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In my view, this is a major contribution to our understanding of the chronology of Bharatiya Itiha_sa. Dr. Adiga Sundara was the Head of the Department of Archaeology and Ancient Indian History in Karnataka University, Dharwar. Kalyanaraman
The Traditional Date Of Asoka Maurya : Archaeological Evidences In Karnataka : A Consideration A.Sundara*
In recent years, there is a trend rather striking, to revive studies in and to pursue the earlier attempts,1 and to examine the traditional history and its chronology as known from the Puranas and other similar literary works now on better scientific premises, by better scientific
methods and techniques and more comprehensively. A dispassionate and systematic approach to and critical review of the subject, may yield useful and factual information for better understanding of the least known history of the remote past of our country. I have been trying to examine over some years the local or regional traditions vis - a - vis archaeological findings thereat, in north Karnataka and the results2 seem to be quite encouraging. And this has led me to re-examine the period of Asoka's, the Mauryan emperor, rule over Karnataka too in relation to his ten minor; two major edicts and versions of Kalinga separate edicts located in eight places3 and the associated human settlements nearby in the region.
The Problem :
William Jones4 after making a good and hard exercise over the Puranic lists of the kings, had placed the ten kings of the Mauryan dynasty beginning with Chandra Gupta, between 1502 - 1365 B. C. and according to another calculation, 1535 - 1219 B. C. Approximately Asoka Maurya's period would be 1448 - 1409 or 1496 1457 B. C. the difference between the two calculations being too big to reconcile.
He found that the Puranic accounts thus were so confusing and varying not supported by any other contemporary accounts and therefore gave them up as unreliable. He thereafter turned his attention to the Greek accounts and after their perusal he thought they were acceptable. And in the course of his studies, -------------------------------------------------------------------------------\ * 329, "Saundaryashri" Bharati Nagara, DHARWAD 580 001
he was able to identify Sandrokottas and Palibotra referred to in Megasthenes' fragmentary Indica respectively with Chandragupta Maurya known then
from the Bhagavata Purana and Pataliputra of the Magadhan kingdom. These identifications,5 in 1783, were considered to be a " Sheet anchor of Indian History. " A little later, James Princep succeeded in identifying Devanampiya Piyadasi of the earliest edicts with Asoka Maurya and of the five alien names of the II and XIII major edicts of the emperor with the contemporary West Asian kings6 All these strongly supported Jones' identifications. These were more or less implicitly accepted and followed even by most of the eminent Indian scholars till recently.
However, since then, a scholar here or there, now and then such as Bulher, Troyer7 did question the validity of these identifications and the latter on the basis of Rajatarangini, opined that Asoka ruled around 1260 B. C. Some Indian scholars, especially in the recent years, such as Narayana Sastri,8 Krishnamachari,9 Sri Rama Sathe,10 S. D. Kulkarni,11 David Frawley,12 and others have seriously questioned these identifications and the relative chronology of the early Indian history, considering the possibilities of interpreting equally rationally the same and other relevant references leading to inferences quite different from those of Jones and of others.
Moreover. Jones in the matter of the identification of Sandrokottas with Chandra Gupta Maurya considered the list of the kings from only one Purana i. the Bhagavata in which the traditional history is traced up to the end of the Mauryan rule. In some of the other Puranas.Further. it is not explained as to why Megasthenese is utterly silent in his account about Chanakya and his role in the foundation of the strong Mauryan kingdom and .e. For instance. In such accounts there are two Chandra Guptas I and II in the Gupta dynasty whom Jones could not consider for the alternate equations because of the non availability then. some scholars have been pointing out inadequacies in and other possible interpretations contrary to the theories of William Jones and others. he died in the very next year after his announcement of the identification. of the relevant Puranas to him. Further. the history is narrated up to the end of the Gupta rule. unfortunately.
is not indicated anywhere in his arguments.especially his remarkable efforts in making securely Chandra Gupta Maurya king in whose court the former is said to have been as an ambassador from Seleucus Nikator the Greek satrap. With regard to Princep's identification of the five names . why Megasthesese in spite his being present in the capital of the kingdom refers to it in a general manner as "Prassi" i. why Jones did not even casually try to identify the other Greek names of the kings who are said to have immediately preceded and succeeded Sandrokottas. While seriously making efforts to identify Sandrakottas with Chandragupta Maurya. is totally ignored. as stated clearly by Megasthenese. in the names of the Mauryan kings. Prachya ( = Eastern ). Although the name Magadha of the Eastern kingdom is too well known at least from the time of the Kurus Pandavas of the Mahabharata. e. Further. known from the other classical Greek accounts. absence of Palibotra as surname or for that matter any surname to their personal names.
Rice15 is too well known. ) in 1894 by B. versions of two separate Kalinga edicts also. It is against this perspective a critical re . Chitradurga dt.examination of the findings from the archaeological excavations of the sites with the Asokan edicts in Karnataka. the Mauryan emperor. curiously enough. 1990 is an important year when for the first time fragments of 13th and 14th major edicts and.rajyas in the neighbourhood of Afghanistan not of the kings ruling them in the west Asian regiion. The stratigraphy of the cultures revealed in the sites. Karnataka : Archaeological evidence. L. by chance of course. in as many as seven places since the first discovery of a minor edict in Brahmagiri ( Molakalmur tk. seems to be significant. in Sannati ( . The existence of ten minor edicts of Asoka. identified with the names of the West Asian kings supposed to have been contemporaneous with Asoka by Princep13 Madalasa Devi14 has argued that they are actually the names of the Jana .mentioned in Asoka's major edicts nos II and XIII. were discovered. seems to have bearing on the problem relating to the chronology of Asoka's rule over the region.
In fact.. the southernmost province of the empire. the most noteworthy point in the Brahmagiri edict. in early 1930s Krishna. discovered an extensive habitation site with numerous megaliths nearby. Also. was Asoka. ) also contain the personal name of the emperor. ). It was in search of Isila in the place where the edict is located.quarters of the mahamatras of the king. is the mention of the name of the place also as ' Isila '. ) discovered in 1915. The Microlithic ( Roppa ) culture . Koppala dt. the administrative head . The two minor edicts in each of the two other places: Udegolam and Nitturu ( Shiraguppa tk. It mentions " "Devanam Piya Piyadasi raja Asokasa". the most remarkable and prolific Buddhist site in the entire Karnataka first reported by Kapatral Krishna Rao16 in 1956. Six cultural periods in sequence were recognised as follows: 1. of Archaeology . Bellary dist. in Suvarnagiri. was for the first time known from the edict in Maski ( Lingsugur tk. In particular.17 the then Director of the State Dept. that the personal name of " Devanampiya Piyadasi " mentioned in the edicts. he laid 16 trenches and excavated stratigraphically in order to trace the Mauryan town site and also a few megaliths nearby.Chitapur tk. Gulbarga dt.
least known and utterly confusing and erratic. The culture sequence of the . Unfortunately the findings of his excavations were never fully published because of his premature death in 1947. 5. The Iron age Megalithic culture. In the light of Krishna's excavations Wheeler. He18 got excavated stratigraphically the habitation site and ten megaliths : six 'pit . the then Director General of Archaeology in India. Besides the burial pottery and the iron objects from the megaliths excavated were found to be similar to those from the Iron Age culture of the habitation site. containing all the points mentioned above. 3. 4. realised that the site is quite promising for tracing the salient cultural milieu of the South Indian megalith builders and for fixing the relative chronology of the culture. but for a brief report in the Annual report of the Dept.circles' and undoubtedly. he could discern clear overlap between the last phase of the neolithic and the beginning phase of the Iron Age megalithic and the last phase of the latter with the early phase of the early historical. The Satavahana culture. Also.circles' and four 'cist .2. The Early Kadamba . then. 6.Chalukya culture. The Isila ( Mauryan ) culture. succeeded in his attempts. The Neolithic culture.
Stone Axe ( later known as the neolithic in the chalcolithic ) culture 2. the Mauryan cultural phase in the site highlighted previously by Krishna. in addition to the South Indian megalithic problems. should also have been equally one of the major objectives of Wheeler's excavations. The Megalithic culture and. it is implied as a corollary of his reasoning. From his arguments and dating of particularly the Megalihic culture. though not stated. The 'Andhra' ( later known as Early historical ) culture. that the . 3. for arguing rather the probable period of the entry of the megalith builders after the collapse of the Mauryan empire and relatively the decline and disappearance of the Mauryan administration in the region. The Polished . the Asokan edict and the Mauryan Isila phase were hardly either taken note of or considered. Certainly. However. he had the edict in his mind.site he had outlined from his excavations are : 1. in the objectives of the excavations and the studies that followed thereon by Wheeler. But .
later Haimendorf19 with regard to Wheeler's arguments regarding the probable period of the settlement of the megalithic people at Brahmagiri.literate. The general notion is that the peoples of these cultural stages were non . has been found in any of the protohistoric Neolithic or Chalcolithic and even in the immediately succeeding southern Iron Age Megalithic and the northeren Iron Age cultural milieu prior to the Mauryan. so for no evidence of literacy or use of script. particularly for numerous Satavahana coins also.Sarasvati civilization. were found. from Chitradurga the ancient site known from the beginning of this century. in Chandravalli. he could recognise two cultural stages that can be identified as the Megalithic and the Early historical i. And this would indirectly indicate the people of this culture at least in small number were literate. the Maurya . was excavated by Krishna20 earlier in 1928 and a good report was thereon published. But.Satavahana.axe culture. other than the Sindhu . South of Brahmagiri.e. Apart from neoliths from the surface.edict is meant for the people of the Polished Stone . Also.or non -literate community. remnants of some brick buildings of the latter. He observed that it was meant probably for the megalith builders. This . about 2 kms. It was in this context. pointed out the anachronism in the situation : a Brahmi edict for the pre .
the picture of the cultural sequence in character and behavior is virtually the same as that in Brahmagiri but for one varying feature: there is no overlap between the Chalcolithic and the beginning of the Iron Age Megalithic. and beyond probably upto the early phase of the Early Kadamba indicated by the Brahmi inscription of the period of Kadamba Mayura V ( S )arma. there was a continuous and regular human settlement right form the Neolithic in the Chalcolithic stage to the end of the Satavahana period as in Brahmagiri. In 1978. In 1954 excavations in Maski 22 with Asoka's edict. preceding the Megalithic and remains of brick buildings of the Early historical immediately succeeding the Iron age megalithic. were revealed. However. near the edict. there is no distinct cultural break as such. It appears that in Chandravalli. disclosed the flourish of the three . from Brahmagiri. about 5 km. Koppala.sequence of the cultures was more clearly confirmed in Wheeler's excavations in the site. But no brick structures were then discovered. Udegolam and Nitturu clearly and unambiguously. the founder and the first king of an independent kingdom in Karnataka. the site was again excavated by the Archaeological Survey 21 and traces of Neolithic culture ( in the Chalcolithic stage ). Surface explorations by me23 in Jatinga Rameshvara.
relief characteristic of the Mauryan period.hole chambers in the proximity. succeeding the Mauryan. with two copies of the Asoka's minor edict.25 The phase here is of grater importance than that in Brahmagiri with the administrative head .quarters. there is a separate site with megalithic port . almost exactly similar to that on a gold leaf from Lauriya . Besides. By far the most important is the occurrence of a sculptural panel26 displaying a king accompanied with two queens and an attendant holding . locally known as " Palki gundu " and " Gavi matha " inscriptions also is found to have an ancient site with the three cultures24 as in the other sites briefed above.. and a few Northern Black Polished pottery pieces etc. However. Koppala now a district head . the Mauryan phase is distinctly represented by the presence of the Asoka's major rock edicts nos. The latter is culturally now weakly known from a few objects such as a highly polished ornate stone disc with standing female figurine of mother goddess in bas .quarters of the mahamatras. Sannati is exceedingly rich in the Buddhist relics of the Satavahana period.cultures as found at the first three sites outlined above. XIII and XIV and the versions of the two separate Kalinga edicts.Nandangarh.
this is more or less the picture revealed in the other sites nearby the Mauryan edicts.27 such as Sanganakal. In fact. Piklihal. . All these appear to be quite significant for understanding the Mauryan period in Karnataka. Below the bas . apart from the Buddhist stupas in the adjacent locality namely Kanaginahal and sculptural remains in profusion overshadowing even Banavasi. The site was continued to be prominent even during the Satavahana period as evident from the inscriptions27 of the kings of the dynasty. Tekkalakota ( exclusively a single culture site with the habitational cultural relics of the Neolithic in the chalcolithic stage ) and Hallur covering more or less the Krishna .relief is a label inscription "Rano Asoko" In the site were found a few polished stone axes implying the existence of the Neolithic in the Chalcolithic stage as well.a parasol over his head. though not in Sannati not far away from the place in Shahabad area. Such in brief is the cultural sequence almost invariable. in all the sites with the Asoka's edicts. Vasisthi putra Pulumavi.Tungabhadra Doab and the Tungabhadra valley region. were found the Iron Age megalithic remains. Further. such as Gautami putra Satakarni. in Karnataka. another important Satavahana site in north Karnataka.
e. between the earliest and the next.An analysis. there is no exclusively distinct Megalithic phase in Brahmagiri. the early phase ( layer [ lr ]s 5 . in thickness ) of the megalithic. From the above review of the explorations and excavations in the areas with Asoka's edicts under study the emerging points noteworthy are: 1. the latter and the ' Andhra ' i. Generally.35 m. of the culture with the Early historical . At Maski only.9. there is a clear overlap of the cultural stages : between the Neolithic in the chalcolithic and the immediately following Iron Age Megalithic. The overlap. is typical of the culture. about 1. The early and late phases of the Iron Megalithic culture are respectively overlapping with the late Neolithic in the chalcolithic with the exception at Maski and the Early historical phases and consequently. about 30 cms. 2. Early Historical excepting Maski where there is clear break. very brief.
Madhavapur. the Mauryan cultural phase immediately preceding the Satavahana. In it was found a small lead coin apparently of the Satavahana. The Early historical period. evidently comprises two phases : the Maurya and the Satavahana.9 are found to have many coins mostly of the Maharathis. 3. The Early historical excluding the overlap is about 60 cms.10 ) and pre .Satavahana without any coins and with russet coated white painted pottery overlapping with the Iron Age Megalithic phase ( lrs 11 -13NE ). 4. especially Chandravalli as well as Banavasi and Vadgaon . Even lr 10 has yielded a coin of a Maharathi. is not identified in the sites and even at Brahmagiri by Wheeler though Krishna did.is comparatively too small. the 1947 Chandravalli stratigraphic sequence appears to be quite clear in this respect and indicate the two major phases of the Early historical : Satavahana ( lrs 1 . Maski and Sannati with Asokan edicts. This . But no such phases have been distinguished so for in any of these sites. However. 7 . Though the Satavahana phase is vindicated from coins largely of the Satavahana at Sannati. It may therefore be noted that in particular lrs. feudatories to the Satavahana.
on which Wheeler unduly depended for dating. Lr. A. in layer 5. D. Secondly. is not of Roman origin as taken to be by Wheeler.10. and a silver Roman coin of Tiberius . Thus in general. The so called 'rouletted' pottery apparently of Roman import and datable to c.Tamlook region sometime in 3rd cent B.11 is likely to be of the beginning of the Satavahana power. 9. . sometime after the beginning of the Megalithic culture from layer 13NE .stratigraphic position of the coin evidence would imply that the Satavahana rule over this region was a little earlier i. 13 being the overlap of the Megalithic with the Early historical corresponds to the Mauryan rule over this part i. before the Maharathis became their feudatory and stratigraphically slightly earlier than the formation of lr. as a survival was found in lr. There are. in this context. with roulette design. Lr. there is reliable consistency in the stratigraphic position of the archeological and . minted during 26 .Kanva rule over Magadha. but was manufactured in Chandraketugarh . revealed that this pottery.37 A. one punch marked coin characteristic of the Mauryan age. 1st cent. Recent researches28 on this pottery.e. or a little earlier. 7. 12 is relatively contemporaneous with the Sunga . C. occurred in lr. a few more points relating to the site to be considered. And lr. e. D.
Similarly. There are many C14 dates.29 some calibrated.Madhavpur. this phase. This approximate sequential equation goes very well with those of Brahmagiri and Maski. Stratigraphic chronology Now the problem is fixing the date range of the stratigraphic Mauryan phase. more or less coincides with lr. Relatively the early part of the overlap phase corresponds to Sunga . 8 to the Mauryan phase. lr. 7 of Br. 5. the occurrence of a lead coin in the upper part of the overlap phase is significant. eighteen for the Neolithic in the chalcolithic and two for the Iron Age Megalithic in North Karnataka. i. MSK. 21. 10. In the latter . there is a pre Satavahana thick phase corresponding to Sunga Kanva and the Mauryan.numismatic evidences. Thus. Especially the dates for the Periods II and III of the Neolithic culture in the chalcolithic stage .e. there is rather striking agreement regarding the stratigraphic position of the Mauryan phase in all the sites. In Vadgaon .Kanva and upper part of the typical megalithic phase.
The period of the culture. 3000 . Neolithic . Davanagere dt. C. Relatively the later part of the overlap phase of the culture is datable to c. ).from Watgal 30 are significant in the context. This chronological range is applicable to the early overlap phase of the Megalithic culture in North Karnataka. there are eight Thermoluminiscence dates for the pottery from the four excavated megaliths in Komaranahalli31 ( Harihara tk. is c. C.900. ) the three phases of the Neolithic and the two overlapping phases of the Iron Age Megalithic culture. may be dated as follows : I. II. 1400 . especially in consideration of the recent dates available for the Neolithic culture at Watgal ( Lingsugur tk. On average. C.400 B. Neolithic in the chalcolithic stage . Besides.2750 B. B. c.1000 . on average.
further far south of .300 B. 1700 . Iron Age Megalithic Later phase : c. with a probability of an earlier beginning around 1200 B. III. 2500 . C. C. Maski. The Megalithic culture in the middle Krishna Tungabhadra region with Brahmagiri.Tungabhadra doab around 1000 B. C. By this time. C Late phase : c.Early phase : c. in view of the C14 dates for the culture at Veerapuram and Ramapuram32 ( Andhra Pradesh ) on the one hand and of the intrusion of the chalcolithic Jorwe culture33 from the upper reaches of the Bhima. Hire Benkal and other sites. along the river into the Krishna . For .1000 B. Iron Age Megalithic culture Early Overlap : c.300 B. C.1700 B. 1000 . may be dated to c. In this context the occurrence of the Northern black polished pottery pieces in the pre Satavahana context in Sannati seems to be significant. C IV.900 B. on the other. C. the Megalithic culture had already emerged in the region. 1000 .1400 .
C. 800 . does not seem to be as late as 3rd. B. B.this place in Anuradhapura ( Sri lanka ) . and on the other hand may be dated to c. C. with a possibility of its earlier beginning. C. Epigraphical and numismatic implications Further. would be reasonable. in the excavations are found this pottery in the layers dated to c. Vijaya yatras . to a phase a little earlier than 5th cent. and the Mauryan phase thereof in Karnataka. B. P. In the light of the critical analysis of the stratigraphy of the Early historical stage and certain particular antiquities therefrom discussed above. Consequently.600 B. 5th cent. Dating therefore Sannati N. C. there are a few epigraphical and numismatic evidences that seem to be corroborative to the above suggested dates to the Mauryan phase. implies that it was Asoka Maurya who got annexed the North Karnataka region to his empire and among his military exploits Kalinga war was probably the last that was unspeakably the most ghastly that brought a profound change of heart in remorseful Asoka. B. as discussed by me34 elsewhere. The setting up of the versions of the separate Kalinga edicts in Sannati.
must have been so unforgettable that its memory is preserved in the reference to the site of the war as 'ranamandala" like Kuruksetra of the Mahabharata. Comparatively speaking therefore. appealed to them as narrated in the separate edicts recently found in this place the versions of which were discovered for the first time in Dhauli and Jaugada. Elsewhere in Karnataka so for only the minor edicts are found. . If the monolithic elephant in Dhauli could be symbolic of His Majesty's sincere appeal to the conquered people of Kalinga. the Asoka panel in Sannati with his personal name may be owing to a reminiscent act of the people from their memory of how the king appeared in person there before their conquered fore-fathers.(=military campaigns ) were replaced by dharma yatras campaigns for the spread of dharma. There is an area in the vicinity of the locality within the brick fort. locally known as "rana mandala" ( = war site or field ). Sannati probably had attained already prosperity and importance and might be even the capital city of a region attracting Asoka who conquered it. This situation explains as to why his personal name repeatedly occurs in his minor edicts all over the region. Versions of compunctious appeal of the king to the conquered were put up in not only Kalinga but also the other regions conquered by him. It is in this way the versions of the separate Kalinga edicts are found in Sannati also in addition to the major edicts. The fierce war fought by Asoka.
In all probability. why did he think of conquering this region ? The plan of the conquest was certainly for some distinct and substantial material gain.1 located in the vicinity of the .builders of this region. on the basis of the archeological evidences of the region.35 The Brahmigiri megaliths excavated in 1947. were found to contain numerous iron objects of offence and defense. excellent in martial arts. Rajur etc through scientific analysis are found to be of steel of very high quality. were widely very well known for the production of steel weapons of very high quality. Halingali.e. a prince who was to become yuvaraja of the Ayodhya kingdom. probably made out of the local iron ore. Hire .painting no. And the iron tools from the excavated megaliths at Komaranahalli. In 'Kiskindha kanda' of Srimadramayana.Benkal rock . while assuring Sugriva. by lamination technique36. the diffident and fearful Vanara chief in exile in the matter of conquering Vali his mighty brother. This is further evident from the popular Kannada word 'ukku' for steel i. speaks of the weapons he has highly superior manufactured in "Kartikeyavana" I have elsewhere identified this place with the Kumarasvamy hill near Sondur in Bellary dt.If this proposition is acceptable. the Megalith . Rama . wootz in German.
C.D. On account of the rich resources of these two and the production of these two metals by Megalith builders the region was so prosperous that attracted Asoka's attention. sataka sthana etc. Further there is one small but seemingly significant epigraphical reference to be considered. Mining of gold obviously in Hatti region within a small distance from Hire .e 200 50 6 ( = 256 ) This practice was the most ancient prevalent since the time of the Rigveda up to the early historical when place value ( sthana such as eka sthana. Mg. the number of days of Asoka's dharma yatra is indicated by number category ( varga such as eka varga.megalithic tomb site. I think.Benkal area the richest in megalithic sites in north Krnataka and bead production were the other industries of the megalith ./A. and numerous tiny steatite beads from other megaliths of the place. dasaka varga. Of course this practice was continued as late as 1st cent. no IX.builders as evident from the occurrence 33 gold beads from Br. B. in Brahmagiri edict. In particular. sataka varga etc ) )numerals not by word numerals i. dasaka sthana. displays many horse riders as well as individuals carrying weapons apparently of iron. ) system began in which case 200 50 6 would be written as 256 ). The probable period of the beginning of .
were in use but in a limited scale even in the early Satavahana phase. Now. Square flat thin copper coins of the kind with figure on one side and inscription on the other as found at 38 ( Andhra Pradesh ).the practice of place value system . A big . cut punch marked coins without any legend.Madhavpur and Banavasi very few legendless punch marked coins. scheme and characteristic features of the coins readily remind the Harappan copper tablets of somewhat bigger size carrying a figure or design on one side and an inscription on the other from Mohenjodharo. the expression " janapadha bavanam cha therasa vasasatakatam bhimdhati tramiradaha samghatam" generally is taken to mean the breaking up of the Dravida confederacy that lasted for 113 years. if and when ascertained. form. Another important material evidence are thin flat. largely squarish that were in use in Mauryan period as currency in commercial and other transactions. The technique. this is not accepted. of silver. the implication needs to be examined again. may be helpful in the matter. were found. But the number may also possibly mean "one thousand three hundred years 37. in relation to the existing scheme of chronology for the Mauryas. In the Hathigumpha inscription of Kharavela. base silver and copper. In the excavations at Chandravalli. But. Vadgaon .
Kishna's reading of the same. . The tradition of producing coins of this sort . In this context it is very necessary to examine the observations made by Madalasa Devi Agrawal. Dr. the Pandya. is a typical instance. H. It was probably inherited as personal property by him.e the established dates of the west Asian kings mentioned in the edicts of II and XIII who were contemporaries to the Mauryan king. etc. ). But as rightly pointed in the course of my discussion on the topic. For. in a copper pot carrying an inscription mentioning the name of the owner. A careful reading may sometimes correct previous solid erroneous reading. It is therefore worth recarefully inscription of Kadamba Mayura varma by Rajasekharappa39 almost totally replacing M. the monarch in the same strain in the edicts refers to the kingdoms in the south and not to the kings' names. seems to have been developed in course of time from that of the Harappan represented by the copper tablets . such as the Chola. mentioned above. 'Chantasa' in 2nd cent Brahmi script was by chance found in Sindhogi ( Koppal dt.hoard of punch marked coins a little more than 5000. Ajaya Mitra Shastry pointed out that there is one insurmountable evidence that would go against my study i.
1.All these seem to be corroborative to the chronological range of Asoka's rule suggested above on the basis of the cultural stratigraphy and the material relics from the layers. Ancient India in a New Light. Sethna. Rajagriha. Hence there is need to re-examine thoroughly and comprehensively the traditional accounts of the history of our country in general as given in the Puranas and of the Mauryan history in space and time over a wider perspective such as the excavations at Jaugada. . Relatively the antiquity and development of the Brahmi script also. Pataliputra as well as the chronology of the rulers of different dynasties succeeding the Mauryas etc in particular for which archaeological and epigraphical evidences are also available. A. K. Sundara Bibliography And Notes.. Further the Mauryan period seems to be nearer to the end of the Harappan civilization. D. is required to be examined.
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1998. " a paper submitted in the seminar on River Valley Cultures organised by Indiragandhi Manava Samgrahalaya. in Sept. 4. 1995. 1807. II.Vol. K. 124. Vol. Inscriptions nos. 10. the Kumarasvami hill near Sondur ? ). Krishnan. * " -. Lord Teignmouth : The Works Of Sir William Jones. 1987. ( Is the Kartikeyavana of the Ramayana. ( in 13 Vols. Ibid . IV. " The Krishna .. Bhopal.175 ). KIA.Tungabhadra valley : The Protohistoriic Kishkindha of the Vanaras. Mysore. ). 5. G : Uttankita Sanskrit Vidya Aranya Epigraphs. The Uttankita Vidya Aranya Trust. ( 165 . Vol. 3.
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1988. C. The Voice Of India. ). Mumbai. ( Bhishma ). Vol. Dharma And Vedic Foundation. 13. D. in the Series of 17 volumes. David Frawley : The Myth Of The Aryan Invasion. New Delhi. 1993. 1996. Vol. 12. Hyderabad. Beginnings of Life. 1995. S. Vol. Sri Bhagavan Vedavyasa Itihasa Samshodhana Mandala. IX. ( Agrawal G. and India Abroad. VII. I. Glorious Epoch. Kulkarni.* " -. " Age Of Bharata War. Vol. The Puranas. 11. Delhi. 1979. Vol. JASB. . II. XVI. 1991. 1995 . Vol. IV 1993. 14. Culture And History.:Aryans : Who are they ? Bharatiya Itihasa Samkalana Samiti. Madalasa Devi Agrawal : " Age Of Bharata war.
E. Archaeological Survey of India. Report on the Excavations at Brahmagiri and Chandravalli in 1947 by Wheeler. 1903. B. ( ASI ). ( 181 310. ( AI ) No. 1970 ( A collection of his articles. Mk. Vol. 1942. Directorate of Archaeology & Museums. Kapatral Krishna Rao : " Sri Chandralamba Parameshvari. Usha Sahitya Male. ( DAM ). 17.09. ) . 1 and 2. M. 1947. Ancient India. " Karnataka Samskriti ( Samshodhane ). India. Mysore. 4. L. Annual Report of DAM. 18. reprinted ). Inscription nos. Mk. : Epigraphia Carnatica. 100 . Govt. Govt. of Karnataka. Rice. New Delhi. 16. Mysore. 2. XI.15. R.
2. Vol. Dharwad. ( Prehistoric Koppala ) . 22. A Review. 3. ( Report on the 1954 Excavations at Maski. Indo . : Excavations At Chandravalli.19.141 ). A.Asian Culture. fig. B. No. ( IAR ). ASI. II. 24. 20. No. 1977 . " Koppala : Itihasa Purvakala. ( Recent Archaeological Investigations In Chitradurga Environs ). " Gavideepti. 21. ASI. K. Krishna M. 13.47. -" -. 1978. Gavisiddheshvara Kripaposhita Vidyarthi Balaga. 1976.103 ). 27 . ( 97 . DAM. Thapar.78.29 . ). 5. AI. H. Part. 1931. Karnatak University. 238 . Vol. Indian Archaeology.. ( 04 . " Chitradurga Parisara : Ittichina Puratattva Shodhanegalu " Manavia Bharati. 1958. 23 Sundara. 1. Koppala.
Harman Publishing House.west corner of the southern province of the Mauryan province. Delhi. Gogte. Bangalore in the last Annual Congress of South Indian Numismatic Society held in Karnatak University. D. Superintendint Archaeologist. Kartikeya Sarma : Early Brahmi Inscriptions From Sannati. Based on the paper presented with colour slides by Dr.west. west of Maski and between the latter and Koppala. 28. Jitendra Das. V. 26. Archaeological Survey of India. 27. : " The Chandraketugarh -TamlookRegion of Bengal : Source of the Early Historic . Dharwad in Feb' 2000. Bangalore Circle. 1994. east . Sanganakal is located north .25. Hallur was probably located in the south . Piklihal is only about 25 km.south between Sannati and Brahmagiri.
No. 29 . Vol. XXII. A.Rouletted ware from India and Southeast Asia" Man And Environment.1 Journ of Indian society for Prehistoric And Quaternary Studies. The absolute scientific dates. 1997. C14 dates for : The Neolithic culture in the chalcolithic stage : i. at Tekkalakota Period IA 3395 + 105 ( 3490 + 105 ) . Pune. 1.
C. ii. Earliest phase 3625 + 105 ( 3720 + 105 ) . at Terdal .3465 + 105 ( 3565 + 105 ) Period IB 3625 + 105 ( 3730 + 105 ). 2460 + 105 B. at Kodekal Earliest phase. iii.
Period IB . 2. on average ) Period IB 3280 + 105 ( 3375 + 105 ) 2895 + 100 ( 2980 + 105 ) Tr. 1 Period IA 3560 + 105 ( 3660 + 105 ) ( c. 1700 B. C. at Hallur Tr.iv.
c.1700 B. at Budihal Ash mound no. 1195 B. 1800 . at. on average ) vi. C. 3795 + 40 ( i.3145 + 100 ( c. ) v.1 Period IA 7950 + 210 Layer 6: 3750 + 30 " 9. C. 3805 + 35 " 10. e. Sanganakal Period IA 1590 + 110 1585 + 105 .
C. 1871 [ 1730. 2524. ) The average date is 2300 . C. . ) Period IIB 3910 + 60 ( c. at Watgal Period IIA 4150 + 50 ( On average 2563. C. C. and 2500 B.2000 B. 2136 B. 2313 [ 2199 ]. 1729 and 1685 ] 1530 B. C. ) 3510 + 100 ( c. ).1550 + 105 ( The beginning of the culture in this site was around 1600 B. vii.
. " B. C. For the Iron Age Megalithic culture . 905 + 100. Iron Age Megalithic Culture i. Thermoluminiscence dates 2. at Hallur : C14 dates Overlap Phase 2820 + 100 ( 2905 + 100 ) 2970 + 105 ( 3055 + 105 ) The average date is 1105 + 105 B.2.
at Komaranahalli. 1440 B. C. c.red ware pottery 3300 + 290 c. 1100 B. 2910 + 470.red ware pottery 3110 + 500 c. C 3080 + 260.ii. Meg III : Black . I I : Black . 1130 B C. 930 B. C. c.and . .and . Meg.
Indian Society For Prehistoric And Quaternary Studies. Shaffer Jim. 3180 + 280 c. 30.al. 20.pottery 3300 + 400 c.ware . : " The Watgal Excavations : An Interim Report .Meg. IV Red ware pottery 3360 + 300 c. . C. 1380 B. Vol. 1320 B. Meg. Part 2. 1200 B." Man And Environment. Pune 1995. C. IV All Black . et. C.
1971 34. O. M.Recent Evidence.31. Moorthy. et. Archaeology Of Karnataka.. al. Ganga . U. Sundara. . 1994. ---"-----.cit. List of dates at the end. Vols. DAM. 1970. 1990. : "Iron Objects from South Indian Megaliths ( Karnataka ) : A Technological Study and Significance". of Karnatak University. Journ. 1990. Nagaraja Rao. A. . Varanasi. VI. S. P. DAM. " Graves Of The Early Iron Using People At Komaranahalli . and VII. 33.: Op.Economic perspectives. S. 1995. Agrawal. Socio . 35 Ibid 36.Kaveri publications. 32. " Archaeology Of Karnataka. " Neolithic Cultural Pattern and Movements in North Mysore State".: Megalithic Culture of South India.
2. G. ( New Light on Chandravalli Inscription. no.16. The booklet at my end is not readily traceable. I have noticed an illustration of a square flat coin carrying a figure on one side and an inscription on the other obtained from the early Satavahana phase of a site. pages 152. 38. Vol. Op. item. B.156 and 158. Banagalore. Cit. K. Rajasekharappa. 1984. 1989. no. 69. Krishanan.37. 39. Ins. in a booklet on archaeology of Andhra Pradesh.67. ) 18 . : "Chandravvalli Shasanadha mele hosa belaku" Kannada Sahithy Parishatpathrike.
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