETS   Tenor “Omnes” > Gradual Viderunt Omnes (4) x 3  Duplum (Motetus) > Dieux.

  FRANCONIAN MOTETS   Each voice has its own pace  Duplum = woman’s point of view  Triplum = man’s point of view  Parts are independent .

  FRANCONIAN MOTETS    Harmony allows thirds and other dissonances  P 4 now being treated like a dissonance  Cadences still demand “perfect” consonances  Cadence patterns developing .

  ROTA  English culture was tied to that of France after the Norman Conquest in 1066        .

 English musicians created a distinct musical style     .  ROTA  English culture was tied to that of France after the Norman Conquest in 1066  Although they adopted French culture.

  ROTA  Prominent “imperfect consonances”   Improvised partsinging in close harmony documented as early as 1200      .

  ROTA  Prominent “imperfect consonances”   Improvised partsinging in close harmony documented as early as 1200  Emphasis on harmonic thirds and triads including the final sonority  .

  ROTA  Voice-exchange evolved into elaborate techniques       .

 with each voice singing each one in turn .  ROTA  Voice-exchange evolved into elaborate techniques  The RONDELLIUS two or three phrases are heard simultaneously.

  ROTA  Rondellus  Triplum: a b c Duplum: c a b Tenor: b c a    .

  ROTA  A ROTA is a perpetual canon or round at the unison       .

  ROTA  Sumer is icumen in         .

     .  ROTA  Sumer is icumen in   Two voices sing a voice-exchange pes  (Latin for “foot” or “ground”).

  ROTA  Sumer is icumen in   Two voices sing a voice-exchange pes  (Latin for “foot” or “ground”).  Four upper voices in canon producing alternating triadic sonorities of F–A–C and G–B-flat–D .

  POLYPHONY  By 1300. “composition” meant creating polyphony. not monophony.       .

  POLYPHONY  Writing down music of multiple parts in coordinating vertical sonorities to create a sense of direction  that would be a hallmark of Western tradition and set it apart from almost all other musical traditions.   .

  FOURTEENTH CENTURY  Difficult conditions in Europe       .

  FOURTEENTH CENTURY  Difficult conditions in Europe  “Mini Ice Age” Floods     .

  FOURTEENTH CENTURY  Difficult conditions in Europe  “Mini Ice Age” Floods  The BLACK DEATH   .

  FOURTEENTH CENTURY  Difficult conditions in Europe  “Mini Ice Age” Floods  The BLACK DEATH   .

  FOURTEENTH CENTURY  BUBONIC PLAGUE killed one third of the Europe’s population 1347-1350      .

  FOURTEENTH CENTURY  BUBONIC PLAGUE killed one third of the Europe’s population 1347-1350  Victims died within days Survivors fled urban areas   .

  FOURTEENTH CENTURY  GREAT SCHISM 1378-1417  King Philip IV of France  French Pope in Avignon  Corrupt clergy bureaucracy  .

 Magnetic compass  .1285-1349) Knowledge from experience and the senses  Eyeglasses. Mechanical clocks.  FOURTEENTH CENTURY  SCIENCE & SECULARISM  William of Ockham (c.

  FOURTEENTH CENTURY        compass  William of Ockham .

  FOURTEENTH CENTURY  VISUAL ARTS  The Florentine painter GIOTTO achieved more naturalistic representation  and a sense of depth and symmetry  PERSPECTIVE  .

Padua .  FOURTEENTH CENTURY  VISUAL ARTS        Giotto. Arena Chapel.

  Dante Alighieri and Giovanni Boccacio in Italian Geoffrey Chaucer in English   .  FOURTEENTH CENTURY  LITERATURE  Increased literacy led to more literature in the vernacular.

     .  though much sacred music continued to be composed.  FOURTEENTH CENTURY  MUSIC  Increased attention to secular song.

  FOURTEENTH CENTURY  ROMAN de FAUVEL  Flatterie (Flattery) Avarice (Greed) Villanie (Villany) Variété (Fickleness) Envie (Envy) Lâcheté (Cowardice) .

  FOURTEENTH CENTURY  ROMAN de FAUVEL  Flatterie (Flattery) Avarice (Greed) Villanie (Villany) Variété (Fickleness) Envie (Envy) Lâcheté (Cowardice) .

Bibliothèque Nationale . Paris.  ROMAN de FAUVEL  Flatterie (Flattery) Avarice (Greed) Villanie (Villany) Variété (Fickleness) Envie (Envy) Lâcheté (Cowardice) Fond Français 146.

  ARS NOVA  Philippe de Vitry (1291-1361)  Ars Nova (c. 1320) “This completes the ars nova of Magister Philippe de Vitry”    .

  ARS NOVA  Philippe de Vitry (1291-1361)  Ars Nova (c. 1320) “This completes the ars nova of Magister Philippe de Vitry”  Vitry compositions among the 169 pieces of music in Fauvel .

  ARS NOVA  MENSURATION SIGNS  MODE = Division of the Long TIME = Division of the Breve  PROLATION= Division of the Semibreve Major / Minor  .

”    .  ARS NOVA  Shifting emphasis to duple meters was criticized by Jacque de Liège  “Perfection is brought low. and imperfection exalted.

  ISORHYTHM  Motets of Philippe de Vitry some of the earliest uses of ISORHYTHM       .

  ISORHYTHM  Motets of Philippe de Vitry some of the earliest uses of ISORHYTHM  Rhythmic structure of the tenor of motet      .

taleae)  Rhythmic pattern  COLOR “color” (pl. colores) The melodic notes of the tenor  .  ISORHYTHM  TALEA “cuttings” (pl.

taleae)  Rhythmic pattern  The tenor is laid out in segments of identical rhythm.   .  ISORHYTHM  TALEA “cuttings” (pl.

taleae)  Rhythmic pattern  Taleae in tenors in 1200s = short patterns  Taleae in tenors in 1300s = longer patterns   .  ISORHYTHM  TALEA “cuttings” (pl.

taleae)  Rhythmic pattern  The slow pace of the tenor makes it less a melody and more of a foundational structure.   .  ISORHYTHM  TALEA “cuttings” (pl.

  ISORHYTHM  COLOR “color” (pl. colores) The melodic notes of the tenor   The color and may repeat. but not necessarily with the rhythm.   .

  ISORHYTHM  “In arboris / Tuba sacre fidei / Virgo sum”  attributed to Vitry       .

  ISORHYTHM  “In arboris / Tuba sacre fidei / Virgo sum”  attributed to Vitry   Tenor refers to the Virgin Mary Duplum (Motetus) and Triplum refer to Mary   .

  ISORHYTHM  “In arboris / Tuba sacre fidei / Virgo sum”  attributed to Vitry  The tenor includes two statements of the color  6 repetitions of the talea  .

  ISORHYTHM  “In arboris / Tuba sacre fidei / Virgo sum”  attributed to Vitry  Coloration indicates changes from duple to triple  Introitus   .

 each resting while the other sings  The device was developed in the thirteenth century    .  HOCKET  “Hiccup”   Two voices alternating in rapid succession.

 but their resolution could be sustained  Parallel octaves and fifths continued to be used    .   ARS NOVA HARMONIC PRACTICES  Greater prominence of imperfect consonances  Cadences required perfect consonances.

   GUILLAUME de MACHAUT (c. 1300-1377)          .

   GUILLAUME de MACHAUT (c. 1300-1377)   The leading composer of the French Ars Nova  Born in northeastern France. middle-class family  Educated as a cleric and took Holy Orders   .

worked as secretary for John of Luxembourg. including the kings of Navarre and France  . King of Bohemia.   GUILLAUME de MACHAUT (c. 1300-1377)  1323–1340.  Resided in Reims after 1340  Royal patrons supported him.

then the music     . 1300-1377)  First composer to compile his complete works and to discuss his working method  He wrote his poems first.   GUILLAUME de MACHAUT (c.

1300-1377)  First composer to compile his complete works and to discuss his working method  He wrote his poems first. then the music  Liked music “sweet and pleasing”   .   GUILLAUME de MACHAUT (c.

1300-1377)  He paid for the preparation of several illuminated manuscripts of his works  He composed many major musical works and numerous narrative poems    .   GUILLAUME de MACHAUT (c.

  Often include hockets   . 3 which use secular songs as tenors. most from early in his career  20 are isorhythmic. 1300-1377)  23 motets.   GUILLAUME de MACHAUT (c.

1300-1377)  Messe de Nostre Dame “Mass of Our Lady”       .  GUILLAUME de MACHAUT (c.

1300-1377)  Probably the earliest polyphonic setting of the Mass Ordinary to be composed by a single composer and conceived as a unit  Kyrie.   GUILLAUME de MACHAUT (c. Credo. Agnus Dei & Ite missa est    . Santus. Gloria.

1300-1377)  In the fourteenth century.   GUILLAUME de MACHAUT (c. England. and Italy set individual movements polyphonically. anonymous composers in France.  A few mass “cycles” were assembled from individual movements     .

1300-1377)  Composed for the cathedral in Reims  Performed at a Mass for the Virgin Mary celebrated every Saturday  After Machaut’s death.   GUILLAUME de MACHAUT (c. and performed until fifteenth century   . an oration for Machaut’s soul was added to the service.

   GUILLAUME de MACHAUT (c. 1300-1377)  UNIFYING DEVICES  Recurring motives  Tonal focus on D in the first three movements and on F in the last three     .

1300-1377)  UNIFYING DEVICES  All six movements are for four voices.   GUILLAUME de MACHAUT (c.      . including a contratenor (“against the tenor”) that moves in the same range as the tenor.

       . 1300-1377)  UNIFYING DEVICES  Kyrie. Sanctus.   GUILLAUME de MACHAUT (c. missa est are isorhythmic. Agnus Dei. and Ite.

1300-1377)  KYRIE  Chant Kyrie Cunctipotens Genitor       .   GUILLAUME de MACHAUT (c.

4-note talea x 7       . 1300-1377)  KYRIE  TENOR: 28 notes of chant.   GUILLAUME de MACHAUT (c.

4-note talea x 7 Contratenor also isorhythmic      . 1300-1377)  KYRIE  TENOR: 28 notes of chant.   GUILLAUME de MACHAUT (c.

1300-1377)  KYRIE  TENOR: 28 notes of chant. 4-note talea x 7 Contratenor also isorhythmic Upper voices partially isorhythmic     .   GUILLAUME de MACHAUT (c.

Chant Kyrie III: Polyphony    . 1300-1377)  Kyrie I: Polyphony. Polyphony. Polyphony  Christe: Chant.   GUILLAUME de MACHAUT (c. Chant. Chant  Kyrie II: Polyphony.

“songs”) in the formes fixes         .   GUILLAUME de MACHAUT (c. 1300-1377)  Polyphonic songs (chansons.

1300-1377)  “Treble-dominated” songs major innovation of the Ars Nova   The treble or cantus carries the text Slower untexted tenor supports the cantus. Triplum in same range as cantus   .   GUILLAUME de MACHAUT (c.  A contratenor may be added.

1300-1377)  RONDEAUX  Two musical phrases ( A and B)  Text includes a “refrain” (AB)  Form: ABaAabAB      .   GUILLAUME de MACHAUT (c.

1300-1377)  RONDEAUX   “Rose. verdure”        .   GUILLAUME de MACHAUT (c. printemps. liz.

 Bele. .  Et quant toute creature  Seurmonte vostre valour. printemps.   A B a A a b A B  Rose. baume et tres douce oudour. passés en douçour. liz. baume et tres douce odour.  Fleur. liz.  Et tous les biens de Nature. verdure.  Bien puis dire et par honnour:  Rose. verdure.  Fleur.  Rose.  Fleur.  Avez dont je vous aour. passés en douçour. verdure. liz. printemps. baume et tres douce oudour. printemps.  Bele.

   ARS NOVA … ARS SUBTILIOR  Composers at the court of the Avignon pope across southern France and northern Italy cultivated complex secular music.         .

   ARS NOVA … ARS SUBTILIOR  ARS SUBTILIOR a continuation of Ars Nova in secular polyphonic songs in the formes fixes and developing the complexities of Ars Nova notation       .

   ARS NOVA … ARS SUBTILIOR  Love songs intended for an elite audience  Pieces notated in fanciful shapes  Rhythmically complex      .

           “Belle. sage” Baude Cordier . bonne.

           “Tout par compas” Baude Cordier .

and mixed groups. instrumental.   Performing Fourteenth-Century Music  There was no uniform way to perform polyphonic music.  Pictorial and literary sources indicate vocal.  All vocal performance was most common.    .

   INSTRUMENTS  Instruments separated into 2 categories:  HAUT and BAS        .

 for outdoors and dancing.  Cornetts Trumpets Shawms Sackbuts    .   INSTRUMENTS  HAUT (“high”) instruments were loud.

lutes.   INSTRUMENTS  BAS (“low”) instruments were soft in volume and were played indoors  Stringed instruments: harps. and vielles Portative organs Transverse Flutes Recorders    .

   INSTRUMENTS  Percussion instruments were common in all kinds of ensembles         .

or Chromatic Alterations          .   “FALSE MUSIC”  MUSICA FICTA.

   “FALSE MUSIC”  Raising or lowering a note by a half-step to avoid the tritone  Pitches altered to make a smoother melodic line.      . especially at cadences.

   “FALSE MUSIC”  Raising or lowering a note by a half-step to avoid the tritone  Pitches altered to make a smoother melodic line, especially at cadences.  The resulting pitches lay “outside the gamut” and were thus “false”, or ficta  

   “FALSE MUSIC”  Raising or lowering a note by a half-step to avoid the tritone  Pitches altered to make a smoother melodic line.  The resulting pitches lay “outside the gamut” and were thus “false” or ficta   

   “FALSE MUSIC”  Medieval singers were trained to recognize situations in which a ficta were needed, so accidentals were rarely notated.   (Modern editions ficta accidentals above the staff, to indicate editorial intervention)    

  WHITE NOTATION  White Notation uses a five-line staff. and three clefs—G. though later composers experimented with more       . C.   Usually the only accidental notated as a ‘key’ signature is B-flat. and F.

  WHITE NOTATION  MEASURES AND BARLINES  There are no barlines or measures  But the length of the breve usually acted as a time unit analogous to the modern concept of a measure       .

  WHITE NOTATION  NOTE VALUES and RESTS           .

  WHITE NOTATION  MENSURATION  Mensuration deals with the division of the Breve (called Tempus or “time”)  and the Semibreve (Prolationis Species or “prolation”)      .

  Semibreve divisions (Prolation) are either “major” (3) or “minor” (2)    .  WHITE NOTATION  MENSURATION  Breve divisions (Tempus) are either “perfect” (division into 3s) or “imperfect (division into 2s).

  WHITE NOTATION  MENSURATION       A line through the mensuation symbol indicates that all note values are cut in half (alla breve).    .

     .   In determining a note’s value. coloring is calculated before dotting. or minim and by dotting. semibreve.  WHITE NOTATION  COLORATION The value of a note in a mensuration can be changed by coloring in the white space of breve.

  WHITE NOTATION  In Perfect Time —where a breve has the value of 3 semibreves— coloring a breve will subtract a 1/3 or its value and imperfects its value and makes a breve equal to 2 semibreves (a duplet)         .

  WHITE NOTATION  In Imperfect Time —where a breve has the value of 2 semibreves— coloring 3 consecutive semibreves creates a triplet and perfects their value. momentarily making 3 semibreves equal the value of 1 breve         .

        .  WHITE NOTATION  Josquin uses coloration for all the notes in his lament on the death of Ockeghem.  Nymphes des Bois to create “eye music” where the blackened notes indicate mourning.

since semiminim and fusa values are already “black     .   In doing so. and minims.  WHITE NOTATION  Josquin uses coloration for all the notes in his lament on the death of Ockeghem. Josquin limits himself to longs. breves. semibreves.  Nymphes des Bois to create “eye music” where the blackened notes indicate mourning.

             .

  WHITE NOTATION  LIGATURES  White Notation is complicated by several factors. one of them being the continued use of the LIGATURES (multiple-note units) and the conventions associated with their use carried over from neumes.      .

each two-note ligatures has the value of a breve followed by a long (indicated by the downward tail).        .  WHITE NOTATION  “BREVE” ligatures At the tempus level.

  WHITE NOTATION  “BREVE” ligatures           .

  WHITE NOTATION  “BREVE” ligatures           .

 both the square or oblique forms.     .  WHITE NOTATION  “SEMIBREVE” ligatures  The two-note ligatures that begin with an  upward tail are semibreves.  and each two-note pes or clivis has the value of two semibreves.

  WHITE NOTATION  “SEMIBREVE” ligatures           .

   WHITE NOTATION  CANONS           .

  WHITE NOTATION  In his  Missa ‘L’homme armè’ Dufay writes  “Cancer eat plenus et redeat medius”  (Let the crab proceed full. and let it return by half) in the tenor part of the third section of the “Agnus Dei.”      .

   WHITE NOTATION            .

 and then forward (or “returning” for the crab) with the notes at half value.      .   WHITE NOTATION  This indicates that the singers perform this part retrograde (crabs where thought of as walking “backwards”) with full rhythmic value.

   WHITE NOTATION  Dufay composes his motet  “Nuper rosarum flores” as an isorhythmic motet. built on two tenors         .

built on two tenors         .   WHITE NOTATION  Dufay composes his motet  “Nuper rosarum flores” as an isorhythmic motet.

  WHITE NOTATION  Dufay notates each tenor part with four mensuration signs and a repeat. each time with a different mensuration         .  indicating that each performer plays their tenor line four times.

 indicating that each performer plays their tenor line four times. each time with a different mensuration         .  WHITE NOTATION  Dufay notates each tenor part with four mensuration signs and a repeat.

  WHITE NOTATION  The numerical value of the breve changes from   6 : 4 : 2 : 3         .

  WHITE NOTATION  The numerical value of the breve changes from   6 : 4 : 2 : 3   WHY?      .

  WHITE NOTATION  Dufay wrote this motet for the consecration of the Duomo in Florence.          .

  WHITE NOTATION             .

begun 1296 Dome (1420-1436)  consecrated by Pope Eugenius IV on March 25.  WHITE NOTATION  Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446)  S. 1436    . Maria del Fiore.

  WHITE NOTATION             .

  WHITE NOTATION             .

  WHITE NOTATION             .

  WHITE NOTATION  The numbers refer to the dimensions of Solomon’s temple described in the Third Book of Kings. 6:1-20 (reduced to their lowest common denominators).        .

which king Solomon built to the Lord. and thirty cubits in height…  16 And he built up twenty cubits with boards of cedar at the hinder part of the temple. and twenty cubits in breadth. was threescore (60) cubits in length. from the floor to the top: and made the inner house of the oracle to be the holy of holies.   .  WHITE NOTATION  2 And the house.

and twenty cubits in breadth.  WHITE NOTATION  2 And the house. was threescore (60) cubits in length.   . which king Solomon built to the Lord. from the floor to the top: and made the inner house of the oracle to be the holy of holies. and thirty cubits in height…  16 And he built up twenty cubits with boards of cedar at the hinder part of the temple.

and thirty cubits in height…  16 And he built up twenty cubits with boards of cedar at the hinder part of the temple. was threescore (60) cubits in length. and twenty cubits in breadth.   . which king Solomon built to the Lord. from the floor to the top: and made the inner house of the oracle to be the holy of holies.  WHITE NOTATION  2 And the house.

  WHITE NOTATION  6 : 4 : 2 : 3   6 (the Temple’s total length)  4 (the length of the nave) 2 (the length of the sanctuary and width of the building) 3 (the height of the building)    .

  WHITE NOTATION  6 : 4 : 2 : 3   6 (the Temple’s total length)  4        .

  WHITE NOTATION  6 : 4 : 2 : 3   6 (the Temple’s total length)  4 (the length of the nave) 2 (the length of the sanctuary and width of the building) 3 (the height of the building)    ! .