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INDEX

Accum, Friedrich, 4, 184 attacked by practical brewers, 129–32, 148, 164, 175, 209

influence on literature, 147, 183 Treatise on Adulterations, 109–10, 128–9, 144 Treatise on the Art of Brewing, 144, 154 Adams, George, 54 Addison, Joseph, 72 Addison, Richard, 36

Allan, Alexander, 143, 147 Allix, William, 49

Allsopp (ale brewery, Burton), 182, 184–6,

197

Allsopp, Henry, 184–6, 187, 195 analysis, chemical and adulteration, 128 practical brewers’ objections to, 72 promoted by Humphrey Jackson, 62, 65–7, 82

additives, 117–8, 127, 175, 179, 201–5

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mixture; fining; preservatives; sugar;

unmalted grain

source of expert authority, 126, 131, 147

and sugar chemistry, 121, 177–8, 194–5

training for brewers, 190, 208

analysts

consulting, 55, 163, 174, 175, 176, 189,

190, 197–8, 212

public, 189–91 Anderson’s Institution, Glasgow, 147 Annals of Philosophy, 144–5, 147, 149, 151–2, 153 anonymous authorship, 7–8, 26, 52–5, 65 Appleby, John, 71

apprenticeships in brewing, 12, 22, 23, 41,

108

see also adulteration; colouring; heading

Admiralty, Board of, 69

adulteration, 42, 106, 107–33, 113, 150,

173, 191, 207

poisoning narratives, 109–11, 114–16, 128–32, 148, 174, 183–6, 189–90,

201

see also ‘malt and hops’ purity argument alchemy, 5, 7, 14, 22 alcohol as basis of drinks valuation, 85, 97–8,

140–4

as chemical principle, 141–2, 147, 150,

152

by volume scale, 144 content in beer, 97–100, 136, 141–4,

183

lost in brewing process, 178

ale

Derby, 41 Burton, 41, 93, 98, 99 pale, 179 Windsor, 103

Armstrong, Henry Edward, 211 Ashmole, Elias, 14 Atkins, Robert, 54 attemperator see temperature, apparatus to regulate

Bacon, Francis, 13, 28, 79, 209 Bailey, Nathan, 20 Baldwin and Cradock (publishers), 161 Banks, Joseph, 2, 4, 69–70, 141, 144 Barber Beaumont, John, 113, 126 Barclay Perkins (porter brewery, London), 70, 107, 126

– 283 –

284 Brewing Science, Technology and Print, 1700–1880

Barclay, Charles, 113

Barclay, George, 111–2, 115 Barker, John, 42 barley, 23, 28, 45, 90, 116, 137–40, 145–6, 148, 152–4 see also malt; unmalted grain Bass (ale brewery, Burton), 182, 185–6 Bass, Michael, 184, 195 Baverstock, James B. (1741–1815), 84, 100–3, 105, 106, 150–1, 152, 154, 155 Baverstock, James Hinton (1785–1837), 148, 152 Beale, John, 13, 14, 29 beer strong, 19, 23, 92, 108 small, 19, 92, 108, 149 table, 92 see also ale; brewers; brewing; porter ‘beer doctors’, 107, 114–6, 130, 174 Behan, Brendan, 2 Bent, William, 150

Bentham, Samuel, 52

interpreted by Michael Combrune, 31, 33, 42–50, 146, 212 marginalized as chemical authority, 50 promotes thermometers, 37, 42 Boileau, Nicolas, 72 booksellers as distributors, 59, 77, 81, 87 Booth, David, 152, 158–63, 164, 170, 178, 194, 203 Böttinger, Henry, 182, 184–5, 187 family, 195

Boulton, Matthew, 2, 125 Boyle, Robert, 13, 14, 28, 45, 59, 209 Boys, Jeffrey, 12, 18–20, 22–3, 27, 108, 163 Bradley, Richard, 20 Brakspear, Robert, 71 Brande, William Thomas, 4, 143–4, 145, 147, 168 family, 128 Brereton, William (Lord Brereton), 121 brewers chemically trained see chemistry, brewing chemists

Copyright

Beresford, John, 67

Berkeley, George, 61

Berzelius, Jöns Jacob, 146, 190

Best, James, 56, 64, 67, 118

bigg, 137–40

Biot, Jean-Baptiste, 153 Birkbeck, George, 166 Black, Joseph, 50, 138 Black, William, 178, 184, 189–90, 198, 210 on additives, 201 on popularity of John Richardson, 105 promotes diastase discovery, 154 and chemical authority, 154–5, 157, 163–7, 176, 181, 187–8 background, 163 electrical theory of fermentation, 164–6, 200–1 Blagden, Charles, 141

‘Blair, David’ (pseudonym, Richard Phillips),

consulting, 55–7, 59–60, 71–82, 102,

121, 158–9, 161, 163–7, 169–76,

189, 197–8, 200, 210–11

‘country’ trade, 41, 64, 73, 80, 91, 103,

111, 118, 175

168

Blake, George, 53, 73–4, 75–6, 78, 80, 81, 104, 130, 168 Bleak House (Dickens novel), 186 Boerhaave, Herman, 21, 38, 40, 41, 42, 51, 53, 65

large-scale and wholesale (common brew- ers), 11–12, 22–8, 38, 108, 163 see also porter; Burton upon Trent London trade, 27, 146 see also porter quantitative expertise, 2, 36, 52 small-scale and retail (brewing victual- lers), 11–12, 108 social status, 12–15, 23–6, 33, 49–50, 63, 72, 80, 108, 157, 165–6, 168 see also brewing; trade knowledge Brewers’ Company (London guild), 22, 33, 41, 47–8, 61 brewers’ druggists see drugs brewers’ engineers, 55, 158–9, 163, 171–5, 187, 189 Brewers’ Guardian, 182–3, 190–1, 193,

196–200

Brewers’ Journal, 182–3, 188–91, 196–201,

202–4, 211, 212 brewers’ pound see pound per barrel

Index

285

brewhouse, as managerial regime, 19, 23–6,

54, 75, 113, 115, 164–7, 200, 210 brewing victuallers see brewing, small-scale commercial brewing commercial see brewers domestic and private, 2, 11–12, 15, 18–20, 22–3, 27, 111, 118, 153, 158, 174, 207, 208 process defined, 15–18 science, disciplinary identity of see science; chemistry, brewing chemists British Association for the Advancement of Science, 165–6, 176, 179 British National Brewing Company, 174 Brougham, Henry (Lord Brougham),

Chemical Society, 159, 176–9, 182, 188, 193, 196, 211 Journal, 182, 193

chemistry authority and social respectability, 65–8, 72, 74, 107, 125–6, 131, 145–9, 158–9, 162–7, 168–71, 173–5, 178, 186, 188, 200, 201, 205 brewing chemists, community of, 157, 177, 179, 181–3, 211–2 chemists as instructors to brewers, 60–9, 74, 76 see also Jackson, Humphrey ‘commercial’ (Peter Shaw), 28–31, 33,

42–3

vs druggists, 109, 123, 126 industrial, 176–9, 191–3, 195, 200 literature, influence on brewery writing, 33–4, 41–7, 79–82, 83, 149–55,

163–79

professionalization, 133, 144–9, 155,

157–8, 181, 209, 211

159–61

Brown, Adrian, 182, 204, 208 Brown, Horace Tabberer, 182–3, 187, 199–200, 204, 211–12 Brown, William Henry Robert, 124

Brydges, James see Chandos, Duke of

Copyright

Burton

pure vs applied research, 166, 181–2,

191–3

as source of suspicion, 107, 115, 121–3,

130

Chesterfield, Earl of (Philip Stanhope), 43

Child, Samuel, 110–111, 130–1 Cholmley, John, 15 Chomel, Noël, 20 cider, 13–14

City and Guilds of London Institute, 192,

211

Clarke, Charles, 186

Clarke, John, 40, 86, 93, 94–6, 97, 104, 106,

141

Clarke, Timothy, 14 clerks, brewhouse, 23–6 Coates, Thomas, 161 Cobbett, William, 115, 149 cocculus indicus, 110, 115, 116, 120, 121, 126, 131 Cock, Simon, 127 Cole, Benjamin, 87 colouring, 149 from sugar see sugar, as colouring

from malt, 127 Colquhon, Agnes, 143

Bud, Robert, 176, 178

Burton upon Trent

eighteenth-century production see ale,

as nineteenth-century industrial and

scientific centre, 182–7 Bushnan, J. Stevenson, 184, 186 Butcher, James, 124 Buxton, Thomas Fowell, 104

Calvert family (brewers, Hertfordshire and London), 23, 124 Cambridge, University of, 20 Campbell, Dugald, 190, 197 ‘Candidus’ (anonymous correspondent, Political Register), 150–1, 154 carbonic acid gas, 3, 141, 154, 172, 194 see also fixed air Chambers, Ephraim, 37, 38 Chandos, Duke of ( James Brydges), 34 Chapman, Alfred Chaston, 209 Chapman, Allan, 2 Charleton, Walter, 14 Chelsea Physic Garden, 34 Chemical and Agricultural College, Ken- nington, 174

286 Brewing Science, Technology and Print, 1700–1880

Combe (porter brewery, London), 104, 120 Combe, Harvey, 111–2

Combrune, Michael, 9, 31, 59, 60, 70, 84,

diastase, 153–4, 163, 171, 173, 178, 193,

204

Dicas, John, 94, 101, 105

Digby, Kenelm, 11, 16 Dircks, Henry, 174 Directions on Brewing (anonymous treatise, 1700) see Boys, Jeffrey Distillers’ Company, 62 distilling industry, relationship to beer-brewing, 29, 85, 98–9, 142–3, 151, 153, 200,

212

philosophical enquiry into, 14, 21, 29,

99, 137–8 taxation see Excise as technique for assessing strength of beer, 65–6, 91, 97–100, 141–4, 151 use of malt, 137–43 see also hydrometer Dobson, John, 86 Dobson, Matthew, 86, 99

Dodsley, Robert, 43

Dollond, John, 49

Donovan, Michael, 158, 161–3, 164, 167,

drugs, 107, 109–10, 113, 164, 175, 183 brewers’ druggists, 114–27, 129–31, 186, 201 see also ‘beer doctors’; chemistry, vs druggists drunkenness see intoxication Dublin Philosophical Journal, 148 Dublin Society for Improving Husbandry, Manufactures and other Useful Arts and Sciences, 29–30, 38, 56–7, 78 Dubrunfaut, Augustin-Pierre, 154, 194 Duflos, Adolf, 177

Edinburgh Encyclopaedia, 146–7 Edinburgh Review, 160 Edinburgh, University of, 138 Einhof, Heinrich, 146, 148 electrical action see fermentation, role of electricity Elliot, John, 129 Ellis, John, 70

121

background, 41–2 as consultant, 56–7 early thermometric investigations, 42–3 Essay on Brewing, 33, 43–6, 47–9, 51, 52 philosophical aspirations, 49–50, 157 reception of his work, 50–6, 66, 75, 76, 79, 83, 85, 145, 146, 155, 172 retirement and last years, 51 Theory and Practice of Brewing, 8, 33, 46–53, 212 common brewers see brewing, large-scale and wholesale

consultancy, 35 consultants see analysts, consulting; brewers, consulting; brewers’ engineers; chemis- try, chemists as instructors to brewers Cook (brewer, Isle of Wight), 73

Cook, James, 69–70

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Cooper, John Thomas, 176

copperas (ferrous sulphate), 110, 121, 131

Cotton, John Hynde, 23, 24–6

Country Brewers’ Society, 190, 197

country house brewing see brewing, domestic

Coventry, Andrew, 138–44 Cox, Charles, 15 credibility, 1–7, 34, 146–7, 159, 205,

172–3, 187, 212

Douglas, Mary, 108

Dring, John, 104

207–12

paradoxes of see paradox of experiment; paradox of the trade writer Crowson, John, 174 Cruickshank, Isaac, 116

Dallowe, Timothy, 37, 50 Dalton, John, 141 Daux, James, 26 Davy, Humphry, 4, 107, 109, 125–6, 147, 165, 167, 176 Dawson, Thomas, 64 de Coetlogon, Denis, 22 density see gravity Desaguliers, John Theophilus, 34, 42, 86 dextrin(e), 153–4, 193–6, 197, 201, 203 dextrin-maltose (patent synthetic sugar), 195–6, 201

Index

287

Ellis, Richard, 27

Ellis, William, 11, 26–8, 31, 41, 54–5, 65, 75, 79, 209 see also London and Country Brewer Encyclopaedia Britannica, 52, 105, 123, 135–7, 144–9, 152, 155, 162 Encyclopaedia Edinensis, 146 engineers see brewers’ engineers England comparisons with Irish practice, 29–30,

Faulkner, Frank, 181, 183, 196–204, 207, 210, 212 Ferguson, William, 176–7 fermentation, 3, 80 Boerhaavian account, 21 forcing tray, 199 John Richardson’s theory of, 98–9

microbial account, 10, 192–3, 198–9, 201, 212 process in brewing, 17, 67, 118, 121, 150, 172, 178, 207 role of electricity, 164–7, 200 role of heat, 42, 52–3 sugar chemistry of, 141–2, 147, 151–4 see also fixed air, carbonic acid gas fining (clarification of beer), 47 using fish products see isinglass using other materials, 28, 64 fixed air, 3, 69, 99–100, 141 see also carbonic acid gas

Folkes, Martin, 42, 49

Fox, Charles James, 111–2

67

comparisons with Scottish practice, 51, 137–40, 160, 164 Englands Interest (anonymous improvement miscellany), 20 essentia bina see sugar, as colouring Everard (brewer, King’s Lynn), 73 Every Man His Own Brewer (pamphlet, c. 1790) see Child, Samuel

Every Man His Own Brewer (treatise, 1768),

53

Excise

Copyright

sultants, 123, 135–43, 185, 202

France

French vs British brewing methods, 199

French vs German technical prowess,

192–3

French-language chemical literature, 52,

147, 148, 152–4, 177, 193, 198–9 Frankland, Edward, 182, 195 ‘free mash-tun’ (1880 legislative regime), 201–5, 211–12 free trade lobby, 113, 183, 202–5 Freemasonry, 42 Furze, John, 178–9

and beer purity, 114, 202

vs brewers, 91–2

use of chemists and philosophical con-

Scottish and English regimes, 137–40

spirits hydrometry, 85–6, 93–4, 100, 136, 140–4 surveillance and enforcement, 24, 36, 92, 107, 113, 119–20, 124–7, 129, 153 taxation (duty) regimes, 2–3, 23, 29, 106, 108, 111, 114, 116, 119, 137, 144, 149, 153, 160, 164, 184–5, 192,

202–5

vs Treasury, 118–20, 124 experimentation, 19, 40, 45, 50, 72, 176–9,

211

vs experience, 75, 167 see also paradox of experiment

Fabbroni, Giovanni, 143–4 Fahrenheit, Daniel Gabriel see thermometer, Fahrenheit scale Faraday, Michael, 127, 166 Farey, John, Jr, 146–7 Farmer’s Magazine, 7, 140

Gay-Lussac, Joseph-Louis, 143, 146 Gentleman’s Magazine, 47–8 George II, King, 43 George III, King, 128 Germany German vs British brewing methods, 173, 185, 190, 192, 201 German-language chemical literature, 52, 105, 128, 147, 177, 193 see also Liebig, Justus von; Giessen, University of Giessen, University of, 166, 181–2, 185, 187, 191, 200

288 Brewing Science, Technology and Print, 1700–1880

Gillray, James, 111–2, 115 Gilpin, George, 141 gin, 98–9 Gladstone, William, 203, 208 Glasgow, University of, 135, 147 Golden Lane Brewery, 104, 114, 124–7 Golinski, Jan, 37–8 Goodwyn, Henry Jr (1740–1824) Goodwyn, Henry Sr (1713–1805), 23, 40 Graeme, William, 42 Graham, Charles, 191–3, 198, 201, 203,

209, 210 Graham, Thomas, 154–5, 165–7, 178, 181, 184–5, 190 grains of paradise, 118, 120 gravity as basis for wort assessment, 66, 85, 91–2, 94–100, 105–6, 141, 146, 150–2, 203 estimates from spirit content, 184–5 standard values, 92, 203

sensory judgment, 36, 91 see also malt, role of heat in production; mashing, role of heat; fermentation, role of heat; thermometer Heidelberg, University of, 191 Henry, Thomas, 99 Henry, Thomas Hetherington, 176–7 Heron, John, 182 Hill, Abraham, 11, 13, 14 Hind family (brewers, London), 15 Hirsch, Adolf, 177 Hitchcock, Thomas, 172, 175 Hofmann, August von, 181–2, 184–6, 195–6, 211 Holinshed, Raphael, 16 Hooke, Robert, 11, 13 Hooper, Egbert Grant, 208 Hope, Thomas, 138–44 hops, 20, 31, 46–7, 62, 76, 115, 189 boiling process, 16–19, 22, 67, 152, 169 cultivation, analysis and extraction, 30,

Copyright

balance; saccharometer

Greenall Whitley (brewers, St Helens), 197

Grenville, William (Lord Grenville), 111–2

Griess, Peter, 182

Guinness, 57, 211

duty, 202

prepared extract see humuline

substitutes, 201, 202

see also quassia; wormwood

unfamiliarity to non-brewers, 15

Haberkorn, Johann Christian, 49 hack literature, 7–8, 27–8, 129–31, 145–7, 148, 162, 187 Hales, Stephen, 80, 83 Halsey, Edmund, 24 Ham, John, 151–2, 153, 158, 160, 164, 172, 178, 202–3 Hansen, Emil Christian, 191 Harcourt, Simon, 11, 27 Hardwicke, Earl of (Philip Yorke), 49 Harris, John, 15 Harris, Thomas, 104 Harrison, Marion, 16 Harrison, William, 16–17, 116 Hartlib, Samuel, 13, 120–1 Hassall, Arthur Hill, 183 Hayman, E. N., 172 heading mixture, 110, 118, 122 heat in Michael Combrune’s theories, 42–52

see also hydrometer; hydrostatic beam

38, 66, 72, 177, 179

see also ‘malt and hops’ purity argument House of Commons see Parliament house-brewing see brewing, domestic Household Words, 15 Huguenots, 41, 42, 49, 56 Hull Literary and Philosophical Society, 86, 99 Hume, Joseph, 127 humuline, 186, 187–8 Hunt, Henry, 114 Hunter, John, 70 hydrometer in brewing, 84, 86, 93–4, 100–3, 104,

150–2

in the distillery, 85–6, 93–4, 97, 140–4 as heat gauge, 40 see also saccharometer hydrostatic beam balance, 66, 97

Imlay, Gilbert, 127 import substitution, 28–31, 61, 68, 126

Index

289

Institutes of Brewing, 204, 209 instructors see brewers, consulting; chemis- try, chemists as instructors to brewers instrumentation see hydrometer; saccharom- eter; thermometer intoxication, 98–100 Ireland improvement agenda, 29–30, 67 porter production, 56–7 Irvine, William, 154 isinglass true (sturgeon), 68, 118 substitutes, 61–4, 69, 124–6 see also fining

Jackson, Humphrey, 4, 9, 57, 60, 79, 84, 94, 97, 148 on adulteration controversies, 121 collapse of reputation, 70–1, 91, 109, 122–3, 129, 136, 209 instructor and consultant to brewers, 62–8, 78, 100, 101, 121–2

manufactures isinglass substitute, 61

subject of parody, 71–3, 76, 82, 90, 122,

199

timber project and naval patronage,

Jackson, Mary or Maria (wife of Humphrey),

62, 63 James, Robert, 61, 63 Jefferson, Thomas, 52, 56 Johnson, Samuel, 63, 70, 122 Joule, James Prescott, 157–8

Kalm, Pehr, 27–8 Keith, George Skene, 137–8, 140, 141 King, Erasmus, 61–2 King, John Glen, 49 Kirchhoff, Gottlieb Sigismund, 154 Klein, Ursula, 4 Kwasí see Quassi

Laboratory Club, 204 Laboratory of the Government Chemist,

185

laboratory on brewery premises, 182–3, 200

vs brewhouse, 64, 76, 80, 81, 85, 90, 136, 138–40, 142, 149, 155, 183, 193, 199, 200, 211 as source of authoritative experimental data, 66, 165–6, 181, 202, 210 Lancet, 183–6, 207 Lardner, Dionysius, 161–2 Lavoisier, Antoine, 36, 147 oxygen-caloric theory, 141, 168 Lawrence, Christopher, 69 Leeuwenhoek, Antoine van, 154 Levesque, John, 54, 78, 172, 187 Lewis, William, 22, 65 Lexicon Technicum, 15 Liberal Party, 202–4

Library of Useful Knowledge see Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge Liebig, Justus von, 166, 173, 176, 179, 181, 185–6, 190, 192, 198–200 Linnaeus, Carl, 27 liquor (water for brewing), 17, 19, 21, 66,

Copyright

68–70

‘liquor’ as shibboleth term, 27

liquorice, 110, 115, 118, 120

Literary Gazette, 131, 166

Liverpool College of Chemistry, 187

Loch, David, 51

London and Country Brewer (treatise), 26–8, 37, 40, 52, 54–5, 75 see also Ellis, William London Encyclopaedia, 147 London Literary Gazette see Literary Gazette London Review, 72–3 London, University of, 160, 162, 165, 166,

176, 191 Long, John, 67, 73–4, 75, 76, 78–9, 80, 130,

172

Lyon, F. W., 190, 197, 200 Lyttle, William, 196

MacBride, David, 69, 99 Macdonald, Archibald, 125–6 Maison Rustique (sixteenth-century miscel- lany), 16–17 Malins, Joseph, 127 malt, 6, 14, 19, 21–2, 30, 177–8, 211 brown vs pale, 20, 105–6, 119–20 duty, 137–40, 114, 149, 153, 202–3, 208

72, 118, 190

290 Brewing Science, Technology and Print, 1700–1880

extract, concentrated, 69, 71, 122, 174 extract, gravimetric determination see gravity malting process defined, 15–16 vs other materials, 121, 149, 150–3 roasted (patent), 127, 173

role of heat in production, 35, 40, 45–7,

Medical Times and Gazette, 184–6 Merceron, Joseph, 113 Merret, Christopher, 11, 13, 14 Meux Reid (porter brewery, London), 126–7, 129, 177 Meux, Henry, 120 Meux, Thomas, 127

microbiology see fermentation, microbial account of microscope, 192–3, 199–200, 208 Millar, James, 147 Miller, Philip, 28, 34, 38, 49 Mills, John, 50, 66

The Mindful Hand (2007 edited volume),

3–4

monopolies, 12, 63, 64, 78, 84–6, 93, 101, 104–6, 109, 111, 114, 119, 126, 196, 207, 210 Monthly Journal of Medical Science, 186 Monthly Review, 47, 64, 103 Moore, Jonas, 20

Moray, Robert, 11–12, 14, 22

50

sugars of, 66, 74, 81, 85, 97–8, 105–6, 136, 141–2, 155, 192 see also saccharine principle; mucilage;

dextrin(e); maltose volume, as basis for strength assessment, 85, 97, 139 ‘malt and hops’ purity argument, 109, 114–20, 121, 122, 124, 149, 153, 162, 175, 194, 202 vs ‘brewing without malt or hops’, 115, 120, 122 maltose, 194–6 maltsters, 91, 127, 149–50

Manchester Literary and Philosophical

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Society, 86

Manners and Co (London brewery), 178

manuscript directions, 16, 56, 78, 93, 158,

160

Marburg, University of, 182

Markham, Gervase, 18, 19, 21–2 Martin, Benjamin, 49, 53, 54, 62, 70, 87, 97, 103 and brewery hydrometry, 86, 93–4, 100,

106

More, Samuel, 103

Morning Post, 116

Morrice, Alexander, 8, 131, 146

Mortimer, Cromwell, 40, 52

Mortimer, John, 12, 20, 121

mucilage, 150–2, 154 Murdock, William, 125–6 Murray, John, 168 Muspratt, Sheridan, 187–8, 190, 201

Mylne, Robert, 70

Martineau, John, 104, 151 mashing process, 16–17, 19, 150–1, 167–8,

204

de-restriction of ingredients see ‘free mash-tun’ role of heat, 27, 35–6, 46–7, 48, 52–4, 75–6, 152, 153–4, 171, 177–8, 194,

207

saccharometric management, 90 Mason College, Birmingham, 204 Mathias, Peter, 40, 47 Maty, Matthew, 42, 43, 49, 51 Mawbey, Joseph, 110 mechanics’ institutes, 166, 179 Mechanics’ Magazine, 173–4, 188 medical literature on drink, 20–1

Nägeli, Carl, 212 Napier, Macvey, 144–7, 155 Nesbit, John Collis, 174, 191 Neumann, Caspar, 65 Newbery, John, 61, 63–4 Newton, Isaac, 14 Nicholson, William, 128, 168 Noorthouck, John, 47, 51, 83, 103 nux vomica, 116, 179

O’Sullivan, Cornelius, 182, 193–7, 201, 212 O’Sullivan, James, 182 original gravity see gravity Oxford, University of, 200

Index

291

paradox of experiment, 6–7, 162–3, 167,

169–71, 187–8, 210–11 paradox of the trade writer, 5–6, 27–8, 55, 91, 101, 162, 189, 209–11 Parkes, Samuel, 168 Parliament brewery representation in, 15, 23, 110–13, 124 Commons enquiries into barley and bigg quality, 138–44, 146, 148, 150, 151,

Piesse, Septimus, 177–8 Piozzi, Hester see Thrale, Hester Platt, Harold, 10

Ploughman, William, 81 Plumer, Thomas (Solicitor General), 124–6 poisoning see adulteration Political Register, 149–50 Pontifex and Sons (brewers’ engineers), 189 porter, 62, 77, 98, 99, 123 emulation outside London, 51, 55–7, 75, 93, 109, 163 large-scale industrialization and domi- nant ‘great eleven’ breweries, 22, 108, 111, 113, 129 London product, 22–3, 27, 46–7, 53, 61, 105, 107–20, 124–7 potato beer, 153 Potyomkin, Grigory, 52 pound per barrel (brewers’ pound), 83, 87, 91, 97, 104, 141, 143, 161, 203 vs dry weight of extract, 105, 143, 203

‘Practical Brewer’ (anonymous 1775 pam-

155

Commons enquiries into public houses

and beer quality, 107, 113, 126, 129,

147

and free mash-tun legislation, 202–5 Parsons, Humphrey, 24

partial disclosure strategy, 59–64, 77, 102, 121, 171, 209 Pasteur, Louis, 10, 183, 192–4, 198–201,

211–12

patent malt see malt, roasted

patents, 67, 69, 71, 73, 127, 145–6, 147,

Copyright

158, 171–6, 186, 187, 189, 194–6,

197–8, 201, 210

phleteer) see Richardson, John

‘practical brewer’ rhetoric, 3–4, 60, 72,

75–9, 102, 129–30, 136, 145–6,

160–7, 170, 198, 209–10

see also trade knowledge; theory/practice

division preservatives, 199, 204 Priestley, Joseph, 99 Pringle, John, 69 print credibility problems, 5, 7–8 growing accessibility, 159

and non-trade audiences, 18 printing by subscription, 146, 169–70,

171

see also hack literature; periodical litera- ture; private instruction, by private printing; treatises; readerships private instruction by manuscript see manuscript directions by personal attendance see brewers, consulting; chemistry, chemists as instructors to brewers by private printing, 62–3, 169–70

see also trade secrecy publicans, 108, 111, 114, 129, 130, 144

Payen, Anselme, 153–4, 184

Pepper, John Henry, 186

periodical literature

brewing trade, 182–3, 188–91, 197–201, 202–4, 208

general and reviewing, 47–51, 64, 72–3, 77–8, 102–3, 128, 131, 149–52, 166,

188

scientific, 159, 175, 177–9, 182, 190–1, 193–6, 208 Perkins, Frederick, 107 Perkins, John, 70 Persoz, Jean-François, 153–4 Petty, Lord Henry, 111–2 Pharmaceutical Society, 185 Philips (unidentified associate of Abraham Hill), 11 Phillips, Richard, 168 philosophical authority, 1, 4, 11, 13–15, 28–31, 33–5, 47–52, 55, 56, 59–60, 148–9 see also chemistry, authority and social respectability; science; theory/ practice divide

Philosophical Transactions, 107, 123, 143

292 Brewing Science, Technology and Print, 1700–1880

see also brewers, small-scale and retail Punch, 186, 207 pure beer see ‘malt and hops’ purity argu- ment Pycroft, John, 24 Pyecraft (brewer, Goodwyn’s, 1760s), 23–4

Quarterly Journal of Science, 144, 148 Quarterly Review, 131 Quassi (Kwasí; Kwasímukámba), 111–2

quassia, 110–12, 114, 115, 122, 131, 149,

179

Quin, Matthew, 101, 104 Quincy, John, 20, 22, 28

Ramsbottom, Richard and John, 103

Ranelagh, Viscountess see Jones, Katherine Raspail, François-Vincent, 154 readerships, 4–8, 15–6, 19, 26–8, 52–3 commercial brewers, 84, 90–3, 97, 130–1, 167–70, 188–9, 197 of gentlemanly journals see periodical

Statical Estimates, 83–100, 104–6 Theoretic Hints, 77–9, 82, 86, 90, 98, 102, 105 see also saccharometer Richardson, Philetus, 105 Rigby, Edward, 81–2 Roberts, Gerrylynn, 178, 181 Roberts, Lissa, 36 Roberts, W. H., 172 Ronalds, Henry, 127 Rouelle, Guillaume-François, 99, 143–4 Royal College of Chemistry, 181–2, 185–6, 195, 200

Royal Dublin Society see Dublin Society for Improving Husbandry, Manufactures and other Useful Arts and Sciences Royal Institution, 107, 125, 128 Royal Society, 9, 11–15, 20, 28–30, 40, 42, 49–50, 51, 69–70, 78, 120–1, 123, 141, 143, 211 Royal Society of Arts see Society for the

Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures,

Copyright

literature, general and reviewing

working-class, targeted by SDUK, 160–3

Reddington, William, 31, 36, 37, 79, 93–4

Redwood, Theophilus, 185

Reed, William, 188, 190

Reid (porter brewery, London) see Meux

Reid Reynoldson, John, 97, 149–2

Richardson, Archibald, 138 Richardson, John, 9, 60, 129, 130, 142, 143 brewing career, 80–1, 86, 105 directions in manuscript, 78, 93, 160,

and Commerce

rule of thumb, 91, 203, 212

saccharine principle (malt extract), 66,

141–2, 150–2, 207

see also maltose

169

saccharometer cost, 87 debate over significance of reading, 150–2, 192 distinguished from hydrometer, 93–7, 101–3, 104

general acceptance by brewers, 104–6,

instructor and consultant to brewers, 71, 77, 102, 105 vs James Baverstock, 100–3 ‘Practical Brewer’ pamphlet vs Hum- phrey Jackson, 71–4, 79, 86, 90, 94, 122, 196, 199 promotes Excise reform, 91–3, 149–50, 153, 160, 164, 203 reception and influence, 83, 104–6, 119, 141, 145–6, 148, 153, 158, 160, 163,

168, 172–3, 192, 203, 209–10 scientific rhetoric, 79–82, 90, 102–3, 105, 123, 165

201

influence on malt preferences, 105–6

legislative acceptance, 203 name, 96, 104 origins, 87, 93, 97, 145 proprietary patterns Booth, 161 Dring and Fage, 104, 143

Richardson–Troughton, 83–106 Thomson–Allan, 143, 147, 152, 161,

172

Tizard, 172 used by distillers, 143

Index

293

see also hydrometer Salt (ale brewery, Burton), 182 salt of tartar, 115, 126, 129 Salusbury, Hester see Thrale, Hester satire, 71–4, 76, 102, 110–3, 114–5, 124 Saussure, Théodore de, 146–7 Schaffer, Simon, 74 Schwartz, John, 196 science authority of, 1, 79–82, 90, 130 see also chemistry, authority and social

respectability; philosophical authority brewing science, disciplinary identity of, 10, 204–5, 211–12 chemistry vs microbiology see fermenta- tion, microbial account of professionalization, 8, 211 see also chemistry, professionalization; theory/practice divide Scotland, 51, 137–43, 146, 160–1, 164 scurvy, 69, 99

Secord, James, 4

Society of Chemical Industry, 200, 212 Solander, Daniel, 70 Southby, Edmund Richard, 183, 191, 196–200, 203–4, 210 sparging, 160, 172 spirit as measurable substance see alcohol production see distilling proof, 91 Sprat, Thomas, 29

Squire, William Stevens, 200, 212 Stahl, Georg Ernst, 65 Stanhope, Philip see Chesterfield, Earl of starch, 150, 152–4, 178, 193–6 Stark, James, 155 steam engines, 125 Stein, Robert, 154, 164 Stephens, Joanna, 29 Stewart, William, 155 strychnine, 184–6 sugar

Copyright

122, 142, 150, 151, 175, 184–5, 195,

202

as chemical principle, 121, 141–2, 147,

164

as colouring, 110, 119–20, 121–2, 124,

126, 173, 202 from malt see malt from starch, 193–6, 202 see also dextrin(e); maltose; mucilage; saccharine principle Surflet, Richard, 16–17

tacit skills and sensory judgment, 6, 15–18, 22–6, 36, 55–6, 85, 163–7, 192 taxation see Excise technical education movement, 181, 208 technology see brewers’ engineers; chemistry, industrial; instrumentation; micro- scope; patents; technical education movement; temperature, apparatus to regulate; trades improvement schemes temperance and teetotal activism, 2, 183, 184, 189, 190, 201, 203 temperature, 35, 50–1 apparatus to regulate (attemperator), 67, 73–4, 105, 171, 199, 200

cane sugar and molasses, 116, 118, 121,

secrecy see trade secrecy

sensory judgment see tacit skills

Shakespeare, William, 72

Shannon, Richard, 79, 105, 145–6, 148, 172

Shapin, Steven, 13

Shaw, Peter, 28–31, 37, 38, 52, 53, 59, 61, 62, 65, 94, 126, 209 influence on Michael Combrune, 33, 41–3, 45–7, 49–51 Sheldrake, Timothy, 38 Shrubsole, William, 74 Sibum, Otto, 36 Silliman, Benjamin, 128 Skelton, John, 108 Sloane, Hans, 20, 28, 38, 40, 49 Slocock, Oliver, 24 Smith, George, 21, 31 Smollett, Tobias, 109 Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowl- edge, 158–63, 166, 176, 179 Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce (Society of Arts), 30–1, 51, 59, 68, 100, 101–3, 104, 126, 191, 195 Journal, 196

Society of Apothecaries, 176

294 Brewing Science, Technology and Print, 1700–1880

see also thermometer; heat

Temple (brewer, Portsmouth), 73 Thénard, Louis Jacques, 146–7 theory/practice division, 3–4, 13–15, 65–6, 74, 80, 160–3, 169, 173–9, 181–3, 188, 191–3, 198, 200–1, 205, 207–12 see also ‘practical brewer’ rhetoric thermometer ‘blind’, 54, 62 in Boerhaavian chemistry, 37 in brewhouse practice, 38, 48, 51–6, 62, 67, 91 Fahrenheit scale, 37, 43, 53, 54, 83, 207 in malting, 40 and Michael Combrune, 34, 40, 52–3,

145

origins and introduction, 36–40 Thomson, Thomas, 9, 106, 123, 133, 135–7, 152, 154–5, 162, 165–6, 172–3, 175, 176–7, 209–10, 212 compiles System of Chemistry, 138,

141–2, 147

trades improvement schemes, 14–15, 20, 28–31, 38–40, 50–1, 65, 121–2, 183, 191, 209 premiums, 29, 59, 68 see also useful knowledge agenda Treasury, 118–20 treatises influence from chemistry, 34, 46 vs periodicals, 159, 208 pricing, 158 requirements for credibility, 146–7,

207–12

structural arrangement, 19, 28, 33, 146–7, 149, 192 Trinity College Dublin, 148 Troughton, John, 87, 93, 96, 103, 104 Truman Hanbury (porter brewery, London), 113, 166, 176–7 Tryon, Thomas, 18, 19, 22

Tuck, John, 3–4, 75, 78, 81, 129–30, 163, 164, 175

Turner, Edward, 173, 176

Copyright

Excise consultancy, 138–44, 146, 150,

151, 155

as journal editor see Annals of Philosophy

on vegetable principles, 150

writes for Encyclopaedia Britannica,

144–9, 152, 155, 160–1 Thornton, Robert, 70–1

Thrale, Henry, 63–4, 68–71, 100, 110, 122,

209

Thrale, Hester (born Hester Salusbury; later

Hester Piozzi), 63, 68, 70, 122 Thrale, Ralph, 24 ‘Threale, Thomas’ (supposed author of hack- work pamphlet), 8 Tizard, William Littell, 159, 171–6, 187, 189, 198, 207, 208, 210 Topham, Jonathan, 135 topographic narratives, 15–18 trade knowledge, 3–4, 13–15, 18, 23–6, 29, 51, 54, 74, 75, 160–7, 172, 176, 188, 192, 210 see also ‘practical brewer’ rhetoric trade secrecy, 15, 22–8, 29, 30, 33, 47–9, 54, 59–60, 77, 91, 101, 108, 125, 127, 145, 162–3, 167, 169, 187, 189, 195,

Tyndall, John, 4, 211

Unger, Richard, 10

United Kingdom Alliance, 183, 190, 201

universalizing knowledge agendas, 4, 6, 13,

18, 21, 34, 65–6, 80, 168

gravimetric, 83–106, 140–4 thermometric, 41–7, 49, 53, 56 University College London see London, University of unmalted grain, 116, 122, 149, 152–4, 174,

202–5

Ure, Andrew, 147–8, 154, 173–6 useful knowledge agenda, 5, 13–15, 33, 55, 59, 61, 68, 158–63, 187–8, 209

Valentin, Basil, 195 Valentin, William George, 195–7 Vallancey, Charles, 56 Vansittart, Nicholas, 119 vatted storage, 68–71 Vauquelin, Nicolas-Louis, 154 Veley, Victor Herbert, 200 Victualling, Commissioners of, 69, 73–4,

76–7

210–12

Index

295

Walsby, John, 114 Warington, Robert Jr (1838–1907), 195

Warington, Robert Sr (1807–67), 176–9,

Wood, Matthew, 119–20, 126 Worlidge, John, 14, 21 wormwood, 114, 116, 122 Worshipful Company of Brewers see Brew- ers’ Company

wort composition see malt, sugars of concentrated see malt extract gravimetric determination see gravity; saccharometer; hydrometer management, 178, 194 production process see mashing

strength, as basis of taxation, 203 Worthington (ale brewery, Burton), 182,

182

water for brewing see liquor mineral, 99 Watkins, George, 55, 75, 77, 78, 79 Watney, Daniel, 203 Watt, James, 2, 125 Westrumb, Johann Friedrich, 146 Wheeler, Daniel, 126–7 Whitbread (London porter brewery), 113, 120, 122 Whitbread, Samuel I (1720–96), 23, 24,

41, 63 Whitbread, Samuel II (1758–1815), 111–2 Whitworth, Charles, 51 Wigan, Edward, 119–20 Wigney, George (1789–1847), 169 Wigney, George Adolphus (1789–1872), 6,

183

Worthington, George Lloyd, 158 Wright, Gabriel, 103

yeast, 99, 118, 146, 200, 201 storage, 66 see also fermentation

152, 167–74, 192, 210–11

theory of, 11, 14

Copyright

Yeates, William, 125

Yorke, Philip, Earl of Hardwicke, 49

Young Brewer’s Monitor (anonymous 1824

treatise), 148

Yworth, William, 5, 7, 14, 18, 21, 22

Williamson, Alexander, 191

wine

consumption, 20, 30

Wollstonecraft, Mary, 127