(Estd. u/s 3 of UGC Act, 1956)
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GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICAL WRITING
the results that have been achieved. ABSTRACT:
Summarize the main points of the report on a separate page.
2. Place. Guide’s (and co-guide’s) Name. It must contain the context/relevance of the problem at hand.
This Document may be referred as Report writing guidelines (or) Documentation for Report Writing. This page should precede the content page. The abstract should not occupy more than one page (about 150 to 200 words). Some material in this document may be of use in the preparation of any Technical report. So. It may be used for the preparation of Seminar and Project reports associated with M. and your conclusions. the solutions derived. Institute’s Name.
1.2011R (III SEMESTER) 2012R (II SEMESTER) FACULTY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICAL REPORT WRITING – M. Mention your Name. briefly formulate the problem that has been investigated. Persons getting interested in the report after reading the title should be able to judge from the abstract whether the report is really interesting for them. Try to find a title that clearly describes the work you have done and be as precise as possible.Tech. a description of what was done and a gist of the significant observations/results. Department’s Name. Month and year of the report. TITLE PAGE:
This is the first page of report. Programmes.
..1. .. (iv) References. TABLE OF CONTENTS (TOC):
It Should list items in the following order: . 2.2. 1.) .3. etc.2..Certificate (before TOC) .3. 2.
4.1.List of Tables (1. 1. Certificate.2. Nomenclature. 1.) . . SEQUENCE OF CONTENTS:
The material should be placed and bound in following order: i) Preliminaries: • • • • • • • • • Top transparent plastic sheet Title page Declaration. List of Figures and Tables. 2.3.Nomenclature: necessary whenever symbols are used. etc. Abstract. 1.1. Dedication (If necessary) Table of Contents. This is in order of English (i.2.e. Symbols in Greek letters (see Appendix for the alphabetical order of Greek letters). 2. subscripts and superscripts used.
..Acknowledgement (before TOC).. Acknowledgement.
(ii) Text of report Chapters (Main material) (iii) Appendices.List of Figures (1.1. . Roman) letters (Uppercase followed by lowercase).
e. 2. 2. List of Tables and List of Figures should be numbered with lower case Roman numerals (i. etc.Sections within chapters (e. + name).Special Symbols. ii. (ii) Literature Survey: 4
. etc. Here you also describe the structure of the rest of your report. 3.1. Table of Contents. the initial goals you had. From the first page of the first chapter onwards. Abbreviations) if any. The page numbers should appear at the bottom center. III. Nomenclature.Appendices (I. everything in alphabetical order.g.1. … etc. 1. if any . … etc.4..). .). However. without going into details. 1. indicating which chapter will address which issue. Acknowledgement. Every page of the report other than the title page and abstract should be numbered. … N. All entries in nomenclature should have appropriate units in SI system. iv.References Do not include the abstract and the table of contents itself in the table of contents.1 + name) . Pages of Certificate. . Roughly the following chapters may be included.The chapters (1. 2. followed by the name of the chapter) .Subsections within sections (e. etc. followed by acronyms (i. + name) . II. iii.
5. all the pages should be numbered using Hindu-Arabic numerals (1. (i) Introduction: In this chapter you formulate the problem that you want to address. IV. the statement of a problem and its relevance.g.. you have to structure it according to the flow of overall logic and organization. THE CHAPTERS:
The number of chapters you need and their contents strongly depend on the topic selected and the subject matter to be presented.
etc. it might be important to write about the system specifications. in point-wise form if necessary. An identical entry should exist in the TOC. The chapters may be 5
. .It should be as exhaustive as possible but related to your work. You may point out the issues recommended for future research. subsection. The last part of this section must contain a brief mention of the gaps in the literature and a justification for undertaking your study/project. 3. practical details. State these clearly. should have a title. section. (v) Conclusions: This is one of the most important chapters and should be carefully written. mention the strong and weak points of your work. (iv) Practice-Oriented Chapters: Depending on the work that you have done. The discussion on the literature may be organized under a separate chapter & titled suitably. 2. .Each chapter. system behaviour and characteristics and cross links of the selected topic. Each chapter is numbered using Hindu-Arabic numerals: 1.
(iii) Theory-Oriented Chapters: The basic theory necessary to formulate the subject matter may be presented under a separate chapter & titled suitably. This will help you in developing your own thinking discipline and technical language. Do not disguise "descriptions" of specific aspects. with respect to the original objective. state which of the initial goals was reached and which not. you should present your own interpretation of the theory. Summarize the literature that you have read.. Rather than literally copying the texts that you have read. covered in the work as conclusions. etc. Here you evaluate your study.
For a project involving software development. the emphasis on the various aspects is different for each type of report. programmer's manual. distinct from your report and are therefore not included within the specified page limits.g.. You will notice that there is a rough correspondence between the expectations outlined above for the different types of documents and the structure. (chapter no). for example. of your contributions of should include set-up.1.2. (chapter no). formulation.2. user's manual.1. Sections within a chapter are numbered using a two-level scheme. design calculations etc. Use different fonts for section titles and subsection titles.structured in to sections and subsections. raw data must be available (preferably in an appendix). As mentioned previously. sections in chapter 3 are numbered 3.(subsection no).. -Do not be too general. Subsections within a section are numbered using a three-level scheme. TNR-12-Bold capital for sections and TNR-12Bold sentence case for subsections. User's and programmer's manuals are considered to be separate documents. (section no). However. For an experimental investigation. The sections and subsections must carry titles.2. subsections in chapter 3. -You may adopt a different way of organizing the material with the consent of your guide. 3.. (vi) Results/Discussion/Comments:
. For e. section 2 are numbered 3.2. .. . these could form appendices. 3. for example. -Presentation derivations.(section no). source code diskette/listing must be available. experimental
data/measurements. Avoid writing essays on historical
Figure(s): Fig(s). SI units must be used through out the report. 2.8.4. 2. This number (e.7) should be used whenever the table/ figure are referred in the text.If there are too many aspects to be covered then organize them in a logical manner. The words 'Table' and 'Chapter' are not shortened. If any other acronyms have to be used.g. The equations should be clearly written.(figure no). whenever it occurs first. Each table/ figure should have a title. Table 4. list them separately at the beginning (after nomenclature). (eq no). This number (e. wherever possible and appropriate.
6. An identical entry should exist in List of Tables or List of Figures respectively. While typing. (chapter no). The first word in a sentence is never a short form. Equation(s): Eq(s). (chapter no). TABLES AND FIGURES: Tables and figures should be numbered and captioned. Title of a table is
.g. (table no) or (chapter no). Symbols used in the equations should be explained immediately after the equation when they are referred first as well as in the nomenclature. EQUATIONS:
Each equation should be numbered using a two-level scheme. Present equations in dimensionless form. Each table or figure should be numbered using a two-level scheme. or Fig.4) whenever the equation is referred in the text. with 2 as chapter number and 4 as equation number) should be used (as Eqn. 7. Mention the acronym in the brackets following its full form. 8. ACRONYMS: Avoid acronyms (short forms) in the report except the following standard ones. the equations should be centrally placed while equation numbers should be flush right. 3.
Figures and tables these should must appear as close the as possible mention to and their not first occurrence/mention in the running text of the chapter these belong to. include the surnames of the first author followed by ‘et al.g. E. etc. 9. REFERENCES: Each entry in the reference has a label. Title of a figure is given at the bottom of the figure following its number.. include the surnames of both the authors followed by the year of publication. This label is used in square brackets or as superscript at the point of citation. ASME. For entries with 2 authors. All references cited in the textbody should be there in the Reference list and vice versa. Photocopied figures should be avoided as far as possible and if included they should be large enough and clear. Labeling: One of the following systems can be used for labeling the cited entries.g. appear after first before. provided there is no likelihood of any confusion. System 2: A label derived from the authors name and the year of publication. ASTM. DC. If taken from any reference.given at the top of the table following its number. Jnl. the reference should be cited within the text as well as at the caption of the figure or table. This label is used in round brackets at the point of
. Photocopied tables should not be included. The references should be arranged together in the order of this numeric label. For entries with multiple authors. AC. .’ and the year of publication. e. Established acronyms may be used. IIT. System 1 : A numeric label arranged in an order of citation in the main text.
(Ed. ‘Optics. title. (Ed.For a book: name of the authors. Mgmt.). USA. Performance and Economics of the Dynamic Fresnel Paraboloid Reflector Concentrator Dish with Point Focus for High Temperature Solar Thermal Applications’.For an article in a journal: name of the authors. volume (issue S.citation. 1978) 9
. NY. Industrial Solar Power Stations. Sawhney R. 1982).For an article in conference proceedings: name of the authors. Solar Energy and Conservation: Technology. The reference list thus compiled together should be included after the main text but before Appendices.. Pergamon Press. Volume2. city of publication and year of publication.. 1982) or (Taylor and Morgan.B. Veziroglu T. USA. publisher.g. 42(3).C. 359-371. and year of publication. 1999. R.L. Energy Conver. . (Taylor. name of the journal. Commercialization. 915. e.). These details differ depending on the type of bibliographic entry. (Taylor J. title of the book. 665-673. 2001.A chapter in a book: authors of the chapter.. and year. Bera N. editors (if present). range of pages. 1982) or (Taylor et al. title. publisher. Oxford University Press. The references should be arranged together in the alphabetical order of the author surname (1st priority) and the year of publication (2nd priority)... (Bandyopadhyay Bhattacharyya
‘Thermoeconomic Optimization of Combined Cycle Power Plants’. Mill Valley. number).. name of conference. (Kedare S. range and of pages.(Bilgen E. S. 1982) . Proceedings of National Renewable Energy Convention ’99 . you should provide the details of each entry in the following manner. An Introduction to Error Analysis. CA.) . In the reference list. editors of the book. Utilization. range of pages and year.) . title of the chapter. Design.N. title. city of publication.
it is useful to suggest a list of publications for background reading. Dept. the proof of which is too long for the main text. IIT. It should follow ‘References’ on a fresh page.g. title. There could be several reasons for using appendices: the material is too long and has too many details (e. These are not cited anywhere in the text. year.A manual / handbook / standards : company name (if there are no authors).htm. year.D. report number. title. (Ahmed K. Ph.
10. (British Standards Institution. Specification for Steel girder bridges . Thesis. year.B.D. you want to
. you have formulated a theorem.. 1972) . date visited (Danish Wind Industry Association.A report: authors. 1991) . title. (Kedare S. of Mechanical Engineering. reference number. department. but that do not fit in the main presentation of your work and breaks the regular flow. Aug 16. the specifications of instruments or equipment). THE APPENDICES:
Appendices are useful for those things that you consider important. or Masters Thesis: author. Mumbai. 2002) Bibliography: In a few exceptional cases. World Bank Technical Paper Number 240. Renewable Energy Technologies. BS153 : Parts 3B & 4 : 1972.windpower. 'Investigations on a Reciprocating Wind Machine' .. university/company.org /tour/wtrb/lift. Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines: Lift . This list can be included as ‘Bibliography’. name of the site.A Ph.A web-site : Author or Organization. 1994) . university. http://www. complete address of the site..
Appendix B.include a user manual for the software that you have come across (strongly recommended!). epsilon. you want to present the schematics of a hardware design. beta. pi. Instead. xi. chi. theta. delta.g. iota. Appendices tend to occupy many pages. complete listings of the source code that you have written are seldom interesting. rho. Alphabetical order of Greek letters: Alpha. If you have just one appendix. Appendix A. mu. For example. kappa. Appendices are numbered as Appendix I. add a flow chart. omega. gamma. etc. experimental set-up. then it is not numbered. zeta. phi. or using capital English letters e.
. upsilon. nu. Think carefully on what you want to include. omicron. sigma. etc. eta. tau. lambda. etc. psi. Appendix II. Avoid describing the test set-up where a schematic can be easily used.