ofa culture wasnopractical formulation andtheoretical basedonfemale desire" (p. 15) in this women's in fact helpedto trivialize movement andthatfeminists the sexual Sichtermann byinsisting solelyon morerefined "techniques," arguesthat experience in themselvesas "desirers," womenshoulddevelopconfidence and that this selfthe confidence wouldinclude She defends ability. pridein allaspectsof reproductive as not totallyrational desirefor children (this seems to go withoutsaying,but her socialenvironment" of thispointis probably dueto the "inquisitorial emphasis (p. 29) in the Federal some of the feminist among groupsshe mentions Republic). Referring to her earlierbookLebenmit einemNeugeborenen. Ein Buchiiberdas erstehalbe andthe heterosexual sex betweenbreast-feeding Jahr (1981),she drawsan analogy of the breastscouldchangeoureveryday act andasserts that"acultivated eroticism life"(p. 66). Suchstatementsare madein a rather journalistic, impressionistic way whichmaybe a very honestexpression of the author's ownfeelings,butwhichdoes not contribute to a moregeneraltheoretical of these matters. understanding The chapter is especially on "Beauty, andDeath" Here, Democracy problematic. Sichtermann sets out to critique boththe "feminine whichdemanded that mystique" all womentry to makethemselvesbeautiful objectsfor men'spleasure,as well as the "feminist," and"Fat" movements which"repress theirlonging forbeauty "Old," (p. 50). The point she makes is very justified:how couldfeminism altogether" a notion of personal attractiveness which would be anexpression of subjective develop choiceratherthantotalobjectification? Yetshe writesin a very impressionistic way by the sightof someonebeautiful" againaboutthe "needwe allhaveto be refreshed human stimulation" (p. 54) and the craving beingshavefor "visual (p. 50). These needs and cravings in her presentation, soundalmostbiological becauseshe does not analyze themat allas socially andculturally createdneeds. It would be important hereto remember thatidealsof beauty andattractiveness change throughout history, andalso thatlove anddesirearenot limited to those who conform closelyto those ideals. The bookoffersfewpractical forcoping withtheproblems it raisessuggestions not thatone author should be expectedto develop a complete butin many program, instancesSichtermann that improvements and solutionsare gives the impression for simplya matterof good will. Forexample,she writes that it is also "advisable men to change" (p. 120), or that"itonlyneeds someoneto puta bit of imagination andinitiative intothese problems" inorderto "doaway withthe socialconsequences" of the inequality in reproductive functions our (p. 110).The bookdoes not advance theoretical or historical of why there is such resistanceto these understanding changesandof whatit mighttaketo bringthemabout.
Brown University CAROL POORE
The Films of WernerHerzog: Between Mirage and History. Ed. Timothy Corrigan. New Yorkand London: Methuen, 1986. 232 pp. $39.95 cloth, $14.95 paper. filmspresentandpartly Partlybecauseof the extremes that Werner Herzog's becauseof thedifficulty inseparating theactual filmsfrom thedirector's self-promoted
viewsthe director as Herzog's a "humanist filmmaker" from FilmComment) describes (p. Rentschler succeedsin his aimto "demystify [Herzog's] mystifications" (p. themselves to hismesmerizTheysurrender everything of theirown romantic ing imagesand see in them manifestations longings. inorder to realize hisdreams. of individual Giventhe nature viewers' horizons of expectations.These withthe director's At the other idealimplied viewer. text. Because of its "re-sacralization of the aestheticsphere. practices the theme of revoltandthe function of leitmotifs) betweenthe making of changed Signs of LifeandAguirre.whofirstintroduced filmsto the U. 75). essays progressfromthe morespecificto the moregeneralandabstract. On Walking Horak's onIcetackles Jan-Christopher essay on the filmmaker's diary the problems inHerzog's directorial andwork.and an idealistwho risks humanist. the filmemergesas a hybrid The finalarticlesby Eric Rentschler andAlanSingerfocus on Heartof Glass. basically spectators correspond of Herzogis motivated not only endof the spectrum arethose whosecondemnation or moral butalso by political concerns. Both William VanWertandGertrud Kochdiscusshow Herzogprojectshimself intohis documentaries andturnstheminto a medium for self-expression.the responseto his worksrunsthe gamutfromunquestioning At one end of the spectrum are viewerswho consider absoluterejection. coupled arguesthat Herzog'sprivileging withan aestheticization of death.S.Corrigan's articulate bookmediates between analysis these twoextremesbyengaging ina critical diverse dialogue. AmosVogel. the dualities of passion andirrationalityandnarrative discussing alityvs. thejuxtaposition between of Herzog's indebtedness to German Romanticism. Froma feminist of authorship. andthe question Benellianalyzes howHerzog's recurrent cinematic (the use of landscapes. of films readings will alwaysbe subjective. 164)by
. sexuJudith viewpoint. 46).he of the "symbolic over actualhuman life.Peucker takesuptheimplications ofilliteracy.pointing outhowthetechnical conditions affect poor16mmprint perception.This criticism of civilization in andthe fatalistic worldview grouplikensthe neo-romantic his filmsto fascisticideology. of Hollywood andthe New German Cinema.Theyviewhimas a megalomaniac by artistic who risks lives and exploitshis subjectsfor the sake of aestheticcreation. imageandtext.BOOK REVIEWS
admiration to image.Afterdiscussing thedirector's persona to Lotte Eisnerandthe tales of his adventurous symbolic relationship exploits. the transformation of the artistas Koch LandofSilence andDarkness as anexample of"neo-romanprophet. reasonandscience in BramStoker'snovelas well as in theiradaptations andHerzog..yet such extreme viewpointsoften obstructobjective andevaluation of Herzog's films. Hisarticle(reprinted the difference betweenviewinga new 35 mmprintof FataMorgana in 1970anda in1980.markhimas dangerously close to fascistic tendencies" (p. Presenting perspectives and occasionally these provocative opposing arguments. himto be a champion of primitive a visionary cultures. by Murnau ThomasElsaesserexamines theGreen AntsDreamthwarts audience why Where Withits comicmise-en-scene andits protagonist as a Hollywood interexpectations. 39). romanticism" emancipated (p." interprets tic regression" whichshe brieflycontrastswith Alexander Kluge's"democratic. Also reprinted are an articleby BrigittePeucker anda revisedversionof one by Dana Benelli. Mayneexploresquestions voiceinNosferatu.
tational devicesanddenyvisionary aboutfilms. tensions.492
random or structurally chaotic as many howthe filmis not as narratively explaining as doubles and function revealshowthe two protagonists claim.andtheiraudiences.it is agitation There but of illiterates. Focusing on the tory. Southeastern Editor.recolwhenwriting Without recourseto a printed text forreference Fata lections of smalldetailscan be incorrect.P. of opinions. StuartAtkins.
. Herzog. thatgovernauthors.NicholasSpadaccini. Fritz Nies. andsubmissions to the General JamesF. Andfilmculture is an obviousironyin the fact that through these essays the readerwillgainnew insightsinto Werner Herzogandhis films. pointsin socialconventions The Editorial Board.Box724. Especially welcomeare studiesthat affiliation. (economic. or German.
Universityof Pennsylvania A. 152)buton a ski lift.Jr.Afterreading clear. be carefully to eitherMLA orUniversity Theyshould prepared according of Chicago and should not exceed 300 Direct allinquiries style requirements pages.sexual. theirsubjects. period European (approximately this series seeks to publishtexts that examinethe relationship betweenliterary artforms andsocio-historical Ofparticular interstructures.Thus some commentsregarding Small. groupdynamics. University. Sokalski.composedof RalphAlbanese. Society.notstatuesbutnaturally preserved Most of the arguments in this bookare presentedwell and maybringabouta "Film is not the art of scholars." is not analysis. and to of statues of human figures" (p. and exclusionthat applyto them. HenrySullivan. according Nosferatu's "images opening ina Mexican bodies hehadfound cave. entitled"Sociocriticism: Literature. intellectual. Spanish. est are the problems of representing in the contextof theirsocialgroups individuals or geographic) and the processes of assimilation. Alexander and Gaines. will be gladto considertexts in English. Gaines. Louisiana LA 70402. 52 & 63) apparently applyto EvenDwarfsStarted scenicrailway" does not commitsuicideon a "circular (p. Hammond.His original analysis thisessay.Stroszek Morgana (pp. a romantic howRiefensthal andHerzogappropriated legacy..Singeranalyzesthe of the director's mysticalworlds:preciselythose imageswhichseem to paradox attention to theirrepresendirectthe viewer's of mythical longing expressfulfillment transcendence.Herzogproclaimed: re-consideration of the mind. 127)are. BIRGEL FRANZ
A new monograph series.or mentalities.O." by Peter LangPublishing mainly in the Western literatures earlymodern 1550-1850).James F.Jost Hermand.andHishas been established Inc. shed new lighton traditional or on the turning groupdefinitions.Italian. the similarities betweenTheBlue LightandHeartof Glassbecomeobviously More abstractin his discussionof Herzog'sironicsublime.French.