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LTE Market and LTE RF measurement

Clark Lin Application and system support Rohde & Schwarz, Taiwan

Technology evolution path


2005/2006 GSM/ GPRS EDGE, 200 kHz
DL: 473 kbps UL: 473 kbps

2007/2008 EDGEevo
DL: 1.9 Mbps UL: 947 kbps

2009/2010 VAMOS

2011/2012
Double Speech Capacity

2013/2014

UMTS
DL: 2.0 Mbps UL: 2.0 Mbps

HSDPA, 5 MHz
DL: 14.4 Mbps UL: 2.0 Mbps

HSPA+, R7
DL: 28.0 Mbps UL: 11.5 Mbps

HSPA+, R8
DL: 42.0 Mbps UL: 11.5 Mbps

HSPA+, R9
DL: 84 Mbps UL: 23 Mbps

HSPA+, R10
DL: 84 Mbps UL: 23 Mbps

HSPA, 5 MHz
DL: 14.4 Mbps UL: 5.76 Mbps

LTE (4x4), R8+R9, 20MHz


DL: 300 Mbps UL: 75 Mbps

LTE-Advanced R10
DL: 1 Gbps (low mobility) UL: 500 Mbps

cdma 2000

1xEV-DO, Rev. 0 1.25 MHz


DL: 2.4 Mbps UL: 153 kbps

1xEV-DO, Rev. A 1.25 MHz


DL: 3.1 Mbps UL: 1.8 Mbps

1xEV-DO, Rev. B 5.0 MHz


DL: 14.7 Mbps UL: 4.9 Mbps

DO-Advanced
DL: 32 Mbps and beyond UL: 12.4 Mbps and beyond

Fixed WiMAX scalable bandwidth


1.25 28 MHz typical up to 15 Mbps

Mobile WiMAX, 802.16e Up to 20 MHz


DL: 75 Mbps (2x2) UL: 28 Mbps (1x2)

Advanced Mobile WiMAX, 802.16m


DL: up to 1 Gbps (low mobility) UL: up to 100 Mbps

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Commercial LTE Networks


Telia Sonera (Dec 2009) Verizon (Dec 2010)

26 commercial LTE systems are launched (09/2011)


Net4Mobility (Nov 2010) Elisa (Dec 2010) NTTDoCoMo (Dec 2010)

Vodafone (Dec 2010) CSL (Nov 2010)

MTS/UCell (July/August 10)

MetroPCS (Sept 2010)

Mobilkom Austria (Oct 2010)

Mobyland / CenterNet (Sept 2010)

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LTE commercial network - details

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Verizon Wireless
4G LTE
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Verizon Wireless Launches The Worlds Largest 4G LTE Wireless Network On Sunday, Dec. 5, 2010 Verizon 4G LTE is available in over 117 markets and 98 major airports Plans to two-third of US population by mid-year 2012,and cover entire existing nationwide 3G footprint with 4G LTE by end of 2013. Verizon Wireless announced that Rohde & Schwarz has been selected to provide test solutions for LTE device certification,
http://news.vzw.com/news/2010/02/pr2010-02-16r.html

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Verizon Wireless
4G LTE Phone

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Germany Digital Dividend


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LTE 800 - Broadband Access in rural areas


Deutsche Telekom starts nation wide LTE-Deployment
Commercially launched their Call & Surf Comfort via Funk LTE service package in digital dividend (800 MHz) spectrum on April 5, 2011.

Vodafone Germany to deploy LTE network


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Launched the first rural LTE mobile broadband service across Germany on December 1, 2010. Around 1,500 base stations incorporated LTE technology by end March 2011, serving thousands of communities. LTE pilot locations have been established in Berlin. Vodafone plans to eventually upgrade all base stations in Germany to LTE.

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LTE - front runners pushing the wireless industry


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NTT DOCOMO Launched Japans first commercial LTE system on December 24, 2010 The company said that voice calls using Xi will become possible sometime within the fiscal year starting in April 2011 Xi service was initially available in the Tokyo, Nagoya and Osaka areas; other major cities and regions will follow. China Mobile China Mobile has now launched large-scale LTE TDD trials consisting of more than 1,000 base stations in Beijing, Shanghai, Hangzhou, Nanjing, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and Xiamen. Commercial services are expected to launch in 2012.

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The LTE eco-system is building up


LTE FDD and TD-LTE
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Several LTE platforms have been announced by device and chipset manufacturers and were demonstrated to carriers and at trade shows Single mode (LTE) and multi mode (LTE/HSPA) modems are in the market All major infrastructure vendor offer commercial equipment

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The LTE eco-system is building up


LTE FDD and TD-LTE 161 LTE User Devices (July 29, 2011)

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The LTE eco-system is building up


LTE FDD and TD-LTE 161 LTE User Devices (July 29, 2011)

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The LTE eco-system is building up


LTE FDD and TD-LTE 161 LTE User Devices (July 29, 2011)

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The LTE eco-system is building up


LTE FDD and TD-LTE 161 LTE User Devices (July 29, 2011)

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LTE Technology Introduction and LTE RF Measurement

Content
l Introduction of LTE technology l Test Requirement for LTE l LTE RF measurement

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Introduction of LTE technology

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LTE Key Parameter


Frequency Range Channel bandwidth 1 Resource Block (RB) =180 kHz Modulation Schemes Multiple Access UMTS FDD bands and UMTS TDD bands 1.4 MHz 6 RB Downlink Uplink Downlink Uplink Downlink Uplink Peak Data Rate Downlink Uplink 3 MHz 15 RB 5 MHz 25 RB 10 MHz 50 RB 15 MHz 75 RB 20 MHz 100 RB

QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM ( optional for handset) OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) SC-FDMA (Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access) Wide choice of MIMO configuration options for transmit diversity, spatial multiplexing, and cyclic delay diversity (max. 4 antennas at base station and handset) Multi-user collaborative MIMO 150 Mbps (UE category 4, 2x2 MIMO, 20 MHz) 300 Mbps (UE category 5, 4x4 MIMO, 20 MHz) 75 Mbps (20 MHz)

MIMO technology

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LTE UE categories (downlink and uplink)


UE category 1 2 3 4 5 Maximum number of DL-SCH transport block bits received within TTI 10296 51024 102048 150752 302752 Maximum number of bits of a DL-SCH transport block received a TTI 10296 51024 75376 75376 151376 Total number of soft channel bits 250368 1237248 1237248 1827072 3667200 Maximum number of UL-SCH transport block bits received within TTI 5160 25456 51024 51024 75376 Maximum number of supported layers for spatial multiplexing in DL 1 2 2 2 4

~300 Mbps peak DL data rate for 4x4 MIMO

~150 Mbps peak DL data rate for 2x2 MIMO

UE category 1 2 3

Support 64QAM in UL No No No No Yes

MIMO = Multiple Input Multiple Output UL-SCH = Uplink Shared Channel DL-SCH = Downlink Shared Channel UE = User Equipment TTI = Transmission Time Interval

4 5

~75 Mbps peak UL data rate

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Spectrum flexibility
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LTE physical layer /FDD/TDD) supports any bandwidth from 1.4 to 20 MHz, Current LTE specification supports a subset of 6 different system bandwidths, All UEs can support the maximum bandwidth of 20 MHz,
Channel bandwidth BWChannel [MHz] Number of resource blocks 1.4 6 3 15 5 25 10 50 15 75 20 100

Channel Bandwidth [MHz] Transmission Bandwidth Configuration [RB] Transmission Bandwidth [RB]

Channel edge

Channel edge

Resource block

Active Resource Blocks

DC carrier (downlink only)

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LTE/LTE-A Frequency Bands (FDD)


E-UTRA Operating Band 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 17 18 19 20 21 22 Uplink (UL) operating band BS receive UE transmit FUL_low FUL_high 1920 MHz 1850 MHz 1710 MHz 1710 MHz 824 MHz 830 MHz 2500 MHz 880 MHz 1749.9 MHz 1710 MHz 1427.9 MHz 698 MHz 777 MHz 788 MHz 704 MHz 815 MHz 830 MHz 832 MHz 1447.9 MHz 3410 MHz 1980 MHz 1910 MHz 1785 MHz 1755 MHz 849 MHz 840 MHz 2570 MHz 915 MHz 1784.9 MHz 1770 MHz 1452.9 MHz 716 MHz 787 MHz 798 MHz 716 MHz 830 MHz 845 MHz 862 MHz 1462.9 MHz 3500 MHz Downlink (DL) operating band BS transmit UE receive FDL_low FDL_high 2110 MHz 1930 MHz 1805 MHz 2110 MHz 869 MHz 875 MHz 2620 MHz 925 MHz 1844.9 MHz 2110 MHz 1475.9 MHz 728 MHz 746 MHz 758 MHz 734 MHz 860 MHz 875 MHz 791 MHz 1495.9 MHz 3510 MHz 2170 MHz 1990 MHz 1880 MHz 2155 MHz 894MHz 885 MHz 2690 MHz 960 MHz 1879.9 MHz 2170 MHz 1500.9 MHz 746 MHz 756 MHz 768 MHz 746 MHz 875 MHz 890 MHz 821 MHz 1510.9 MHz 3600 MHz

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LTE/LTE-A Frequency Bands (FDD)


E-UTRA Operating Band 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 17 18 19 20 21 22 Uplink (UL) operating band BS receive UE transmit FUL_low FUL_high 1920 MHz 1850 MHz 1710 MHz 1710 MHz 824 MHz 830 MHz 2500 MHz 880 MHz 1749.9 MHz 1710 MHz 1427.9 MHz 698 MHz 777 MHz 788 MHz 704 MHz 815 MHz 830 MHz 832 MHz 1447.9 MHz 3410 MHz 1980 MHz 1910 MHz 1785 MHz 1755 MHz 849 MHz 840 MHz 2570 MHz 915 MHz 1784.9 MHz 1770 MHz 1452.9 MHz 716 MHz 787 MHz 798 MHz 716 MHz 830 MHz 845 MHz 862 MHz 1462.9 MHz 3500 MHz Downlink (DL) operating band BS transmit UE receive FDL_low FDL_high 2110 MHz 1930 MHz 1805 MHz 2110 MHz 869 MHz 875 MHz 2620 MHz 925 MHz 1844.9 MHz 2110 MHz 1475.9 MHz 728 MHz 746 MHz 758 MHz 734 MHz 860 MHz 875 MHz 791 MHz 1495.9 MHz 3510 MHz 2170 MHz 1990 MHz 1880 MHz 2155 MHz 894MHz 885 MHz 2690 MHz 960 MHz 1879.9 MHz 2170 MHz 1500.9 MHz 746 MHz 756 MHz 768 MHz 746 MHz 875 MHz 890 MHz 821 MHz 1510.9 MHz 3600 MHz

Prioritized GCF frequency bands for LTE Japan, (Europe) Europe, (Asia) US Asia Europe

US Verizon

Europe

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LTE/LTE-A Frequency Bands (FDD)


E-UTRA Operating Band 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 17 18 19 20 21 22 Uplink (UL) operating band BS receive UE transmit FUL_low FUL_high 1920 MHz 1850 MHz 1710 MHz 1710 MHz 824 MHz 830 MHz 2500 MHz 880 MHz 1749.9 MHz 1710 MHz 1427.9 MHz 698 MHz 777 MHz 788 MHz 704 MHz 815 MHz 830 MHz 832 MHz 1447.9 MHz 3410 MHz 1980 MHz 1910 MHz 1785 MHz 1755 MHz 849 MHz 840 MHz 2570 MHz 915 MHz 1784.9 MHz 1770 MHz 1452.9 MHz 716 MHz 787 MHz 798 MHz 716 MHz 830 MHz 845 MHz 862 MHz 1462.9 MHz 3500 MHz Downlink (DL) operating band BS transmit UE receive FDL_low FDL_high 2110 MHz 1930 MHz 1805 MHz 2110 MHz 869 MHz 875 MHz 2620 MHz 925 MHz 1844.9 MHz 2110 MHz 1475.9 MHz 728 MHz 746 MHz 758 MHz 734 MHz 860 MHz 875 MHz 791 MHz 1495.9 MHz 3510 MHz 2170 MHz 1990 MHz 1880 MHz 2155 MHz 894MHz 885 MHz 2690 MHz 960 MHz 1879.9 MHz 2170 MHz 1500.9 MHz 746 MHz 756 MHz 768 MHz 746 MHz 875 MHz 890 MHz 821 MHz 1510.9 MHz 3600 MHz

Prioritized PTCRB frequency bands for LTE

US, Sprint US, Metro PCS Asia US, Europe

US US Verizon US US AT&T

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LTE/LTE-A Frequency Bands (TDD)


E-UTRA Operating Band 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 Uplink (UL) operating band BS receive UE transmit FUL_low FUL_high 1900 MHz 2010 MHz 1850 MHz 1930 MHz 1910 MHz 2570 MHz 1880 MHz 2300 MHz 2496 MHz 3400 MHz 3600 MHz 1920 MHz 2025 MHz 1910 MHz 1990 MHz 1930 MHz 2620 MHz 1920 MHz 2400 MHz 2690 MHz 3600 MHz 3800 MHz Downlink (DL) operating band BS transmit UE receive FDL_low FDL_high 1900 MHz 2010 MHz 1850 MHz 1930 MHz 1910 MHz 2570 MHz 1880 MHz 2300 MHz 2496 MHz 3400 MHz 3600 MHz 1920 MHz 2025 MHz 1910 MHz 1990 MHz 1930 MHz 2620 MHz 1920 MHz 2400 MHz 2690 MHz 3600 MHz 3800 MHz

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LTE/LTE-A Frequency Bands (TDD)


E-UTRA Operating Band 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 Uplink (UL) operating band BS receive UE transmit FUL_low FUL_high 1900 MHz 2010 MHz 1850 MHz 1930 MHz 1910 MHz 2570 MHz 1880 MHz 2300 MHz 2496 MHz 3400 MHz 3600 MHz 1920 MHz 2025 MHz 1910 MHz 1990 MHz 1930 MHz 2620 MHz 1920 MHz 2400 MHz 2690 MHz 3600 MHz 3800 MHz Downlink (DL) operating band BS transmit UE receive FDL_low FDL_high 1900 MHz 2010 MHz 1850 MHz 1930 MHz 1910 MHz 2570 MHz 1880 MHz 2300 MHz 2496 MHz 3400 MHz 3600 MHz 1920 MHz 2025 MHz 1910 MHz 1990 MHz 1930 MHz 2620 MHz 1920 MHz 2400 MHz 2690 MHz 3600 MHz 3800 MHz

GCF prioritized frequency bands for LTE

Europe, China China

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Test Requirement for LTE

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3GPP LTE Performance and Test Specifications


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Performance Specifications:
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TS 36.101 User Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception TS 36.104 Base Station (BS) radio transmission and reception TS 36.133 Requirements for support of radio resource management (RRM) TS36.141 Base Station (BS) conformance testing TS 36.521-1 (TX/RX/Performance requirements)
Chapter 6 and 7 covers both FDD and TDD. Section 8 covers performance requirement test cases. The structure follows the structure of TS 36.101 and separate FDD and TDD test case.

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Test Specifications BS:


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Test Specifications UE:

TS 36.521-3 (RRM)

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Test Requirement
l Basically, test criteria of LTE UE follows
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TS 36.101 User Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception TS 36.521-1 User Equipment (UE) conformance specification Radio transmission and reception
Part 1: Conformance Testing

l Test items scope l Transmitter l Receiver l Performance l Channel State Information

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Transmitter Characteristic

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Transmitter Characteristic

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Transmitter Characteristic
Transmitter Characteristics
6.6.2.3 6.6.2.3.1 6.6.2.3.2 6.6.2.4 6.6.3 6.6.3.2 6.6.3.3 6.6.3.3.1 6.6.3.3.2 6.6.3.3.3 6.7 Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio Minimum requirement E-UTRA Minimum requirements UTRA Additional ACLR requirements Spurious emissions Spurious emission band UE co-existence Additional spurious emissions Minimum requirement (network signalled value "NS_05") Minimum requirement (network signalled value NS_07) Minimum requirement (network signalled value NS_[08]) Transmit intermodulation

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Receiver Characteristic

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R&S CMW500 Wideband Radio Communication Tester LTE RF Testing

Measurements as usual?

No! Multi-evaluation measurement for LTE FDD/TDD

Modulation

Resource Allocation Table

Power, power control


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Spectrum

Details LTE FDD and TD-LTE multi evaluation Tx measurements KM500, KM550
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Supported measurements Modulation (see 3GPP TS36.521 9.2.x)


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EVM vs. sub-carrier EVM, Magnitude error and Phase error vs. SC-FDMA Symbol EVM, Magnitude error and Phase error per slot Frequency Error IQ Origin Offset Spectrum flatness IQ Constellation diagram Inband emissions

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Spectral flatness
Nominal subcarriers Amplitude Equalizer coefficients Equalized subcarriers f f0 f1 f2 f3

Integration of all Amplitude Equalizer Coefficients to display spectral flatness curve

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Spectral flatness

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EVM vs. subcarrier


Nominal subcarriers Each subcarrier Modulated with e.g. QPSK Integration of all Error Vectors to Display EVM curve

f f0 f1 f2 f3

Limits: BPSK+QPSK (17.5%), 16QAM (12.5%), 64QAM (tbd)

Error vector

....

Error vector

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EVM vs. subcarrier

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Impact on Tx modulation accuracy evaluation


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3 modulation accuracy requirements


l EVM for the allocated RBs l LO leakage for the centered RBs l I/Q imbalance in the image RBs
Frequency error

Power level

|f| = 0.1ppm+15Hz

RF carrier

IQ component

RB0 EVM, Spectrum flatness

RB1

RBN-1

RBN

frequency

In-band emissions
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In-band emissions measurement


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Estimate the interference to non-allocated resource blocks, as the UE shares transmission bandwidth with other UEs,
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3 types of in-band emissions: general, DC image and IQ image.

Channel bandwidth (e.g. 20 MHz = 100 RB)

Used allocation < channel bandwidth

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Modulation quality: Constellation diagram


LTE PUSCH uses QPSK, 16QAM and 64 QAM modulation schemes. In UL there is only 1 scheme allowed per subframe

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Error Vector Magnitude (EVM)


EVM vs. symbol
1 SC-FDMA symbol Time 1 Time Slot = 0.5 ms 7 SC-FDMA symbols (normal Cyclic Prefix (CP)) 1 subframe = 1 ms [minimum Transmit Time Interval (TTI)] Frequency

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Error Vector Magnitude (EVM)

EVM vs. Symbol How is this EVM measured?

EVMlow

EVMhigh

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Details LTE FDD and TD-LTE multi evaluation Tx measurements KM500, KM550
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Supported measurements Power


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Peak Power (displayed in modulation measurements) RB (recourse block) Power (displayed in Inband Emission meas.) Transmit Power (displayed in modulation and SEM meas.) Power vs. Subframe

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Tx power aspects
RB power = Ressource Block Power, power of 1 RB TX power = integrated power of all assigned RBs

TX power value corresponds to the maximum UE output power depending on the settings!

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Power vs. Subframe


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Basically power vs. Time measurement


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Power can change on TTI base (Subframe base) Analyse uplink power distribution

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Details LTE FDD and TD-LTE multi evaluation Tx measurements KM500, KM550
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Supported measurements Spectrum (see 3GPP TS36.521 9.2.x)


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Adjacent Channel Power Occupied Bandwidth Spectrum Emission Mask

(ACP) (OBW) (SEM)

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Output RF spectrum emissions


SEM ACLR
From modulation process
fOOB

Harmonics, parasitc emissions, intermodulation and frequency conversion


Spurious domain

Spurious domain

fOOB

Channel bandwidth

RB

E-UTRA Band

Worst case: Resource Blocks allocated up to/at channel edge


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LTE ACLR requirements


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UTRA ACLR 1+2 two 3G neighbors 5MHz each EUTRA ACLR one LTE neighbor up to 20MHz EUTRA measured with rectangular filter WCDMA measured with RRC filter

fOOB

E-UTRA channel

E-UTRAACLR1

UTRA ACLR2

UTRAACLR1

RB

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Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio, ACLR


Active LTE carrier, 20MHz BW

1 adjacent LTE carrier, 20MHz BW

2 adjacent WCDMA carriers, 5MHz BW

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Spectrum Emission Mask, SEM


OBW: Occupied bandwidth, defined as 99% of power spectal density SEM: Spectrum Emission Mask, measured with different resolution bandwidth, 1 MHz (away from carrier) or 30 kHz (close to carrier) RBW

1 MHz RBW
99%

30 kHz RBW

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SEM limit definition


Limits depend on channel bandwidth
Spectrum emission limit (dBm)/ Channel bandwidth fOOB (MHz) 0-1 1-2.5 2.5-5 1.4 MH z -10 -10 -25 3.0 M Hz -13 -10 -10 -25 5 M Hz -15 -10 -10 -13 -25 10 M Hz -18 -10 -10 -13 -13 -25 15 M Hz -20 -10 -10 -13 -13 -13 -25 20 M Hz -21 -10 -10 -13 -13 -13 -13 -25 Measurement bandwidth 30 kHz 1 MHz 1 MHz 1 MHz 1 MHz 1 MHz 1 MHz 1 MHz

Limits dependent on offset from assigned BW

5-6 6-10 10-15 15-20 20-25

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Additional measurement RB allocation table


Subcarrier spacing = 15 kHz
UE3 UE6 UE5 QPSK, 16QAM or 64QAM modulation

frequency

UE2 UE4 UE1

time

1 resource block = 180 kHz = 12 subcarriers


1 slot = 0.5 ms = 7 SC-FDMA symbols**
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*TTI = transmission time interval ** For normal cyclic prefix duration

1 subframe = 2 slots = 1ms= 1 TTI*

Additional measurement RB allocation table


frequency

20MHz channel BW = 100 RBs max

Recource Block allocation


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UL recource block allocation can change flexible over time Depending on scheduling E.g. used RMC settings

time

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Details LTE FDD signaling


Rx Measurements
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Rx Measurements Counting
ACKnowledgement (ACK) NonACKnowledgement (NACK)

Calculating
BLER (NACK/ALL) Throughput [kbps]

Flexibility
Change paramters directly the measurement on the fly

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RX sensitivity level
Criterion: throughput shall be > 95% of possible maximum (depend on RMC)
Channel bandwidth E-UTRA 1 2 3 4 5 6 1.4 MHz (dBm) -104.2 -103.2 -106.2 -104.2 3 MHz (dBm) -100.2 -99.2 -102.2 -100.2 5 MHz (dBm) -100 -98 -97 -100 -98 -100 10 MHz (dBm) -97 -95 -94 -97 -95 -97 15 MHz (dBm) -95.2 -93.2 -92.2 -95.2 20 MHz (dBm) -94 -92 -91 -94 Duplex Mode FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD

Extract from TS 36.521

Sensitivity depends on band, channel bandwidth and RMC under test


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CMW500 LTE CMWrun


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CMWrun CMW-KT055 allows automated test of supported 36.521 test cases Automatically takes care about the 3GPP V9.5.0 depending on installed SW version

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