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Vehicle Technology Trends of the Future

Rudi Kunze Chief Technical Officer, Ford of Europe Istanbul Nov. 26th, 2004
Research & Advanced Engineering

Road Transport -- Big Challenges

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• Emissions • Greenhouse gases • Limited fossile fuels • Safety • Sustainable Mobility

Research & Advanced Engineering

% of 1995 level 120 100 80 60 40 20 CO NOx PM-diesel VOC Benzene SO2 CO2 3 Source: EC Auto-Oil-2 Program 0 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 CO2 remains a major challenge Research & Advanced Engineering Vehicle CO2 Drivers and Opportunities Legal Drivers •Safety + 40-50kg •Emissions -higher fuel consumption -+ 7-10kg 4 Evolutionary Technologies •Powertrain evolution -Homogenious combustion -Downsizing. boosting etc. •Noise + 5-10kg Customer Preferences •Additional comfort •More features and equipment •Consumer choice of bigger cars •Aerodynamics •Rolling resistance •Vehicle Energy management •Weight reduction •Intelligent navigation Alternative Technologies •Hybrid technologies •Alternative Powertrains •Alternative fuels Research & Advanced Engineering .Road Transport Emission Trend 140 Emissions.

Tailpipe Emissions vs. HEVs Fuel Cell Fuel Cell Well-to-Wheel CO2 (g/km) Research & Advanced Engineering Future Powertrain Trends Diesel Diesel Engine Engine Alternative Alternative Fuel Fuel Engines Engines Advanced Advanced Petrol Petrol Engines Engines Petrol Petrol Engine Engine 6 Advanced Advanced Diesel Diesel Engines Engines HEV H -ICE H2 2-ICE Fuel Cell H2 Research & Advanced Engineering .g. Well-to-Wheel CO2-Emissions Euro-2 Crude oil based: Gasoline Crude oil based: Diesel Natural gas based 5 Diesel ICE Gasoline ICE Tailpipe Emissions Renewable based Euro-3 Long Term Target Euro-4 ZEV Diesel Gasoline ICE ICE Bridge to Available future Today Improved Improved Diesel Gasoline Ethanol Diesel CNG ICE ICE Hydrogen Further ICE Hydrogen ICE Evolution ICE Hydrogen Hydrogen e.

CNG.Ford Alternative Fuel Vehicles LPG 7 • LPG. ethanol • Bi-valent • Local suitability CNG Ethanol vehicles only sold by Ford Research & Advanced Engineering Ethanol Ford Hybrid Vehicles Micro Hybrid Fiesta Highest potential to reduce • Micro Hybrid Application: CO2 • Start Stop/Function • Regenerative Braking 8 • Mild Hybrid • Micro hybrid features + limited electric propulsion Ford Escape HEV • Full Hybrid • Mild hybrid features + electric only range • Limited zero emission operation Research & Advanced Engineering .

Gasoline Full Hybrid Diesel Petrol DI Mild Hybr. Note: Diesel and Petrol Hybrid have about same CO2 in real world customer cycle 10 Petrol DI 0 Petrol PFI Research & Advanced Engineering Cost .Ford Hydrogen Powered Vehicles Ford Focus C-MAX H2ICE 9 • Hydrogen internal combustion engine as bridging technology for hydrogen powered fuel cells • Hybridization possible Ford Focus FCEV Ford Focus H2ICE Hybrid Research & Advanced Engineering Cost/ Benefit in NEDC Cycle 60 Ethanol H2 ICE 10 % CO2 Reduction 50 40 30 20 Fuel Cell Diesel Mild Hybr.

Trends Transmission Manual Transmission 11 Automatic Transmission 3 3 Speed Speed 4 4 Speed Speed 5 5 Speed Speed 6 6 Speed Speed CVT Auto Shift Manual Research & Advanced Engineering Safety Model Phase 1 Normal Driving Phase 2 Danger Phase Phase 3 Crash Unavoidable Phase 4 In Crash Phase 5 Post Crash 12 ACTIVE PASSIVE TERTIARY IMPACT “Active” or “Primary” Safety = Accident Avoidance and/or Crash Severity Reduction “Passive” or “Secondary” Safety = Injury Avoidance and/or Injury Severity Reduction “Tertiary” Safety = Avoidance of Post-crash Risks and Ease of Rescue Research & Advanced Engineering .

Future Safety Challenge Reported Fatalities in Car Crash's in Europe 60000 50000 40000 13 Goal set in European Commission White Paper on the European Transport Policy: 50% Reduction in Fatalitites 2000-2010 30000 20000 10000 0 1993 Need for Advanced Safety Technologies 1995 2000 2005 2010 Research & Advanced Engineering Active Safety: Adaptive Curve Light 14 Research & Advanced Engineering .

Externally mounted • Laser based active night vision .Expensive .More robust Research & Advanced Engineering 16 Blind Spot Detection / Lane Change Aid • Monitoring device packaged in the exterior mirror observing the mirror's inherent blind spot • Audible or visible aid to facilitate the lane change with activated indicator Possible camera position Research & Advanced Engineering .Current technology .Night Vision 15 • Thermal Imaging .Higher quality .

etc. borders. to give an audible or visual hazard warning when changing the lane without indication • Gen II systems could interface with active steering systems Research & Advanced Engineering Collision Mitigation by Braking 18 FLR • Acoustic and optical warning • Pre-charges the brake system to quicker build up the brake pressure • In case of unavoidable accident autonomous braking is provided (reduce speed and accident severity) CWM ECU w/ Camera Research & Advanced Engineering .17 Lane Departure Warning • Stereo camera that monitors lane markers.

Passive Safety • Advanced restraint systems • Advanced airbags • Advanced materials • Pedestrian protection 20 Pedestrian Subsystem Tests Research & Advanced Engineering .

Traffic Management & Telematics • Traffic Management & Navigation: • Hybrid dynamic navigation • Active safety systems based on map data • Energy management strategy based on infrastructural data 21 • Telematics: • Post Crash Notification – e-Call • Car-to-car communication Research & Advanced Engineering Vehicle Electronics Trend Mechanics Hydraulics Electronics Pneumatics 22 Car 2000 value appr. € 10.000 Car 2010 value appr.800 Increase of in-vehicle electronics from 22 % today to 35 % in 2010 Driving/ Braking Comfort (Active) Safety Driving/ Braking Comfort (Active) Safety Entertainment Entertainment Communication . € 10.

Seat 4-5 kW City Cycle Column EPS C Segment Vehicles 1 kW 1. J.M. W-screen. October 2002 . 1996 Research & Advanced Engineering Loads per Powerclass Mild Hybrids DC / DC Converter AC-Fan Electric Parking Brake Electro-hydraulic Brake-by-wire Active Chassis Column EPS.Increasing Electronics: Major Challenge Generator Sizing Trend 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1975 Max. EHPS (Electric power steering) A & B segments 24 EVC: Electric Valve Hybrid Propulsion Hybrid Gasoline/Electric Crankshaft Starter Alternator Driver Assistance Systems Electro-mechanical Brake-by-wire Electric Water pump Pinion EPS B & C Segments Shift-by-wire Braking ABS → ASR → ESP Electric HVAC-Compressor Integrated Steering Braking Chassis Steer-by-wire Rack EPS (D & E Segments) Electric Heating Kat.5 kW @ 14V (cost effective) 23 ? Power [W] 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Model Year Miller..5 kW 2 kW 2000 Research & Advanced Engineering 2008 onwards Source: Frost and Sullivan. 3.

The Electronic Controls Challenge Current Approach Driver 25 Future Approach Driver Integrated Controls Actuator „ „ Actuator Sensor AUTOSAR Actuator Actuator Sensor „ „ Complexity increase dramatically Interface definition varies highly Complexity increase minimally Interface definition can be standardised Research & Advanced Engineering Conclusions • Ford is committed to the environment & sustainable mobility • Ford is committed to continuous improvement of vehicle safety • Increasing electronic controls will be by far biggest future challenge: robustness/ liability • Customer acceptance to new technologies is essential • Solutions have to compete in un-distorted European market Research & Advanced Engineering 26 .

27 ? Research & Advanced Engineering .