Voltage Stability in Electric Power Systems

Farzad Zhalefar June 2012

Abstract- In recent years, several catastrophic power system blackouts have occurred worldwide. Some of these system collapses are reported in the literature. Various reasons have been declared for these failures. Economical limitations due to power system restructuring restrictions, inadvertent operation of protective relays and inefficient design of conventional load-shedding schemes are some of the most important reasons initiating these blackouts. This paper has focused on monitoring of voltage stability as one of the features which is in danger these days due to incremental usage of power systems all over the world. For this purpose, some different kinds of voltage stability views have been explained. Then, some methods for voltage stability analysis have been mentioned in brief.

I.

Voltage stability

Nowadays, voltage collapse is one of the major problems which electric power networks might face [1], [2]. According to the IEEE Power System Engineering Committee, voltage stability is being defined in the following way: “Voltage stability is the ability of a system to maintain voltage so that when load admittance is increased, load power will increase, and so that both power and voltage are controllable.” [3]. Practically, it is useful to classify voltage stability into two subcategories, namely Long-term and Short-term [4]. Long-term voltage stability involves rather slow acting equipment such as tapchanging transformers, thermostatically controlled loads, and generator current limiters. In this case, the study period of interest may extend to several minutes, and long-term simulations are required for analysis of system dynamic performance. In these studies, stability is usually determined by the resulting outage of equipment, rather than the severity of the initial disturbance. In fact, this topic would be discussed in the area of electric power system dynamics and control [4]. However, Short-term voltage stability involves dynamics of fast acting load components such as induction motors, electronically controlled loads, and HVDC converters. The study period of interest is in the order of at most several seconds, and analysis requires solution of appropriate system differential equations; this is similar to analysis of rotor angle stability. Dynamic modeling of loads is often essential. In contrast to angle stability, short circuits near loads are important. This kind of voltage instability could easily happen in the result of a serious fault

(a) .occurrence in the power system network. In the following some of the different methods are introduced [5]. So. Voltage Stability Analysis The analysis of voltage stability can be done using different methods. It is also possible to divide the different methods in static and dynamic ones. Modal analysis. A second approach is to find the extremes of either the PV-curve or the VQ-curve by some type of load-flow calculations. P-V and V-Q analysis methods and their combination are shown in Fig. Much work is being done on static load flow models which could be compared with other methods of analysis. A special case of this method is the analysis of the smallest singular value or the minimum eigenvalue. One approach is the analysis of small networks with mathematical bifurcations as a stability criterion. The smallest singular value and modal analysis can also be used on large networks. 1 [6]. Sometimes these different methods are mixed so that two different methods are presented simultaneously to gain further insight into the phenomenon. Time domain simulations are yet another approach to analysis. it would have close relations with electric power system protection methods [4]. is also used sometimes. II. the eigenvectors of the system representation. where the “distance” between the actual working point and the extremes is a stability criterion.

B. b) VQ and c) PQV curves of a typical power system [6]. It is connected to the singularity of the power-flow Jacobian matrix where the changes in active and reactive power are related to changes in angle and voltage. a) PV . is of special interest. Analytical methods The analytical approach is usually based on continuous mathematical models of the components of interest. Indexes and sensitivity methods for voltage stability analysis A bifurcation called the saddle-node bifurcation. 1.(b) (c) Fig. the system has reached a point where it has no solution i. can be used as a “distance” or proximity indicator to this limit. The minimum singular value or the smallest eigenvalue of the Jacobian matrix. If the Jacobian matrix is singular (non-invertible). A. and it is therefore difficult to explain all events during a computer collapse simulation. a saddlenode bifurcation. Today these models are not as detailed as the models used in computer simulation [1].e. this . If the Jacobian matrix models the power flow equations.

” Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories technical papers. vol. III. Guzmán.. IV. 335. But if load behaviour etc.. In this report. are modelled into the matrix) is used. loads etc. Al. If an extended Jacobian matrix (where generators. et. Schweitzer and Ken E. this kind of stability was classified from different views. May 2004. For this purpose. Tziouvaras. Definition and implementation of voltage stability indices in PSS/NETOMAC. pp. Kundur. power systems. Modal analysis. calculation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Jacobian matrix can be used to derive weak voltage nodes in the system. no. 216-224. Iss. Power del. . “Definition and Classification of Power System Stability. Then various methods for the purpose of analysis of this kind of stability were explained. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] References A. The point of maximum loadability can be calculated in many ways. Al. pp. 2011. 2. C. “Feasibility of online collaborative voltage stability control of power systems. S.. 19. “Shedding light on blackouts. Other indexes Sometimes the distance in MW or MVAr to the maximum transfer point on the PV-curve is used as an index for vulnerability to voltage collapse. “New criteria of voltage stability margin for the purpose of load shedding. Martin. MSc thesis.T. Tran. Chalmers university of technology. M. Wiszniewski. at first different aspects of voltage stability were explained. D. “Local and wide-area network protection systems improve power system reliability. the participation factors of the states in the models are presented with modal analysis. B. This is. This aspect of power system stability might be lost in systems with high loading conditions which it is easier to find these days. 22. P. Du.” IET Generation. Schweitzer Engineering Labs. 2011. Transmission and Distribution. vol.” SEL tech. et. difficult and special continuation load flow methods for calculating the PV-curve near PML have been developed [7-9]. E. “All the data fit to print – Applying all the available synchrophasor information. “Long-term Voltage Stability in Power Systems. 3. 2009. P. are included (extended Jacobian matrix) the singularity will indicate the point of collapse. Al. 1387-1401. July 2007.S. 2009. Kundur.” IEEE trans. vol.” IEEE trans. et. 1988.” Technical Report No. O. no. papers. W. Das. Flerchinger. UWO.” ___. 2. Conclusion This paper was about voltage stability of power systems. Challenges of phasor measurement unit. 3. A conventional load flow program can be used if it is capable of capturing the system behavior near the bifurcation point (the same point as PML when applying constant power loads). Chalmers University of Technology. 1367-1371. 2004. Stefan Johansson. however.. A. pp.singularity will coincide with the point of maximum loadability.

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