INDEX

Accum, Friedrich, 4, 184
attacked by practical brewers, 129–32,
148, 164, 175, 209
influence on literature, 147, 183
Treatise on Adulterations, 109–10,
128–9, 144
Treatise on the Art of Brewing, 144, 154
Adams, George, 54
Addison, Joseph, 72
Addison, Richard, 36
additives, 117–8, 127, 175, 179, 201–5
see also adulteration; colouring; heading
mixture; fining; preservatives; sugar;
unmalted grain
Admiralty, Board of, 69
adulteration, 42, 106, 107–33, 113, 150,
173, 191, 207
poisoning narratives, 109–11, 114–16,
128–32, 148, 174, 183–6, 189–90,
201
see also ‘malt and hops’ purity argument
alchemy, 5, 7, 14, 22
alcohol
as basis of drinks valuation, 85, 97–8,
140–4
as chemical principle, 141–2, 147, 150,
152
by volume scale, 144
content in beer, 97–100, 136, 141–4,
183
lost in brewing process, 178
ale
Derby, 41
Burton, 41, 93, 98, 99
pale, 179
Windsor, 103

Allan, Alexander, 143, 147
Allix, William, 49
Allsopp (ale brewery, Burton), 182, 184–6,
197
Allsopp, Henry, 184–6, 187, 195
analysis, chemical
and adulteration, 128
practical brewers’ objections to, 72
promoted by Humphrey Jackson, 62,
65–7, 82
source of expert authority, 126, 131, 147
and sugar chemistry, 121, 177–8, 194–5
training for brewers, 190, 208
analysts
consulting, 55, 163, 174, 175, 176, 189,
190, 197–8, 212
public, 189–91
Anderson’s Institution, Glasgow, 147
Annals of Philosophy, 144–5, 147, 149,
151–2, 153
anonymous authorship, 7–8, 26, 52–5, 65
Appleby, John, 71
apprenticeships in brewing, 12, 22, 23, 41,
108
Armstrong, Henry Edward, 211
Ashmole, Elias, 14
Atkins, Robert, 54
attemperator see temperature, apparatus to
regulate

Copyright
Bacon, Francis, 13, 28, 79, 209
Bailey, Nathan, 20
Baldwin and Cradock (publishers), 161
Banks, Joseph, 2, 4, 69–70, 141, 144
Barber Beaumont, John, 113, 126
Barclay Perkins (porter brewery, London),
70, 107, 126

– 283 –

284

Brewing Science, Technology and Print, 1700–1880

Barclay, Charles, 113
Barclay, George, 111–2, 115
Barker, John, 42
barley, 23, 28, 45, 90, 116, 137–40, 145–6,
148, 152–4
see also malt; unmalted grain
Bass (ale brewery, Burton), 182, 185–6
Bass, Michael, 184, 195
Baverstock, James B. (1741–1815), 84,
100–3, 105, 106, 150–1, 152, 154, 155
Baverstock, James Hinton (1785–1837),
148, 152
Beale, John, 13, 14, 29
beer
strong, 19, 23, 92, 108
small, 19, 92, 108, 149
table, 92
see also ale; brewers; brewing; porter
‘beer doctors’, 107, 114–6, 130, 174
Behan, Brendan, 2
Bent, William, 150
Bentham, Samuel, 52
Beresford, John, 67
Berkeley, George, 61
Berzelius, Jöns Jacob, 146, 190
Best, James, 56, 64, 67, 118
bigg, 137–40
Biot, Jean-Baptiste, 153
Birkbeck, George, 166
Black, Joseph, 50, 138
Black, William, 178, 184, 189–90, 198, 210
on additives, 201
on popularity of John Richardson, 105
promotes diastase discovery, 154
and chemical authority, 154–5, 157,
163–7, 176, 181, 187–8
background, 163
electrical theory of fermentation,
164–6, 200–1
Blagden, Charles, 141
‘Blair, David’ (pseudonym, Richard Phillips),
168
Blake, George, 53, 73–4, 75–6, 78, 80, 81,
104, 130, 168
Bleak House (Dickens novel), 186
Boerhaave, Herman, 21, 38, 40, 41, 42, 51,
53, 65

interpreted by Michael Combrune, 31,
33, 42–50, 146, 212
marginalized as chemical authority, 50
promotes thermometers, 37, 42
Boileau, Nicolas, 72
booksellers as distributors, 59, 77, 81, 87
Booth, David, 152, 158–63, 164, 170, 178,
194, 203
Böttinger, Henry, 182, 184–5, 187
family, 195
Boulton, Matthew, 2, 125
Boyle, Robert, 13, 14, 28, 45, 59, 209
Boys, Jeffrey, 12, 18–20, 22–3, 27, 108, 163
Bradley, Richard, 20
Brakspear, Robert, 71
Brande, William Thomas, 4, 143–4, 145,
147, 168
family, 128
Brereton, William (Lord Brereton), 121
brewers
chemically trained see chemistry, brewing
chemists
consulting, 55–7, 59–60, 71–82, 102,
121, 158–9, 161, 163–7, 169–76,
189, 197–8, 200, 210–11
‘country’ trade, 41, 64, 73, 80, 91, 103,
111, 118, 175
large-scale and wholesale (common brewers), 11–12, 22–8, 38, 108, 163
see also porter; Burton upon Trent
London trade, 27, 146
see also porter
quantitative expertise, 2, 36, 52
small-scale and retail (brewing victuallers), 11–12, 108
social status, 12–15, 23–6, 33, 49–50,
63, 72, 80, 108, 157, 165–6, 168
see also brewing; trade knowledge
Brewers’ Company (London guild), 22, 33,
41, 47–8, 61
brewers’ druggists see drugs
brewers’ engineers, 55, 158–9, 163, 171–5,
187, 189
Brewers’ Guardian, 182–3, 190–1, 193,
196–200
Brewers’ Journal, 182–3, 188–91, 196–201,
202–4, 211, 212
brewers’ pound see pound per barrel

Copyright

Index
brewhouse, as managerial regime, 19, 23–6,
54, 75, 113, 115, 164–7, 200, 210
brewing victuallers see brewing, small-scale
commercial
brewing
commercial see brewers
domestic and private, 2, 11–12, 15,
18–20, 22–3, 27, 111, 118, 153, 158,
174, 207, 208
process defined, 15–18
science, disciplinary identity of
see science; chemistry, brewing chemists
British Association for the Advancement of
Science, 165–6, 176, 179
British National Brewing Company, 174
Brougham, Henry (Lord Brougham),
159–61
Brown, Adrian, 182, 204, 208
Brown, Horace Tabberer, 182–3, 187,
199–200, 204, 211–12
Brown, William Henry Robert, 124
Brydges, James see Chandos, Duke of
Bud, Robert, 176, 178
Burton upon Trent
eighteenth-century production see ale,
Burton
as nineteenth-century industrial and
scientific centre, 182–7
Bushnan, J. Stevenson, 184, 186
Butcher, James, 124
Buxton, Thomas Fowell, 104

285

Chemical Society, 159, 176–9, 182, 188,
193, 196, 211
Journal, 182, 193
chemistry
authority and social respectability, 65–8,
72, 74, 107, 125–6, 131, 145–9,
158–9, 162–7, 168–71, 173–5, 178,
186, 188, 200, 201, 205
brewing chemists, community of, 157,
177, 179, 181–3, 211–2
chemists as instructors to brewers, 60–9,
74, 76
see also Jackson, Humphrey
‘commercial’ (Peter Shaw), 28–31, 33,
42–3
vs druggists, 109, 123, 126
industrial, 176–9, 191–3, 195, 200
literature, influence on brewery writing,
33–4, 41–7, 79–82, 83, 149–55,
163–79
professionalization, 133, 144–9, 155,
157–8, 181, 209, 211
pure vs applied research, 166, 181–2,
191–3
as source of suspicion, 107, 115, 121–3,
130
Chesterfield, Earl of (Philip Stanhope), 43
Child, Samuel, 110–111, 130–1
Cholmley, John, 15
Chomel, Noël, 20
cider, 13–14
City and Guilds of London Institute, 192,
211
Clarke, Charles, 186
Clarke, John, 40, 86, 93, 94–6, 97, 104, 106,
141
Clarke, Timothy, 14
clerks, brewhouse, 23–6
Coates, Thomas, 161
Cobbett, William, 115, 149
cocculus indicus, 110, 115, 116, 120, 121,
126, 131
Cock, Simon, 127
Cole, Benjamin, 87
colouring, 149
from sugar see sugar, as colouring
from malt, 127
Colquhon, Agnes, 143

Copyright

Calvert family (brewers, Hertfordshire and
London), 23, 124
Cambridge, University of, 20
Campbell, Dugald, 190, 197
‘Candidus’ (anonymous correspondent,
Political Register), 150–1, 154
carbonic acid gas, 3, 141, 154, 172, 194
see also fixed air
Chambers, Ephraim, 37, 38
Chandos, Duke of ( James Brydges), 34
Chapman, Alfred Chaston, 209
Chapman, Allan, 2
Charleton, Walter, 14
Chelsea Physic Garden, 34
Chemical and Agricultural College, Kennington, 174

286

Brewing Science, Technology and Print, 1700–1880

Combe (porter brewery, London), 104, 120
Combe, Harvey, 111–2
Combrune, Michael, 9, 31, 59, 60, 70, 84,
121
background, 41–2
as consultant, 56–7
early thermometric investigations, 42–3
Essay on Brewing, 33, 43–6, 47–9, 51, 52
philosophical aspirations, 49–50, 157
reception of his work, 50–6, 66, 75, 76,
79, 83, 85, 145, 146, 155, 172
retirement and last years, 51
Theory and Practice of Brewing, 8, 33,
46–53, 212
common brewers see brewing, large-scale and
wholesale
consultancy, 35
consultants see analysts, consulting; brewers,
consulting; brewers’ engineers; chemistry, chemists as instructors to brewers
Cook (brewer, Isle of Wight), 73
Cook, James, 69–70
Cooper, John Thomas, 176
copperas (ferrous sulphate), 110, 121, 131
Cotton, John Hynde, 23, 24–6
Country Brewers’ Society, 190, 197
country house brewing see brewing, domestic
Coventry, Andrew, 138–44
Cox, Charles, 15
credibility, 1–7, 34, 146–7, 159, 205,
207–12
paradoxes of see paradox of experiment;
paradox of the trade writer
Crowson, John, 174
Cruickshank, Isaac, 116

diastase, 153–4, 163, 171, 173, 178, 193,
204
Dicas, John, 94, 101, 105
Digby, Kenelm, 11, 16
Dircks, Henry, 174
Directions on Brewing (anonymous treatise,
1700) see Boys, Jeffrey
Distillers’ Company, 62
distilling
industry, relationship to beer-brewing,
29, 85, 98–9, 142–3, 151, 153, 200,
212
philosophical enquiry into, 14, 21, 29,
99, 137–8
taxation see Excise
as technique for assessing strength of
beer, 65–6, 91, 97–100, 141–4, 151
use of malt, 137–43
see also hydrometer
Dobson, John, 86
Dobson, Matthew, 86, 99
Dodsley, Robert, 43
Dollond, John, 49
Donovan, Michael, 158, 161–3, 164, 167,
172–3, 187, 212
Douglas, Mary, 108
Dring, John, 104
drugs, 107, 109–10, 113, 164, 175, 183
brewers’ druggists, 114–27, 129–31,
186, 201
see also ‘beer doctors’; chemistry, vs
druggists
drunkenness see intoxication
Dublin Philosophical Journal, 148
Dublin Society for Improving Husbandry,
Manufactures and other Useful Arts
and Sciences, 29–30, 38, 56–7, 78
Dubrunfaut, Augustin-Pierre, 154, 194
Duflos, Adolf, 177

Copyright
Dallowe, Timothy, 37, 50
Dalton, John, 141
Daux, James, 26
Davy, Humphry, 4, 107, 109, 125–6, 147,
165, 167, 176
Dawson, Thomas, 64
de Coetlogon, Denis, 22
density see gravity
Desaguliers, John Theophilus, 34, 42, 86
dextrin(e), 153–4, 193–6, 197, 201, 203
dextrin-maltose (patent synthetic sugar),
195–6, 201

Edinburgh Encyclopaedia, 146–7
Edinburgh Review, 160
Edinburgh, University of, 138
Einhof, Heinrich, 146, 148
electrical action see fermentation, role of
electricity
Elliot, John, 129
Ellis, John, 70

Index
Ellis, Richard, 27
Ellis, William, 11, 26–8, 31, 41, 54–5, 65,
75, 79, 209
see also London and Country Brewer
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 52, 105, 123,
135–7, 144–9, 152, 155, 162
Encyclopaedia Edinensis, 146
engineers see brewers’ engineers
England
comparisons with Irish practice, 29–30,
67
comparisons with Scottish practice, 51,
137–40, 160, 164
Englands Interest (anonymous improvement
miscellany), 20
essentia bina see sugar, as colouring
Everard (brewer, King’s Lynn), 73
Every Man His Own Brewer (pamphlet,
c. 1790) see Child, Samuel
Every Man His Own Brewer (treatise, 1768),
53
Excise
and beer purity, 114, 202
vs brewers, 91–2
use of chemists and philosophical consultants, 123, 135–43, 185, 202
Scottish and English regimes, 137–40
spirits hydrometry, 85–6, 93–4, 100,
136, 140–4
surveillance and enforcement, 24, 36, 92,
107, 113, 119–20, 124–7, 129, 153
taxation (duty) regimes, 2–3, 23, 29,
106, 108, 111, 114, 116, 119, 137,
144, 149, 153, 160, 164, 184–5, 192,
202–5
vs Treasury, 118–20, 124
experimentation, 19, 40, 45, 50, 72, 176–9,
211
vs experience, 75, 167
see also paradox of experiment

287

Faulkner, Frank, 181, 183, 196–204, 207,
210, 212
Ferguson, William, 176–7
fermentation, 3, 80
Boerhaavian account, 21
forcing tray, 199
John Richardson’s theory of, 98–9
microbial account, 10, 192–3, 198–9,
201, 212
process in brewing, 17, 67, 118, 121, 150,
172, 178, 207
role of electricity, 164–7, 200
role of heat, 42, 52–3
sugar chemistry of, 141–2, 147, 151–4
see also fixed air, carbonic acid gas
fining (clarification of beer), 47
using fish products see isinglass
using other materials, 28, 64
fixed air, 3, 69, 99–100, 141
see also carbonic acid gas
Folkes, Martin, 42, 49
Fox, Charles James, 111–2
France
French vs British brewing methods, 199
French vs German technical prowess,
192–3
French-language chemical literature, 52,
147, 148, 152–4, 177, 193, 198–9
Frankland, Edward, 182, 195
‘free mash-tun’ (1880 legislative regime),
201–5, 211–12
free trade lobby, 113, 183, 202–5
Freemasonry, 42
Furze, John, 178–9

Copyright

Fabbroni, Giovanni, 143–4
Fahrenheit, Daniel Gabriel see thermometer,
Fahrenheit scale
Faraday, Michael, 127, 166
Farey, John, Jr, 146–7
Farmer’s Magazine, 7, 140

Gay-Lussac, Joseph-Louis, 143, 146
Gentleman’s Magazine, 47–8
George II, King, 43
George III, King, 128
Germany
German vs British brewing methods, 173,
185, 190, 192, 201
German-language chemical literature, 52,
105, 128, 147, 177, 193
see also Liebig, Justus von; Giessen,
University of
Giessen, University of, 166, 181–2, 185,
187, 191, 200

288

Brewing Science, Technology and Print, 1700–1880

Gillray, James, 111–2, 115
Gilpin, George, 141
gin, 98–9
Gladstone, William, 203, 208
Glasgow, University of, 135, 147
Golden Lane Brewery, 104, 114, 124–7
Golinski, Jan, 37–8
Goodwyn, Henry Jr (1740–1824)
Goodwyn, Henry Sr (1713–1805), 23, 40
Graeme, William, 42
Graham, Charles, 191–3, 198, 201, 203,
209, 210
Graham, Thomas, 154–5, 165–7, 178, 181,
184–5, 190
grains of paradise, 118, 120
gravity
as basis for wort assessment, 66, 85,
91–2, 94–100, 105–6, 141, 146,
150–2, 203
estimates from spirit content, 184–5
standard values, 92, 203
see also hydrometer; hydrostatic beam
balance; saccharometer
Greenall Whitley (brewers, St Helens), 197
Grenville, William (Lord Grenville), 111–2
Griess, Peter, 182
Guinness, 57, 211

sensory judgment, 36, 91
see also malt, role of heat in production;
mashing, role of heat; fermentation,
role of heat; thermometer
Heidelberg, University of, 191
Henry, Thomas, 99
Henry, Thomas Hetherington, 176–7
Heron, John, 182
Hill, Abraham, 11, 13, 14
Hind family (brewers, London), 15
Hirsch, Adolf, 177
Hitchcock, Thomas, 172, 175
Hofmann, August von, 181–2, 184–6,
195–6, 211
Holinshed, Raphael, 16
Hooke, Robert, 11, 13
Hooper, Egbert Grant, 208
Hope, Thomas, 138–44
hops, 20, 31, 46–7, 62, 76, 115, 189
boiling process, 16–19, 22, 67, 152, 169
cultivation, analysis and extraction, 30,
38, 66, 72, 177, 179
duty, 202
prepared extract see humuline
substitutes, 201, 202
see also quassia; wormwood
unfamiliarity to non-brewers, 15
see also ‘malt and hops’ purity argument
House of Commons see Parliament
house-brewing see brewing, domestic
Household Words, 15
Huguenots, 41, 42, 49, 56
Hull Literary and Philosophical Society,
86, 99
Hume, Joseph, 127
humuline, 186, 187–8
Hunt, Henry, 114
Hunter, John, 70
hydrometer
in brewing, 84, 86, 93–4, 100–3, 104,
150–2
in the distillery, 85–6, 93–4, 97, 140–4
as heat gauge, 40
see also saccharometer
hydrostatic beam balance, 66, 97

Copyright
Haberkorn, Johann Christian, 49
hack literature, 7–8, 27–8, 129–31, 145–7,
148, 162, 187
Hales, Stephen, 80, 83
Halsey, Edmund, 24
Ham, John, 151–2, 153, 158, 160, 164, 172,
178, 202–3
Hansen, Emil Christian, 191
Harcourt, Simon, 11, 27
Hardwicke, Earl of (Philip Yorke), 49
Harris, John, 15
Harris, Thomas, 104
Harrison, Marion, 16
Harrison, William, 16–17, 116
Hartlib, Samuel, 13, 120–1
Hassall, Arthur Hill, 183
Hayman, E. N., 172
heading mixture, 110, 118, 122
heat
in Michael Combrune’s theories, 42–52

Imlay, Gilbert, 127
import substitution, 28–31, 61, 68, 126

Index
Institutes of Brewing, 204, 209
instructors see brewers, consulting; chemistry, chemists as instructors to brewers
instrumentation see hydrometer; saccharometer; thermometer
intoxication, 98–100
Ireland
improvement agenda, 29–30, 67
porter production, 56–7
Irvine, William, 154
isinglass
true (sturgeon), 68, 118
substitutes, 61–4, 69, 124–6
see also fining
Jackson, Humphrey, 4, 9, 57, 60, 79, 84, 94,
97, 148
on adulteration controversies, 121
collapse of reputation, 70–1, 91, 109,
122–3, 129, 136, 209
instructor and consultant to brewers,
62–8, 78, 100, 101, 121–2
manufactures isinglass substitute, 61
subject of parody, 71–3, 76, 82, 90, 122,
199
timber project and naval patronage,
68–70
Jackson, Mary or Maria (wife of Humphrey),
62, 63
James, Robert, 61, 63
Jefferson, Thomas, 52, 56
Johnson, Samuel, 63, 70, 122
Joule, James Prescott, 157–8

289

vs brewhouse, 64, 76, 80, 81, 85, 90, 136,
138–40, 142, 149, 155, 183, 193,
199, 200, 211
as source of authoritative experimental
data, 66, 165–6, 181, 202, 210
Lancet, 183–6, 207
Lardner, Dionysius, 161–2
Lavoisier, Antoine, 36, 147
oxygen-caloric theory, 141, 168
Lawrence, Christopher, 69
Leeuwenhoek, Antoine van, 154
Levesque, John, 54, 78, 172, 187
Lewis, William, 22, 65
Lexicon Technicum, 15
Liberal Party, 202–4
Library of Useful Knowledge see Society for
the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge
Liebig, Justus von, 166, 173, 176, 179, 181,
185–6, 190, 192, 198–200
Linnaeus, Carl, 27
liquor (water for brewing), 17, 19, 21, 66,
72, 118, 190
‘liquor’ as shibboleth term, 27
liquorice, 110, 115, 118, 120
Literary Gazette, 131, 166
Liverpool College of Chemistry, 187
Loch, David, 51
London and Country Brewer (treatise), 26–8,
37, 40, 52, 54–5, 75
see also Ellis, William
London Encyclopaedia, 147
London Literary Gazette see Literary Gazette
London Review, 72–3
London, University of, 160, 162, 165, 166,
176, 191
Long, John, 67, 73–4, 75, 76, 78–9, 80, 130,
172
Lyon, F. W., 190, 197, 200
Lyttle, William, 196

Copyright

Kalm, Pehr, 27–8
Keith, George Skene, 137–8, 140, 141
King, Erasmus, 61–2
King, John Glen, 49
Kirchhoff, Gottlieb Sigismund, 154
Klein, Ursula, 4
Kwasí see Quassi
Laboratory Club, 204
Laboratory of the Government Chemist,
185
laboratory
on brewery premises, 182–3, 200

MacBride, David, 69, 99
Macdonald, Archibald, 125–6
Maison Rustique (sixteenth-century miscellany), 16–17
Malins, Joseph, 127
malt, 6, 14, 19, 21–2, 30, 177–8, 211
brown vs pale, 20, 105–6, 119–20
duty, 137–40, 114, 149, 153, 202–3, 208

290

Brewing Science, Technology and Print, 1700–1880

extract, concentrated, 69, 71, 122, 174
extract, gravimetric determination see
gravity
malting process defined, 15–16
vs other materials, 121, 149, 150–3
roasted (patent), 127, 173
role of heat in production, 35, 40, 45–7,
50
sugars of, 66, 74, 81, 85, 97–8, 105–6,
136, 141–2, 155, 192
see also saccharine principle; mucilage;
dextrin(e); maltose
volume, as basis for strength assessment,
85, 97, 139
‘malt and hops’ purity argument, 109,
114–20, 121, 122, 124, 149, 153, 162,
175, 194, 202
vs ‘brewing without malt or hops’, 115,
120, 122
maltose, 194–6
maltsters, 91, 127, 149–50
Manchester Literary and Philosophical
Society, 86
Manners and Co (London brewery), 178
manuscript directions, 16, 56, 78, 93, 158,
160
Marburg, University of, 182
Markham, Gervase, 18, 19, 21–2
Martin, Benjamin, 49, 53, 54, 62, 70, 87,
97, 103
and brewery hydrometry, 86, 93–4, 100,
106
Martineau, John, 104, 151
mashing process, 16–17, 19, 150–1, 167–8,
204
de-restriction of ingredients see ‘free
mash-tun’
role of heat, 27, 35–6, 46–7, 48, 52–4,
75–6, 152, 153–4, 171, 177–8, 194,
207
saccharometric management, 90
Mason College, Birmingham, 204
Mathias, Peter, 40, 47
Maty, Matthew, 42, 43, 49, 51
Mawbey, Joseph, 110
mechanics’ institutes, 166, 179
Mechanics’ Magazine, 173–4, 188
medical literature on drink, 20–1

Medical Times and Gazette, 184–6
Merceron, Joseph, 113
Merret, Christopher, 11, 13, 14
Meux Reid (porter brewery, London),
126–7, 129, 177
Meux, Henry, 120
Meux, Thomas, 127
microbiology see fermentation, microbial
account of
microscope, 192–3, 199–200, 208
Millar, James, 147
Miller, Philip, 28, 34, 38, 49
Mills, John, 50, 66
The Mindful Hand (2007 edited volume),
3–4
monopolies, 12, 63, 64, 78, 84–6, 93, 101,
104–6, 109, 111, 114, 119, 126, 196,
207, 210
Monthly Journal of Medical Science, 186
Monthly Review, 47, 64, 103
Moore, Jonas, 20
Moray, Robert, 11–12, 14, 22
More, Samuel, 103
Morning Post, 116
Morrice, Alexander, 8, 131, 146
Mortimer, Cromwell, 40, 52
Mortimer, John, 12, 20, 121
mucilage, 150–2, 154
Murdock, William, 125–6
Murray, John, 168
Muspratt, Sheridan, 187–8, 190, 201
Mylne, Robert, 70

Copyright
Nägeli, Carl, 212
Napier, Macvey, 144–7, 155
Nesbit, John Collis, 174, 191
Neumann, Caspar, 65
Newbery, John, 61, 63–4
Newton, Isaac, 14
Nicholson, William, 128, 168
Noorthouck, John, 47, 51, 83, 103
nux vomica, 116, 179

O’Sullivan, Cornelius, 182, 193–7, 201, 212
O’Sullivan, James, 182
original gravity see gravity
Oxford, University of, 200

Index
paradox of experiment, 6–7, 162–3, 167,
169–71, 187–8, 210–11
paradox of the trade writer, 5–6, 27–8, 55,
91, 101, 162, 189, 209–11
Parkes, Samuel, 168
Parliament
brewery representation in, 15, 23,
110–13, 124
Commons enquiries into barley and bigg
quality, 138–44, 146, 148, 150, 151,
155
Commons enquiries into public houses
and beer quality, 107, 113, 126, 129,
147
and free mash-tun legislation, 202–5
Parsons, Humphrey, 24
partial disclosure strategy, 59–64, 77, 102,
121, 171, 209
Pasteur, Louis, 10, 183, 192–4, 198–201,
211–12
patent malt see malt, roasted
patents, 67, 69, 71, 73, 127, 145–6, 147,
158, 171–6, 186, 187, 189, 194–6,
197–8, 201, 210
Payen, Anselme, 153–4, 184
Pepper, John Henry, 186
periodical literature
brewing trade, 182–3, 188–91, 197–201,
202–4, 208
general and reviewing, 47–51, 64, 72–3,
77–8, 102–3, 128, 131, 149–52, 166,
188
scientific, 159, 175, 177–9, 182, 190–1,
193–6, 208
Perkins, Frederick, 107
Perkins, John, 70
Persoz, Jean-François, 153–4
Petty, Lord Henry, 111–2
Pharmaceutical Society, 185
Philips (unidentified associate of Abraham
Hill), 11
Phillips, Richard, 168
philosophical authority, 1, 4, 11, 13–15,
28–31, 33–5, 47–52, 55, 56, 59–60,
148–9 see also chemistry, authority and
social respectability; science; theory/
practice divide
Philosophical Transactions, 107, 123, 143

291

Piesse, Septimus, 177–8
Piozzi, Hester see Thrale, Hester
Platt, Harold, 10
Ploughman, William, 81
Plumer, Thomas (Solicitor General), 124–6
poisoning see adulteration
Political Register, 149–50
Pontifex and Sons (brewers’ engineers), 189
porter, 62, 77, 98, 99, 123
emulation outside London, 51, 55–7, 75,
93, 109, 163
large-scale industrialization and dominant ‘great eleven’ breweries, 22, 108,
111, 113, 129
London product, 22–3, 27, 46–7, 53, 61,
105, 107–20, 124–7
potato beer, 153
Potyomkin, Grigory, 52
pound per barrel (brewers’ pound), 83, 87,
91, 97, 104, 141, 143, 161, 203
vs dry weight of extract, 105, 143, 203
‘Practical Brewer’ (anonymous 1775 pamphleteer) see Richardson, John
‘practical brewer’ rhetoric, 3–4, 60, 72,
75–9, 102, 129–30, 136, 145–6,
160–7, 170, 198, 209–10
see also trade knowledge; theory/practice
division
preservatives, 199, 204
Priestley, Joseph, 99
Pringle, John, 69
print
credibility problems, 5, 7–8
growing accessibility, 159
and non-trade audiences, 18
printing by subscription, 146, 169–70,
171
see also hack literature; periodical literature; private instruction, by private
printing; treatises; readerships
private instruction
by manuscript see manuscript directions
by personal attendance see brewers,
consulting; chemistry, chemists as
instructors to brewers
by private printing, 62–3, 169–70
see also trade secrecy
publicans, 108, 111, 114, 129, 130, 144

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292

Brewing Science, Technology and Print, 1700–1880

see also brewers, small-scale and retail
Punch, 186, 207
pure beer see ‘malt and hops’ purity argument
Pycroft, John, 24
Pyecraft (brewer, Goodwyn’s, 1760s), 23–4
Quarterly Journal of Science, 144, 148
Quarterly Review, 131
Quassi (Kwasí; Kwasímukámba), 111–2
quassia, 110–12, 114, 115, 122, 131, 149,
179
Quin, Matthew, 101, 104
Quincy, John, 20, 22, 28
Ramsbottom, Richard and John, 103
Ranelagh, Viscountess see Jones, Katherine
Raspail, François-Vincent, 154
readerships, 4–8, 15–6, 19, 26–8, 52–3
commercial brewers, 84, 90–3, 97,
130–1, 167–70, 188–9, 197
of gentlemanly journals see periodical
literature, general and reviewing
working-class, targeted by SDUK, 160–3
Reddington, William, 31, 36, 37, 79, 93–4
Redwood, Theophilus, 185
Reed, William, 188, 190
Reid (porter brewery, London) see Meux
Reid
Reynoldson, John, 97, 149–2
Richardson, Archibald, 138
Richardson, John, 9, 60, 129, 130, 142, 143
brewing career, 80–1, 86, 105
directions in manuscript, 78, 93, 160,
169
instructor and consultant to brewers, 71,
77, 102, 105
vs James Baverstock, 100–3
‘Practical Brewer’ pamphlet vs Humphrey Jackson, 71–4, 79, 86, 90, 94,
122, 196, 199
promotes Excise reform, 91–3, 149–50,
153, 160, 164, 203
reception and influence, 83, 104–6, 119,
141, 145–6, 148, 153, 158, 160, 163,
168, 172–3, 192, 203, 209–10
scientific rhetoric, 79–82, 90, 102–3,
105, 123, 165

Statical Estimates, 83–100, 104–6
Theoretic Hints, 77–9, 82, 86, 90, 98,
102, 105
see also saccharometer
Richardson, Philetus, 105
Rigby, Edward, 81–2
Roberts, Gerrylynn, 178, 181
Roberts, Lissa, 36
Roberts, W. H., 172
Ronalds, Henry, 127
Rouelle, Guillaume-François, 99, 143–4
Royal College of Chemistry, 181–2, 185–6,
195, 200
Royal Dublin Society see Dublin Society for
Improving Husbandry, Manufactures
and other Useful Arts and Sciences
Royal Institution, 107, 125, 128
Royal Society, 9, 11–15, 20, 28–30, 40, 42,
49–50, 51, 69–70, 78, 120–1, 123,
141, 143, 211
Royal Society of Arts see Society for the
Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures,
and Commerce
rule of thumb, 91, 203, 212

Copyright

saccharine principle (malt extract), 66,
141–2, 150–2, 207
see also maltose
saccharometer
cost, 87
debate over significance of reading,
150–2, 192
distinguished from hydrometer, 93–7,
101–3, 104
general acceptance by brewers, 104–6,
201
influence on malt preferences, 105–6
legislative acceptance, 203
name, 96, 104
origins, 87, 93, 97, 145
proprietary patterns
Booth, 161
Dring and Fage, 104, 143
Richardson–Troughton, 83–106
Thomson–Allan, 143, 147, 152, 161,
172
Tizard, 172
used by distillers, 143

Index
see also hydrometer
Salt (ale brewery, Burton), 182
salt of tartar, 115, 126, 129
Salusbury, Hester see Thrale, Hester
satire, 71–4, 76, 102, 110–3, 114–5, 124
Saussure, Théodore de, 146–7
Schaffer, Simon, 74
Schwartz, John, 196
science
authority of, 1, 79–82, 90, 130
see also chemistry, authority and social
respectability; philosophical authority
brewing science, disciplinary identity of,
10, 204–5, 211–12
chemistry vs microbiology see fermentation, microbial account of
professionalization, 8, 211
see also chemistry, professionalization;
theory/practice divide
Scotland, 51, 137–43, 146, 160–1, 164
scurvy, 69, 99
Secord, James, 4
secrecy see trade secrecy
sensory judgment see tacit skills
Shakespeare, William, 72
Shannon, Richard, 79, 105, 145–6, 148, 172
Shapin, Steven, 13
Shaw, Peter, 28–31, 37, 38, 52, 53, 59, 61,
62, 65, 94, 126, 209
influence on Michael Combrune, 33,
41–3, 45–7, 49–51
Sheldrake, Timothy, 38
Shrubsole, William, 74
Sibum, Otto, 36
Silliman, Benjamin, 128
Skelton, John, 108
Sloane, Hans, 20, 28, 38, 40, 49
Slocock, Oliver, 24
Smith, George, 21, 31
Smollett, Tobias, 109
Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, 158–63, 166, 176, 179
Society for the Encouragement of Arts,
Manufactures, and Commerce (Society
of Arts), 30–1, 51, 59, 68, 100, 101–3,
104, 126, 191, 195
Journal, 196
Society of Apothecaries, 176

293

Society of Chemical Industry, 200, 212
Solander, Daniel, 70
Southby, Edmund Richard, 183, 191,
196–200, 203–4, 210
sparging, 160, 172
spirit
as measurable substance see alcohol
production see distilling
proof, 91
Sprat, Thomas, 29
Squire, William Stevens, 200, 212
Stahl, Georg Ernst, 65
Stanhope, Philip see Chesterfield, Earl of
starch, 150, 152–4, 178, 193–6
Stark, James, 155
steam engines, 125
Stein, Robert, 154, 164
Stephens, Joanna, 29
Stewart, William, 155
strychnine, 184–6
sugar
cane sugar and molasses, 116, 118, 121,
122, 142, 150, 151, 175, 184–5, 195,
202
as chemical principle, 121, 141–2, 147,
164
as colouring, 110, 119–20, 121–2, 124,
126, 173, 202
from malt see malt
from starch, 193–6, 202
see also dextrin(e); maltose; mucilage;
saccharine principle
Surflet, Richard, 16–17

Copyright
tacit skills and sensory judgment, 6, 15–18,
22–6, 36, 55–6, 85, 163–7, 192
taxation see Excise
technical education movement, 181, 208
technology see brewers’ engineers; chemistry,
industrial; instrumentation; microscope; patents; technical education
movement; temperature, apparatus to
regulate; trades improvement schemes
temperance and teetotal activism, 2, 183,
184, 189, 190, 201, 203
temperature, 35, 50–1
apparatus to regulate (attemperator), 67,
73–4, 105, 171, 199, 200

294

Brewing Science, Technology and Print, 1700–1880

see also thermometer; heat
Temple (brewer, Portsmouth), 73
Thénard, Louis Jacques, 146–7
theory/practice division, 3–4, 13–15, 65–6,
74, 80, 160–3, 169, 173–9, 181–3, 188,
191–3, 198, 200–1, 205, 207–12
see also ‘practical brewer’ rhetoric
thermometer
‘blind’, 54, 62
in Boerhaavian chemistry, 37
in brewhouse practice, 38, 48, 51–6, 62,
67, 91
Fahrenheit scale, 37, 43, 53, 54, 83, 207
in malting, 40
and Michael Combrune, 34, 40, 52–3,
145
origins and introduction, 36–40
Thomson, Thomas, 9, 106, 123, 133, 135–7,
152, 154–5, 162, 165–6, 172–3, 175,
176–7, 209–10, 212
compiles System of Chemistry, 138,
141–2, 147
Excise consultancy, 138–44, 146, 150,
151, 155
as journal editor see Annals of Philosophy
on vegetable principles, 150
writes for Encyclopaedia Britannica,
144–9, 152, 155, 160–1
Thornton, Robert, 70–1
Thrale, Henry, 63–4, 68–71, 100, 110, 122,
209
Thrale, Hester (born Hester Salusbury; later
Hester Piozzi), 63, 68, 70, 122
Thrale, Ralph, 24
‘Threale, Thomas’ (supposed author of hackwork pamphlet), 8
Tizard, William Littell, 159, 171–6, 187,
189, 198, 207, 208, 210
Topham, Jonathan, 135
topographic narratives, 15–18
trade knowledge, 3–4, 13–15, 18, 23–6, 29,
51, 54, 74, 75, 160–7, 172, 176, 188,
192, 210
see also ‘practical brewer’ rhetoric
trade secrecy, 15, 22–8, 29, 30, 33, 47–9,
54, 59–60, 77, 91, 101, 108, 125, 127,
145, 162–3, 167, 169, 187, 189, 195,
210–12

trades improvement schemes, 14–15, 20,
28–31, 38–40, 50–1, 65, 121–2, 183,
191, 209
premiums, 29, 59, 68
see also useful knowledge agenda
Treasury, 118–20
treatises
influence from chemistry, 34, 46
vs periodicals, 159, 208
pricing, 158
requirements for credibility, 146–7,
207–12
structural arrangement, 19, 28, 33,
146–7, 149, 192
Trinity College Dublin, 148
Troughton, John, 87, 93, 96, 103, 104
Truman Hanbury (porter brewery, London),
113, 166, 176–7
Tryon, Thomas, 18, 19, 22
Tuck, John, 3–4, 75, 78, 81, 129–30, 163,
164, 175
Turner, Edward, 173, 176
Tyndall, John, 4, 211

Copyright

Unger, Richard, 10
United Kingdom Alliance, 183, 190, 201
universalizing knowledge agendas, 4, 6, 13,
18, 21, 34, 65–6, 80, 168
gravimetric, 83–106, 140–4
thermometric, 41–7, 49, 53, 56
University College London see London,
University of
unmalted grain, 116, 122, 149, 152–4, 174,
202–5
Ure, Andrew, 147–8, 154, 173–6
useful knowledge agenda, 5, 13–15, 33, 55,
59, 61, 68, 158–63, 187–8, 209
Valentin, Basil, 195
Valentin, William George, 195–7
Vallancey, Charles, 56
Vansittart, Nicholas, 119
vatted storage, 68–71
Vauquelin, Nicolas-Louis, 154
Veley, Victor Herbert, 200
Victualling, Commissioners of, 69, 73–4,
76–7

Index
Walsby, John, 114
Warington, Robert Jr (1838–1907), 195
Warington, Robert Sr (1807–67), 176–9,
182
water
for brewing see liquor
mineral, 99
Watkins, George, 55, 75, 77, 78, 79
Watney, Daniel, 203
Watt, James, 2, 125
Westrumb, Johann Friedrich, 146
Wheeler, Daniel, 126–7
Whitbread (London porter brewery), 113,
120, 122
Whitbread, Samuel I (1720–96), 23, 24,
41, 63
Whitbread, Samuel II (1758–1815), 111–2
Whitworth, Charles, 51
Wigan, Edward, 119–20
Wigney, George (1789–1847), 169
Wigney, George Adolphus (1789–1872), 6,
152, 167–74, 192, 210–11
Williamson, Alexander, 191
wine
consumption, 20, 30
theory of, 11, 14
Wollstonecraft, Mary, 127

295

Wood, Matthew, 119–20, 126
Worlidge, John, 14, 21
wormwood, 114, 116, 122
Worshipful Company of Brewers see Brewers’ Company
wort
composition see malt, sugars of
concentrated see malt extract
gravimetric determination see gravity;
saccharometer; hydrometer
management, 178, 194
production process see mashing
strength, as basis of taxation, 203
Worthington (ale brewery, Burton), 182,
183
Worthington, George Lloyd, 158
Wright, Gabriel, 103
yeast, 99, 118, 146, 200, 201
storage, 66
see also fermentation
Yeates, William, 125
Yorke, Philip, Earl of Hardwicke, 49
Young Brewer’s Monitor (anonymous 1824
treatise), 148
Yworth, William, 5, 7, 14, 18, 21, 22

Copyright

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