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E7TBEME SOCIAL ISOLATION OF A CHILBI

KINOSLEY BAVIS
ABSTBACT
A givI oJ nove lIan Jive ¸eavs vas discoveved incavcevaled in an upslaivs voon. SIe
Iad appavenlI¸ Ieen lIeve since IaI¸Iood and vas pI¸sicaII¸ naInouvisIed and apa-
lIelic as veII as nenlaII¸ IIanI. TaIen Jivsl lo a counl¸ Ione, lIen lo a Joslev-Ione,
and JinaII¸ lo a scIooI Jov deJeclive cIiIdven, sIe inpvoved vev¸ sIovI¸. SIe is sliII a
vivluaII¸ unsociaIized cvealuve, naniJesling nan¸ pavaIIeIs vilI olIev cases oJ isoIaled
cIiIdven and Ieaving oul lIe CooIe¸-Mead-Beve¸-Favis lIeov¸ oJ sociaIizalion.
TIe pvesenl papev, deaIing vilI an incavcevaled cIiId, is oJ lIe
naluve oJ a pvogvess vepovl. TIe givI il descviIes is sliII undev oI-
sevvalion and is IiIeI¸ lo venain so Jov nan¸ ¸eavs. Hence lIe
pvesenl vesuIls ave necessaviI¸ inconcIusive.
Accovding lo lIe Nev YovI Tines Jov FeIvuav¸ 6,
I938,
a givI oJ
nove lIan Jive ¸eavs Iad Ieen Jound ¨lied lo an oId cIaiv in a
slovage voon on lIe second JIoov¨ oJ a Javn Ione sevenleen niIes
Jvon a snaII Fenns¸Ivania cil¸. TIe cIiId, said lIe vepovl,
vas vedged inlo lIe cIaiv, vIicI vas liIled IacIvavds lo vesl on a coaI IucIel,
Iev spindI¸ avns lied aIove Iev Iead. SIe vas unaIIe lo laII ov nove.....
¨TIe cIiId vas dvessed in a divl¸ sIivl and napIin,¨ lIe oJJicev said. ¨Hev
Iands, avns and Iegs veve jusl Iones, vilI sIin dvavn ovev lIen, so JvaiI sIe
couIdn'l use lIen. SIe nevev Iad enougI nouvisInenl. SIe nevev gvev nov-
naII¸, and lIe cIaiv on vIicI sIe Ia¸, IaIJ vecIining and IaIJ silling, vas so
snaII lIe cIiId Iad lo douIIe Iev Iegs pavlI¸ undev Iev.¨
TIe veason Jov lIis silualion vas lIal lIe cIiId, Anna,2 vas iIIe-
gilinale. SIe vas lIe second iIIegilinale cIiId lIe nolIev Iad
Iovne, and since lIe nolIev vesided vilI Iev JalIev and olIev veIa-
lives in lIe palevnaI Ioneslead, sIe Jound Iev JalIev so angv¸ lIal
Ie vas avevse even lo seeing lIis second cIiId. Hence sIe Iepl il
in an oul-oJ-lIe-va¸ voon.
Upon veading lIis vepovl lIe vvilev and a sludenl assislanl,
BicIavd O. Bavis, venl lo see lIe cIiId. Lalev, suIsequenl lvips
I
Condensed Jvon a papev vead al lIe annuaI neeling oJ lIe Anevican SocioIogicaI
Sociel¸ in Belvoil, I1938.
2
Oul oJ vegavd Jov lIe pavlies concevned, covvecl nanes oJ pevsons and pIaces ave
nol given.
554
E7TBEME SOCIAL ISOLATION OF A CHILB 555
veve nade, and Ielveen visils vepovls Jvon vavious pevsons con-
necled vilI lIe cIiId veve veceived I¸ naiI. Ouv vecovds nov seen
veasonaII¸ conpIele and conJivn lIe saIienl Jacls in lIe Tines ac-
counl.3
B¸ lIe line ve avvived on lIe scene, FeIvuav¸ 7, Anna Iad Ieen
in Iev nev aIode, lIe counl¸ Ione,4 Jov onI¸ lIvee da¸s. Bul sIe
vas aIvead¸ Ieginning lo cIange. WIen Jivsl IvougIl lo lIe counl¸
Ione sIe Iad Ieen conpIeleI¸ apalIelic-Iad Iain in a Iinp, supine
posilion, innoIiIe, expvessionIess, indiJJevenl lo evev¸lIing. Hev
JIaccid Jeel Iad JaIIen Jovvavd, naIing aInosl a slvaigIl Iine vilI lIe
sIeIelon-IiIe Iegs, indicaling lIal lIe cIiId Iad Iong Iain on Iev IacI
lo lIe poinl oJ exIauslion and alvopI¸ oJ Iev Jool nuscIes. SIe
vas IeIieved lo Ie deaJ and possiII¸ IIind. Hev uvine, accovding lo
lIe nuvse, Iad Ieen exlveneI¸ concenlvaled and Iev slonacI ex-
ceedingI¸ IIoaled. Il vas lIougIl lIal sIe Iad suJJeved al one line
Jvon vicIels, lIougI Ialev nedicaI opinion cIanged lIe diagnosis
lo sinpIe naInulvilion. Hev IIood counl Iad Ieen vev¸ Iov in
IaenogIoIin. No sign oJ disease Iad Ieen discoveved.
Upon ouv avvivaI, lIvee da¸s aJlev sIe vas IvougIl lo lIe counl¸
Ione, nosl oJ lIese condilions sliII pvevaiIed. Bul Iev slonacI Iad
velvacled a IillIe and sIe Iad Iecone JaivI¸ aclive, Ieing aIIe lo sil
up |iJ pIaced in a silling posilion) and lo nove Iev Iands, avns,
Iead, e¸es, and noulI quile JveeI¸. TIese cIanges Iad vesuIled
Jvon a IigI vilanin diel, nassage, and allenlion. In spile oJ Iev
pI¸sicaI condilion sIe Iad an allvaclive JaciaI appeavance, vilI no
discevniIIe slignala. Hev conpIexion, Jealuves, Iavge IIue e¸es, and
even leelI |in good sIape lIougI nol quile novnaI in size) gave Iev
a JavovaIIe appeavance.
Since Anna luvned Iev Iead sIovI¸ lovavd a Ioud-licIing cIocI
IeId neav Iev, ve concIuded lIal sIe couId Ieav. OlIev allenpls lo
3 Il is douIlJuI lIal lIe cIiId's Iands al lIe line oJ discovev¸ veve lied. Il is nove
IiIeI¸ lIal sIe vas conJined lo Iev cviI in lIe Jivsl peviod oJ IiJe and al aII lines Iepl
IocIed in Iev voon lo Ieep Iev Jvon JaIIing dovn lIe sleep slaivs Ieading innedialeI¸
Jvon lIe doov and lo Ieep lIe gvandJalIev Jvon seeing Iev. Il is douIlJuI iJ lIe cIiId
vas evev Iepl in lIe allic, as lIe vepovl aIso slaled.
4 SIe venained in lIe Ione nove lIan nine nonlIs, Ieing venoved on NovenIev i i
lo a Joslev-Ione. TIe inslilulion is pvinaviI¸ Jov lIe aged and inJivn in lIe counl¸
vIeve Anna Iived, Iul conlains cases oJ neavI¸ aII l¸pes.
556 THE AMEBICAN JOUBNAL OF SOCIOLOOY
naIe Iev nolice sounds, sucI as cIapping Iands ov speaIing lo Iev,
eIiciled no vesponse: ¸el vIen lIe doov vas opened suddenI¸ sIe
lended lo IooI in lIal diveclion. Hev Jeel veve sensilive lo loucI.
SIe exIiIiled lIe pIanlav, paleIIav, and pupiIIav¸ veJIexes. WIen
silling up sIe jounced vI¸lInicaII¸ up and dovn on lIe Ied-a
vecenl IaIil oJ vIicI sIe vas vev¸ Jond. TIougI Iev e¸es suvve¸ed
lIe voon, especiaII¸ lIe ceiIing, il vas diJJicuIl lo leII iJ sIe vas
IooIing al an¸lIing in pavlicuIav. SIe neilIev sniIed nov cvied in
ouv pvesence, and lIe onI¸ sound sIe nade-a sIigIl sucIing inlaIe
oJ IvealI vilI lIe Iips-occuvved vaveI¸. SIe did Jvovn ov scovI
occasionaII¸ in vesponse lo no oIsevvaIIe slinuIus: olIevvise sIe
venained expvessionIess.
Nexl novning lIe cIiId seened nove aIevl. SIe IiIed Jood and
Ia¸ on Iev IacI lo laIe il. SIe couId nol cIev ov dvinI Jvon a cup
Iul Iad lo Ie Jed Jvon a IollIe ov spoon-lIis in spile oJ lIe Jacl
lIal sIe couId gvasp and nanipuIale oIjecls vilI Iev Iands. To-
vavd nunevous lo¸s given Iev I¸ veII-visIevs aII ovev lIe counlv¸
sIe sIoved no veaclion. TIe¸ veve sinpI¸ oIjecls lo Ie IandIed
in a dislvacled nannev: lIeve vas no eIenenl oJ pIa¸. SIe IiIed
Iaving Iev Iaiv conIed. WIen pI¸sicaII¸ veslvained sIe exIiIiled
considevaIIe lenpev. SIe did nol sniIe excepl vIen coaxed and did
nol cv¸.
SIe Iad lIus nade sone pvogvess duving Iev lIvee da¸s in lIe
counl¸ Ione. SuIsequenlI¸ Iev pvogvess in lIe Ione vas sIovev.
Bul IeJove deaIing vilI Iev Ialev Iislov¸, Iel us Jivsl veviev nove
conpIeleI¸ lIe IacIgvound Jacls in lIe case.
Anna vas Iovn MavcI 6, I932, in a pvivale nuvse's Ione. SIovlI¸
lIeveaJlev sIe vas laIen lo a cIiIdven's Ione. Fov a line sIe vas
Ioavded vilI a pvaclicaI nuvse. To lIose vIo sav and caved Jov Iev,
sIe seened an enliveI¸ novnaI IaI¸-indeed, a IeauliJuI cIiId, as
nove lIan one vilness Ias assevled. Al lIe age oJ six lo len nonlIs
sIe vas laIen IacI lo Iev nolIev's Ione Iecause no oulside agenc¸
visIed lIe JinanciaI vesponsiIiIil¸ oJ caving Jov Iev. In Iev nolIev's
Ione sIe vas pevpeluaII¸ conJined in one voon, and Ieve sIe soon
Iegan lo suJJev Jvon naInulvilion, Iiving soIeI¸ on a diel oJ niII and
gelling no sunsIine. SIe deveIoped inpeligo. TIe doclov, accovding
lo lIe nolIev, pvescviIed sone exlevnaI nedicine vIicI nade lIe
E7TBEME SOCIAL ISOLATION OF A CHILB 557
cIiId ¨IooI IiIe a niggev,¨ and vIicI lIe nolIev ceased lo use Jov
lIal veason. TIe nolIev,5 a Iavge vonan oJ lvenl¸-seven, aIIeges
lIal sIe lvied lo gel lIe cIiId veIJave agenc¸ lo laIe Anna, Iul
lIal sIe vas veJused Jov JinanciaI veasons. TIe nolIev, vesenling
lIe lvouIIe vIicI Anna's pvesence caused Iev and vanling lo gel
vid oJ lIe givI, paid IillIe allenlion lo Iev. SIe appavenlI¸ did nolI-
ing Iul Jeed lIe cIiId, nol laIing lIe lvouIIe lo IalIe, lvain, supev-
vise, ov cavess Iev. TIougI sIe denies l¸ing lIe cIiId al an¸ line,
il is pevIaps lvue lIal lIe cIiId vas veslvained in sone va¸ |I¸
l¸ing, conJining in a cviI, ov olIevvise) and gvaduaII¸, as Iev pI¸si-
caI condilion Iecane vovse, due lo conJinenenl and poov diel, Ie-
cane so apalIelic lIal sIe couId Ie saJeI¸ IeJl unveslvained vilIoul
dangev oJ noving Jvon Iev cIaiv. Anna's IvolIev, lIe Jivsl iIIegili-
nale cIiId, seens lo Iave ignoved Iev excepl lo nislveal Iev oc-
casionaII¸.
TIe Iedvoon in vIicI Anna vas conJined vas vepovled lo Iave
Ieen exlvaovdinaviI¸ divl¸ and conlained a douIIe Ied on vIicI lIe
nolIev and son sIepl vIiIe Anna vecIined in a IvoIen cIaiv. TIe
nolIev cavvied up and Jed lo Anna Iuge quanlilies oJ niII. Tovavd
Anna's JiJlI IivlIda¸ lIe nolIev, appavenlI¸ on advice, Iegan Jeed-
ing Iev lIin oalneaI vilI a spoon, Iul Anna nevev Ieavned lo eal
soIid Jood.
Anna's sociaI conlacls vilI olIevs veve lIen al a nininun. WIal
Jev sIe did Iave veve oJ a pevJunclov¸ ov openI¸ anlagonislic Iind,
aIIoving no oppovlunil¸ Jov OeneinscIaJl lo deveIop. SIe aJJovds
lIeveJove an exceIIenl suIjecl Jov slud¸ing lIe eJJecls oJ exlvene
sociaI isoIalion.
Ten da¸s aJlev ouv Jivsl visil Anna sIoved sone inpvovenenl.
SIe vas nove aIevl, Iad nove aIiIil¸ lo Jix Iev allenlion, Iad nove
expvession, IandIed IevseIJ Iellev, IooIed IeaIlIiev. Moveovev, sIe
5 TIe nolIev vas vepovled lo Iave lIe nenlaIil¸ oJ a cIiId oJ len. We did nol
inlevviev lIe pevsons vIo gave lIe inleIIigence lesl Iul did inlevviev lIe nolIev
IevseIJ. SIe seens pvoIaII¸ suInovnaI, and lIis is lIe opinion oJ nosl peopIe vIo
Inov Iev. Bul il is douIlJuI iJ Iev slalus is an¸ Iovev lIan lIal oJ a IigI-gvade novon,
and sIe na¸ Ie neveI¸ a duII novnaI.
Anna's JalIev, accovding lo one slov¸, is a veaIlI¸ Javnev Iiving in lIe sane vuvaI
seclion as lIe nolIev, dislanlI¸ Iin lo Iev. AnolIev slov¸ Ias il, Iovevev, lIal a s¸pIi-
Iilic navvied nan in lIe neav-I¸ lovn is lIe JalIev.
558 THE AMEBICAN JOUBNAL OF SOCIOLOOY
Iad Jound Iev longue-in a pI¸sicaI sense. WIeveas il Iad JovnevI¸
Iain inaclive IacI in Iev noulI, sIe nov slucI il oul JvequenlI¸ and
vilI enjo¸nenl. SIe sIoved lasle discvininalion, Jov sIe nov ve-
sisled laIing cod-Iivev oiI, vIicI sIe Iad pveviousI¸ nol dislin-
guisIed Jvon niII. SIe vas Ieginning, in Jacl, lo disIiIe an¸ nev
l¸pe oJ Jood. VisuaI discvininalion vas allesled I¸ lIe Jacl lIal
sIe appavenlI¸ pveJevved a gveen penciI lo a ¸eIIov one. SIe sniIed
nove oJlen, veguIavI¸ JoIIoved vilI Iev e¸e lIe novenenls oJ lIe
lvo olIev snaII cIiIdven lenpovaviI¸ quavleved in Iev voon, and
IandIed Iev lo¸s in a nove deJinile JasIion. SIe couId sil up Iellev
and, vIiIe I¸ing dovn, couId vaise Iev Iead Jvon lIe piIIov. SIe
IiIed nov lo sil on lIe edge oJ lIe Ied and dangIe Iev Jeel. TIe
doclov cIained lIal sIe Iad a nev lvicI evev¸ da¸.
SIe Iad nol, Iovevev, Ieavned an¸ va¸ lo seeI allenlion, lo
naniJesl vanls, lo cIev, ov lo conlvoI Iev eIininalion. OnI¸ one
sociaIIe slunl Iad sIe Iegun lo Ieavn-vuIIing JoveIeads vilI lIe
nuvse, a spovl oJ vIicI sIe Ialev Iecane vev¸ Jond. On lIe olIev
Iand, Iev viluaIislic Iand pIa¸, a noliceaIIe lvail al lIis line, vas
enliveI¸ asociaI.6
On lIis second visil ve looI aIong a cIinicaI ps¸cIoIogisl, Ed-
vavd Cavv. He Iegan I¸ cIecIing lIe veJIexes, Jinding none lIal
veve deJeclive. He lIen gave Anna a lIvee-Jiguve Jovn Ioavd lesl
used in lIe Fovn L Bevision oJ lIe SlanJovd-Binel. Anna vas un-
aIIe lo pIace lIe IIocIs in lIe appvopvialeI¸ sIaped IoIes, lIougI
appavenlI¸ I¸ cIance sIe did once pIace lIe vound piece salisJac-
loviI¸. SIe nove veadiI¸ venoved lIe IIocIs Jvon lIe Ioavd and
pIa¸ed vilI lIen idI¸ Jov a line. WIen Mv. Cavv Jivsl allenpled
I¸ panlonine lo gel Iev lo pIace lIe IIocIs, sIe seened lo concen-
lvale, Iul onI¸ nonenlaviI¸: and lIis concenlvalion, so Iiniled in
vesuIls, appavenlI¸ lived Iev loo gvealI¸ Jov JuvlIev eJJovls.7
6
SIe vouId IoId one Iand in Jvonl oJ Iev vilI lIe IillIe Jingev pvessed againsl lIe
paIn, lIe olIev lIvee Jingevs cIose logelIev and slvaigIl oul, and vouId lIen nanipu-
Iale lIe Iand sIaped in lIis va¸ cIose lo Iev e¸es. OJlen vIen doing lIis sIe vouId
IoId a Jingev oJ Iev olIev Iand in Iev eav. TIese aclions gave Iev an idiolic appeavance.
SIe sIoved nove sIiII in Iending lIe Jingevs lIan an¸ oJ us couId exIiIil.
7 Mv. Cavv, vIo vepvesenled lIe Fs¸cIo-educalionaI CIinic al Fenns¸Ivania Slale
CoIIege, Jound lIal Anna sIoved acconnodalion Jov IolI IigIl and dislance, lIal
sIe vinIed vIen a penciI vas suddenI¸ sIoved lovavd Iev e¸es and vIen a lunIIev
E7TBEME SOCIAL ISOLATION OF A CHILB 559
TIe nexl visil, on MavcI 22, veveaIed IillIe cIange, excepl Jov
sIigIl pI¸sicaI inpvovenenl. SIe couId IiJl Iev Iips Jvon lIe Ied:
lIe nuvse Iad induced Iev lo IaugI oulvigIl I¸ licIIing Iev and
IaugIing upvoaviousI¸ IevseIJ: and lIe nuvse IeIieved lIal Anna
vecognized Iev. TIe doclov Iad cIanged Iis eavI¸ oplinislic opin-
ion: Ie nov IeIieved lIe cIiId vas congenilaII¸ deJicienl.
AJlev anolIev nonlI Anna vas Jive pounds Ieaviev, nove enev-
gelic, given lo IaugIing a good deaI, and cvediled vilI Iaving nade
a sound IiIe ¨da.¨ Bul lIal vas aII.
On June 9, anolIev nonlI Ialev, sIe Iad scavceI¸ inpvoved in
an¸ vespecl. WIen lesled I¸ lIe vvilev accovding lo lIe ilens oJ lIe
OeseII scIeduIe, sIe seened lo vanI vilI a one-¸eav-oId ov Iellev
in nolov aclivilies invoIving Iands and e¸es. Bul vilI vegavd lo
Iinguislic and puvposive IeIaviov, sIe Iagged IeIind. IJ an¸ esli-
nale veve nade, il couId Ie said lIal sIe deJinileI¸ vanIed IeIov
lIe one-¸eav-oId cIiId.
B¸ Augusl I2 sIe vas sliII inpvoving pI¸sicaII¸. Hev Iegs Iad
caIves in lIen, and sIe IiIed lo exIiIil Iev slvenglI in vougI-
Iousing. SIe vouId IaugI IeavliI¸, oJlen naIe a ¨lsIa-lsIa-lsIa¨
sound vilI Iev Iips, once ov lvice naIing a vevIaI l¸pe oJ sound,
lIougI neaningIess. WIen IeId I¸ soneone, sIe couId ¨vaII¨ I¸
pulling one Jool in Jvonl oJ lIe olIev in oslenlalious sleps. Hev
inlevesl in olIev pevsons Iad Iecone nove oIvious, Iev vesponses
nove deJinile and discvininaling.8
vas slvucI vilI a spoon jusl IeIind Iev eav, and lIal lIe paleIIav and pIanlav veJIexes
veve pvesenl. Il Ieing inpossiIIe lo adninislev an¸ slandavdized lesls invoIving Ian-
guage, Ie exanined Iev vilI veJevence lo lIe nolov-IeIaviov ilens in OeseII's deveIop-
nenlaI scaIe. TIe ilens passed incIuded lIe JoIIoving· vesisling Iead pvessuve |ap-
peavs novnaII¸ al Jouv nonlIs), IiJling Iead vIiIe in pvone posilion |six nonlIs),
silling up |nine nonlIs), cIasping cuIes |six nonlIs), picIing up cuIe |six nonlIs),
scviIIIing |eigIleen nonlIs-Iul lIis ¨scviIIIing¨ appeaved lo us lo Ie an accidenl).
8
Anna Iad Jov veeIs Ieen vilIoul an¸ pIa¸nales in Iev voon. As a lesl a IillIe
Io¸ |age Jive) vas IvougIl in. We aII IeJl lIe voon and peeved IacI. Anna looI a
deJinile inlevesl in Iin. SIe lvied Iev lvicI oJ IooIing Iavd inlo Iis e¸es and noving
Iev Iead neav Iis lo vuI JoveIeads. SIe cIapped Iev Iands, naniJesling nove inlevesl
in Iin lIan Ie in Iev.
TIe nuvse said lIal Anna Iad pIa¸ed vilI Iillens a Jev da¸s pveviousI¸ I¸ svinging
lIen I¸ lIeiv laiIs. We secuved lvo Iillens and pul lIen on Iev Ied. TIis line sIe
560 THE AMEBICAN JOUBNAL OF SOCIOLOOY
UnliI venoved Jvon lIe counl¸ Ione on NovenIev ii, lIeve
veve Jev addilionaI cIanges. B¸ lIis line sIe couId IaveI¸ sland
vIiIe IoIding lo sonelIing. WIen pul on a cavpel sIe couId scool
Iul nol cvavI. SIe visiII¸ IiIed peopIe, as naniJesled I¸ sniIing,
vougI-Iousing, and Iaiv-puIIing. Bul sIe vas sliII an unsociaIized
individuaI, Jov sIe Iad Ieavned pvaclicaII¸ nolIing.
IJ ve asI vI¸ sIe Iad Ieavned so IillIe-nol even lo cIev ov dvinI
Jvon a gIass-in nine nonlIs, lIe ansvev pvoIaII¸ Iies in lIe Iong
pvevious isoIalion and in lIe condilions al lIe counl¸ Ione. Al
lIe Iallev inslilulion sIe vas eavI¸ depvived oJ Iev lvo IillIe voon-
nales and vas IeJl aIone. In lIe enlive eslaIIisInenl lIeve vas onI¸
one nuvse, vIo Iad lIvee Iundved and lvenl¸-Jouv olIev innales
lo IooI aJlev. Mosl oJ Anna's cave vas luvned ovev lo aduIl in-
nales, nan¸ oJ vIon veve nenlaII¸ deJicienl and scavceI¸ aIIe lo
speaI lIenseIves. Favl oJ lIe line Anna's doov vas sIul. In addi-
lion lo lIis conlinued isoIalion, Anna vas given no slinuIus lo Ieavn-
ing. SIe vas Jed, cIolIed, and cIeaned vilIoul Iaving lo luvn a
Iand in Iev ovn IeIaIJ. SIe vas nevev discipIined ov vevavded, Ie-
cause noIod¸ Iad lIe line Jov lIe ledious lasI. AII IeneJils veve
Jov Iev in lIe naluve oJ lIings and lIeveJove nol vevavds. TIus sIe
venained in nucI lIe sane aninaI-IiIe slage, excepl lIal sIe did
nol Iave lIe aninaI's inIevenlI¸ ovganized slvucluve, and Ience ve-
nained in a nove passive, inadequale slale.
On ouv visil oJ BecenIev 6 a suvpvise availed us, Jov Anna Iad
undevgone vIal vas Jov Iev a venavIaIIe lvansJovnalion-sIe Iad
Iegun lo Ieavn. Nol lIal sIe couId speaI, Iul sIe couId do sevevaI
lIings JovnevI¸ consideved inpossiIIe. SIe couId descend lIe slaivs
|I¸ silling successiveI¸ on eacI one), couId IoId a dougInul in Iev
Iecane pavaI¸zed vilI JvigIl. SIe nade IillIe noise, excepl a sliJIed ¸eII once ov lvice,
and sIe nade no eJJovl lo gel ava¸ ov pusI lIe Iillens oJJ.
TIis pavaI¸zed l¸pe oJ veaclion vas cIavaclevislic. Inilialive seened vivluaII¸ in-
possiIIe Jov Iev. A lenpev lanlvun pveviousI¸ exIiIiled Iad lIis cIavaclev. SIe
vaved Iev Iead Jvon side lo side and JIipped Iev Iands up and dovn-a nevvous, JuliIe
sovl oJ lanlvun IeIaviov. Il vas as iJ sIe Iad no cIanneIs oJ expvession ov aclion, no
node oJ deaIing vilI lIe envivonnenl.
As soon as lIe Iillens veve oul oJ sigIl sIe Jovgol aIoul lIen, Iul lIe JvigIl ve-
luvned vIenevev lIe¸ veve pIaced in Iev pvesence. Buving Iev JvigIl sIe IvoIe inlo
lIe Jivsl cv¸ing speII lIe vvilev Iad vilnessed. Il vas a veaI cIiId's cv¸.
E7TBEME SOCIAL ISOLATION OF A CHILB 56I
Iand and eal il |nuncIing IiIe a novnaI cIiId), couId gvasp a gIass
oJ lonalo juice and dvinI il I¸ IevseIJ, couId laIe a slep ov lvo vIiIe
IoIding lo sonelIing, and couId Jeed IevseIJ vilI a spoon. TIese
acconpIisInenls, snaII indeed Jov a cIiId oJ seven, vepvesenled a
lvansJovnalion expIainaIIe, no douIl, I¸ Iev lvansJevence Jvon lIe
counl¸ Ione lo a pvivale JaniI¸ vIeve sIe vas lIe soIe oIjecl oJ
one vonan's assiduous cave.
Anna Iad Ieen in lIe Joslev-Ione Iess lIan a nonlI, Iul lIe ve-
suIls veve pIain lo see. Hev nev guavdian vas using lIe sane con-
non-sense nelIods I¸ vIicI nolIevs Jvon line innenoviaI Iave
sociaIized lIeiv inJanls-unvenilling allenlion, vepelilive covvec-
lion, and counlIess snaII vevavds and punisInenls, nixed aIva¸s
vilI s¸npalIelic inlevesl and Ioveving pI¸sicaI pvesence. TIese
Anna vas gelling Jov lIe Jivsl line in Iev IiJe.
One lIing seened noliceaIIe. Anna vas nove IiIe a one-¸eav-oId
IaI¸ lIan sIe Iad Ieen IeJove. SIe vas vesponsive in lIe unluloved,
vandon, enevgelic va¸ oJ a IaI¸. WIen one IecIoned and caIIed
Iev, sIe vouId naIe an eJJovl lo cone, sniIing and going lIvougI
exciled exlva nolions.
A nonlI Ialev nove inpvovenenl aIong lIe sane Iines vas noled.
TIougI gvave Iinilalions venained, Anna vas deJinileI¸ Ieconing
nove oJ a Iunan Ieing.
SliII Ialev, on MavcI I9, I939, Iev acconpIisInenls veve lIe JoI-
Ioving· sIe vas aIIe lo vaII aIone Jov a Jev sleps vilIoul JaIIing:
sIe vas vesponsive lo lIe vevIaI connands oJ Iev Joslev-nolIev,
seening lo undevsland in a vague sovl oJ va¸ vIal lIe Iallev vanled
Iev lo do: sIe deJinileI¸ vecognized lIe sociaI vovIev vIo looI Iev
veeII¸ lo lIe doclov and vIo lIeveJove s¸nIoIized lo Iev lIe pIeas-
uve oJ an aulonoIiIe vide: sIe expvessed I¸ anxious IodiI¸ nove-
nenls Iev desive lo go oul Jov a vide: sIe seened unnislaIaII¸ lo
seeI and lo IiIe allenlion, lIougI sIe did nol suII vIen IeJl aIone:
sIe vas aIIe lo pusI a doII cavviage in Jvonl oJ Iev and lo sIov sone
sIiII in nanipuIaling il. SIe vas, JuvlIevnove, nucI inpvoved pI¸s-
icaII¸, Ieing aInosl Jal, vilI cIuII¸ avns and Iegs and Iaving nove
enevg¸ and aIevlness. On lIe visil pviov lo lIis one sIe Iad sIovn
lIal sIe couId quicII¸ Jind and eal cand¸ vIicI sIe sav pIaced IeIind
a piIIov, couId pevJovn a Inee-Iending exevcise, couId use ovdinav¸
562 THE AMEBICAN JOUBNAL OF SOCIOLOOY
ulensiIs in ealing |e.g., couId conve¸ Iiquid lo Iev noulI in a spoon),
couId naniJesl a sense oJ nealness |I¸ pulling Ivead IacI on a pIale
aJlev laIing a Iile Jvon il). Linilalions sliII venaining, Iovevev,
veve as JoIIovs· sIe said nolIing-couId nol even Ie laugIl lo sa¸
¨I¸e-I¸e¨: sIe Iad lo Ie valcIed lo leII vIen eIininalion vas
inninenl: sIe IavdI¸ pIa¸ed vIen aIone: sIe Iad IillIe cuviosil¸,
IillIe inilialive: il seened sliII inpossiIIe lo eslaIIisI an¸ connuni-
calive conlacl vilI Iev.
On Augusl 30, I939, Anna vas laIen Jvon lIe Joslev-Ione and
noved lo a snaII scIooI Jov deJeclive cIiIdven. OIsevvalions nade
al lIis line sIoved Iev lo Iave Iecone a Jal givI lvenl¸ pounds
ovevveigIl Jov Iev age. Yel sIe couId vaII Iellev and couId aInosl
vun. Hev loiIel IaIils sIoved lIal sIe undevslood lIe vIoIe pvo-
ceduve. SIe naniJesled an oIvious conpveIension oJ nan¸ vevIaI
inslvuclions, lIougI sIe couId nol speaI.
Conpavison oJ Anna vilI olIev cases oJ isoIaled cIiIdven veveaIs
sevevaI inlevesling pavaIIeIs, IolI in lIeiv Iislovies and in lIe inlev-
pvelalion oJ lIen. Fivsl oJ aII, ve nole lIe aInosl univevsaI JaiIuve
lo Ieavn lo laII vilI an¸ JaciIil¸, and Ience lIe JaiIuve lo naslev
nucI oJ lIe cuIluvaI Ievilage. Second, ve nole lIe neavI¸ univevsaI
pvesence oJ sensov¸ aInovnaIilies. FinaII¸, ve nole, and aIso ques-
lion, lIe usuaI inlevpvelalion oJ lIese vecuvvenl Jacls-naneI¸, lIal
lIe¸ ave due lo congenilaI JeeIIe-nindedness.
TIougI Anna al pvesenl cannol speaI, sIe is nol an unusuaI nen-
Iev oJ Iev pecuIiav cIass. TIe JevaI cIiId, KanaIa, Jound al lIe age
oJ eigIl, vas aIIe lo ullev onI¸ Jovl¸ vovds aJlev six ¸eavs oJ lulov-
ing,9 and sonevIal siniIav sIovness is encounleved in olIev cases.I'
9 F. C. Squives, ¨'WoIJ CIiIdven' oJ India,¨ Anevican JouvnaI oJ Fs¸cIoIog¸,
777VIII |I927), 3I3-I5.
IO
SanicIav, Jound al aIoul lIe age oJ seven, couId nol speaI even as a gvovn nan.
He neveI¸ ulleved inconpveIensiIIe sounds |O. C. Fevvis, SanicIav, lIe WoIJ-Bo¸ oJ
India [Nev YovI· FuIIisIed I¸ lIe AulIov, I9021, pp.
3F-33).
TIe givI oJ Songi, dis-
coveved al aIoul len ¸eavs oJ age, Ieavned aJlev sevevaI ¸eavs lo speaI, Iul appavenlI¸
nol vev¸ veII |Madan Hecquel, TIe Hislov¸ oJ a Savage OivI [London· BuvsIe¸, Bavi-
son, Mauson, BIand, & Jones], pp. 23, 34-35, and 6i-63). Caspav Hausev, vIo nigIl
seen an exceplion lo lIe vuIe, acluaII¸ venained, lo lIe Iasl, avIvavd in Ianguage
|AnseIn von FeuevIacI, Caspav Hausev, lvans. Jvon Oevnan [2d ed.: Boslon· AIIen &
TicInov, i8331, I, 54). His case is nol cIeav, Iovevev, Jov il appeavs Ie couId pvonounce
sone vovds vIen Jivsl discoveved |iIid., pp. 4-5). OlIev inslances oJ speecI diJJicuIlies
seen as nunevous as lIe cases oJ isoIaled cIiIdven, lIougI lIe evidence is scanl¸ and
duIious.
E7TBEME SOCIAL ISOLATION OF A CHILB 563
InaIiIil¸ lo vaII ov vun and pvonounced pecuIiavilies oJ gail ave aIso
exceedingI¸ cIavaclevislic: and sone sovl oJ aInovnaIil¸ oJ lIe
senses, eilIev as aculeness ov duIness, appeavs in neavI¸ evev¸
inslance.II
In viev oJ lIese siniIavilies il is nol suvpvising lIal a slandavd
inlevpvelalion Ias Ieen appIied lo pvaclicaII¸ evev¸ case-naneI¸,
lIal lIe cIiId vas innaleI¸ JeeIIe-ninded. FineI decIaved lIe WiId
Bo¸ oJ Ave¸von lo Ie a JaIe as lo viIdness and an incuvaIIe idiol as
lo nenlaIil¸, and Ilavd, aJlev Jive ¸eavs oJ exaspevaling eJJovl, uI-
linaleI¸ adnilled lIal lIe Io¸ na¸ Iave Ieen nenlaII¸ deJicienl
Jvon lIe slavl, lIougI Ie sliII allviIuled gveal inpovlance lo Iis
Iong isoIalion.,2 FopuIav inlevesl in JeeIIe-nindedness and in IioIogi-
caI delevninisn Ied lo genevaI agveenenl vilI FineI's vevdicl. Bul
vecenlI¸ scienliJic opinion Ias Ieen cIanging. F. S. Fveenan, an au-
lIovil¸ on individuaI diJJevences, IeIieves lIal lIe Ave¸von Io¸'s
slupidil¸ vas due lo Iis Iong peviod oJ sociaI isoIalion.
Even iJ il is gvanled lIal lIe Io¸ vas quile duII lo Iegin vilI, il sIouId
Iave Ieen possiIIe lo acIieve nucI nove vilI Iin lIan vas lIe case, unIess
one aIIovs Jov lIe pecuIiav condilions undev vIicI Ie Iived, and Jov lIe ¨Jixing¨
pvocess vesuIling Jvon lIese condilions ... . Ilavd's vepovls pvesenl lIe case
oJ an individuaI vIose eavI¸ IiJe so sIaped Iis IeIaviov and Jixed Iis aIiIilies
lIal even Jive ¸eavs oJ painslaIing, devoled, and inleIIigenl inslvuclion veve
inadequale lo pvoduce lIe nenlaI naniJeslalions oJ even a Iov-gvade novon.73
II KanaIa possessed exlveneI¸ acule Ieaving vIen discoveved and an aninaI-IiIe
sense oJ sneII. SIe couId sneII neal al a gveal dislance. AJlev six ¸eavs in civiIizalion
sIe couId sliII see Iellev al nigIl lIan in lIe da¸line |Squives, op. cil.). SanicIav's sense
oJ Ieaving seened pvaclicaII¸ deslvo¸ed |Fevvis, op. cil., p. 28). TIe senses oJ lIe Io¸
oJ Ave¸von ¨veve exlvaovdinaviI¸ apalIelic. His noslviIs veve JiIIed vilI snuJJ vilIoul
naIing Iin sneeze. He picIed up polaloes Jvon IoiIing valev. A pisloI Jived neav
Iin pvovoIed IavdI¸ an¸ vesponse lIougI lIe sound oJ cvacIing a vaInul caused Iin
lo luvn vound¨ |J. M. O. Ilavd, TIe WiId Bo¸ oJ Ave¸von, lvans. vilI Inlvod. I¸
Oeovge HunpIve¸ [Nev YovI and London, I932]). TIe vesenIIance lo Anna is oIvious.
MonlIs aJlev Anna Iad Ieen in lIe counl¸ Ione ve IIev up a papev Iag, expIoded il
suddenI¸ IeIind Iev Iead, and Jound lIal sIe vinced a Iil, Iul did nol veaII¸ nind a
Ioud sound nexl lo Iev eav. TIis in spile oJ lIe Jacl lIal nolIing seened vvong vilI
Iev Ieaving appavalus. LiIe nan¸ isoIaled cIiIdven, sIe vas Jond oJ nusic. TIe con-
cIusion seens inescapaIIe lIal Iev deaJness vas JunclionaI, nol ovganic, jusl as lIal oJ
lIe Io¸ oJ Ave¸von. Caspav Hausev's senses ¨appeaved al Jivsl lo Ie in a slale oJ lovpov,
and onI¸ gvaduaII¸ lo open lo lIe pevceplion oJ exlevnaI oIjecls.¨ Yel Ie Iad an ex-
lvaovdinav¸ aIiIil¸ lo see in lIe davI |FeuevIacI, op. cil., pp. 26 and I66-67).
12
Ilavd, op. cil., pp. vii and 99-IOI.
'3IndividuaI
BiJJevences |Nev YovI· Henv¸ HoIl & Co., I934),
p. II7.
564 THE AMEBICAN JOUBNAL OF SOCIOLOOY
SiniIavI¸, W. N. KeIIog avgues Jov lIe innale novnaIil¸ oJ lIis and
olIev JevaI cIiIdven. He assunes lIal lIe¸ pvoIaII¸ possessed an
enliveI¸ novnaI equipnenl-olIevvise suvvivaI in a IavsI envivon-
nenl vouId Iave Ieen inpossiIIe. TIe¸ deveIoped vesponses suil-
aIIe lo lIeiv suvvoundings. Hence lIeiv suIsequenl inaIiIil¸ lo Ieavn
is allviIulaIIe lo lIe diJJicuIl¸ oJ upvooling JundanenlaI, IasicaII¸
inlvencIed IaIils Jovned I¸ eavIiev expevience.I4
TIeve is one acluaI case in vIicI lIe I¸polIesis vas dispvoved.
TIis vas lIe case oJ EdilI BiIe¸, vIo, aJlev incavcevalion in a cIosel
Jov sone ¸eavs, vas said al lveIve lo Ie JeeIIe-ninded. SIe ve-
coveved conpIele novnaIil¸ vilIin lvo ¸eavs.I5
CONCLUSIONS
i. Conpaving Anna vilI olIev isoIaled cIiIdven, Ieaving in nind
lIal sIe seened novnaI in inJanc¸, and noling Iev pvogvess lo dale,
one can nainlain lIal lIougI sIe is sliII al lIe idiol IeveI in nen-
laIil¸ lIis Jacl is IavgeI¸ lIe vesuIl oJ sociaI isoIalion.
2. Bul iJ lIe slviIing pavaIIeI vilI olIev Inovn cases dininisIes
lIe pvoIaIiIil¸ oJ congenilaI deJicienc¸, il aIso dininisIes lIe cIance
oJ a JavovaIIe oulcone, Jov il seens aInosl inpossiIIe Jov an¸ cIiId
lo Ieavn lo speaI, lIinI, and acl IiIe a novnaI pevson aJlev a Iong
peviod oJ eavI¸ isoIalion. Yel Anna is in one vespecl a navginaI case·
sIe vas discoveved IeJove sIe Iad veacIed six ¸eavs oJ age. TIis
is ¸oung enougI lo aIIov Jov sone pIaslicil¸. In Jacl, sIe Ias nade a
good nan¸ adjuslnenls.
14 TIis agvees vilI lIe genevaI opinion concevning lIe inpovlance oJ lIe eavI¸ ¸eavs
in deveIopnenl. ¨A Iavge pevcenlage oJ cIiIdven pveviousI¸ diagnosed as JeeIIe-ninded
Iave Ieen pvoven lo Ie sound in aII vespecls excepl in .... acquived veaclions. IJ dis-
coveved al an eavI¸ age lIe 'inIeviled' deJiciencies oJ lIese individuaIs Iave Ieen salis-
JacloviI¸ covvecled lIvougI speciaIized educalion, aIlIougI lIis Ias nol Ieen possiIIe
iJ lIe¸ Iave pevsisled loo Iong in lIeiv oviginaI IaIils¨ |¨Hunanizing lIe Ape,¨ Fs¸cIo-
IogicaI Beviev, 777VIII
[I93], I6-76). SiniIav avgunenls ave conlained in Hun-
pIve¸'s Inlvoduclion lo Ilavd's vovI |op. cil.), pp. x-xi.
Is Nev YovI Tines, NovenIev I7, I93I, sec. 4, p. 6, and BecenIev 24, I93I, sec. I2,
p. i: Nev YovI BaiI¸ Mivvov, nagazine seclion, MavcI 27, I938, p. 6. TIis is an inlev-
esling case, diJJeving Jvon nosl oJ lIe olIevs in lIal lIe cIiId vas incavcevaled al lIe
Iale age oJ eigIl. SIe Iosl lIe capacil¸ Jov speecI and vision. Bul since sIe Iad once
acquived lIese aIiIilies, sIe vecoveved lIen again JaivI¸ vapidI¸.
E7TBEME SOCIAL ISOLATION OF A CHILB 565
3. TIe conpavalive Jacls seen lo indicale lIal lIe slages oJ
sociaIizalion ave lo sone exlenl necessaviI¸ veIaled lo lIe slages oJ
ovganic deveIopnenl. IJ lIe deIicale, conpIex, and IogicaII¸ pviov
slages oJ sociaIizalion ave nol acquived vIen lIe ovganisn is pIaslic,
lIe¸ viII nevev Ie acquived and lIe Ialev slages nevev acIieved
|excepl cvudeI¸).
4. Anna's Iislov¸, IiIe olIevs, seens lo denonslvale lIe CooIe¸-
Mead-Beve¸-Favis lIeov¸ oJ pevsonaIil¸-naneI¸, lIal Iunan na-
luve is delevnined I¸ lIe cIiId's connunicalive sociaI conlacls as
nucI as I¸ Iis ovganic equipnenl and lIal lIe s¸slen oJ con-
nunicalive s¸nIoIs is a IigII¸ conpIex Iusiness acquived eavI¸ in
IiJe as lIe vesuIl oJ Iong and inlinale lvaining. Il is nol enougI lIal
olIev pevsons Ie neveI¸ pvesenl: lIese olIevs nusl Iave an inli-
nale, pvinav¸-gvoup veIalionsIip vilI lIe cIiId.
5.
OlIev lIan lIis, Iovevev, lIe lIeovies oJ sociaIizalion ave gen-
evaII¸ neilIev vvong nov vigIl vilI vespecl lo Anna, Iul sinpI¸
inappIicaIIe. TIe ps¸cIoanaI¸lic lIeov¸, in so Jav as il assunes cev-
lain visIes as given inIevenlI¸ in lIe ovganisn and vesponsiIIe Jov a
sevies oJ suIsequenl deveIopnenlaI slales, seens vvong: Iul in so Jav
as il laIIs in levns oJ d¸nanic necIanisns, sucI as conJIicl and
anxiel¸, il sinpI¸ does nol appI¸-Iecause sucI necIanisns assune
lIal sociaIizalion Ias aIvead¸ Iegun: lIal lIe iniliaI slages Iave Ieen
lvavevsed. TIe Iallev cIavaclevislic seens indeed lvue oJ nosl lIe-
ovies oJ sociaIizalion. TIe cenlvaI pvoIIen oJ Iov lIe ovganisn Jivsl
acquives a seIJ, Jivsl Iegins lIe connunicalive pvocess, is sIipped and
laIen Jov gvanled, lIe lIeov¸ going on Jvon lIis poinl.
FENNSYLVANIA STATE COLLEOE