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Bodily Resurrection in Islamic Philosophy

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29 MAY 2012

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Bodily Resurrection in Islamic Philosophy
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The issues of eschatology and the afterlife have always generated a great deal of speculation. People speculate on when it wil

how it is going to be done, how it is going to affect them, and if such things really will occur or not. This issue is a very i purpose if people are born, live, and die and are not judged for their deeds? How can there be justice if everybody is treated in way? In line with this, the Qur’an[1] affirms:
“He Who created Death and Life, that He may try which of you is best in deed” (QS. 67:2).

dimension in all religions, especially Islam. According to Islam, human life has no meaning without resurrection. How can

To believe in the “last day” is a fundamental instrument of Islamic faith. In Islam, human and cosmic histories have an end just as they have a beginning

ma’ad (“return” or “place of return”) and mabda’ (“origin” or “place of origin”) are keywords used to talk about the end and the beginning of human life. The

ma’ad is closely bound to the concept of mabda’ (“origin” or “place of origin”) [2]. The topic of “the origin and the return” covers everything that connects to the destiny are related to three branches of Islamic knowledge which are the firm sign, the just duty, and the established tradition[3].

effort in achieving his suitable place in creation or reaching his perfection, whether moral, spiritual, or intellectual (Chittick 378). To be more specific, the

The connection between the firm sign and “the origin and the return” can be seen more closely in the prime purpose of the science of the firm sign that is

(ma’rifah) Allah through His signs. In this sense, cognizance of Allah involves two general categories which are cognizance with respect to the origin of c

cognizance with respect to the destiny of creation. The first category deals with the problem of the existence of Allah, His oneness, His essential attr how the creation will be returning to Allah (Hamid, “Islam Dynamic” 66).

actional attributes, His justice, the purpose of the world and humanity, and the guidance of the world and humanity. The second category is about escha

Since the just duty deals with an ethical dimension of Islam, it has an obvious relationship with “the origin and the return.” We can simply say that human should pay close attention to all of their deeds in this world. They should obey all God’s commands and avoid all of His prohibitions.

ethically in this world not because of their fear of laws created by humans, but because of fear of the Divine Law (Nasr 40). Thus, those who believe in the

Both the firm sign and the just duty are esoteric aspects of Islam (haqiqah and tariqah). The firm sign and the just duty are expressed through establishe The established tradition is a guide that should be applied in daily life. It teaches people how to build a relationship with God (hablum minallah correlation between the established tradition and “the origin and the return.”

between man and man (hablum min al-nas). Since the firm sign and the just duty are manifested in the established tradition, it can be said that there is a

Based on such a description, it can be understood why the issue of “the origin and the return” has a significant role in Islam. Unlike the problem of the problem of the return is much more controversial and has been studied since the early times of Islam. This topic is not only found in the works of Muslim but also in the works of Muslim philosophers. There are several issues that frequently appear in their works such as the meaning of death, the nature of soul, the evidence of afterlife, the eschatological process, spiritual resurrection, and bodily resurrection.

Of these issues, spiritual resurrection and bodily resurrection are the most studied by Muslim philosophers. As it relates to a spiritual resurrection, m the eternal spheres. His argument for the immateriality of the soul is built on the Platonic concept of the accidental and temporary union of soul and body not only emphasize that the soul is greater than the body, but it also indicates the affinity of the soul and the eternal world (Adamson 153).

philosophers concentrate on the issue of the immortality of the soul. Al-Kindi[4], for example, argues that the soul is an incorporeal substance which is af

“History” 85). In this sense, the body is not essentially alive; rather, it is alive accidentally. The soul continues to live while the body is demolished. This

Similar to Al-Kindi, Al-Farabi[6] also discusses the immortality of the soul in some aspects of his philosophy. This topic, for instance, appears frequently in

of the Virtuous City (Al-Madinah al-Fadhilah). In explaining the nature of the soul of the inhabitants of the virtuous city after death, he asserts that the

subject to a progression in the achievement of perfection and virtue proportionate to their disconnection with matter. After these souls have reached the m

such perfection, they will be able to dispense with matter altogether, and then they will continue to exist in an incorporeal state. In the disembodied existe subsisted. Because those variations are infinite, the souls after death are also going to be infinite (Fakhry, “Al-Farabi” 118).

souls are free from all things related to the body. Nevertheless, the conditions of the souls vary depending on the characteristics of the bodies in which th

Using a different approach, Al-Razi[7] sustains the idea of the immortality of the soul. This subject is presented in his metaphysical doctrines constructe

concept of the five eternal principles which are creator, soul, matter, time, and space. According to him, the five principles co-exist eternally; howeve
salehdaulay.com/index.php/component/k2/item/122-bodily-resurrection-in-islamic-philosophy 1/7

Al-Ghazali argues a secon the body will be reunited in the Day of Judgment regardless whether or not with the same matter of its original body or of a different matter. The body is not a cause of the soul’s existence and their existences do not depend on each othe that souls can affect bodies does not mean that the body can affect the souls. and happiness depends on the work of the intellect. In a broad sense. About this question. Mulla Sadra. The awareness of the sou which is also freedom from suffering. or wherever. it cannot be are subject to destruction. The fact that the body is passing. the soul was ignorant and failed to accomplish its desire through His mercy[8] and knowledge. It is not only consistent with their philosophical reflection on immortality of the soul. “Do not think that those who have been killed in the way of God are dead. since the soul is not a compound of to be destroyed with the body’s destruction. The central part of his argument is the affirmation of the substantiality of th claims that the soul is not dependent wholly on the body. called spiritual resurrection. Since the soul does not depend on the body for its existence.” In addition to this point. Having concluded that the soul is immortal. incorruptible and eternal. the next question to be answere the soul is heading for. Ibn Rushd. so that nothing remains of it as a particular body. Hence this present body is precisely the same as that (earlier one) in this respect. the discus immortality of the soul is relevant to the concept of “the return” (ma’ad) and the resurrection of human soul. perishing. In addition. and the body of the unbeliever may have a molar tooth as big as mountain. or his shape could be that salehdaulay. “The spirits of the righteous are in the crops of green birds that hang beneath the throne. after death. those philosophe authority of the revelation –which asserts that the soul is immortal and incorruptible-. the Muslim philosophers’ agreement on spiritual resurrection was not followed by an agreement on the issue of bodily resurrection. whether in this world. and 7) the soul can directly affect the body ( Based on such premises. The Qur’an implies a belief in bodily resurrecti following. it seems that Al-Ghazali’s ideas on the necessity of the bodily resurrection are more theological than philosophical. he argues that philosophers who claimed that there is Incoherence of the Philosophers). claims that the Qur’an does not stop at the immortality of the soul. The Qur’an affirms that th this argument. The reunific soul and the body will not only revive the individual. or this old man was a child. At the first step. The word nafs (soul) in the Qur’an not only refers to the spiritual side of man’s existence. At this point. the body of a person of paradise is luminous. the Creator created hayoula (matter) of man and the soul s essence. body. Sadra points out that when the soul of a particular individual still remains. He asserts that a body is indispens soul at all stages of its existence. The prophet of Islam confirms th saying. Interestingly. incorruptible and eternal. as they claimed. At this level the physical world wi The immortality of the soul was also one of the main concerns of Ibn Sina[9]. God needs to create the bodies to distinguish one soul to another (Chittick 390). there are two major points of view about this topic. To guide the soul back to its real world and genuine destiny. sublime.to support their ideas. one can rightly say that the old man’s finger is the (same) finger that he possessed in childhood. by contrast. And both of these aspects are true without any contradiction (Morris 161). the soul as a simple incorporeal being is not subject to destruction. 2) the individ of things is not dependent on their particular matter. He introduced seven fundamental premises to relationship between body and soul. Suhrawardi. only accidentally related to physical forms. Moreover. Even though they expressed various arguments. 3) the being remains one throughout the stages of its transformation. essentially . 5) the soul’s imaginal power is a substance essentially separa 160). This is why it is said that this child is the one who will grow old. all Muslim philosophers agree as view. In Tahafut al-Fal There are two steps that Al-Ghazali proposed to attack such philosophers. the Universal Soul. Then. diseased and decrepit. Bas Unlike Al-Ghazali. there are those who affirm that there is a spiritual and bodily resurrection in the wor tension became more serious as some philosophers revealed the theological implications on the issue. These two diametrically opposed points of view bring different philosophical thoughts to support their notions. He also created it to manage a natural sensory form. However. even though with age he has lost all the (particular material childhood finger has disappeared with respect to both its form and its matter. and Syaikh Ahmad Al-Ahsai[10]. Al-Ghazali refutes the claims of the philosophers who argue that bodily pleasures and pains are impossible (Fakhry. corruptible. The natu form is the locus within which the soul manifested. and that higher levels of being su lower. Interestingly. without material preparedness. Secondly. not matter. 4) the soul originates forms of being by pure intention.9/8/12 Bodily Resurrection in Islamic Philosophy desired to materialize itself in order to achieve and experience sensuous pleasures. Firstly those who believe that there is only a spiritual resurrection. 6) the soul’s perceptions are essentially of its own world. but also to the whole human the time God created the human soul. There are many other Muslim philosophers after Ibn Sina who have been enriched the discussion of the immortality of the soul such as Ibn Maskawayh. all of those philosophers agree that the soul will return to its origin. eternal. in the barzakh. one of his major philosophical works. it may be generated but it does not suffer the destruction that afflicts all generated things that are composed of form and matter (Goodman 160-161). this tension has yet to be res Al-Ghazali[11] was a famous Muslim philosopher who fought to justify that believing in bodily resurrection is a fundamental faith of Islam. it.php/component/k2/item/122-bodily-resurrection-in-islamic-philosophy 2/7 of opposing qualities and of heavy does not affect this sameness. Composite exist form. Instead. Indeed. but asserts the resurrection of the soul and the body as well. his body also has the same body because the soul o the perfection of its reality. he writes. In line with this argument. the Creator also equipped the soul with intellect (al-‘aql). This issue b head a conflict between Islamic speculative theology (kalam) and philosophy. All souls remain in the physical world until they liberate themselves by philosophy. although i because of the persistence of his soul. while in another respect the two Thus the man who is living now is precisely the same as the man who will return after death. Therefore. In this point. they come to the same that the soul is immortal. it only remains the finger all the same. he claimed that Muslim philosophers who deny the resurrection of the body are i resurrection in the world to come cannot prove demonstratively that the souls are immortal and incorruptible. Al-Razi argues that philosophy is an effective tool to obtain freedom from material and the soul can go back to its original state as a pure universal soul without material attachment (Al-Allaf 82). but also with their theological and mysti However. Ibn ‘Arabi. but will also recover the capability of the individual to experience bodily pleasures and pains a description. organs that he had as a child. “Introduction” 71). Ibn ‘Arabi[14] explains the necessity of bodily resurrection based on an existentialism point of view. Ibn Sina argues that the destruction of the soul cannot be caused by anything. The Existentialist approach to bodily resurrection became more plausible in the hand of Mulla Sadra[15]. and never dead. The seven fundamental premises are: 1) the subsistence of things is by virtue of their form. incorruptible. reality. the Creator helped the soul to achieve its desires.com/index. but are living with their Lord” (3:169).

It is a brilliant synthesis which is based on many philosophical trad edition of his dissertation. Actually. and God-human relationship. and he interprets it to make sense. “Spiritual Body” 186). origin. we can see that all Muslim philosophers and theologians point of view. that is. gradation. Morris has made a significant contribution to the field of Sadra studies. Firstly. to Muslim Philosophers. The body of a human at any given will preserve the identity of this body. An unfailing hallmark of a great lies in the fact that he produced a veritable synthesis of all these currents. If w Based on Sadra’s qualifications as mentioned above. and in setting the stage for the reading of this translation in In his observation. Al-Farabi.e. In this point. the “flesh” and the “volume” body[18]. Morris’ book “The Wisdom of selected to be a primary source of this study. The “I”-soul is different from the elem difficulties in arguing the necessity of the resurrection of the human soul. Fazlur Rahman (13) writes. like Al-Ghazali. It is close to Al-Ghazali’s ideas on the nature of pleasures and pains after death. Sadra’s ideas on bodily resurrection are in line with the statements of the Qur’an that say the body in the hereafter will be the same earthly body and no symbolic one. from the same matter. The second jasad (jasad B. The necessity of bodily resurrection is also found in the work of Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsai[17]. A human being. like Plato. and Suhrawardi.php/component/k2/item/122-bodily-resurrection-in-islamic-philosophy 3/7 Greek philosophers. Morris classifies Sadra’s philosophy into two main aspects –the origin and the return. and it is different lastly from the body. the content of this book is very comprehensive regarding the subject being investigated. Sadra is successful in proving that everything in the universe comes from the return is about the upcoming world and its nature. Sadra goes furth body of perishable flesh and a body of spiritual flesh which is imperishable. the discourses on the necessity of bodily resurrec philosophers and theologians. original arche with the spirit. His att actions. his book “Kitab al-‘Arshiyyah” is considered to be the best one[19]. this study is not the first study on Kitab al-‘Arshiyyah. similar to the first. This synthesis is not brought about by mere “reconciliation” and superficial “co thinker is that he discovers a master-idea. whereas the second accident would be homologous to jism A. “Spiritual Body” 182-4). The first accident would here correspond to jasad A (the material body) in t A. However. whereas the volume (jism) is an astral body and an essential. The ‘astral subtle body’ ( this life is really its identical form plus an indeterminate (mubham) matter. Using a philosophical justification. Sadra discusses many things related to Islamic eschatology.” This body is the one that formerly existed in the earthly life (Corbin. The flesh (Corbin.com/index. Althou numerous observations on the issue. but it has shed one accident and assumed another accident. the return is a kind of conclusion that everything should be returning to the One. it is different also from the imperishable jasad B (the body of spiritual flesh). the caro spiritualis of elements of the spiritual world). In the notes and introduc succeeds in his goal of introducing the reader to Sadra and his philosophical thought in general. this body will be pure physical form without matter—but that ph soul from this body into an eschatology body. which will not reappear from the moment of the return of the jasad B at the great resurrection). like Al-Kindi. Sadra maintains that afterlife is the transportation ( doctrine of substantive movement (haraka jauhariyyah) and his theory of the world of images (‘alam al-mithal)[16] (Rahman 257). Since this book is the . The first jasad (jasad A. and Plotinus. His inquiries on Islamic philosophy are believe The significance of Sadra does not lie just in the fact that he studied the entire heritage of Islamic thought and brought together all its significant thoughtbut on the basis of a philosophical principle which he both propounded and expounded for the first time in Islamic history. Such a problem needs to be resolved by doing some philosophical investigation on the issue.” The s jasad and jism regarding bodily resurrection was summarized by Shaykh Ahmad as follows: The first jasad (jasad A) is the form belonging to the lower elements. The relationsh prototype of the former. the astral body in the intermediate world. which is continuously changing. a grand principle under which the entire range of reality falls. or something else that disappears in hellfire (Morris 162). It changes our very perspective of looking at reality and offers a novel solution to the age-old problems that have vexed human minds. From the discussion on immortality of the soul and the bodily resurrection that is outlined above. Shaykh Ahmad combined approach and philosophical justification to prove his ideas. Unlike Ibn ‘Arabi and Sadra. significant one. As for jism B (the essential or archetypal original forever identical to itself (Corbin. life. this thesis will deal with his philosophical investigation on the issue of bodily resurrection. Avicenna. Sadra’s notion on the question of a physical afterlife appears very similar to Al-Ghazali’s. Sadra admits that (the statements of the Qur’an) this is so but adds that that body will have the same form as this earthly body and not the matter body. salehdaulay. is the human being which continues to exist in the tomb after the body of flesh made of terrestrial elements (Corbin. The first jism (jism A) is the form belonging to the intermediate world or barzakh (jism B) is “the supracelestial archetypal body. Basically he divides the body into two terms. There are at least two reasons why Kitab al-‘A has been commented by Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsai so we can use these comments to clarify Sadra’s ideas on the issue. he adds. especially on the concept of mabda’ (the origin) and ma’ad (the return). In the hereafter. Referring to the significance of Mulla Sadra in the history of Islamic philosophy. When you break your seal and reshape another seal. its identity is preserved by its form not by its matter. Fazlur Rahman (250) asserts. barzahk . “Spiritual Body” 216). the elemental terrestrial body the one which is made up of elements that are a prey of time. the soul has lost nothing essent certainly itself. a new se in laying down this criterion—as Sadra himself also does—then Mulla Sadra must be accepted as a great and original thinker. James Winston Morris was a pioneer in studying this book. which is annihilated after death. Aristotle. possesses two kinds of jasad and jism. the first jism (jism A) is “the body in which the spirit departs from its body of terrestrial flesh (i. Even in this earthly body. and certainty. The origin is about the existence of God. Mulla Sadra’s philosophical thought is a good source to most systematic that have ever existed.9/8/12 Bodily Resurrection in Islamic Philosophy pig. Secondly An Introduction to Philosophy of Mulla Sadra” is a great scholarly work through which he introduced this book to Western readers. This claim has given rise to a tensio There is no doubt that Mulla Sadra has made a great contribution to the development of Islamic philosophy. Accordingly. jasad A). However. “History” 355). whereas the spirit is separated from its ‘subtle body of spiritual flesh’ (jasad B) at the moment when death intervenes between them. Indeed. As for two jism. their philosophical thoughts on this issue are consistent with their co problematic since some philosophers. revealed the theological implications on such an issue. Indeed.

378-409. Campanini. ---. Oxford: Oneworld Publication. 1993. ---. 1993. Jane Idleman and Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad.1 (2003): 61-119. and 3) to lay down a philosophical foundation for further study on the issu This thesis is formulated in four chapters. it introduces the philosophical consideration of the necessity of bodily resurrection based on Al-Gh metaphysics concerning the concept of “real” and “reality. “How Ibn Sina Became Avicenna. 1992. A Guid to the Contents of the Qur’an. 2008. Idris Samawi. NY: State University of New York Pres salehdaulay. Madjid. Fazlur. Seyyed Hossein Nasr and Oliver Leaman. William C. ---. The discussion will start by addressing an early to some classical Muslim philosophers. Ed. Peter.” Islamic Spirituality Foundations . further study on this issue is still needed and impor are three purposes that can be achieved from this study. Goodman. The Essence of Islamic Philosophy . James Winston. Al-Kindi: Great Medieval Thinkers. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. St. Avicenna. 2004. ---. Princeton: Princeton University Press. trace the root of Sadra’s philosophy in justifying the bodily resurrection. Besides the original text of Kitab al-‘Arshiyy Bibliography Adamson. As stated befo translation is also utilized as a tool in understanding the main idea of the book. Klein-Franke. Ed.” History of Islamic Philosophy. Suhrawardi.” The Courier 9 (1980): 32-39. A History of Islamic Philosophy . Albany.” History of Islamic Philosophy. Corbin.E. New York: Crossroad. London and New York: Kegan Paul International. “Eschatology. L. Cambridge: Cambridge Press. 2001. New York: Oxford University Press. 1999. 1) to reveal philosophical justification on the necessity of bodily resurrection in Islamic philos resurrection. Translated by Nancy Pearson. Mashad. Nasr. Fakhry. The Islamic Understanding of Death and Resurrection. “Al-Ghazali. New York: State University of New York Press. The Philosophy of Mulla Sadra. Marmura. 1964. ---. Reading: Garnet Publishing. The second chapter is about the philosophical foundation of resurrection in the history of philosophy. “Al-Ghazali.9/8/12 Bodily Resurrection in Islamic Philosophy Though his study on Kitab al-‘Arshiyyah is an extraordinary work. Chicago: Kazi Publication. Seyyed Hossein Nasr and Oliver Leaman. Michael E. “Al-Kindi. Works. the fourth chapter is a conclusion with remarks in which the whole investigation is summarized. 2003. Sherif. His Life. Seyyed Hossein Nasr. the issue of bodily resurrection was not the main concern of Morris’ investigation.New York: Columbia University Press. It also includes a brief history of the immortality of human sou ‘Arabi’s. The first chapter is an introduction to the debates on the necessity of bodily resurrection in Islamic philosophy the importance of the issue of resurrection based on the classification of sciences in Islam. Chittick. 2002.php/component/k2/item/122-bodily-resurrection-in-islamic-philosophy 4/7 . Thus f no record that tells us about another study of this book. AL-Allaf. 1998. Rahman. The Wisdom of the Throne: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Mulla Sadra. 1977. Felix. Massimo. State University of New York. 1975. and Shaykh Ahmad’s outlooks. Al-Farabi: Founder of Islamic Neoplatonism. 1981. History of Islamic Philosophy. 1987. The culmination of the discussion will be on emanation theory and its implication to the necessity of bodily resurrection The third chapter is more specifically on Sadra’s philosophical thought on bodily resurrection as found in his book Kitab al-‘Arshiyyah. 2005. London and New York: Routledge. Nogales. Sadra’s. Finally. Ahmad’s commentaries on that book (Sharh Kitab al-‘Arshiyya) will be used in analyzing Sadra’s ideas. especially on bodily resurrection. London and New York: Routledge. Peter Adamson and Richard Taylor. Louis: M. A Young Muslim’s Guide to the Modern World. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Morris. In addition.” The Cambridge Companion to Arabic Philosophy .” Diss. Seyyed Hossein. Islam Dynamic: The Cosmology and Spirituality of Walayah. Therefore. 2007. Three Muslim Sages: Avicenna. and Influence. NY: State University of New York Press. Salvador Gomez.“The Metaphysics and Cosmology of Process According to Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsai. London and New York: Routledge. Ed.com/index. Henry.” International Journal of Shi’i Studies 1. Al-Allaf. Spiritual Body and Celestial Earth: From Mazdean Iran to Shi’ite Iran. Ibn ‘Arabi. “A Foundation for Shi’i Metaphysics: Sayh Ahmad al-Ahsai and the Meaning of al-Hikmah.” This chapter will investigate some ideas of Greek philosophers about this subject and its influ development of Islamic philosophy. Ed. Faruq. Hamid. Albany. Smith. 2001.

astronomy. adoration. philosophy a [10] We are going to discuss some of the philosophical thoughts of these philosophers regarding the philosophical justification on resurrection in chap discussion of the immortality of the soul in this chapter is only a bridge in grasping why the subject of resurrection appeared in the works of Muslim philoso [11] Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazali was born at Tus. [12] According to Al-Ghazali. The just duty (al-faridatu al-‘adilah) is the science that deals with as legal. astronomy and astrology. especially Neoplatonic treatises. economic. the works of Aristotle. Specific conditions to achieve God’s specific mercy. Though there are some commentaries that are missing. First. and political matters.php/component/k2/item/122-bodily-resurrection-in-islamic-philosophy 5/7 . the partition is a stage when individual soul decided to change its state. Hossein. The Analysis of Plato’s Dialogues . Fifth. his major influence are in three areas. Enneads. He is known as a pioneer of the translation and an init introduction of Greek texts into Arabic. his major interest was medical res sixteenth century. “Islam Dynamic” 133-1 [3] Such classifications of knowledge are found in the tradition of the Prophet which was narrated by Imam Musa al-Kadzim. 2007. Th (al-ayatu al-muhkamah) is the science of cognizance or recognizing the signs of Allah. in 450/1058. the intelligible origins is a stage where the soul wa complete. Ziai. Islamic cosmology deals with three main issues which are the the Reunion. and purely intelligible. and from pe [6] Al-Farabi is a prominent Shiite philosopher who earned the title of Magister Secundus (Aristotle is the Magister Primus) because of his brilliant comm Doctrines of the Two Sages. in Persia. For further clarification. Giannis. the Inevitable Torment. He received a good traditional educatio attended the lessons of the most distinguished theologian of his time. Cognizance of the origin is built on the propositi the origin of all becoming and motion”. the decision of separation is a stage when the individual soul decided to descend in the perceptible rea imperfection. Fourth. The Object of the Different Books of Aristotle’s Metaphysics. In this sense. ethics. see Salvador Gomez Nogales (32). and literature. and logic (Fakhry. His immense influence in the West can be traced through his L “Avicennism. see Idris S. social. Cognizance of the origin and the return is the only way to earn the meaning. physics and physiology. News. the Day of Mutual Loss and Gain. the R Men call out one to another. the Doom. the Sure Reality. we are still able to read some of his main works such as The Harmony be Book of the Attainment of Happiness. economics and politics. On the whole. Ibn Sina He was also known as one of the great theorists of mysticism. the Day of Reckoning. the Inevitable Event. Obeying. Albany. from completeness to incompleteness. For further reading on Ibn Sina’s life and works. the Resuscitation. the self-isolation is a stage when the soul isolated itself to its own individual life. meaning. the Day of Meeting. Such works are the concrete contribution of Al-Farabi in preserving and tr [7] Al-Razi is known for his free thought and nonconformity in the whole history of Islam. a city in Khurasan. Of these doctrines God’s knowledge of universal but not of particulars. arithmetic and geometry (Corbin 154). study include all of the branches of Aristotelian inquiry which are logic. the Overwhelming Event. On Definitions and Descriptions of Thing [5] According to Plotinus. adore and service Him. Second. the Da origin. He was interested in metaphysics.com/index. from a whole to part. In addition to philosophy. the Appointed time. His areas of studies include alchemy. music. grammar. “History” 98). magnum opus in this field is al-Hawi which was translated into Latin under the title Continens and has been circulated extensively in medical circles [8] Based on the interpretation of the first ayah of the first surah of the Quran. universal mercy and specific mercy mercy (al-rahman) is a mercy that comes from God to all of His creations regardless of whether they obey His teaching or rebel against them. the unification of the soul and the body are followed by five stages. civil. London and New York: 2001. the Day of Sorting Out. Hamid. the Day of Judgment. rahim) is a mercy that God gives to certain people who follow all of His teachings. “Islam Dynamic” (59-63). the Qur’an applies different names to resurrection depending on its traits such as: the Great Day. and the very Great Calamity (143).9/8/12 Bodily Resurrection in Islamic Philosophy Stamatellos. to which he remained faithful until the end of his life (Campanini 259). theology. The three doctrines he considers as absolutely opposed to Islamic beliefs are the eternity o salehdaulay. Of his writings. the Day of Noise and Clamour. there are two kinds of God’s mercy.” History of Islamic Philosophy. and many others (Corbin. Plotinus and the Pre-Socrates: A Philosophical Study of Presocratic Influences in Plotinus. the Last Day. and service are the [9] Ibn Sina is one of the greatest Muslim philosophers in the history of Islam. the care of the body is a stage when the soul to be weak and focusing only on its bodily part (Stamatellos 157). the Ash’arite Imam al-Haramayn Abul Ma’ali al-Juwayni. Faruq Sherif maintains that there are 67 Surahs in the contain verses concerning this issue. [1] There are numerous passages regarding resurrection and the Day of Judgment in the Qur’an. In such verses. the seventh Shi’a Imam. perfect. “History” 159). and the denial of bodily resurrection (Marmura 145). [2] The origin and the return are two major issues in Islamic cosmology. moral qualities which aim to be balanced. there are twenty philosophical doctrines which are considered to contradict with Islamic religious belief. the Gathering Together. the sciences (especially medicine). Plato and Aristotle. His ph considered as the basis of his philosophical point of view (Klein-Franke 167). three doctrines in which the philosophers become infidels. “Mulla Sadra: His Life and Works. NY: State Univers York Press. adopted the main principles of the Ash’arite Kalam. In philosophy. The established tradition is the science that deals with the specific tradition of the prophet’s practice and legis [4] Al-Kindi is generally recognized as the first Muslim philosopher whose works have survived. Under his guidance. the philosophical thought of Greek Philosophers for both Muslim and Western readers. Seyyed Hossein Nasr and Oliver Leaman.” Generally. thought reflects the doctrines he studied in ancient Greek. philosophy. and destiny. metaphysics. while cognizance of destiny is based on the proposition “everything returns to Allah” (Hamid. Ed. God helped the soul to attain its desires through His universal mercy.

psychology. Of these fruitful works. He lived in the period of Muslim scholasticism both the kalam of Fakhruddin al-Razi and the Hellenic philosophy of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi stemmed. Sha comprehensive. The intellectual sciences mostly cover his philosophi Al-Hikmat al-‘Arshiyyah. Al-Ghazali connects this argument to his notion on the miracle and the miraculous (Fakhry. and responses which are concerned with philosophy. and many other field of knowledge. and Sharh al-Hidayah (Ziai 635-40). conclude that the pleasure and pains for body are allegorical. His contribution to Sadra’s philosophy could be traced through his commentaries on numerous works of Mulla Sadra (Hamid. Catatan: Ini adalah salah satu introduction pada sebuah penelitian saya sewaktu belajar di Colorado State University AS. Throne Wisdom. His contribution to Islamic could be seen from his effort to end the cycle of the great philosophical teaching pioneered by al-Kindi. More precisely. mystic. The first journey deals with the doctrine of being or ontology. the second substance and accident. cosmology. His major works in this field such as Al-Hikmat al-Muta’aliyyah fi al-Asfar al-Arba’a al-‘Aqliyyah. 2) Al-Fawaid al-Hikmiyyah or The Wisdom Observations.com Tweet LATEST FROM SALEH DAULAY salehdaulay. The exposition of Sadra’s philosophy is essentiall his book Al-Hikmat al-Muta’aliyyah. Mafatih al-Ghayb. Al-Ghazali argues that the bodily r [14] Ibn ‘Arabi (1165-1240) was one of the most influential sufi in the Muslim world. Kitab al-Ma’ashir. treatises. 3) wrote about fifty books. This book contains four journeys of reason. His works covers many subjects such as me most widely read and studied (Nasr. Moreover. The Philosophy of Mulla Sadra (19-20). and the terms “spirits” as identical to “bodies” undefined (Corbin. he obviously interacted with Sadra’s philosophy because it was a predominant school of philoso time. His father was not only a scholar. For further information about such works. Al-Ghazali also disagrees with the philosophers who argue that sensuous pleasures and pains explained in the Qur’an are no more than He questions the consistency of the philosophers in interpreting the scripture on the nature of body and soul after death. t prioritized to study before going further to his magnum opus Al-Hikmat al-Muta’aliyyah fi al-Asfar al-Arba’a al-‘Aqliyyah. For those who are unfamiliar with Sadra’s philosophy. It is clearly inconsistent. fleshly body) as an a “Spirit”. but also a minister in Safavid c are more than fifty scholarly works attributed to Sadra.9/8/12 Bodily Resurrection in Islamic Philosophy [13] In this point. “The Metaphysics and Cosmology of Process According to Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsai. Of his scholarly works. the most al-Jami’ah al-Kabirah or Commentary on the Grand Comprehensive Visitation.php/component/k2/item/122-bodily-resurrection-in-islamic-philosophy RELATED ITEMS 6/7 . the transmitted sciences and the intellectua The transmitted sciences cover the traditional subjects of Islamic jurisprudence. However. “Spiritual Body [19] James W. Morris asserts that Kitab al-‘Arshiyya is a gate to the philosophy of Mulla Sadra. 4) Sharh Risalah al-‘Ilm or Commentary on the Treatise on Knowledge. State University of New York. the Imams used the terms “fig theory is known as an alchemy of the body of resurrection (Corbin. s [18] Shaikh Ahmad points out that this idea comes from the tradition of the Imams. (36-39). metaphysical tracts to sufi poems in which the realized aspect of gnosis appears in the language of love. RATE THIS ITEM READ 388 TIMES PUBLISHED IN RISET (0 VOTES) Saleh Daulay Rumah online Ketum PP Pemuda Muhammadiya Fight for Justice and Humanity TAGGED UNDER BODILY RESURRECTION SYAIKH AHMAD ALAHSAI MULLA SADRA ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY IBN 'ARABI Website: www. 8) Al-Risalah fi al-Umur al-‘Itibariyyah or Treatise On Matters of Subjective Consideration. appearances” and “apparitional forms” as identical to “material body”. and metaphysics. 1998. 5 Fawaid or Commentary on Observations. undefined) has a much more general meaning in their terminology. He had written numerous scholarly works from short treatises and letters of a few pages to the monumental Futuhat al-Makkiya. the Futuhat al-Makkiya and the Fusus al-Hik [15] Mulla Sadra (1572-1640) was born in Shiraz in southern Persia to a wealthy family. 7) Sharh al-Hikmah al-‘Arshiyyah or Commen Hamid. “History” 239). glosses on Ibn Sina’s Shifa and on Suhrawardi’s al-Usul al-Kafi. and mature are: 1)Fawa’id al-Usul or Observation in Philosophy of Law. while the pleasure and pains for soul are real. and number of standard kalam texts. h punishment is logically possible. hadith. Generally. Sharh al-Tajrid.” Diss. His importance was seen in his formulation of the doctrines of sufism making them explicit. cosmology.salehdaulay. Qur’anic commentaries. whereas the word jism (body. Al-Mabda’ wa al-Ma’ad. he lived two centuries after Mulla Sad he was not formally trained in the school of Mulla Sadra. and theology. the third deals with God and His attributes. “Muslim Sages” 97). that metaphysics became mature in the East in the same measure as natural sciences progressed in the West. Al-Shawahid al-Rububiyyah.com/index. his works are divided into two main trends. “Foundation” 65). Imamat. The holy Imams used the word jasad (material. Frequently. and the fourth deals with man‘s destiny—the end of the entire philosophic itinera Sadra’s disciples that have been reported are Mulla Abd al-Razzaq Lahiji and Mulla Ali Nuri. Qur’anic commentaries. For further information about Sadra’s infl [16] We will go back and speak more deeply about these doctrines when we discuss Sadra’s philosophical thought on bodily resurrection in detail on chapt [17] Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsai was known as a scientist. and an important philosopher of the early nineteenth century. his influence in the study of philosophy is undeniabl Fazlur Rahman. 6) Sharh al-Masha’ir or Commentary on Physical Penetrations. “History” 355).

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