A study on Public Transportation System in Capital Complex, Arunachal Pradesh (With special reference of JnNURM


Shibabrata Choudhury North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology, Arunachal Pradesh

Praveen Katiyar North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology, Arunachal Pradesh

Abstract The Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JnNURM) at Arunachal Pradesh is amongst the nation’s first phase pilot study of National Urban Transport Policy (NUTP). Objective of this pro ject was to enhance the transportation facility for the urban poor. Arunachal Pradesh economic growth is often constrained due to inadequate transportation infrastructure and services. Frequent landslides due to heavy rain often create problems in transportation in Arunachal Pradesh. The rising population of the state with rising urban poverty and growing demands affect transportation service delivery. There is a need to revitalize this sector in the interest of 200 passengers daily using this system in the capital complex of Arunachal Pradesh. This paper outlines preference reasons for public transportation mode of communication in general and JnNURM in specific in capital complex of the state. This paper also analyzes the performance of JnNURM on a sustainable track in the years to come.


that number had grown to 709 million in 1997 (Powers and Nicastri 2000). S. Road transport. the length of each trip. Arunachal Pradesh. While 246 million motor vehicles were registered worldwide in 1970. and human resources. noise. (Kamble(2010)). Dargay and Hanly (1999) passenger kilometers as the measure of demand for their aggregate area specific analysis of travel demand. quality. as well as employment opportunities is a major cause of migration from rural Arunachal Pradesh to its capital complex. and scope of urban transport facilities are affected by the financial position and financial challenges by city public transport undertakings. using only the number of trips or passengers as a measure of travel demand ignores an important characteristic of demand. K. and Singh. 2 . The efficiency. overcrowding. particularly transport infrastructure (Justus (1998). The objective of the study was to find out the preference reasons for public transportation mode of communication in capital complex. S. traffic accidents. The centralization of social services like education.(2001) the financial problems stemming from India’s low per-capita income are probably the most important challenges facing Indian urban public transport.. the only transportation facility (excluding the unsafe Pawanhans helicopter services) in this locality play a vital role in speeding up the process of socio-economic growth of the areas. and total lack of coordination of any kind. Review literature Rapid economic development exerts pressure on all infrastructure services vital for economic efficiency and social sustainability. but there are many others as well: inefficiency. Vehicular emissions account for 40–80 percent of air quality problems in the megacities in developing countries (Ghose 2002). lack of planning.Introduction The concentration of economic growth and socio-economic overheads in urban areas has been responsible for the rapid urbanization and growth of cities. and hence on optimally utilizing existing infrastructure (Gowda (1999). It is amongst the nation’s first phase pilot study of National Urban Transport Policy (NUTP). providing transportation facility to more than 2000 peoples on daily basis. The Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission operates 20 numbers of buses in about 20km radius of the capital complex in Arunachal Pradesh. There has been rapid growth in both vehicle production and registration worldwide. So road transportation helps in transporting both necessary productive resources for marketing. The study also focuses the motivating factors to travel in public transportation in general and JnNURM in specific. health. sustaining this increase in economic productivity is contingent on meeting the mobility demand that such economic growth creates. However. In India. According to Padam. roadway congestion.

1. industrial development that started attracting foreign investments. For the study purpose.Research methodology Formal study type was being adopted to find out the answers for the research questions. 3 . and correlation were use for analyzing the collected data. Buses contribute as the most important mode of Public transport across all cities in India. 20 number of JnNURM buses launched in Arunachal Pradesh. 892. expanding trade and markets. Itanager. means. Collected data was analyzed by using various statistical methods. 20536 cores for 63 cities of the country. reference material from website and government websites etc. National Urban Transport Policy. The sample size was 75. The state seems to be committed to make its presence in national economic map. purchase of buses for public transport was permitted under JnNURM during 2009 as a one-time measure. Primary Data was collected from the passengers of public transport at Papumpare based on the questionnaire designed appropriate to reflect significantly to research study.9 crore. In January 2010. These are frequencies. As per Press Information Bureau Government of India so far. NUTP started up as a stimulus package of Rs. The secondary data also collected from office of Arunachal Pradesh State Transport (APST) office. Ministry of Urban Development. District Commissioner office at Papumpare. official broacher and website of Ministry of Urban Transportation. people operating auto. Under the Second Stimulus Package. a total of 15260 buses have been approved for 61 Mission cities. These days the state economy is characterized by its growth rates. The required data during the study was obtained from the following two sources: Secondary data was taken from various sources such as published research papers. The rising population of the state with rising urban poverty and growing demands affect transportation service delivery in towns and cities. the capital complex of Arunachal Pradesh comes under the category C with less than one million populations and annual support Rs. The primary data were also collected through interview with the various stakeholders such as APST official personnel. percentages. It is a reform based mission. and private buses. weight-age average. Public transportation and JnNURM The Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JnNURM) was launched in December 2005 by the Central Government to provide financial assistance to cities for various urban development projects including urban transport and to improve the quality of life in Indian cities. Personally travelled in various modes of transport systems of capital complex of Arunachal Pradesh for the observation studies that can strengthen this study was also adopted. selective random sampling method was considered. In the month of February it was started operation in Arunachal Pradesh. The state economic growth is often constrained due to inadequate transportation infrastructure and services.

Bolero. The state has the thinnest population density in the country with only 13 persons per sq km. university. This table says that the entire respondent uses the public transportation for communication at the Capital Complex. and APST bus services for the population of 34. 11 rely on four–wheelers for transportation as well as using the public transportation and all are using the public transportation from total samples (75). 22 of them rely on two-wheelers. Arunachal Pradesh. The majority of the people are dependent on the services in schools. In order to serve the whole state it is a difficult task to cater a qualitative service to every corner of the state. private buses.).Preference reasons of public transportation in the capital complex. 2. The private businesses have also grown up based on to fulfill the demands of these people.1. hospitals. multi utility vehicles (Tata sumo.743 sq km. The government backed APST covers the whole Arunachal Pradesh. colleges. and other basic need based government services. Arunachal Pradesh A questionnaire survey was conducted to measure the mode of transportation used by the peoples for communication at the Capital complex of Arunachal Pradesh. It is the largest state in the north east India that covers an area of 83. 2008 Vehicles Two-wheeler LMV (private) Auto. They depend mainly with the over-crowded 50 odds private services for transportation. Below table shows the vehicle registration in the whole papumpare district (the capital complex is situated in this district) in the last three years.. with evergreen forest covering more than 82 percent of the state. tempo.Wheeler 4-Wheeler Public Transportation 36 Frequency Often 10 1 Very 8 6 30 Often Rarely 4 4 9 Table 2. public transport is supplied mainly by private auto rickshaw. Arunachal pradesh In itanagar. Tempo LMV (Passenger) 4 2009 3495 3176 144 215 2010 2774 2941 51 68 1370 1768 70 98 2011 (up to March) 417 645 15 0 .1.970. Due to financial condition the personal vehicle seems not to be an affordable option for majority in the locality. In the below Table 2. Mode of Transportation used by the peoples of capital complex. etc. As a result the people over capital complex face very low bus service frequency.

discomfort in travel. Heavy rain fall causes poor condition of road. JnNURM offers the qualitative services at a cheaper rate as compared to its counter parts in the public transportation.2.54. the narrow. moreover the landslides caused due to severe continuous rain stop the regular road communication. In this survey government led APST ranks the lowest with 2.1 Ranking of public transport vehicles As per the study it was found that JnNURM ranks the highest with 7. Parameters Brand association Wide area coverage Group reservation Value added services 5 Score (Total 100) 65 55 35 29 . The table 2. Arunachal Pradesh Source: District transport office. Rainfall is not only restricted to the rainy season. As the place is located in the hilly area. Motivating factors to travel in JnNURM As per the questionnaire survey based on two parameters cost and convenience amongst public transporters. There are no planned parking places for the vehicles in many places of the city. It was calculated on the weighted average method.29. Arunachal Pradesh Apart from the economic condition of the people the unfavorable geographic condition is also another cause for Public transportation. Figure 2. taxi with 4.tropical in the south to Alpine in the north. The region’s average rainfall of above 3000 mm per year and climatic variation from the sub. Due to maintenance cost of vehicles.56.Table 2. Naharlagun.64 followed by tracker 5. it is often a convenient option to travel by the public transporter instead of personal vehicles.2 shows various motivating factors and the respective score of JnNURM. and parking of vehicles. it is perennial in this locality (Annexure-I).the ranking was done on 1-10 ranking scale (with 1 as the minimum and 10 as maximum). vehicles registered under district papumpare. curvy routes seems to be very much accident prone.

The fluctuation of 30 percentages down is observed in the month of September (Annexure-III &IV). total working days by all running buses. Running buses Running Buses Working days Distance covered Earning Expenses 1.35 1.00 0.2 depicts a linear growth for the initial four months (i. earning and expenses / month (Annexure II). Again due to bad road condition there was a road conversion taken place. from May to August).03 0.65 Table 2.66 0.00 1. The authority has decided to double the ticket price due to compensate the extra lengthy route. Arunachal Pradesh The table no.e. It can be clearly observed this was the month when it has also witnessed the lowest expenses in the 11 months study. road. The bus again came to its original trend along with the repairing of roads in a very fast pattern.53 0.00 0. for which it has to cover an extra distance of 5 km. 2.10 0. However it recovered the trend in the following two months.3 Motivating factors of JnNURM Performance of JnNURM in capital complex. frequent strikes have not allowed to maintain linear relationship with all variables.00 0. The peculiarities of the geographic. Less number of passengers due to bad weather has made the income all time low in the month of January. Buses used to travel via Doimukh to Banderdewa.31 0. distance covered by all buses. so it could not make usual trips.5 shows the Correlation co-efficient between numbers of buses working. 6 .4 Correlation co-efficient matrix for JnNURM Buses The graph 2.41 0.00 Distance covered working days Earning Expenses -0. on each trip.41 1.Table 2.46 1.

30/-.for the distance of Banderdewa to Itanagar. as it has to prepare for tough challenges for its sustainability in long run.Graph 2. of buses should be used for city services rather than staff and student services. From the month of March the pricing is at par with the others.2 Revenue and Expenses by JnNURM Buses from 2010 May till 2011 march Ticket price was raised from March 2011.23 per kilometer. need to make better plan for more no.20/. The higher pricing may not have any impact on maintaining JNURM leading position. The previous price from Banderdewa to Itanagar was Rs 20/. However the state government should develop the infrastructure for main bus stoppage at the Capital complex.was modified as Rs. But As per JnNURM guideline it is Rs 1.42/. passenger can get the more benefit. which comes around Rs. 7 . In the initial phase there was a promotional motive due to which it has kept the price at Rs. Having huge demand for various value added services for future use by the public. ASTC bus. Conclusion JnNURM buses are providing better facility to the urban people at the lower price. For financial stability of JnNURM the authority must allow more no of buses for city services rather than for staff and student services. JnNURM buses helps to peoples of this locality by providing best way of communication mode of transportation at lower price and helps the socio-economic development of this locality. surprise ticket checking can compensate certain generic constraints at this place. which was even lower than other transportation alternatives such as auto. More no.

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