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BOUGHT WITH THE INCOME OF THE
SAGE ENDOWMENT FUND
'
THE GIFT OF
HENRY W. SAGE
1891
Cornell University Library
TA
770.P12
Retaining walls; their design and constru
3 1924 015 698 016
PI
P
Cornell University Library
The
original of this bool<
is in
the Cornell University Library.
There are no known copyright
restrictions in
text.
the United States on the use of the
http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924015698016
RETAINING WALLS
THEIR DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
g/jIMHIHimyililiUIJiMlllMHHIJBIiyiHIIMMMJMV^^^^^
"ykis
QrawOJillBook
'
PUDIISHERS OF
Coal
(h, Jm BOOKS FO B^
Journal
Age
Electric Railway
"''
Electrical World
Engineering NewsRecord American Machinist v Ingenieria Intemacional
Engineering S Mining Journal ^ Power Chemical 6 Metallurgical Engineering
Electncal Merchandising
C..
First Edition
McGRAWHILL BOOK COMPANY.EETAINING WALLS
THEIR DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
BY
GEORGE PAASWELL. E. E. Inc. NEW YORK: 239 WEST 39TH STREET
LONDON:
6
&
8
BOUVERIE
ST. C. 4
1920
\
lij.lvl
I
\M U
':
I
I
Y
.
Inc.
THE MAPLE PRESS TORE: PA
.^^SfoSS
coptkight. 1920. bt the
McGrawHill Book Company.
as weU as to other references used.
An attempt is made to continue this codification throughout the theories of retaining wall design so that a direct and continuous analysis may be made of a wall from the preliminary selection
of the type to the finished section. Under Construction advantage is taken of a classic pamphlet on Plant issued by the Ransome Concrete Plant Co. present a pleasing. the design and construction of the wall itself is subordinated to this analysis. It is the purpose of the first chapter to present the existing theories of lateral earth pressure and then to attempt to codify such theories evolving a simple. the appearance of the wall is dependent upon the character of the concrete work.
places
much emphasis upon
it is felt that such is properly of secondary importance in comparison with the design of the wall itself and the study of the practical problems involved in its construction.
A retaining wall is a structure exposed to public scrutiny and must. vast amount of literature exists on the subject of retaining walls
. Without gainsaying the importance of the proper analysis of the action of earth
struction of retaining walls. Since. (which pamphlet should be in the possession of every construction engineer)
is
presented
to illustrate the principles of proper plant selection. therefore. in the case of concrete walls.
For
sented fully
modern development of concreting is prewith frequent extracts from some of the recent im
portant reports of laboratory investigators. but not necessarily ornate appearance. It is hoped that proper credit has been given to the authors of
all
A
such quoted passages.
it is
essential that the edicts of
this reason the
good construction be observed.
is
Such mathematical work as
given with this essential object in view.PREFACE
The presentation of another book on retaining walls is made with the plea that it is essentially a text on the design and conThe usual text on this subject the determination of the lateral thrust of the retained earth.
the thrust. yet wellfounded expression for
masses.
Arthur E.
Feb. Member. E. Schmitt. C. I
in preparing the
logical
am
deeply grateful for encouragement and aid
in arranging the subject
book and
manner. Associate Editor of the Engineering
NewsRecord. an attempt will be made to examine existing literature and that a due appreciation will be had of the subordinated importance
of the determination of lateral pressure. Am.vi
PREFACE
and earth pressure (see bibliography at the end of the book)..
matter in a
and
clear
The Author. Clark.
F. that before future studies are made of earth pressure phenomena. Soc.
New
York. for his patient reading of the text and
his
many
helpful hints.
. of course. and in view of the absence of a proper collation of all this material It is hoped there is. much duplication of the analysis. 1919.
To Mr. I must take this opportunity to thank Mr. E.
List OP Plates
v
..
42
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
— —
— —
CHAPTER
Reinporceb Concrete Walls
III
79
General principles Preliminary section Distribution of base pressures Tables and their use Theory of the action of reinforced concrete Bending and anchoring rods Vertical arm Footing Toe extension Counterfort walls Face slab Footing Counter
—
—
—
—
fort
—Rod system—Problems.
friction
soils
—
—
—
CHAPTER
II
Gravity Walls Location and height of wall General outline of wall Two classes Fundamental principles of design Concrete or stone of walls walls Thrust and stabiUty moments Foundations Distribution Factor of safety Footing Direct method of deof base pressures signing the wall proper Revetment walls Problems.
WaLL
SECTIONS
—
—
— —
—
— —
CHAPTER
MiSCELLANBOXTS
Cellular walls
IV
122
—Hollow
cellular walls
— Timber cribbing— Concrete
.
vii
PART
I
DESIGN
CHAPTER
Earth Pressures
I 1
.
.
History of the various theories of earth pressure Exact analysis of the action of earth masses The ideal earth and the fill of actual practice The two theories Rankine's Theory Coulomb's method of the wedge of shding Various other methods of
— — — —Cohesion thrust calculations —Experimental data — Wall —Surcharge— Pressure on cofferdams—Pressure of saturated — Sea walls— Problems.
.
.—
CONTENTS
Preface..
N.
Genebal Notes
. Abbam's conclusions ^Apphcation of theory to practice Concrete methods distributing concrete Keying lifts ^Use of Cyclopean masonry Winter concreting Acceleration of concrete hardening ^Concrete materials Cements Sand Crushed stone and gravel Fineness
—
—
— modulus— Method
Crum's method
— — —
of
—
—
—
— —
surface areas (Capt. and rangers— Tie rods—Bracing —Stripping forms — OUing and wetting forms— Patent Forms—Hydraulic. E. Talbot's notes on concrete Conclusions of Bureau of Standards Pbof.
CHAPTER IX
Walls other than Concrete
Plant
finish
—Mortar—Construction wall—Coping— Face —Special stone—Plaster coats— Cost data. Blaw—Supporting the rod reinforcement —Examples of form work—Problems.
Edwards)
—
of proportioning aggregates.151
General theory of the flow of heat and the range of temperature in concrete masses Shrinkage Settlement Expansion joints Construction joints Wall failures.
joists
CHAPTER
CONCEETE CONSTBTJCTIGN Modern developments
VIII
197
Prop.
required
of
227
.
embankments earth pressures Advantage
—
—Walls with relieving arches —Abutments—Box sections
of the various types of walls
CHAPTER V
Tempebatttbe and Shkinkagb.
— —
—
—
PART II CONSTRUCTION
CHAPTER
Plant VI
165
Relation between plant and character of works Standard plant layouts Subdivision of field operations Mixers Distribution
systems
— —Examples
—
—
—
of plant layouts. Abram's analysis of concrete action ^Importance of the water content Prof.—
—
—
—
viii
CONTENTS
cribbing
—Walls
with land
ties
Parallel walls enclosing
subject to
—Problems.
CHAPTER
FOBM WOBK
Subdivision of forms
VII
181
— Concrete pressures—Major Shunk's experiments— Robinson's experiments—^Lagging.
—
CONTENTS
CHAPTER X
Architectural Teeatmbnt. Dkainagb.
General Index
Index
254 271
. Cost Data Surveys necessary Construction lines Walls on curves ^Lines Computation of volumes Isometric reprefor concrete forms sentation of wall details Cost data ^Labor costs Examples of cost of work. Bibliography. Waterproofing Architectural treatment Face treatment Rubbing
ix
Special finishes
rails
—Hand —Waterproofing.
— —
—
— —
—
—
—
APPENDIX
Specifications.
—Tooling — —Colored aggregates—Artistic treatment in general and parapet walls — Drainage—Examples in practice
—
CHAPTER XI
232
242 Field and Office Work.
Plate VI
Fig. A. cement rubble B.
poor concrete work.
236
to depressed
^
street crossing.
given by —Uncoursed rubble wall with coursed pointing. A. A. Fig. —Picket fence wall lining open cut approach
.
effects of
236
Plate VIII
Fig. A.
.
Fig.
— Dry rubble wgll along highway. B. A.
—Ornamental handrail—approach to viaduct.. B. — Rubble wall (Los Angeles) with face formed by niggerheads.
Plate IX
Fig.^Structural
III
supports for special type of retaining wall.
— Method
227
of laying stone wall
by
series of derricks.
236
.
poured.. B. a!
— Crack in reinforced concrete wall at junction of wing wall
steel
and abutment..
—^Unsatisfactory rod detail for concrete pouring.
Plate IV
Fig. A.
Fig.
Plate
V
Fig.LIST OF PLATES
Facing Page
Plate
Fig. — Ornamental parapet wall.
wall.
— Ornamental concrete handrail approach to concrete arch.
. B. —Showing Tooled with rubbed border.
effect
227
false
'
Plate VII
Fig.
B. — Characteristic appearance
of
I
. A.
Plate
150
Crack
in sharp corner of wall
due to tension component
of thrust.
46
Plate
II
150
Fig.
Fig.
—Holding vertical rods in place before concrete
is
191
Fig.
.
Fig.
RETAINING WALLS
THEIR DESIGN AND
CONSTRUCTION
PART I DESIGN
CHAPTER
1
THEORY OF EARTH PRESSURE
The Development of the Theory of Earth Pressure.
for these
It is questionable whether such existed. Winkler.
1. Wien. rough of computing wall dimensions existed back in
wall.
1)
is
45°. but presented
Fig. " Traite de la defense des places.
since
the
art of constructing retaining
\
'''©
walls
itself.
is
as old as building art
In
1687
General
Vaxiban.' A search through engineering and other scientific archives fails to yield any evidence that prior to 1687 an attempt had been made to
analyze the action of earth pressure upon a retaining
—
Undoubtedly.
no theoretical basis
rules. 3 Traite d'architecture practique. assuming that the angle
of
1
shding
(see
Fig.
methods
prehistoric
times. In 1691 Bullet' advanced a rather primitive method.^ a French military engineer gave some rules for figuring walls. 1872.— Method
of Bullet." E.
The weight
of this sUding
The facts in the historical outline are taken from Erddruckes.
1
"Neue Theorie des
.
.
The prism
ACFE
is
resisted
by
AED. 2)
at D. Following him. Boussinesq and Resal of France and Rankine of England.^ an architect formulated a method in which the action of friction is considered. Levy.
'
I'histoire
de
. properly rein 1774.
makes with the
he followed the method of Mayniel. I. 1729. the balance. the
is
tangent of which angle
Vs. 'La Science des Ingenieurs L.
Traite de la pousee des terres. this resist to found proper wall dimensions are
in 1727
wedge
ABC
is
normal resolved into components parallel and
makes the plane
of cleavage pass
through the outer edge
of the wall (see Fig.
.
and
follow
the method of Couplet. the elegant graphical method of determining the amount of thrust be
Coulomb
ing due to the latter. Memoire publiee dans Taoademie des sciences.* taking this angle equal to that
of the slope of
built
pile
of
a uniformly shot. save that the plane of cleavage starts from the back of the wall.
2. the weight of this latter wedge former the and components normal and parallel resolved into To get concerned. presented the first rational theory
solved into parallel and normal components. As before. acting
upon the wall.
(1767)
consumed
in overcoming friction. he arbitrarily assumes that onehalf of the wedge weight
is
— Method
RONDELET
of Couplet. Proceeding as in the above methods. and Couplet thrust.
Sallonmeteb
Fig. moments taking by the only one considered.2
RETAINING WALLS
component was respectively to the plane of slip. Navier and finally PoNCELET developed the theory into its present form. the remaining portion of the wall EBID supportmg the EFB is wedge EFB. Belidor.
It was to be expected that the brilliant school of the English and French mathematical physicists of the middle of the last century would attempt to analyze the action of earth pressure. wall the of portion the to directly IS applied the angle that the plane of
^ P B
I
cleavage
vertical. 1728. The former about A. making proper allowance for friction and then determining the wedge of maximum thrust.
value. The divergence in properties between that of the actual material and the ideal
determines. Later analysts of earth pressure have attempted to include in the theory the elements of friction between the earth and the back of the wall and that of cohesion in the mass. the natural query is why attempt a refined mathematical analysis? There are several
material
—
. Such attempts
are best known.4. Rankine's results Utihzing the socalled ellipse of stress (the stress quadric of elastic theory) he developed his theory of conjugate pressures. under whose supervision the London tubes and outlying extensions were built. the approximation of the results found theoretically. With the modern development of the concrete walls.THEORY OF EARTH PRESSURE
lar
3
applied the methods of the theory of elasticity of solids to granu
masses with varying degrees of success. one which Trautwine warmly seconds in his handbook. cannot be expressed by exact mathematical
—
The usual earth mass retained by a wall contains so uncertain elements (see page 4) that can neither be anticipated nor determined by typical tests. or verging upon the revetment type. Exact Analysis of the Action of Earth Masses. Under such uncertain circumstances and with a consequent skepticism of mathematical results.
many
found any satisfactory conclusion. To analyze an earth mass an ideal material must first be assumed. Sir Benjamin Baker. Such empiric constants were of value when walls were of the rectangular section. The correct interpretation of the character.
leave intricate expressions of decidedly questionable practical
of agreement between theory and experiment has attempts to estabUsh empiric relations between the width of the wall base and the height without determining the earth thrust. that it becomes very hard to assemble sufficient data for a premise upon which to
analysis. His results are probably the most universally applied of all the varied methods. the use of such empiric relations is decidedly
The want
led to
many
rational
questionable and good engineering practice requires that a method of ascertaining the wall pressures be used in
determining the proper dimensions of a retaining wall. both gravity and reinforced sections. the illustrious English engineer. advocated a value of this ratio of about 0. in a more or less exact degree. distribution and amount of pressures throughout an earth mass typical of ordinary engineering construction.
usually. It becomes evident that the character of the fill may vary greatly. Thus the probable maximum value of earth pressures may be established.4
RETAINING WALLS
The
general action of earth pressures
praiseworthy reasons.
The
construction of the
trestle. riding over the fill. which may be prosecuted simultaneously. Little homogeneity can be expected from either of these methods. Fills. The several mathematical modes of treatment may indicate a common and possibly a simple expression for the pressures. devoid of any cohesion (see page 20) a. ordinarily. Such a fill is rarely found in practice. Ordinary teams.
may
itself may be carried out be built up from a tem
the materials dumped from cars and be already built. an important function and an indication of the probable factor of safety so far as the amount
of the earth thrust
is
concerned. or which may be induced to be prosecuted because of the expected place of disposal for spoil.nd In addition. Attempts to puddle a fill to give it eventual compactness and inagainst the wall. public or private. or motor trucks may dump materials upon the ground.
The
lar. the surface along which sliding is impending is assumed to be a plane. or may dump over the slope of the fill already formed. and including.
Ideal Earth and the Fill of Actual Practice.
—The mathe
matical discussions of the action of earth masses premise a granu
homogeneous mass.
if it
porary railroad
creased density
make
it difficult
to
team over the puddled portion
. a large proportion of excavated rock. are made either from balanced cuts for street or railroad grading. In the usual city work. such as the employment of borrow pits.
embankment
It
in widely different manners.
possessing f rictional resistance between its particles
. which pressures the actual ones may approach as the character of the fill approaches that of the ideal one assumed. modifications framework may be built upon which to hang experimentally determined. In out of town improvements special steps. materials for fill may be expected from other local improvements. the analysis
may
of the ideal earth
mass
may show
the
maximum
pressures that
can exist in the usual fills. containing any one or several types of earth.
be indicated and reasonable theories may be advanced as A good to the probable character of pressures to be anticipated. or depend upon local excavations. of easy and safe apphcatipn to most of the conditions occurring in actual practice. Finally. may beconie necessary to provide the needed material.
from the standpoint of economy. refinements in the theory of earth pressures and attempts to predict with any degree of exactness the angles of repose become matters of more or less academic interest
(see
only.
Bearing in mind these limitations placed upon the ideal material assumed in the following analysis and that the mathematical work is developed solely as a means toward an end. starting with an infinitesimal prism of earth and leading to expressions for the thrust of the entire earth mass upon a given surface. While specifications often require the construction of an embankment in thin well
rammed layers. finding
by the
principle of the
It will sliding wedge.
—The angle
to the plane
of internal friction (approxi
mately equal to the angle of repose) of an ideal earth as defined above. The theoretical treatment of the action of earth pressures follows along two fairly distinct lines. William
Cain) are placed upon the
alike in value also. can the engineer make any definite assumptions as predicated for the ideal earth. as finally shaped by Poncelet and treats the
mass
of earth in its entirety. 3) which the resultant force R
makes with the normal
is
when
sliding along this plane
just about to start. this requirement is observed more often in the breach than in the observance. especially in view of the uncertainty of local geologic conditions. when
certain reasonable modifications (introduced
by
Prof.
The Two Theories. as was
pointed out in a previous page. in either the type of the earth. are similar in form.
Coulomb method^
are approximately
The Rankine Theory. and. The
—
Rankine method is an analytic one.THEORY OP EARTH PRESSURE
and are usually abandoned on
5
this account. is the angle 4>. the maximum thrust upon a given surface. The Couloaib method. as that the noticed be determined by either method. Rarely then.
In a mass of earth unlimited in extent. Obviously. select a minute triangular
. in limiting the selection of materials for fill to such as approach the character of the ideal material. final algebraic expressions for the thrust. or the method of the maximum wedge of sliding is essentially a graphical one. or in the mode of utihzing it to make a fill. nor would he be justified. (see Fig. It is a costly timeconsuming expedient and unless required by special types of design
page 21) may safely be ignored. a proper appreciation will be had
of the relative value of the discussion in the next sections.
respectively. since the angle i
may
it in terms of the be eliminated after its value
rendering
of 0. With the value of the
ratio
of the angle
The
angle
thus defined. as
shown
in Fig. and since the angle i of the triangular prism may vary.
prism.
maximum
value of
for
some value
between the principal stress intensities p and q may be shown to be independent of the angle i^ and can be denoted by some constant. the angle of internal friction. the normal stress intensities principal planes shown in Fig.
TP and q are.6
RETAINING WALLS
is
a right angle trithe prism be so These selected that only normal stresses exist upon its arms. or better termed.
In addition. The existence and location of such planes are found by simple methods given in the text bboks on applied mechanics.
let
whose upper bounding surfaces are planes.
it is
from the physical properties
thus possible to express the stress intensity ratio in terms of the
'See Howe's "Retaming Walls.
Knowing the maximum value
of the earth in question. are termed principal planes. For earth masses." 6th Ed. which limiting the angle of repose.
angle.
<j>
maximum
is
found. 3. 3.
upon the
is a limiting value of the angle <i>.
Since there
is
value
it is
possible to determine a
i. Rankine has shown
that the principal planes are parallel and normal.
. whose section parallel to the page. 3. respectively to the upper boundary plane.
a
it is
possible to express
ratio f/q.
Fig. stresses are then termed principal stresses. and the planes to which these stresses are normal.
7
<p
Equation
(1)
becomes
y~
By
_
xjl
1

n)
.
—
tan
<i
1
tan + tan ITT
.note that
sin
(^
=
tan
(^
V(l
. for this value of x is
tan
(j)
=
1=
(3)
2\/n
To reduce this to the form as finally given byRankine.
tan
{i
—
. intensity p upon the horizontal If the depth to this plane. 3
tan
{i

<l>)
= Q/P
since b/a
and.
^
^
p
+ sin
This gives the fixed relation between the principal intensities is given. The expression for y.
The above equation then becomes. upper surface is a horizontal easily seen to be the is plane....
Place the ratio of the intensities q/p
=
i
n. since
Q = qb. and P = Q/P = q tan i/p.
pa.
tan
a —
a.
7
of the force
From
This work may be carried out by utilizing the statics system as given in Figure 3. this expression is found to have a maximum value when x = l/\/n.
+
tanV)
(3) to
„
. and the friction of stress when the maximum angle of of the principal value The plane. tan 0.
+
nx'
^'
the principle of the theory of maxima and minima. the statics of Fig.
and expand tan
.
<^)
=
tan
^
I
.
(j})
= n tan
(1)
Denote tan i and tan <^ by by the formula {i —
(t>)
and y
respectively.
which trigonometric relation reduces
and similarly
'^
^
q
^
1
l

sin
<^
cj}
^.THEORY OF EARTH PRESSURE
angle
<j). or rather.
=
tan
i. this weight of the earth mass above
.
8
plane
is
RETAINING WALLS
h and the unit weight of the material
is
w
then p
= wh
and
(4)
becomes
q
='wh
1
—
sin
<^
1
+ sin
(5)
4>
which
is
the classic relation between the vertical and horizontal
first
pressures as
given by Rankine.The
adjacent
surface
to
it." 5th Ed.. the mathematical treatment excludes external
J. 4).
(c)
of this thrust is at
one third the
dis
Thefinal resultant thrust upon the back of the wall
BC is
compounded of the above thrust and the vertical weight
GoftheprismA£C(seeFig. It is to be noted that no allowance is made for any
frictional resistance that
exist
may
between the back of the wall and the earth mass immediately
Fig.
..
and the point of application tance h above B. in this expression.
(6j
This expression
sin
may
t
be simplified by placing cos
cos a tan^ (m/2)
<
<j>
/ cos a
=
(7)
u whence
= wh
Note
that. the intensity of pressure
parallel to
CA
I
is
= wh
cos a
cos a
cos a
— vcos^ a — + \/cos^ a —
cos^
cos^
<t>
.
Boussinesq has
Howe.
n
et seq.
is
a linear function of the depth
of earth h.e.4).
of determin
must be
loading upon the upper bounding surface. i.. so that the value of the entire thrust
upon a plane
(8)
.„..
'
. "Retaining
Walls.
.
p. (&) For an earth mass whose upper bounding plane makes an angle a with the horizontal (see Fig.
free. 4.
The upper
Rankine method
ing the thrust.
This
is
the fundamental equation of the Rankine
method and
the following theorems are deduced directly from it:^ (a) The direction of the resultant earth pressure against a vertical plane is parallel to the free upper bounding surface and
is
independent of the interposed wall.45 of depth /lis
T = thy 2.
.
The angle of friction is taken at 30°. Pans. The upper bounding surface
shown
in
Fig.
5
is
that typical of the usual
composite fill and surcharge equivalent loads (see later pages in the chapter for a full discussion
t>j(l+c)hJ
Fig. 5 the thrust
vertical plane
For a wall with sloping back (the usual form of wall).
The average earth fill has an angle of repose approximately equal to 30°.
on surcharges)
.THEORY OF EARTH PRESSURE
attempted to extend the theory action between the earth and
analysis
of
9
frictional
Rankine to include
wall. on given is analysis detailed upper surfaces of varying types. it is quite doubtful whether the Rankine method can be extended much beyond that set forth above.
work in this direction in a series of articles 1 See an admirable resume de UEcole Normale SuperUre.
The
thrust acting
upon
this
P =
by
wh'
(1
+
c)V6. 1917 and Scientifiqws Annales the in him
of his
reprinted in pamphlet form
by GauthierVUlars. The ratio acting upon fill of depth total h' to h is denoted by c. In fact. plane is then
5. preclude its acceptance by engineers. this
(9)
Taking the value
of
w
as 100
pounds per cubic
16?i2
becomes
(10)
r =
in Fig. is
h{l
+
c). as shown is found by combining the thrust upon the
AB with the
weight of the earth over the batter of the back.
—Typical loading Rankine method. with the consequent of the height simpKfication of the Rankine formula. expression for the thrust upon a vertical plane with this value of <^
becomes with
t
= wh/3
T =
w^ D
foot. whence the
the plane AB. As pointed out on page 4.
1917.
.^
The complexity
of his
and the arbitrary premises although of the utmost elegance. 5. Fig. a
retaining
pages 25 to 31.
Most
For walls support an embankment of this type. no refinements in the The selection of this angle are justified by practical conditions.
generally less
than onethird. whence
it
is
permissible to substitute 1
+
2c for (1
+
c)^. that
if
(11)
ordinates at the top and
a trapezoid be drawn as shown in Fig. where
B
has the value
11 +3c B = 3 1 2c
+
(12)
From
(11).10
RETAINING WALLS
The
ratio c is small. the area of this trapezoid
may
be taken equivalent
upon the plane..
The
expression
for
P
takes the form
P = ^. 1
becomes
+
2c
1
and the center
of gravity hes at a point
Bh above the
base. and consequently. the area of this trapezoid
„. 5 with bottom of the wall the earth pressure
intensities at these points.L+2£l
Note
here.
to the thrust
this trapezoid as
The weight
the wall
is
of the earth
found aboye. mass superimposed upon the back of
G = w (h'h tan b
This
is
M
^
)
^
w/i^tan b
——
^
(1^)
back
of the wall
the vertical component of the resultant thrust and the value of the thrust T is
upon the
T = V(P^ + G')
(14)
where J
is
equal to ^ \/(l
+
9 tan^b)
(15)
Table
1
^6"
. equivalent to the horizontal component of the resultant thrust upon the back The thrust is located at the center of gravity of of the wall AB.
is
later. it may be said that equation (14) is the Rankine expression for the thrust of an earth with an angle of repose of 30° whose upper surface is a horizontal
To summarize
plane.11) and (13) above.
Fig.
fill
back retaining a
of
Coulomb Method
of
Maximum Wedge
of Sliding.
6. 6 any as were made in the preceding theory. 5)
0=
tani (G/P)
b =
tani (3 tan
b)

b
(16)
from equations (.
— Method
of
maximum wedge
of sliding. which is greater than the angle of repose therefore and will ^earth bank remaining the from slough away In this prism of hold it. The computation of this thrust is to be aided by the use of Table 1. as well as the slope of the back of the wall.
The former remarks upon the usual nature
of
embank
ments as found
in actual practice justify a blanket assumption of
30° for this angle of repose and the resulting simplification of the thrust expression strengthens the reasons for the selection of that
For a wall with sloping shape shown in Fig. Table 1 has been prepared covering a number
of values of
J
for the varying values of the angle
b.THEORY OF EARTH PRESSURE
11
To aid in the computation of the thrust when the height of wall and the amount of surcharge is given.
given
briefly the results above. where AG makes an angle a with the horiwill tend to zontal.
prism of earth AFC.
The angle which the
back
thrust
T makes
with the normal to the
of the wall is (see Fig.
.
particular value of the angle of repose. 5 equation (14) gives the expression for the thrust.
—The same
assumptions as to the properties of the ideal earth mass are made Referring to Fig. For a basis of comparison with the formulas developed
a table of values of d for the several values of the angle b
in Table
1. AF to with back wall require a retaining
<t>.
the forces T. the value of G is
methods
= w
2
(17^
AT is normal to BC
From
the sine relation above shown
T=
'^ATXBC^^ ^ sin
(18)
g
To obtain the maximum value of this expression.
G is the weight of the irregular prism AFEC and is resolved by the
of equivalent figures (any elementary text in plane geometry) into the triangular prism ABC. the
law of concurrent forces
r/sin
t
=
G/sin g
=
Q/sin
q.
and q are the angles as
shown in the figure. 6.) Parallel to In ACI. it is necessary to separate its factors into those which remain constant as various planes of sliding are selected. the reaction of the thrust T upon the wall and the reaction of its pressure Q upon the remaining bank.
From
the equilibrium of the figure.
Q.
will be given later.
This
is
effected as follows
Draw..e. t and q and their supplements are denoted by the same letters. which
i. In similar triangles CID and BOD
CI/ID = BO/OB
Inserting these values in (18)
rp
and
BC/BD = 01 /OD.
an angle
this line
in Fi^.
(Note in the figure that the angles g.
<^
+
what may be termed a base line AZ making 9 with the normal to the back of the wall. (The
<i>'
explanation of the angle
draw
BO
and CI.
t.
.
must meet
in a
common
g
point. some one wedge will produce the maximum thrust
upon the
wall
AF.:
12
RETAINING WALLS
earth the forces acting upon it are its weight G.
_w
BD
all
CI
W/ATXBDXB0\IDX0I
In this expression
the factor

— —
factors are invariant for the figure except
and to obtain the
maximum
value of the
.^.
is
the actual thrust sought.
G and
From
are concurrent. As different wedges of possible sliding are selected.. If a sUce of earth of unit thickness is taken and its unit weight denoted by w. from the law of sines
CI/AI =
sin t/ sin
g. and those which vary with
the different planes of sliding.
The value
of
T
as given in (19).
= VJaF)
thrust exists
(20)
In other words the
wall
maximum
a mean proportional between 7 shows a simple method of finding a mean proportional by geometric construction.
factor.
. BO/OD = CI/ID.)
in order to
The above method as outlined is essentially a graphical one and make a comparison between the results of this method
and the results of the Eankine method. introducing
these values in this factor and then proceeding to find the maxivalue by the differential calculus.
CI)
(21)
with 7 as a center. .
— Geometric
mean
simple form
construction for proportional. Cain has modified this so that the direction of the thrust makes an angle 0' with the normal to the back of the wall. To avoid needless complications.
it is sufficient
13
to find the
Upon
placing
AI =
x. this maximum value is
mum
found to occur when
a. The direction of the thrust is assumed.
(CH X
If. whence
AD/CD. to be normal to the back of the wall.
angle CC'I.
DTA \\ / AT/CH = Ay^ ___m/ _ BD/OD = ^. in the original method.
is
when AI
upon the back AO and AD.
CD/ID. but Prof. with this
new value of the term
and
—— may
further
y\
y\ \
S

be simplified by noting that triangles
CHD
are similar. it will be necessary to obtain an algebraic expression for the thrust.
AD =
maximum value of this variable a and AO = h. the area of triby the unit weight of the earth is equivalent to the maximum thrust T.1 for the thrust.. The angle (f>' is the angle of friction between the earth back of the wall and the wall masonry.^^^^^^^^^^^^
.1 . there is the
Fig.
7. an arc is described.THEORY OF EARTH PRESSURE
thrust T.
/
Substituting these values in that . the profile of the earth surface will be assumed to have the shape shown in Fig.
of the
Fig.
expression
J. Without entering into the
tedious but quite simple steps in reducing the geometric substi
. multiplied
(See page 19 for a discussion of this frictional action between
CC
earth and wall.. . 8.
D
— Typical loading CoulombCain Method.14
RETAINING WALLS
is finally
tutions above to algebraic ones.
V tan b + —.
sin<^
j.
sin<3!»
a
.
. &
(<^'
+
i
„+ cot
„•
z
u
=
sin
(<^^
+
{<i>'
<^
+
h)
cos
+ 6)
V
= —
+
(<^'
«j>
+ b)
6)
cos
+
c
Fig.
vd
/
>
= n/m
/
m=
'
— ——
u
. 8.
tan j. the thrust
found to
have the form
(22)
where
cos(j)'
cos"
{(!>'
+ b) + + by
4>
p n
= \/m sin =
cos
<j>
^—.
In the equation for the thrust (22).'
+
+
yjcos b cos (0'
+ +
<^) ] '
.
K with
<i>'
to
30°
same. 8. whence the expression takes the form
T =
wh^K^^
(24)
K
= L
{1
—
pY. As before the value
of the angle of repose
has been taken as 30°.
A
of the tabular values of
J
(Table
1)
and
K
(Table 2) shows the
following points:
The form
method. as J.
From
tion
the above comparative study (also see examples at the end
of this chapter giving numerical comparisons of thrust
computamethod) it is seen that.or. Table 2 has been prepared covering a range of values of b and <^'. with the limitations as shown above (see pages 1 9 and 20 for a discussion of the proper values of the
by either
. the term c^/may be neglected and as before the term (1 + c)^ may be replaced by 1 + 2c.)
^
'
b)\
To compare
of parallel
the values of this constant
K
with the constant
meaning J found on page 10.THEORY OF EARTH PRESSURE
upon a Wall with
Vertical
15
Back Due
to
a Fill Whose Upper Sur
face is Horizontal and Level 'with the top of the Wall is found to Have the Same Expression in Both Rankine and Coulomb Methods.
the values of
<t>'
For
as noted in the preceding the directions of
the thrusts are approximately alike using either theory.
of the expression giving the thrust is the
same by
either
For values of
For values of
is the
the angle b less than 5°.
K
is
finally
reduced by substituting the above
values of
m and p in it and. the trapezoid
ABCD be drawn with base
its
Kwh
(
1
+
c)
and ordinate
at
A
Kgch. approximately.
K
with
4>'
equal zero is equal
the same. approximately. without introducing the trigonometric
by
icl>'
steps. is given
^
_
cos
cos^
+
^
b)
r
b)[
/
sin
(j>
sin
{<!>'
(4. found by the Rankine and by the Coulomb method and a study
is
which
(24).
area
is
wh^K'±^
Ji
equivalent to the value of the thrust as found in equation comparison of these two expressions for the thrust. as J.
the angle b greater
than
5°.
Note that
if
in Fig.
where the values
B. and w is The point of application of the
located at a distance
of the ratio
Bh above
is
the base of the wall.16
RETAINING WALLS
angle of friction to be assumed between the back of the wall and the earth) eitherof equations (14) or (24) maybe used to obtain the
value of the thrust. and the Coulomb form of the thrust given in (24) will only be used where its form lends itself more readily to the analysis of the special problem at hand. is to be found from
T =
where /
values of
thrust
is
1
Jivh^
+
2c
found in Table 1. the unit weight of the earth. As a matter of fact the expression as deduced from the Rankine equation (14) will be used to obtain the thrust. and earth profile as shown in Fig. To recapitulate: The thrust upon any wall with sloping back.
Table 3
c
.
is
J
the earth pressure constant to be taken from the c is the surcharge ratio. 5.
to be found
from Table
3.
THEORY OF EARTH PRESSURE
17
As a matter of interest, several of the other methods of thrust determination are given in the following section. Various Methods of Thrust Calculation.— Most of the empirical expressions for the thrust
have the form
ch^
T =
(26)
with various assumptions as to the value of c. On page 9 above, the value of c, from Rankine and from Coulomb, when the angle of repose <^ is taken as 30°, was found to be 16. In an interesting series of discussions of earth pressures ^ this value of c, namely 16, met with considerable approval. The analogy between lateral and hydrostatic pressures has
been utiUzed in some formulas by assuming the earth to be a fluid with unit weight varying from 25 to 62 pounds per cubic foot, the latter amount supposedly used to insure a satisfactory factor of safety. These assumed weights would give to c in the above empiric equations a value varying from 12.5 to 31. C. K. Mohler, in the Journal of the Western Society of Engineers, Vol. 15, gives a modified form of hydrostatic pressure in the compromise formula
T =
wh^{l

sin <t>)/2
(27)
where w is the unit weight of the material and <^ is the socalled "angle of flow." He states that the lateral earth pressures due to earth surcharges is probably insignificant and illustrates this by an ingenious arrangement of cylinders. Considerable skepticism, however, is shown in regard to this latter statement in the discussions on his paper, and doubtlessly, the author of the paper has not credited a correct effect to such surcharges. In Vol. 19 of the same Journal, a modified form of the Rankine formula is given and is urged as a true expression for both lateral and vertical pressures. To summarize the various comments upon the methods of deriving an expression for the earth thrust, it may be stated that although objections are raised to practically every suggested mode of treating such pressures, it is generally conceded that retaining wall failures are not due to weaknesses in the theory of pressures, but are primarily due to faulty design and construction. This is a vital conclusion and is a further justification for the adoption of the simple, and mathematically sound, expressions given in the
1
Western Society
2
of Engineers, Vol. 16, 1911.
:
18
RETAINING WALLS
Examples at the end
of the chapter will formulas and will show
preceding pages.
illustrate the application of the various
the simplicity of application as well as the approximate correctness of these concise expressions.
It may be stated that rule of thumb methods, both for the computation of the earth thrust and for the relations between the wall dimensions are undesirable, are of questionable profes
sional practice and, in the case of reinforced concrete walls, are not only inapplicable, but even dangerous. Experimental Data. The various attempts to determine earth pressure values experimentally, have been quite disappointing,
—
so far as definite results are concerned; but they
several important conclusions.
The
results of
have led to two such series
of experiments are given here, and are of value, not only for the conclusions reached in the papers themselves, but also because of the summary of previous experiments given therein.
In a paper by E. P. Goodrich, "Lateral Earth Pressures and Related Phenomena," Trans. A.S.C.E., Vol. liii, p. 272, the following may be quoted as of some bearing: Sir Benjamin Baker has pointed out that the coarser the materials the less the lateral pressure. A. A. Steel. 1 For dry and moist earth the lateral pressure
is
from
H
to }i the vertical and, in saturated materials
it.
is
practically equal to
Some of Mr. Goodrich's important conclusions are as follows (a) The point of application of the resultant thrust is above the
}i point, usually about 0.4 of the height of the wall. (6) Rankine's theory of conjugate pressures is correct when the proper angle of friction is found (the italics are mine), and
probable adaptations of his formulas will be of most practical
value.
(c) Angles of internal friction and not of surface slope must be used in all formulas which involve the shding of earth over earth. (Such tables are to be found in the author's paper.)
It must be emphasized that the experiments mentioned above were performed upon a more or less homogeneous material. The actual composition of fills has been described on page 4. In a papers by WilUam Cain, the conclusions, after analyzing
2
A. S. C. E. Vol. Ixxii, p. 403.
'Engineering News, Oct. 19, 1899. ''Experiments of Retaining Wails and Pressures on Tunnels," Trans
:
THEORY OF EARTH PRESSURE
some experiments performed by the author and analyzing
extensive experiments carried on in the past, are
"1.
19
also the
theory
wall friction and cohesion are included, the sliding wedge a reliable one, when the filling is a loosely aggregated granular material, for any height of wall. "2. For experimental walls, from 6 to 10 feet high, and greater,
is
When
backed by sand or any granular material possessing 1 ttle cohesion, the influence of cohesion can be neglected in the analysis. Hence further experiments should be made only on walls 6 feet and preferably
less
made on retaining walls than one foot high have been analyzed by their authors on the assumption that cohesion could be neglected. This hypothesis is so far from the truth that the deductions are very misleading.
"4.
10 feet high. "3. The many experiments that have been
As
it
it is difficult
to ascertain accurately the coefficient of cohesion,
and
as
varies with the
amount
of moisture in the material, small
models should be discarded altogether, in the future experiments and attention should be confined to large ones. Such walls should be made as light, and with as wide a base as possible. A triangular frame of wood on an unyielding foundation seems to meet the conditions for
precise measurements.
"5.
The
sliding
friction, is a
wedge theory, omitting cohesion, but including wall good practical one for the design of retaining walls backed
by
fresh earth,
when a proper
factor of safety
is
used."
Clearly, experimental data verifies neither of the above theories with any degree of exactness, yet does indicate that either of the two theories may form a rational basis for a working formula. Equation (14) may again be brought forward as the practical
formula to be used in obtaining the thrust upon a wall, due to the usual type of embankment loading. The above work has frequently discussed the items of wall friction and cohesion and these two factors will be taken up in
the following sections.
Wall Friction. The question, whether frictional resistance between the back of a retaining wall and the adjacent earth is, or is not, a permissible factor to be included in the computation of the thrust and in the determination of its direction, plays an
important role in various theories of earth pressure. Since the earth backing exerts a pressure upon the wall, then by the elementary theories of physics, there must be friction between the two surfaces in contact. The angle of friction cannot be assumed
larger than the angle of friction of the earth material, since
if it is
—
20
larger, will
RETAINING WALLS
and
this is quite possible, the effect is that a layer of earth
adhere to the waU and sUpping will take place between this If allowance is made layer and the remainder of the earth bank. it is customary to take the angle ior such frictional resistance, This angle of repose. same as the of such friction (<^') the <^' 30°, given therefore the may be been taken as and angle has
same
value.
of lubrication
The question
ally
to the presence of water,
of this lubrication
between the earth and wall due into account and generthe more vertical the wall is, the greater will be the effect
must be taken
upon the angle of wall friction. The use of equation (14) founded upon the Rankine method, automatically provides for this condition, as was pointed out in the comparison between the Rankine and Coulomb method on page 15. It will be seen later, in analyzing the various types of walls, that in finding the proper dimensions of a gravity wall to safely
withstand a given thrust, quite an economy in the necessary section of the wall is effected by a favorable consideration of wall friction. It is to good advantage, then, that the back of the wall be stepped or roughened so as to fully develop such wall friction. It seems better engineering practice to make allowance for
such a force than to ignore it and assume that a factor of safety of unknown value is thereby added to the wall. Such uncertain conditions as exist in wall design may more properly be allowed for in a final factor of safety of some assumed value, than to merely
add blind
factors
The question
the design of
vertical)
is
which must surely exist. an unimportant role in reinforced walls (whose backs are usually nearly
forces
of wall friction plays
by ignoring
and
as its neglect simplifies the calculation of the wall, it
it not on the basis that it does not exist, has no effect upon the attendant analysis. Cohesion. Cohesion, as it exists in an earth mass, is rather a loosely appUed term, which had better be called cohesional
permissible to ignore
it
—
but because
—
friction.
Prof.
WilHam
Cain, has defined
its
action r^
may properly apply either to its tensile resistance or to its resistance to sliding along a plane in the earth, dependent on the viewpoint. However, as the tensUe resist'cohesive resistance' of earth
"The term
ance of the earth is rarely called for, the term 'cohesive resistance of earth' from Coulomb's time to the present, has been generally restricted to mean the resistance to sliding as affected by cohesion * * *."
'
Proc. A. S. C. E. Vol. xUi, August, 1916, p. 969.
THEORY OF EARTH PRESSURE
To
it
21
properly appreciate the effect of this cohesional friction,
must be borne in mind that it exists to some extent, varying from a slight amount to a very large amount, in all earth masses.
It is the one element that probably accounts for the large divergence between theoretically determined and experimentally determined thrusts. It is least for dry granular masses, and
reaches a
maximum
value in the plastic clays.
In the ordinary fills as found in engineering practice (and over 90 per cent, of walls retain embankments of fresh fill) its presence is a highly uncertain one and in view of the mixed character of such a fill containing boulders, cinders and other miscellaneous material, its existence as a definite resisting force to sliding must be ignored. General practice while admitting that cohesion does exist in earth masses, has taken the very wise step, to ignore its action. While this may increase the amount of thrust upon a wall, it is very possible that, due to vibrations, or other
disturbances, the cohesive action in the earth is destroyed, temporarily at least making the actual thrust approach very
I he conclusions of again be noted, where the method of the sHding wedge, ignoring cohesion, is recommended
closely,
in value, the theoretical thrust.
Prof. Cain, quoted
on page 19
may
as one properly determining the thrust.
Under certain conditions, where a direct effort is made to obtain and preserve a cohesive effect in the earth mass, it is within rearetains
sonable practice to take advantage of the force. When a wall an old embankment, where only a thin wedge of new fill is
placed between the old
fill and the back of the wall, there is good assuming that cohesion will be a permanent force. Again, by carefully placing and ramming in thin layers a specially selected fill, cohesion is practically assured and the design of the
justification for
wall,
may
safely include this factor.
The
retaining walls of
the approach to the Hell Gate Arch^ over the East River, New York contain a fill placed with extreme care and the determination of the thrust included the factor of cohesion, permitting the
construction of a fairly thin wall, where, under ordinary granular theory, a wall of prohibitive section would have been required. The effect of cohesion may be interpreted in two manners.
has been noticed that the bank of a freshly cut trench will keep slope for quite a period, and then as it sloughs away will gradually approach a parabolic shape, with the upper portion
It
its vertical
'
Engineering News, Vol. 73,
p. 886.
'
22
RETAINING WALLS
less vertical.
Jl^
more or
It will
be remembered that the granular
theories above discussed have assumed that the surface of rupture To allow for the cohesive action as described, a much is a plane.
steeper angle of slope for the material may be ordinary angle of repose would warrant, in that
assumed than
its
way approaching
the parabohc curve or it may be assumed that for a certain distance below the surface of the ground there is no lateral pressure, the surface of rupture being a vertical plane, and below this critical point the material observes the ordinary laws of the granular materials.
The
first
method
is
an empiric one and seems a rather perilous
one to adopt, in view of the uncertainty of cohesive action. The above mentioned retaining walls of the Hell Gate Arch Approach were designed on this basis, the fill taking a very steep slope.
Table 4
Material
c
in lbs.
sq. ft.
2
Howe. after a careful experimental study of the necessary coefficients. "Minutes
See
of the Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineers.
— Coherent
earth. 233.. Under a retaining wall the pressure is generally nonuniformly distributed. In a material more or less plastic there is a tendency for the surface adjacent This may be shown by to an applied loading to heave and raise.
In an interesting paper on the lateral and vertical pressure of system in a coherent earth mass was given. having a maximum value at the toe and a minimum value at the heel. cxcix. as distinit
guished from the stress which
exerts (the lateral stress)
and
which
is
termed
its
active stress.
stress is frequently
called the ultimate bearing value of the
1
Bell. a mathematical discussion of the stress distribution in a material
of that nature. without stand soil can which a The loading is given below.
The passive
soil.
demonstrated by experiment. "Retaining Walls. While of hmited apphcation (they are primarily for the clayey materials) they are worthy of quotation and may prove of service in interpreting the action of materials
clay^ a set of formulas for the stress
Fig. p.
For a densely compacted material. 5th
Ed.
well to note the character of
Before presenting these equations it may be some of the stresses. approaching a plastic clay this lowering of the head reaches a value that has a marked effect upon reducing the amount of the thrust. 9.THEORY OF EARTH PRESSURE
23
earth with some cohesion shows that this lowering of the head is but a slight one and for all practical purposes may be ignored."
. there must be a certain minimum downward pressure at the heel to compensate This for the upward heaving pressure caused by the soil loading.
of that character^
and
is clearly
excessive yielding
is
usually termed its passive stress."
Vol. From the foregoing note it is clear that when the wall bears on a plastic coherent soil.
24
RETAINING WALLS
Table 5
.
J. it has been proven' that such distributions are independent of the
—
manner of the local loading except for points fairly close to such loads and it is permissible to substitute the resultant load for
this distribution.
1
See for example. the formulas given in equations (14) and (24) being used to obtain the thrust upon the wall. it is customary to reduce applied loadings on the upper surface to equivalent surcharges.
"On
the Applications of the Potential. by addition of a surcharge. then the relation between the k given here and the c of his material is fc = cA In the analysis of the walls in the following chapters and
in the application of the results of the text to specific problems
the action of cohesion will be entirely ignored.. there is Httle doubt of the existence of cohesion."
etc. that if A is the value of a unit area. or conversely a distributed loading for a series
of concentrated loads. Whether to increase the load upon the wall.
Boussinesq.' Nevertheless. In the theory of the distribution of stress through elastic solids. is a matter of judgment and in view of the uncertain character
of cohesion
and the
possibility of its absence for
reason.
. Thus for noncoherent or ordinary granular masses. In determining the strength of an existing wall retaining a wellsettled and aged embankment. The distributed a to be reduced is. they are applicable to all materials
intended primarily upon proper
of the values of the coefficients. and with the aid of the preceding equations
a proper determination of the load carrying capacity of the wall may be obtained.
may
sacrifice
some unforeseen apparent economy to an
Surcharge. a careful engineer
easier conscience. While a surcharge denotes an earth mass above the level of the top of the wall. Cain has noted. Prof. It
seems quite
justifiable to
extend this law to granular masses
generally accepted that applied loadings may and.
THEORY OF EARTH PRESSURE
While the above
adjustment
series of equations are
25
for the clays.
In a discussion upon the results given by Bell. it is
that of the reduction of still loadings. possibly more involved than loadings dynamic reduction of
fact. the cohesion coefficient k is zero and the angle replaces the angle a. it would seem that in view of the comparative inelastic properties of a granular mass and of the large amounts of voids in the material. in earth surcharge equivalent. because of thelowered lateral pressure.
26
RETAINING WALLS
"dampened"
before they reach the
If this is
the vibrations are completely
wall.
made between
should not be
and dynamic
In any event. M. equations (14) and (24) give the amount and Table 3 gives the location of the resultant thrust.
translated
'Taken from MEHETENs"Vorlesungen ***** Baukonstmctionen" by G. that when a wedge of earth is about to sUde along some plane in the fill proper.
static
conceded.
When
The method
apphed to
easily
upon which the surcharge rests (see Fig. no distinction need be
loads. Engineering <fc Contracting. 2. It must be noted here. below the level of the top of the wall a theoretical
analysis gives no foundation for such doubt.
an external loading upon an embankment has been reduced to a uniformly distributed loading equivalent to the same weight of earth. When the surcharge is uniformly distributed over the top of the embankment and extends to the back of the wall. however. 1910. When the surcharge is not of uniform distribution. Ptjbveb. or does not extend to the back of the wall. let sa be parallel Locate d as the mean proportional between oA and oD. Nov. Draw bn parallel to ov. The following treatment of such surcharges is given primarily for the same reasons as in the treatment of earth pressures in general and is to be used in the
same
sense. and locate c by drawing through d a line parallel
the equivalent thrust triangle. but must be directed vertically upwards after reaching the
surface of the ground
10).
and there
is
as
tangible a basis for assuming the full proportionate effect of
is for the other theoretical assumptions of earth pressures. a new profile has been given to the top of the embankment. this plane cannot extend at the same slope throughout the surcharge.
While there
the
fill
may
be some question as to whether a surcharge
loading produces a lateral pressure of intensity proportionate to
proper. Draw a line parallel and at a distance 2h' above it.
to the base line
oz.
as
. maximum wedge of sHding is most the discussion of this case and a simple graphical
of the
analysis follows."
Let the equivalent surcharge extend to v. impact coefficients
of as great value as are applied to elastic solids
applied to the earth mass. the con
the surcharge upon the wall as there
ditions require special analysis. Connect o and n. The intersection s of this line with the ground surface is the usual base point to construct
to the upper surface
Thus through s.
bm 
nv
tan a
=
(34)
then see
Table
The
1
application of the
wedge
of
maximum
thrust to the case
lUd.
ml^
+ 2c)
13.
making the angle a with
The
thrust
may
then be expressed algebraically
T = £^!0_+2£)
with
K
=
a.
of that formula.
— Surcharge not extending to back
is
of wall.
mN
It is to
= h[y .(l+2c) tan p]. with
Fig.
which
is
a measure of the approximation
the distance vb by r and let this be . bm y or tan
To determine a denote
P
h tan
h(l
/3.
The
triangle
the measure of the thrust upon a wall. as a center describe
27
Through c draw uk parallel to no. With d an arc cm. The thrust on the wall due to
is
earth and the surcharge
the area of the triangle
It is
udm
multithis
phed by the unit weight
triangle
is
of the earth. tan = 2h' j3 tan b. ~ l+2c l+2c be noted that a may be negative.
the line
so. then the b of the wall is equal to a and the form for the thrust in this case is the same
as that given in (24). 10.r^^ y.
shown* that
surcharge
equivalent to the area of cdm multiplied by the ratio
{h+2h')/h
= l+2c
cdm
is
where
c
is
the
usual
ratio. Let the angle voN he 0. h tan ^ = r Nv = = tan 2ch = /3. For K
=
r
. ya±2c)(^tanb) _ ^ ^anb .
no surcharge.
. whose back
the vertical.THEORY OF EARTH PRESSURE
to the base line.
(33)
K
as given in (25) with the value of 6
When
the
surcharge extends to the back of the wall.h tan b equal to yh.
— Surcharge concentrations.'' p.c)^
cot
0)
m
(1
tan (m
—
0)
and the
total thrust
is
—tan
a
value
L
(m
—
+^
+
c)2
tan (m
—
(f)
cot
m
the
maximum
of this is found either graphically as noted above or by equating the derivative of this last expression to zero. "Earth Pressure. and the earth back of the wall. shown a surface of broken contour.
43 for an excellent
.
this plane
BN
all
three exert a
maximum
trials are
ample to determine
Let the plane of
horizontal. 11. 10. 11 there is a concentration oiL/a as shown.28
of isolated loads
RETAINING WALLS
on the surface. the lectures mentioned previously. Walls graphical solution of this case. upon
placing the ratio of
r
L/a
(m
to
^
—
^
'^'
I'"
=
(j>)
r
=
sin
—
(j))
cos
(m
—
sin^m
'See Cain. is quite lengthy and involves It is discussed fully in considerable geometric construction. a surcharge For some plane of rupture of h'.
The
T2 due to earth and surcharge
g/j2(X 4.^ thrust make an angle m with the
thrust
is
The
thrust Ti due to the concentrated load thrust
—
a
is
tan (m
5
i
—
<^). whence.
Fig. A few with sufficient accuracy. 1st PubHc Service Bureau. For ordinary practice it
its equivalent uniform the wedge theory to apply spread over the surface and then to in Fig. Y.
maximum
upon the wall. and is as follows: In Fig. Design devised by the
seems quite
sufficient to replace it
by
<
district
N. as this treating case has been manner of simple An effective and Commission.
—
cot
m
(35)
and
Bins.
THEORY OF EARTH PRESSURE
Assuming
29
=
30° and simplifying the expression
sin
(2m

120°)
(36)
2 sin^m
and r is shown on Curve Plate 1. When brings the wedge of thrust inside the distribution of the loading L. unless L is small. it is reasonably certain.
relation
The
between
m
the value of
that the
m
maximum
thrust
upon the wall occurs when the plane
of
.
An
'
empiric expression given by Prof. for the intensity of
Proc
Am.
.) chapter for the experimental the Une AB. see strikes distribution At the point I.
1917. determine the intensity of vertical pressure. roughly. 20. within the surface of a cone. p. quite apto determine the thrust. Enger in the
Engineering Record Jan. 11. 17. A simple method of reducing isolated concentrated loads to a uniformly distributed surcharge. Journal of the Western Society of Engineers. where this
Fig. The concentrated load is assumed to be transmitted along slope lines making an (See the following pages of this angle of 30° with the vertical. 1916. 10 its lever
arm
is
then C/2.
Soc. be of interest to determine the vertical intensity of such The loadings at distances below the upper bounding surface. part
2. than An example at the as a primary method of getting the thrust.
With
this
employ the above equations This method is. justification of this assumption.
In Vol. Melvin L.
The preceding
itself
discussion of surcharge loadings has confined
upon a retaining wall. Vol.
as the
new surcharge
equivalent. Lacher has given the following expression for the vertical liveload intensity at any depth h below the surface (due to locomotive wheel loads)
8
11000 + 2hx
where x
is
the incUnation of the spread planes in fractions of a
foot per foot of depth. Testing Materials. of course. end of this chapter will illustrate the two methods. 22.
The
fairly
distribution of pressure through soil has been experimen
tally determined'
and for depths of over 3 feet there is a spread of uniform intensity extending within slope planes making an angle of 30° with the vertical.30
the bottom
RETAINING WALLS
of wall. proximate. Mr. Several expressions are given for
to the lateral effect of such loadings
It
may
the intensity at any plane below the upper surface. intensity diminishes as the distance from the upper surface increases and its spread may be said to be confined. 107. and should be used more as a method of confirming the results obtained in the more exact construction above.
As shown
in Fig. making the standard thrust equations (14) and (24) apphcable is as follows.
the design of which follows the ordinary theory of the design of timber structures.
Pressure on Cofferdams. that such
transmitted pressure varies as the inverse square of the distance below the loaded surface. To quote the
is
coefficients
K
. For an interesting treatise on the distribution of pressure through soUds for any
character of surface loading.
In any event." 1st Ed. E.
author:
"The values of w and c are not easily determined being largely matters
of
1 ^
mature judgment. F. roughly. 708 et seq. The cofferdam itself is an assembly of sheeting. Engineering NewsRecord. 270. pp. Mr. B the surface intensity of pressure and p is the percentage of the surface intensity given by the following
where
p
=
91 di«V^'"
The authors of the paper doubt whether the above expression has general application.:
THEORY OF EARTH PRESSURE
vertical pressure at
31
is
any depth as experimentally determined
as
follows
A = pB
is
A is the intensity of pressure at a depth h in inches.
"A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity. Boussinesq. waling pieces. R.
—A cofferdam retaining earth
is
in a
sense.
it is
important to look into the
p. April 10.
. pp. A. Love has shown^ that the transmitted pressure through an isotropic soHd. however. at a distance
h below the loaded surface and directly below the loaded point
is
D
so that there
3T7
1
is a striking agreement in the variation of transmitted pressure in soHd and granular masses. See "Application des Potentials" by J.
His design has been predicated upon the assumption that the
ratio of the unit lateral pressure to the unit vertical pressure
given by a constant c (corresponding to the earth pressure The unit weight of and J of the preceding pages) the material outside the sheeting is denoted by w. or rangers and braces. 1919. H. It would show. a retaining wall subject to the ordinary theory of lateral
pressures. 276 et seq..
Sweeny^ has presented a thorough investigation of the loadings upon such a structure together with a study of the economics of
its design.
and being unable to find a satisfactory method for computing these pressures has worked out the method
walls
herein set forth. Vol.
441
et seq. The writer has had occasion when designing structures."
The
writer of the paper states that he will apply the
relation
between the
lateral
and
vertical intensities as given
Rankine by
equation (14). wh representing the unit vertical pressure and (1 — sin 4>)/{ 1+ sin 0)
relation depending entirely
representing the relation between lateral and vertical pressures. wholly or in part below water level to calculate the lateral pressure of saturated earth. an additional lateral pressure is exerted from the plane of
—
the water surface to the bottom of the wall. Pressures of Saturated Soils. It will thus be seen that the second part of the equation can be divided into two parts. These formulas.
p.
One
of these
computing the total lateral pressure in the usual way using for w the weight of dry earth and for <^ the angle of repose of dry earth. "Two methods of applying this formula to cases involving saturated
earths have been and are
still
in quite general use.
consists in
methods
formula. this
upon the angle of repose. and in the
it
1
but
Engineering NewsRecord. G.
An
interesting
paper by A. no allowance is made for the fact that saturated earth has a smaller angle of repose than dry earth. then. the formula assumes that the lateral pressure at any point bears a definite relation to the vertical pressure.
appears to the writer to be at variance with the fundamental In the first place. The following quotations from the paper cover the salient
features of the treatment. is added full hydrostatic pressure below the plane of saturation.32
RETAINING WALLS
matter of possible saturation of the soil to the point where hydrostatic pressure will be developed and superimposed upon the earth pressure. however. usually refer to dry earth and not to earth which is saturated with water.
"As has been noted before. With the presence of water in a soil. Husted^ discusses in detail this important question. To this pressure."
The economic
proportions and the best dimensioning of the
steel) are
timbers and sheeting (wood and
given in the article and
the entire design is exhaustively treated.
. This method may quite often give results close enough to actual conditions for ordinary purposes of design. 81.
"Formulas giving the lateral pressure of earth against vertical may be found in many text books and hand books.
THEORY OF EARTH PRESSURE
second place it is assumed that earth weighs the same in water as does out of water.
33
it
"Another method computing the total
of calculating lateral earth pressures consists in
lateral pressure in the ordinary
to this, partial hydrostatic pressure below the plane of saturation.
amount
for
of the partial hydrostatic pressure is
way and adding The determined by taking the
difference
between full hydrostatic pressure and lateral earth pressure an equivalent depth. This method, however, can easily be proved
it
erroneous by applying
to a
fill
of completely saturated earth.
In
this case the partial hydrostatic pressure to
be added will be the difference
between full hydrostatic pressure and lateral earth pressure for the total depth of earth. It can thus be seen that the total lateral pressure at the bottom would be exactly equal to full hydrostatic pressure. This is
absurd.
"In order to correct the errors in the above mentioned methods, a method has been worked out which the writer believes to be theoreticIn this method the following assumptions are made: ally correct.
Lateral earth pressure varies directly with the vertical earth pressure for earth with any given angle of repose and is equal to the vertical pressure sin (j)). multiplied by (1 — sia <^)/(l Water exerts full hydrostatic pressure laterally as well as vertically regard
+
less of
the amount of the space occupied by earth. "It is a well known fact that the
angle of repose of earth in water is less than the angle of repose of
dry earth.
Therefore the ratio of lateral pressure to vertical pressure is greater below the plane of saturation than above. On page 580
of
j^™ Plane ofSafurafion
^
I
i'^i'.
Merriman's
"American
Civil
FiQ. 12.
Engineers' Pocket
of repose of
Book"
is
the angle
dry earth
given as
is
36°53' while that of soil under water is given as 15°57'. "Above the plane of saturation the lateral pressure
computed
in
the usual manner. Below the plane of saturation the lateral pressure is obtained by multiplying the total vertical pressure less the buoyant sin <^) and adding to this the full effect of water by (1  sin 0)/(l Fig. 12 the unit lateral pressure in example, For hydrostatic pressure.
+
is above the plane of saturation is Wih{l — sin <t>)/ the weight of the dry earth per cubic foot, h is the distance of the point a below the surface and (^ is the angle of repose Likewise the unit lateral pressure ps at point 6 below the of dry earth.
p„ at point a which
(1
I
sin 0).
wi
is
plane of saturation
3
is (wi/ii
+
wji^) (1

sin 4>)/{\
+ sin
4>)
+ 62.5^2.
34
RETAINING WALLS
Ml as above is the weight of the dry earth per cubic foot, hi is the distance from the ground surface to the plane of saturation, W2 is the weight per cubic foot of earth under water, hi is the distance of the point & below the plane of saturation and <t>2 is the angle of repose of earth under water. "It will be noticed that in this method, for points below the plane of saturation, hydrostatic pressure and earth pressure are separated;
that full hydrostatic pressure is allowed; that the vertical pressure is obtained by adding the total weight of earth above the plane of saturation to the net weight (weight under water) of earth below the plane of saturation; that the lateral earth pressure is obtained by multiplying
the vertical pressure
pressure
is
sin ^2) that the total lateral by (1 — sin 4>^)/il obtained by adding the hydrostatic pressure to this lateral
+
;
earth pressure.
for saturated earth
"It can be readily seen that if a smaller angle of repose is assumed than for dry earth, there will be a decided increase in the unit lateral pressure at the plane of saturation. In other words, the unit lateral pressure an
kXMisaevu'vi'iii
infinitesimal distance
will
below the plane of saturation
^ y'Mm''mm/ ^
be
much
greater than that at an infinitesimal
distance above the plane of saturation.
^
"At first thought this appears absurd, but it can be seen that it should be so. It can perhaps be
best illustrated
the case of a retaining wall supporting a
by an exaggerated example. Take bank of
earth loaded with timbers (Fig. 13), the lateral pressure of the timbers against the wall is zero, but at an infinitesimal distance below the
surface of the earth the pressure load that is superimposed.
is
a considerable amount due to the
"The
difference
is
plainly due to a difference in the angle of repose."
While the preceding analysis is a correct mathematicalinterpretation of the action of saturated, homogeneous material, devoid
of cohesion,
and
may be used with the same
worked out theories
degree of freedom as
any
of the carefully
of earth pressure, it is
preceding.
open to the same vital objections as were stated on the pages However, as long as a proper appreciation is had of
the limitations of theory in general and if the lateral pressures are computed as suggested on page 16 and as given by the equations there shown the method presented by Mr. Husted is a
practical one
and should be followed provided a
is
safe lateral thrust
of saturated soils is sought.
Sea Walls.—A sea wall
fill
essentially a retaining wall with a
it,
of varied character
behind
composed, usually of riprap,
:
:
THEORY OF EARTH PRESSURE
earth, cinders
35
and the like, and subject to a hydrostatic pressure varying with the tide. An analysis of the pressure to which sea walls are subjected is given in an article byD. C. Berber, Engineering News, August 23, 1906, excerpts of which are quoted below. Walls with vertical backs are the only type treated. The Rankine method, as applied in the previous pages,
is
used in this
treatment, the thrust intensity being given by equation (5). It is assumed in the paper that the fill varies by strata, a horizontal plane separating the fills of different character. If the
of the wall is assumed to be composed of two such mateweights wi and W2, respectively and separated from each other by a horizontal plane, /la above the bottom of the wall and hi below the top of the wall Mr. Serber notes the following important conclusion (theoretically deduced)
fill
back
rials, of
" The total pressure on the lower section of the wall (i.e., below the plane of separation) is entirely independent of the angle of natural
repose of the material above the plane of separation."
If
and that
the angle of repose of the upper material, of weight lOi is <t>i of the lower material, of weight W2, is <j>2 and if, for the
is
sake of simplifying the resulting expression there
put
(90°
m=
hi/h2;
n = Wi/Wi andai =0(90°
—
0i) 02
is
=
s
—
^2)
the total pressure P2 on the back of the wall
P=
An
of
^
'
[m^n tan^
cti
+
(2mn
+
1)
tan^
02]
ingenious graphical method of obtaining the total pressure two or more layers of different fill is presented in the paper founded upon the reduction of the different weights in terms of
one of the weights. The effect of surcharge upon a sea wall
to be stored temporarily or
is
discussed as follows
"Merchandise, cranes and other loads of considerable weight are apt permanently on the sea wall and the backing immediately behind it. The Department of Docks and Ferries of New York City assumes a uniform vertical load of 1000 pounds per square foot, * * *. When the bottom is very soft mud of considerable depth and a pile foundation is to be resorted to, the normal difficulties of sustaining a retaining wall are so great that it becomes highly desirable to avoid the additional thrust due to the surcharge. In such cases a platform may be built * * * supported on an independent foundation sufficient to carry the surcharge, thus' relieving
the wall of the thrust * * *."
36
RETAINING WALLS
The
inclusion of hydrostatic pressure
upon
this wall
may
be
dealt with in the
manner outlined
in the preceding section, the
formulas of Mr. Serber being readily adaptable to the principles given in that section. It must be emphasized that a sea wall is a structure of peculiar importance in the design of which the paramount question is not one of ascertaining how great the thrust upon its back is, but how can its foundation carry the loads brought upon it. Accordingly due appreciation to this question must be given before
attempting refinements in the calculation of the thrusts that may be induced in the wall by the fills deposited behind it. A number of problems have been prepared at the end of this and the succeeding chapters to illustrate the application of the several tables, curves and equations given in the text immediately preceding. They will also serve to demonstrate, numerically, the points discussed in the chapter, bringing home more forcibly the truths quoted than the literal equations.
Problems
1. A wall with a back sloped to a batter of one on four and 30 feet high supports a level fill subject to a surcharge loading of 600 pounds per square foot. What are the thrusts, by both Rankine's and Coulomb's methods (a) when there is no surcharge; (6) when the surcharge extends to the wall a (see Pig. 5); (c) when the surcharge extends up to the point 6, directlyover the heel of the wall. The angle that the back makes with the vertical is tan>(M) = l*" For the condition of no surcharge, from (14) and Table 1 with J = 0.42 for 6 =
14°.
T
From Table
zontal
is 1,
100
^ 9
^0^
^
042
=
18,900 pounds.
9 = 23° and the angle that the thrust makes with the
14°
23°
+
=
hori
37°.
From (25) and Table 2 for 0' = 0°, 15° and 30°, = 0.44, 0.41 and 0.42 respectively and the values of the thrusts are accordingly, 19,800 18 500 and 18,900 pounds.
For the condition of the surcharge extending to the back of the wall, the constants remain as above and since c = %q = 0.2, the thrusts are each increased by (1 2c) or by 1.4. The thrust, using Rankine's method is then 1.4 X 18,900 = 26,500 pounds. The three thrusts, employing the method of the sliding wedge method become, respectively 27,800, 25 900 and 26,500 pounds as the angle of friction between wall and earth is taken
K
+
as 0° 15° or 30°.
When
the surcharge extends to 6 the condition under which the
method
THEORY OF EARTH PRESSURE
of Rankine is used must receive special investigation, since equation no longer applies. From (11) with c = 0.2, the thrust is
37
(14)
The weight
of the triangle
G
is,
since ab
is
=
30
X
and the resultant thrust upon the wall
^'o
H
=
7.5,
11,250 pounds
= V(21,000)2
+
(11,250)2
=
23,700 pounds.
is
The angle which
this final thrust
makes with the horizontal
tan' (11,250/21,000)
=
28°. of the sliding
With the expression given
ratio y
is
in (33), the
method
be employed, after the proper value
7.5/30
of a has
been found.
0.25
wedge mayThe value of the
0.18,
=
0.25.
From
(34) tan a
=
 j^ 0.25 =
from
which a
10° and the coiresponding values of 0', 15° or 30"= are 0.42, 0.39 or 0.39 giving for
=
K for the angles of friction
T
the corresponding values
23,500, 24,500 or 24,500 pounds.
K,
C
P
Fig. 14.
Allowing for friction between the back of the wall and the retained earth, a close agreement is again to be noted between the two methods of computing
the thrust.
2.
A
wall with vertical back 20 feet high supports an
in Fig. 14 subject to a surcharge of
embankment
as
800 pounds per square foot. Determine the thrust for the two conditions of no surcharge and surcharge. For the condition of no surcharge, equation (22) may be used. Here h' = 6 feet approximately and c is then 6/20 = 0.3. The angle 6=0° and f the friction between wall and earth is ignored (which is advisable when
shown
38
RETAINING WALLS
is
the back of the wall is vertical, as it is in this problem) <^' Again the angle of repose and the angle i are both equal to 30". factors in the expression then take the following values:
also zero.
The various
v
L = =
—3.
= Hl/oos^ cos cot » ^
<t>
d
=
cot
»'
=
cot
(f>.
u
=
sin
</>
and
sm
p
_
^^^3 ^.
„ =
sin ^/sin
.^
=
],
and /
'
= —cos = cot^
<t>.
<t>
<^
=
sin
= }>i. ^' X (l.3  ^V].32 = T I = 9,600 pounds.
+
3
X
0.09)
If
of c
= and with the same value the expression in (24) had been used with = 0.3, the value of the thrust thus found would be
100
K
H
X
^
400 X1.6
X
o
_^, 0,00
method, or rather, equation (24) is apparently sufficiently exact under which the problem was analyzed. For the surcharge of 800 pounds per square foot, as shown in the figure, the graphical construction of Poncelet is employed to determine the thrust. Draw aoh, making the triangles aof and coh of equivalent area. (A few trials will determine the location of this line. In fact the accuracy of the problem is easily satisfied by locating the line aoh by inspection.) Draw Ah, then ah parallel to it and proceed as before with this method. The thrust is then the area of the thrust triangle inm, multiplied by the unit weight of the earth 100 pounds per cubic foot and is then equal to
The
latter
for the conditions
16.7'
^
X
100
= .„„„13,900
pounds.
,
As a check upon this method, note that the line aoh makes an angle of 41° with the horizontal. The method, using equation (22) may be employed with the new surface ahi. With the same scheme of substitution as employed in the first part of the problem, with i = 41°, n = cot 4> cot i = 2.0 and c = 1^0 = 0.7. The thrust is then found from the expression
. .
_ „ T = 100X20^X4/, ^ ~ 2X3
i
1
,
2^^'^'
+
2
X
\2
0.49
j
=
13,700
affording a satisfactory check
3.
A
material
is
so densely
upon the graphical calculation. compacted and well drained upon being
placed behind a retaining wall that it is safe to take its angle of slope as 46° Derive an expression for the thrust against a vertical wall and also against a wall with a batter of one in four.
With the
for
surface horizontal
K in both the Rankine and
and against a vertical wall the expression Coulomb method is
1 1
—
sin
<t>
+ sin
<t>
which becomes
this material is
for a value of
<^
=
45°, closely onesixth.
The thrust
for
then onehalf of the normal thrust against a vertical wall, the normal thrust being that produced by a material with a slope angle of
30°.
.
050 pounds.5 to 1 (^2 = 21°48').27. Engineering NewsRecord.
"Lateral earth pressure at the bottom
(100
+ 4 + 70 X 6) j ~ ^1° ^^
=
374.8 lb. = .2) „.
ft.
. + 2 X 1 83.77 feet from the bottom. Z X o
K
H
Trm
From Table
1
81
'
3 the point of application of this thrust
is
located
X 25
^
See page 30 for a discussion of the use of this method of analysis as a check upon the prev ous method. "Lateral pressure at the plane of saturation due to dry earth = 100 X 4 X (1 — sin 4>i)/0. (see also Appendix)
1
A. Vol.
=
=
62.2 lb.6
ft.6
+ 375 =
749.4 ~ „ „„ 2.6 lbs.
.
per
"Total resultant
foot length of wall
point 13^ the wall. per square foot.
9. HusTED.5
X
4
"Total resultant
lateral pressure
below the plane of saturation
This
is
is
0." 2027 2
.+ sin 0i) = 114. of which are below water level and hence saturated.4 = 3027..
equation (24) is employed to obtain the thrust. p. 81.
"Hydrostatic pressure at the bottom
square foot.8 feet
=
above the base
of the wall.
above the plane of saturation per = 228. from the bottom of
lateral pressure
is
114. ^^ irom
_L 103 2)
applied at a distance of
— °^
'^®''
the bottom.8
228.2 lbs. G.5
—3(749 g
"The
+ 749.8
X
+ 2798. This is applied at a from the plane of saturation or 73^ ft..
BiBLIOGKAPHT
For an exhaustive bibliography on the various theories and experiments upon earth pressures. ft.4 lb.6) X 6 = 2798.6
lb.
resultant lateral pressure against the wall per foot of length
7.
(183. Assume dry earth at 100 pounds per cubic foot and earth under water at 70 pounds per cubic foot.. " Retaining Walls " 5th Ed. per square foot.5
X
6
=
375
lbs. 442.the action of saturated earth the author of the paper on page 32 has given the following example:' "Take for example a wall supporting ten feet of earth the lower 6 ft.2 6(749.4 X 2.„ T = 16. Assume a natural slope for dry earth of 1. per sq.„.
. both active and passive see Howe.
374.
As a problem illustrative of _.3
is
then 228. . This is applied at a distance of + 2 798.4
X
0.4 lbs.
per
"Total lateral pressure at the bottom
sq. c is then ^J^s With taken as _ 100 X 6 25 X 1.
40
RETAINING WALLS
=
0.54 ..5 to 1 (<^i = 33°41') and for earth under the water of 2. "Lateral pressure at the plane of saturation due to saturated earth =
100
X
4
X
~
\
g^ ^^'
=
183.
E.. 1315. p. S. A. Cohesion in Earth: Cain. L. 746. p. 191. 17.
Dozal. Cornish. S.
. Journal Western Society of Engi:
neers. C. Lateral Pressure of Clay W. April.THEORY OF EARTH PRESSURE
The
following
is
41
of
a
list of
interesting papers
upon the subject matter
the chapter. Earth Pressures:
A practical comparison of theory and experiments. Ixxxi. p. P. A. Ixxx. Vol.
friction. C. Trans.
Retaining Wall Theories: Pebby.. Coombs. Trans. E.
Vol. 1913. p. Translated. 113. Earth Pressure Lateral: Cornell Civil Engineer.
Retaining Walls: Based entirely upon the theory of Buenos Aires. 19. Journal Western Society of Engineers.
CHAPTER
II
DESIGN OF GRAVITY WALLS
Location and Height of Wall. 17.
RoadSurface
crosshatched. is to run along a highway or other fixed property line. 16. or excavation for the wall footing. unlimited. If the wall.
which
replaces. Again. Where of land necessary for the construction of such a fill or cut is.
especially grade eUmination
and
track elevation work. The need for a retaining wall from the construction of a cut or an embankment. to all intents.
whence
a wall
is
placed as shown in Fig. whose
—
arises
side
the
amount
banks are not permitted to take their natural slopes. taking into consideration the cost of masonry.
Fig. will show. easements are costly and are generally restricted by the municipalities which grant them. then. of embankment. 18
in railroad
work through
cities. so that it is necessary to get the wall as close to the tracks as
possible.
42
Even in the
case where ease
.. 17. 16 the
fill
wall
replaces all
shown
comparative estimate.
A
Easemerrf
Line
Jp\
t^"'^
Fig.
Thus
in Fig. the wall may be located at any point where economy dictates that a wall
of the necessary height
and
it
section
is
cheaper than the
fill
additional cut or
Fig. however. at what point the wall should be placed to obtain the minimum cost. after a few trials as to location. this at once determines its location.
Architectural treatment may determine the shape of the wall. or the wall
future required height at once. Before entering into a discussion of the relative merits of walls with various outlines. it is necessary that the principles upon which the walls are designed. the front face. that.
however. that section of wall is chosen which can be most economically
and expeditiously
The Two Classes of Retaining Walls. 18 the wall may be so built. The selection of a type of wall that will suit peculiar foundation conditions
is
discussed in detail in later chapters. This type is discussed in the present chapter.
so chosen that. This will be done in the following pages. that the additional fill necessary for the future tracks
may
easily be placed. the section will be ample to take
care of the
new
fill
and
live load.
and footing
will permit. prove
of a wall should
General Outlines of the Wall.
of the earth
—
Those which
This latter
utilize the
weight
bank
in sustaining the pressures of the
class. 17 and placed as close to the line as the details of the coping
the improvement work. The following chapters will take up in detail the
analysis of the shapes occurring in ordinary construction work. with placing a new top above A. at a
nday be built to the This latter may. so that every square foot possible must be made available for the roadway or tracks. it yields a
maximum
area for
When this work runs through valuable property acquired at high cost. The walls which retain an earth bank wholly by their own weight are termed gravity walls. on the property line. surveying or con
struction errors
and the
like. should be made vertical as shown in Fig.
Generally speaking. be first explained. The coping usually projects a few inches beyond the face of the wall. To insure no possible encroachment at a future date. an eye
43
to future development and consequent increased trackage may make it desirable to so construct a wall. when the wall is part of some general landscape scheme.—The section
be
minimum
cost. The section of the wall may be controlled not only by these general principles. 'Retaining walls fall into two broad classes. it is
better to place the coping a
few inches back from the line. however. but also by specific limitations foreign to the actual stress system existing in the wall.
bank form the
because of the
reinforced concrete type of walls. unsightly.
.
mobile character of reinforced concrete has an infinite variety of shapes.DESIGN OF GRAVITY WALLS
ments are cheap and unlimited.
built. due to settlement of the wall. In Fig.
(6) The pressure on the toe caused by the resultant forces of
the thrust and weight of wall and earth may exceed the bearing power of the soil at that point.
— Criterion
of overturning.
(c) The frictional resistance between the wall base and the foundation may be insufficient to overcome the horizontal component of the thrust and the wall will slide forward along the base.
is shown here (Table 6). in the extreme case.
Fio. Fundamental Principles of Design.
Tt
is
Thus
in Fig. of the combined weight of the wall
and relieving earth weights. the weight G or the lever arm g is increased by adding to the dimensions of the wall. usually by widening the base. crushing the ground and causing the wall to tilt forward and. With a wall properly proportioned against failure through overturning ot exces
Th
is
. To remedy this. 19. f is the coefficient of friction. the wall
may
is the be made of
other materials besides concrete.
and the wall
Fig.
The
reinforced walls are
made
and steel. In Fig.
rotate about its toe. The remedy hes in a wall properly shaped and dimensioned to
insure safe soil pressures. 19 the thrust
moment
will
greater than the stability
moment
Gg. in supporting an earth bank must successfully withstand the following possible modes of failure
—
(a) The overturning moment caused by the earth thrust may exceed the stability moment of the weight of the wall. or where dimensions alone will not suffice the preparation of a proper foundation either by further
excavation to a better bottom or by the use of timber or pile
foundations. 20 fG is less than T^. 'A retaining wall. 20. a
table of which for various materials. topple over. or in the case of the cantilever type.:
44
RETAINING WALLS
Since the active element of support in the gravity wall
it is
material out of which
of concrete
composed. the horizontal component of the thrust.
— Criterion
of sliding.
. since the wet clay acts as a lubricant. projections will be formed which will materially increase the resistance.40
Gravel
. To remedy a condition of this
kind.
Wet
Sand
or moist clay
.
tance in addition to the frictional (see Fig.—In spite of the wellnigh universal
{a)
To
adoption of concrete as a retaining wall material. It most likely to occur on a clay bottom.. . Concrete or Stone Walls.
. this condition rarely exists.
Table 6
Character of foundation
Coefficient
Dry
clay
. .
recapitulate. the following equations must be satisfied: Gg must be greater than Tl.
DESIGN OF GRAVITY WALLS
sive bearing
is
45
on the foundation. (b) Si must be less than S (where »Si is the toe pressure actually induced and S is the permissible soil pressure.
wall. giving a horizontal
component
of resis
rnmrnm. . Filling the foundation trench completely with masonry.
Fig.
many
yards of
.60
(against grain)
. 21 for both cases).
— Types
of
bottoms to increase resistance against
sliding. if water is present. Again.
wards towards the
toe. the base
may
either be widened. then. the potential modes of failure of a retaining and the wall satisfying most economically these criteria against failure has been properly designed.) (c) fG must be greater than Th.33
. the bottom may be tilted up
as frictional resistance to sliding. increasing the weight on
the wall. or a bottom
may be prepared offering mechanical as well
If narrow trenches are dug in the foundation.50
. so that the front of the wall butts against the original earth of the trench
(not
any
backfill)
may
also prove efficacious.60
Wood Wood
(with grain)
.60
These are. 21. .
upon the arrival of which. rubble walls. Stone masons are not always available and because of the diminishing amounts of stone walls built. however. exceeding. it presents quite a pleasing effect.E. the variegated coloring of the local stone showing to advantage (see Plate 1. Germantown. At comparatively small distances away. however. Rubble walls were so used in the track elevation of the Philadelphia. the wall will either be removed or buried (see Plate 1. With the development of the artistic treatment of concrete' faces and with the ability to duplicate practically every cutstone effect in concrete. The word "temporary" should be used most qualifiedly. and Norristown Railroad through Philadelphia.S. it is customary to place a dry rubble wall along the highway with the expectation that when the adjacent property is improved or graded. familiar with the work. The cement rubble wall is of as permanent a nature as the concrete wall.
The stone walls require a distinct class of labor. awaiting further local improvements. by
for the wall itself
far their expected duration of
life. a stone wall be
comes a very convenient type of wall to build. Vol. for many dry rubble walls have existed for long periods of time.
as for. the need
is either removed or else the walls are replaced by those of more permanent and jileasing effect. Under certain conditions. Ixxvi.
In municipal improvements. Fig. even during construction. Fig. both mortar and dry. this type of wall is the more economical one.^ The dry rubble wall is frankly a temporary expedient.
. la). leaving surrounding
unimproved property below the future grade. its
independence of local material conditions and the large amount 1 See S. to
which no
permissible. 16). Trans. thus preventing
the placing of the bracing and concrete forms. are far the cheapest
material out of which to build the wall.. The universal adaptability of concrete. The cut stone walls. with their ashlar or coursed masonry faces are much more costly than the concrete walls and are only used when necessitated by architectural treatment. unless more or less screened is not as pleasing as a concrete face when viewed at close range. are becoming fewer in number.
When
access
is
is
to be built adjacent to property. do have an important application
and where
a wall
local stone cuts are available. Wagner.C. example the grading of a highway. Its face.46
RETAINING WALLS
stone wall are still being built. A. the need
The of stone walls for even this purpose is rapidly diminishing. T.
Plate
I
Fig.
B.'*..^
E«*.
— Characteristic appearance of
ceirjcrit
rubble wall.. a..^^:f'*.— ^i.
(Facing page 40)
....ir/
f.=i^^**'^r!*X'
Fio.«=».
— Dry rubble
wall along highway.
.^'
^^#i?S:'
j:^«.i:i<
:=
^:^^i *«.
.
The cuts
for the
highway afforded
large
amounts
of stone. The unit weight of earth is g (replacing w in the original equation to avoid confusion with a more natural form of lettering used in the following algebraic
work). The voids may
vary from 15 to 40 per cent. the cement rubble wall and the concrete wall stand in the order one. 890 for a description of the dry rubble walls to retain the HetchHetchy Railroad.
A very long haul for the stone makes the cost of the wall far too high to permit a serious consideration of its construction. 5) and the ratio h'/h is denoted by c.DESIGN OF GRAVITY WALLS
of concrete laborers
47
and foremen all tend to explain the waning popularity of stone masonry..
If. 81.
decided to use the method of the with the equation 24 on page 15. The method of determining the thrust upon the back of a gravity wall follows the recommended form of procedure given on page 16. p.
. A problem at the end of this chapter brings out this in some detail. the thrust
maximum wedge
is
T =
Kgh^^^
where is the earth pressure coefficient of this method corresponding to / above and is to be taken from equation (24) or
'
K
iise of
See Engineering NewsRecord. It is understood that there are available local stone quarries for the rubble wall. of the section. The thrust T upon the back of the wall is located at a point Bh above the bottom of the wall. where the value of B is found from Table 3.
under special conditions
it is
(see
problems at the end
of this
chapter)
of sliding. then. the cost of the cement rubble wall is twice that of the dry rubble wall and the concrete wall
three times that of the dry rubble wall.e. i.
When using a dry wall. care must be taken to allow for the voids in assuming the weight of the masonry. Vol. The amount of the thrust is
—
T =
Jgk^
"^
where / is the adopted earth pressure coefficient to be taken from equation (14) or from Table 1. Thrust and Stability Moments. The standard type of surcharge loading of height h' is used (see Fig. two and three. with labor
and material conditions of equal weight the costs of the dry rubble wall. i Where the selection of the material out of which the wall is to
be built
is
governed solely by economic reasons.
Fig.
Let Fig. 23. Unless the back of the wall has a small batter (less than 5°) it is recommended that a value of 0' = 30° be used in finding the value of K.
Intersechbn of Rays 1*5
7 K Drawn
I
'1x1
Parallel
R in Polygon
of gravity wall stresses. covering all shapes of gravity walls and all varieties of earth
pressures.
vement
point. at the toe A. 22 represent a general section of gravity wall. 22. Algebraically then. as.
.
the thrust has
Assume that
been found. The weight of the wall G is usually found by breaking
FiQ.
The wall is on the verge of overturning when the stability moment is equal to the thrust moment or what is the same thing
when the
resultant just intersects the toe of the wall.
Fig.
is
For
this
condition the factor of safety
one. Following are some general relations between the wall factors and the thrust. by taking moments about some conexample. in value T and located at a point Bh vertically above the base. are easily
stability moment Gi^i GzQb 62^2 Graphically by means of an equilibrium
+
+
polygon it is a simple matter to locate the resultant of the forces both in amount and in point of application. both the thrust
moment
Tt
and the
•' ^ found.
— Graphical analysis
method
of
applying the thrust polygon to the determination of
the stability of the wall. fer
up the figure as shown into triangles and rectangles.
—
Stress system in
gravity wall. In the above algebraic method it is necessary to proceed further to obtain the resultant in both location and in amount.48
RETAINING WALLS
from Table 2. 23 shows the
^v
.
or as long as the point of application of the resultant falls within
the base.
the
economics
of
usually forbid the fulfillment of this premise.
Foundations. the relative settlements due to the varying loads
is
small and a nonuniformly distributed load may safely be placed upon them.
to the plastic bottoms.
upon the question of a satisBefore entering upon a discussion
it
of a safety factor against overturning. that can easily be picked and shovelled costly to to the hard gneiss.
location of the resultant depends not only
The proper upon the factor of
safety thought desirable but also
factory foundation pressure. trap and granite which prove so two foot or one of a stripped when rocks. See texts by Jacoby & Davis. For the finer sands. later (see types similar such as the cellular and There is no intention of entering into a detailed analysis of the proper selection and preparation of a foundation.
practice." etc. The poor as heavy take to strong sufficiently bottom layer usually present a
will a load as the safe crushing strength of the wall material can that pressure maximum the course. i. will be taken up under the headings of "Varied Types of Walls. so that
the pressure intensity on the base varies from nothing at the heel to the maximum at the toe. Folwell. and more often at the outer edge of this middle third.
may
be well to discuss
the matter of foundations. permit. drill bits." "Settlement.
mands a uniform
premise. Rock is an elastic term. For foundations varying from rock to hard soils. ^ A brief description only of the various types of bottoms will be given.
it is
Various phases of this subject. a mixture of gravelly sand and clay. such as coarse sands and gravels or loamy soils. the wall
is
safe
against overturning. wet soils. special had to be secure this or recourse must pages)..
4
. embracing all the types from a disintegrated product.
most important
retaining
walls
Unfortunately. of etc.e. 1 Patton. reaching down
imperative to have a uniform dismust be designed to foundations tribution of pressure and types of walls. The wall is considered satisfactorily designed so long as the resultant of the
pressure on the base falls within the middle third of the base.DESIGN OF GRAVITY WALLS
As long
as the stability
49
moment
exceeds the thrust moment.
those
are of
most vexing problems of engineering paramount importance in both wall design
Generally a correct foundation design dedistribution of load as its
and construction. and this is. however.
to permit a triangular distribution of soil pressure. here also. so that there can be no opening at the heel while the criteria of overturning and safe bearing loads are satisfied. and. If it does. care must be taken that the tension then developed in the back of the wall at the base does not exceed the tensile strength of the masonry.
If this is
place piles. the resultant of the pressures should strike the base
within the middle third. In the gravity walls. the rock is unyielding.
not possible it is necessary to that the piles carry equal not uniform a uniform pile
Distribution of Base Pressures. Earth Pressures
and Foundations. Occasionally the is permitted to fall outside the middle third.50
RETAINING WALLS
Under these
conditions. it is necessary to obtain the manner of the distribution of the pressure due to
1
Howe.— The analysis of the loadings upon the wall determines. "Retaining
Walls. with a good bond secured between it and the base of the wall. so that.
Coming down to the plastic bottoms.
the resultant
resultant
may
intersect the outer edge of the middle third
with a triangular distribution of base loading. by proper spacing of the piles. it is necessary to reinforce the back with rods. a theoretical discussion' of passive earth pressures seems to indicate that in yielding soils there is an upward heaving of the soil adjacent to the down
ward
be a
loads.
It is highly desirable
If the base pressure is loading may. nevertheless.
be allowed on any masonry foundation. With a rock bottom well cleaned.
For
reason. wall bears on only part of the foundation. so that the While. Since this resultant force is eccentrically placed upon the base. dry clays and bottoms of Hke type with moderately yielding propensities.
loads. the location and amount of the resultant pressure upon the base of the wall. there
must
this
minimum downward
pressure on the base. there is ample resistance to shding. Shales. there must be a uniform distribution along the base not to exceed the safe bearing value
of the soil in question. when this type of foundation is adopted. finally. left in the usual rough condition. Shading off into the finer sands. tension must then exist between the base and the foundation to
wards the heel of the wall. cementations gravels. coarse sand and gravel. in similar fashion present but httle difficulty and it is customary. giving a trapezoidal distribution of
pressure."
. be secured. theoretically. to counteract this tendency.
51
The vertical component of the resultant is analyzed here.
i. 24.
(the heel)
{Si
g^
Take moments about
kwR =
and
SiW^
. fc is less than onethird. Foundation pressures.e.DESIGN OF GRAVITY WALLS
this resultant.
resultant of
Referring to Fig. the horizontal component affecting only the frictional resistance between the wall and the earth.
0.=^(3fcl)
When
and
fc
(40)
= =
}i.
6
S2)io''
Fig.
—
Si
+
2^2
= 6kR/w
is
(37)
Again.e.
tensities
With
all'
these Hmiting in
found
for the footing is
the necessary data had. there
w
(39)
^.
when
the resultant intersects at the outer
edge of the
S2
middle third
—
a very
common
when
condition. let R be the vertical component of the all the pressures upon the base. Si
= 2R/w
When
fc
= H.
pressures as
.
The
point of zero intensity is given by
X
=w
1
3 1

3fc
(41)
2fc
where x
tensity.
is
the distance from the heel to the point of zero insoil
Table 7 gives the permissible intensities of
allowed by the various codes.
is
pressure along
only a portion of the base. there
= R/w. since the area of the trapezoid
of the resultant
equivalent to the value
R
Si
+
82
= 2R/w
is
(38)
Solving these simultaneous equations.
there
is
a uniform
distribution of pressure along the base Si = S2 Note that when. 24.. Si and S2 are the extreme pressure at the toe and heel
respectively..
i.
Dist. In Fig. Building Code. Building Code. hard.
I. 25. Public Service Commission. when
load on the
this
. New York City. dry Sand compacted. D. soft to hard
2
3
t2
6 10 4 840 4 1220
810
4r6
10 4 75*
68 5200
A.
Clay or clay mixed with sand. moderately dry Clay. E.—
52
Table
7.
* t
New York
City. The^minimum spacing of piles is about three feet. or in^ rows perpendicular to the face of
Pile spacing.
Sound ledge
rock. C. This is not a desirable type of loading
for piles.
—
The
following
is
a method
of so spacing the piles as to secure a uniform loading. Since the retaining wall brings a nonuniform distribution of loading upon the base. Si and S^
and lay these
is
off to scale. of Washington.
Let P be the safe bearing value per pile. a uniform
spacing of piles would produce unequal loading upon them.
pressure in any strip v. From the
eccentric position of
R
determine the extreme bearings. Baltimore. hard. B. Dividing product determines the spacing necessary in that strip.
The
soil
readily obtained
by scaUng the
figure.
RETAINING WALLS
Pehmissible Soil Pressures in Tons per Square Foot
Soil
Quicksand.
Pig. 25 divide the base into a series of strips of equal width v.
—
The piles may be spaced either in rows parallel to the face of the wall. soft
silt
M1 M2
24 24 46 68
1
2 4
6
1
1
Clay and sand Sand.
3 tons. so that.
Case of these
the wall.
Clay. 1st District. Sy vS^ then gives the total
P by
v strip taken for a unit width of wall. Cain.
A
graphic and an analytic
method
two methods
are outlined
below for either
of spacing the piles. firm and dry. Building Code. clean.
Proper Centering for Piles. dry Rock. well cemented Gravel and coarse sand Gravel and coarse sand well compacted Clay. Prof.
The total vertical load on the foundation is then mR and if. bound. plete the triangle as shown and let the area of BCO be Po.
. When this fails the base must be widened by placing a toe extension.
. it necessary to take the strips closer together. say.
25 the total pressure in
is
any width
the base (a unit's thickness of wall
assumed)
is
+
vSvi
{i

l)v
=
S2V
+
'
V
w
(Si

S2)
of the
i is
the
number
^Si
of the division. counting
from the back
wall.
ComThe
b.
widths are taken decreasing in width towards the toe.
is
The
following
an analytic discussion
two
I. The
values of R. the required spacing of
"i" the row
is.*=^(3fcl)+3^?^(l2/c)
Since the pile can take
piles in the
(42)
P
as a safe load..
Case
—From the geometry of Fig.S.
the sheet) equal to the permissible or desirable spacing of piles.DESIGN OF GRAVITY WALLS
is
53
the spacing in a strip is found to be less than this minimum. in Fig. The piles may be spaced perpendicularly to the paper at equal intervals. parallel to the page.
v of
cases. as found above are increased accordingly. P is the safe load per pile. 26) Assume that a width of wall is taken (perpendicular to U. are spaced m feet apart. but at varying distances along the base of the wall (see Fig.
^Let it
—
mR/P = n and
this is the required
number
of spaces of equal area
into which it is required to divide the trapezoid. each being equivalent to the
irregular
safe bearing of one pile.
of the
Casein.
'd^
Making a
trial
scale layout as above. the number of piles required in each thickness m of the wall is
Case //.
area of
any other triangle.
then
a
= P
vSvi
(43)
be assumed that the rows of piles. as above. 26. Si and S2. by the vertical side
.
Replacing
and S2 by
their values in terms of
R
and
A.
finally.P = 3f^. Then
ln2 = 2a Replacing L2 by its value from (45). Si and S2 are replaced by and k
their values in
terms of
=
.
=

1)P
(45)
That the distance between the two piles adjacent to the toe shall not be less than a specified amount a (usually about three feet) it may be necessary to extend the base by means of a toe With sufficient exactness the distance a may be taken as onehalf the distance between the toe and the point Z„_2.l
^
(3A. from the back of the wall.H = (^.
24).
a . the square of their homologous each other as triangles are to
iP.DP
2P0
*^'"
w = ^T' ^^"^"'^^
^0
+P
a
1
1
J.
60
=
R
.
61'
+
. = Po P0 + 2P _
Extending
+
iP
'
^r. simplifying the resulting equation and ehminating the radical and putting 2a/wo = X
Wo
—
^
3fc

^l^)+2(lX). or of Since the areas of similar piles.
1
F
N=^^
^46)
and solving for k
"
If
_ iV(lX)(l3X) 6X(1 .54
as base.
and if.
+
sides
bi^
Po
W=..i)
also k
= y^.
is
kETAlNlNG WALLS
Po
where i is the number of divisions. letting 2a/w = X' and noting that
Wq
=w
{1
+
i)
and
X'
=
X
(1
. and the width without the toe extension is w.
.
2
^'
=
hi
^'
TT+P'" "pT"
this result to the general case
.p(^iHi).
(see
Fig.X)
the width including the toe extension is Wo.
+
2P
=
^0^^^
B
to the corresponding
(44)
i line
Let k be the distance from
then
k= hbo
=
bo
[sp^

l) Since Po
=^'.
and m^ by and gives the relation
In view of the fact that i is small in comparison with unity. In
all
the above work
it is
several piles used
is
understood that a uniform loading of the the result sought. i. i. it is immaterial.
the chapter will
hteral
problems for ecat the end of bring to bear the arithmetic appHcation of the
The problems
equations just developed.
For the special case of fc = ^.
(47)
M^ by 1 + 3i. however.A
^^^)
This apparently comphcated analysis together with the entire mathematical treatment of pile loading is given with the idea
of affording a direct solution of pile spacing
centric distributions of loading. former.B=6\'MlM). from the standpoint of the number of piles required. parallel to the face of the wall
making the work in the field a little more cumbersome than in the latter method. it
seems simpler to use the
latter
method
of distribution since the piles
In the are lined up in both directions.e.
Table 8
*
must give the same density of piles.
the piles then being
. it is permissible to replace
1
2i. The work just shown of determining the proper offset to maintain the minimum pile spacing replaces a rather tedious method of trial and error. only. Since either method.
which makes
2X'
(47)
hnear in
i
^6/n

2/r. (it cannot exceed }i for a valid solution).
Occasionally
eccentric
bearing
is
allowed on
piles. and (45) becomes
(49)
Table 8 gives values of F and H.
+ 4X' . the resultant intersects the base at the outer edge of the middle third.
u'
2
+
i)
or
u
A =
3X'
[X'
+
+ 2X'm2 . which method is adopted. theoretically. Practically.e.Au + B
+
=
0. they are in line longitudinally.DESIGN OF GRAVITY WALLS
Equation
(46)
55
becomes a cubic in
(1
2(le)].
by its very nature. This insures the most economi
above the surface and at the same time prevents any The dimensions of the footing are then solely governed by the permissible soil pressures. Referring to Fig. Pile foundations. as long as the resultant intersects the base inside the toe. retaining the fill. there is no danger that the wall will overturn. 28 the overturning moment is Tut and the
cal wall
tension in the wall. Since the thrust is computed from the maximum
safe
A problem
—
load possible or anticipated upon the wall.56
RETAINING WALLS
unequally loaded. and. and the foundation course. At the junction of these two parts.
—The retaining wall and
its
foundation. to insure
that there will be no tension in the back of the wall.
Fig. that is. since. 27. at the end of this chapter illustrates the application of the above analysis to a concrete case. 27)
the surface of the ground. the resultant should intersect within the middle third. Factor of Safety.
. the resultant should intersect at the outer edge of the middle third. a yielding support (unless driven to absolute refusal) and unequal settlement is unavoidable.
may be divided into two parts. a pile is. that portion (see above the ground surface. It has been seen that. a factor of safety
but
little
greater than one seems ample. The ratio between the moment tending to resist the overturning of the wall and the moment tending to overturn the wall has been termed the factor of safety against overturning'. This practice is far from coramendable. all foundations. at
The
wall
Fig.
However. demand most mature engineering judgment in their planning and construction and time and money spent in consulting experienced men on this part of the work is an ideal assurance towards a
and weUappearing wall. in fact.
Combining these two equations and solving for n
m
^ Td ^zw(ff+
Tnt
r. A.zw) = .5 n = 3 n = 2." Vol.
2
"Reinforced Concrete Construction.Bh tan b] Placing A = T. in figuring the factor of safety against overturning. that the wall will revolve about its toe as a fulcrum.[il + i)w . Gx . Cain' advocates designing a wall for a definite factor of recommends the following values of n for walls sub
jected to vibratory loadings.Bh tan b] the two equations become Gx + A = n Tht.)w'
(51)
safety and
trains
Prof.. C.Gzw = T/^t + T.
as the wall tends to turn on
Trans. zw . Walls fail because of foundaing locates the position of the resultant
tion weakness (see pages 160163) rarely because the overturn
ing
moment
exceeds the stabihty moment. for
the other
Ixxii.
It is
unyielding
1
soil.r„[(l + i .A.z)w . S.
n = 3. This is possible only upon an
the pressures and then to learn what factor of safety
following the
method given on page
56. Vol. E.5
HooP recommends
a factor of safety of 2 for the average
retaining wall.
2.
Denoting
+
n[(l
i)w
.\) Tht ~ (G + T.
It is
better procedure to decide
upon the
location of the resultant of
is to be had assumed.
. such as walls adjacent to passing
Walls less than 10 feet high Walls from 10 to 20 feet high Walls around 50 feet high
Prof.
soils.
An
integral factor
less
of safety reverses this order of
usual potential
mode
of
importance and makes the failure the more important criterion.
To
assign a definite. integral factor of safety against overturn
upon the base without regard to the character of the distribution of the pressure upon the soil that seems most desirable.)
_ ~
^
+
zw{G
+ n)
(^^^
fd
and conversely
^
_ {n.:
DESIGN OF GRAVITY WALLS
resisting
57
moment
Gx
is
the factor of safety
Gx by n
+ +
^[(l
+ i)w tan
b]
Bh tan b].Bh
=
nT^t
Taking moments about the point where the resultant intersects the base G(x .
in actual practice this factor against
overturning
It is well. 27). as an additional precautionary measure.
let S be the that necessary to make the value of Sx approach as nearly as possible the allowable value S. 29 let ew locate the position
surface (see Fig. If the base of this wall proper is projected vertically downwards. and if the values of Si and ^2 as found on page 51 in H't equations 39.
It
extension. however. This may be found as Fig.
It is doubtful whether.
The
offset
iw
is
k
_ ~
{i
(1
+ e)w _i + e + z)wJ ~ i + 1
(52)
The value
of S^ is
Si
=
2R
w(l
+
i)
(^'m)
r
(53)
Place
w Si/2R =
and the above equation becomes
(54)
_
*"
2
(1
3e

z
+ iy +
2r
(55)
which
is
a quadratic in
i.
Footing. or at the natural
is
ground
then necessary to design a footing that will properly distribute upon the soil the pressures brought to it from the retaining wall. 40 are within the allowable pressures as shown in Table 7 no extension of the base is necessary.58
its toe.
which when solved gives
7(l
t
=
V 12

e)
1

(2r
+
1)
(56)
.— Toe follows: In Fig. the value of fc is now
of the resultant pressure
and
permissible soil pressvue.
at the
—The retaining wall proper may be considered to end
of the
fill
bottom
retained. 29. to value in the manner outlined before.
find its
is ever predetermined or subsequently ascertained. When these values exceed the permissible ones a toe extension becomes necessary.
RETAINING WALLS
the ground in the immediate vicinity of the toe will
crush so that the conditions under which the factor of safety was
computed will no longer be vaHd. Referring to equation (39).
DESIGN OF GRAVITY WALLS
The
usual value. Some examples at the end of the chapter illustrate the application of Table 9 to specific problems. To aid in the determination of the offset when the value of r is given. but one which may possibly exist (see problems at end of chapter) is the determination of a
minimum intensity *S2 at the heel. A less frequent requirement. With the value of k as in equation (52) and from (40) after placing
toe offset to give a
&
= WS2/2R
2i
+
(1
i
3e
+ iy
There
is
obtained a value of
t
=
1 
For
e
=
3^. and the one most properly taken for
e is
59
3^
This makes (56)
. this
becomes
. Table 9 has been prepared giving the values of i for a range of values of r.
_ V{8r
+
1)

(2r
+
1)
2r
(57)
resultant
which determines the necessary offset for the base when the is given in amount and location and the value of the soil pressure intensity has been assigned.
the external moment equated to the resis ting mom ent gives 8ri'wy2 = /..
making a slope has been demonstrated that the transmission of loading through a solid is contained withof
The maximum
tension then exists along a plane
vertical.of the special concrete committee of the A. this
may be
written j
=
*
C
^
CI — ^\ 1
\
—^
c is large in comparison with p and in developing by the binomial theorem it will be permissible to stop with the second term.
In
47}^
•
shghtly altered form. or p = \/{fc).The unit shear is then a geometric mean^ between the tension and com
For concrete
the radical
pression as exerted along the vertical and horizontal planes
of
the
body. the plane of weakness of the step. the distribution of soil pressure may be taken as uni
formly spread over the toe and equal in intensity to Si. (a summary of which is given later in a section on "Reinforced Concrete") the ratio //c is to be taken as Ke. i. the
minus sign was taken since the principal tension
was sought. vertical
and horizontal.
it
'
In "Reinforced Concrete" by Mobsch.C. P. or using the approxic is
mate relation between p and
equal to tan "'2 ^/"
Upon
the
recommendation.e. Since the of such a beam.
.
VWUW+
unit compressive stress and p the unit shearing stress found in the body with the axes corresponding to the axes of loading of
the body.
as in the sketch. whence/ = p^/c. with k = It is necessary here to locate the principal planes to determine along what plane there exists a maximum tension.S.
one to two with the
Again.60
RETAINING WALLS
The
toe extension
is
a cantilever
beam and must be
so
dimen
sioned as to satisfy the shear and bending moment requirements Let the thickness of the toe be d. extension is usually small in comparison with the rest of the footing. per unit of length.
i.. Goodis
rich. as translated by B.E.e.
In
the
first
expression
for
the
principal
stresses. The stresses on the principal planes c is the are given by the expression / = c/2 + \/(cV4 p^). If /„ is the concrete stress allowed in compression.
vertical plane is given
The angle between the principal tension plane and the by tan~^ ( — 2p/c). this theorem
established
by somewhat
different
an analysis.dV6 and d = Uw. and this angle becomes tan "^( — H) or the ratio of the extension to the depth is
onehalf.
It has been pointed out that the usual goal of the designer is to select such a section of wall that the resultant intersects exactly at the outer edge of the middle third. governed by the judgment and experience of the designer.
it
For
—
The general gravity type of wall is shown in Fig. As the tentative section does not. good practice would demand that. then as long as ^i does not exceed 150 pounds per square inch or about ten tons per square foot. A Direct Method of Designing the Wall Proper. If the shearing stress is taken as 75 pounds per square inch. a step of one to two is satisfactory and should be adopted for the toe extension. When the soil pressure does exceed this amount.
is
moment requirements with the above maximum Ihe shear on the plane where the toe joins the footing
Sjiw/d = Si/k. The numerical apphcation of the table and of the equations upon which it is based is to be found in the problems at the end of the chapter. usually taken at about thirty tons per square foot or about 400 pounds per square inch.
The maximum pressure that can be brought to bear upon a foundation is Kmited by the permissible bearing on the masonry. it is possible to effect a direct solution of the required dimensions of the wall. From the preceding formula for the depth of step as required because of the bending moment. wherever possible the ratio of step to depth for a foundation offset be one to
two. For both these reasons. a value of fc = 2. k is then less than 2. predicated upon these assumptions. the wall with a vertical front face and the wall
. all ordinary soil pressures. one or more succeeding sections are chosen until the final one does meet this criterion. lined in the preceding pages. fulfill this condition. then. is This is analyzed in accordance with the methods outselected. The rectangular wall.
will
be necessary to reinforce the base. at first choice. By using the criterion that the resultant must intersect at the outer edge of the middle third and by giving the thrust the standard form of expression on page 16.DESIGN OF GRAVITY WALLS
in planes
61
making an angle of about 30° with the vertical. 30. is good. so that a step of 1 to 2 will always satisfy
the bending
loading. from which Table 12 has been prepared. The analysis following develops an equation. In the ordinary course of design of a gravity wall. This table covers the usual range of the factors controlling the wall section and is to be used in place of the method of trial and error as stated above. a tentative section.
Tak
ing
moments about
the point D.
(65)
. the location of the point of ap
plication of the weight of the wall with respect to
D is x.M)
l
+
2p
dp^
(62)
+
The
IS
distance of G from the point 0. but special cases of this
general type. the moment of the thrust must be equal These to the wall moment. Let the ratio t/h be put equal
to p.e.e.
wall
face
The front face of the makes an angle a with
adjacent
to the earth
the vertical.
from the toe
of the wall
(1
+
p)Mh
+
X
(63)
and from 62
this
becomes
Qp
h/ 2
+
l
+ Zp^
2p
1
3V
+
^
+ 3p + 3p' „ ^^ 1 + 2p
(64)
This expression. vertical distance that
A
is
above the top of the wall is t.
Then
u = p/(l
+
p). the rear face (the
FlG
30.:
62
RETAINING WALLS
with a vertical rear face are.
i. locating the center of gravity of a general type of gravity wall with respect to the toe may be further simplified by putting the ratio of the upper to the lower base equal to u.
M
embankment) an angle b.
moments
to
their
are found as follows Extend the sides of the wall
intersection
at
A
The
roject the point
A
vertically
down upon the
base.
where
x
hi +Bp = (N . Place tan a and tan b equal to and A'' respectively..
i. meeting
the base at the point D. of course.
— Design
of gravity wall..
In taking moments about the outer edge of the middle third. about the point 7.
M+ U^N)
2u
(66)
where
C/i
=
2
+

u^
U.
1
+u + u^
1

u^
Table 11
u
.
63
Calling the distance of the center of gravity of the wall from the
from
(63)
and
(64)
q
= ^iU.DESION OF GRAVITY WALLS
toe. q.
64
RETAINING WALLS
To determine
the thrust
moment
resolve the thrust into its
10.3m + 3c(l . and writing the equation N).4MiV 3^
(74)
N')]
be noticed that the quantity p(M + N) is the ratio of the width of the top of the wall to the height of the wall.
components as shown on page horizontal and horizontal component is Tn and its value is
vertical
The
Th
= ghKl
is
+
+
2c)/6
its
(71)
is
The
vertical
component
Ty and
gh'il
value
n
=
2c)N/2
of the
(72)
Taking moments about the outer edge letting the thrust moment be Mo.[
2c){J5
(1
+ p)(M
iV[2(l
N)h

BhN'\
iV)
+

+
p)(M
+
.WN]}
moment
(73)
of the
Equating
this thrust
moment
to the stability
weight of the earth g to the unit weight of the masonry m equal to s.
and
Mo = TkBH gJl (1 6
r. ff = M{M + N) '[1 6MN . Table 12 has been prepared based upon equation 74.
middle third
/. giving the ratios
It will
. putting the ratio of the unit
J
+ (M + NYv^ + Iv{M + N) + H = Q = 3M + 2sN{l + 2c). in the form of a quadratic in p(M
wall.
trackage and
minimum easements
there
are
wanted
(see
With
N
zero
the less usual type.BhN z.
.TkBh
+
T. the wall is the rectangular type. 23.
5
96. pPf^TCam Has showni that when the angle b is less than 10°.. With zero.
may
safely be applied to deter
mine the thrust. ^^^^
The value
work.
to locate the position of the resultant pressure
upon the base
may be
Referring to Fig.
With both and N zero." pp. Walls and Bins.iw
((?
.„. s = %) and that the resultant intersects the base of the wall proper at the
%
outer edge of the middle third. It is understood in selecting the dimensions of the wall that a proper footing is to be developed as shown on the preceding pages.. as shown in Fig.BhN) . the ordinary theory of earth pressure as given by the method of the wedge of maxi
mum
'
thrust (see pages 1115). with the weight of the wall G a distance q from the toe and the point of application of the resultant pressure a distance zw from the toe where zw = 01.
"
Earth Pressure.
zw)
= ThBh
and solving
this expression for
z
= Gq
+
T. take moments about I solved as follows
:
G(q

zw)
+
T^{w
. assuming that the ratio of the weight of the earth to masonry is {i. as in Fig. to give the correct distribution of pressure upon
the foundation.
which it supports. but a most economical one with vertical back and battered face.)w
.I
DESIGN OF GRAVITY WALLS
65
of the top and bottom widths of the wall to the height of the wall for
a sufficient range of values to determine very closely the required dimensions of any gravity type of wall.
of q
and
of the thrust
components
may
be taken
from the appropriate equations and
tables given in the preceding
Revetment Walls. 31.
The converse problem. the wall is the vertical front and battered back type. A slight face batter and a
larger
back batter make a wall
of economical section
and pleasing
appearance. termed a revetmenUvall^ It is more of historic than of present interest. given the
section of a retaining wall.
M
is
M
a very popular type forming a large percentage of
all
gravity
types built and very efficient where
maximum
page 42).
—The wall leaning toward the earth bank—
is
—
. 97. 30.e.
To effect this.
— Design
now
of
revetment wall. a
direct method of determining upon the ratio k for any
character of loading.b) FD = {Bh tan 6 1 kh)
f
sin
(</>'

6)
and
(76)
becomes
g Kh^il
+
2c)lW
cos
(<^'

6)

(35 tan
b
+
2k) sin(.
selfsustaining. ED = Bh cos{<t>' . and writing the resulting equation as a quadratic in k
k^
+
Rk = S
(77)
.EF = ED . Table 13 has been prepared giving the
values of this coefficient
K for negative values of the angle
h.66
RETAINING WALLS
That the wall be
selfsustaining while under construction. 31.
In the following work the earth pressure coefficient is K. defined by equation (25). predi
cated upon the resultant intersecting at the outer edge
of the middle third found for this type
may
be
of wall.e.FD.tan
b
+
kh/2

kh/Z)
= m
^
(3
tan
6
+
fc)
Equating these two moments.
The thrust moment
is
TXAO
From
(24)
1
(76)
gh'K
+
2c
AO =. it necessary that its center of gravity projected down.
Flo. 0) is
mkh' (. i. it is necessary
that h be greater than tan
As
in the former pages.
angle h
is
In view of the fact that the negative. always falls within the base.>'
b)]
The stability moment of the wall (both of the moments are taken about the outer edge of the middle third. denote the ratio of the width of base to height of wall (a parallelogram is the only type
is
of section discussed in detail here)
by
k.
That the wall be
h.
DESIGN OF GRAVITY WALLS
where
72
67
=
3 tan 6
s(l
+
2s(l
+ 2c) sin (0' 
6)
(78) (79)
S =
s is the ratio
+
cos
3c)
<l>'
cos b
gK
.
i of 16. z = 0. 6 = 26° 34' and from For (b + 0').25
X
0.9 + 23. The vertical component of the thrust is (Eq.4 and 23.56 and the horizontal component of the thrust from (71) is 15. factor of is 3. the step of one foot
to four feet
is
a satisfactory one.1 = 59.1. whence the necessary projection is iw or 1' 0".067)
=
16. i = 0.) The location of the weight of the wall G is obtained from (66) and Table 11 with u = 0. Since the wall foundations are carried down about four feet to prevent fiost action and surface water erosion. a satisfactory one from Prof. is to be built.68
RETAINING WALLS
=
0.5)
=
6. if not destruction of the wall were they designed in accordance with the maximum wedge of sliding. ignoring frictional action between the earth and wall. Cain's recommendations. is 0.39 X 25 + 4. With the revised values.364. T„ are respectively 26. a very unsatisfactory result. a much heavier section of wall results. showing the costly effect of omitting the consideration of frictional action of the earth upon the back of wall.5 satisfy the given
N
avguments and the resulting width of base
is
^(0.067
+
1.
N
K
3
=
~
(2.163.8 = 2.39 whence « = 0.0 = 13.
The
face batter
is
J^" to the foot and
the rear 6" to the toot. The vertical component of the resultant pressure upon the base is From the sum of these two forces or is equal to 35.8.7 + iw = 6. To obtain the proper
soil distribution.
Fiom
(50) referring to Fig.
not at large variance with the value of i e in the Rankine's method. ignoring such action the factor becomes 1.1
+ 0. Tk and Tv are then 15. = If the frictional resistance between earth and masonry is ignored. approximating with sufficient exactness the result obtained in the suggested standard method of obtaining the thrust.4 whence the factor of safety = 1 + 1. cor(25) responding values by other method. Also prepare plans for the proper foundation dimensions for (a) coarse sand and clay. 72) T„ = 23. A standard wall for highways.55.
B from Table 3. well compacted.5. The sections are all extensively used in actual practice with
+
K
excellent results.64 and Tj. (Cf.
the weight of the wall (taking the
masonry unit weight 150 pounds per cubic foot) is 35.18.5.057.75.60. with a face batter of lyi" to the foot and a back batter of 4" to the foot.567 = 0.41
X
0.e. zw = ).5 and 13.7 feet.. Give a section with the proper tabular dimensions. unless taken in conjunction with the location of the resultant and with the manner of the distribution of pressure upon the soil.4 kips.10/0.5 + 0. (54) r = 0. 0.2.
whence from
(75) z
=
0.85 and from Table 9. with T as given in (24). The toe pressure is from (53) 6. but clearly without significance.
safety
Allowing for frictional resistance between earth and wall the.3 respectively.0 kips. By the sliding wedge method the horizontal component of the thrust is T cos = 0. 28. i. permissible bearing
.. a kip is a 1000 pound unit).9 kips (i.333 by the last method. page 57. 2.e. All the standard sections exhibited in the abovementioned pamphlet would develop high tension at the heel of the wall and a high bearing at the toe leading to the disfiguration. such favorable consideration doubles the factor of safety. If the section of wall is changed to give a value oi z = 0. = 0.
25.6 tons per square
Also give a pile foundation section. an average uniformly distributed load of 500 pounds per square foot will safely provide for the heavy surface loadings. (d is the top width. the following table of top and bottom widths of wall has been prepared. as given. lor h = 30. permissible bearing 3 tons per square foot (c) fine sand. c = 0.DESIGN OF GRAVITY WALLS
69
4 tons per square foot.33.333.125. b the base width.)
foot.20.17. Then for h = 15. and AT = 0. For highways. where a maximum intensity of toe pressure is 2 ton per square foot and a minimum intensity of heel pressure is 0. c = 0. for h = 25. = 0.
With the batters
M
h
. c = 0. allowing twenty tons per pile. c = 0. for 7i = 20. (6) coarse sand. From data obtained from Table 12.
83)0.00 respectively.11
16. is
0.37.5
=
6.—
70
RETAINING
WAI^^LS
h = 20'. and bearing in mind the remarks previously made.7 gives a spacing between rows of 2.92
X
= =
0.
h
A4^.83 = 0.43
0. 4 to a row.
.83 = 0.A.
To
ascertain whether a toe extension
is
The corresponding value of k
respectively 0.45 1.2
The pile adjacent to the heel is 4' 0" from the heel.3. e = H.16 and the toe extension is 0.43
X X
Coarse Sand and Clay ^x"\::
Coarse
Fine
Piles
Sand Sand

— t^y^.5' which is too close to space the piles.87
10.41
and
F and
ff are 0.0. the required spacing between rows is found to be 3' 6" To get the toe extension.
ffei'nforce
Base when A is
overZft.42 = 2' 4"For simplicity make this 2' 0".
t
I^ty. Accordingly i = 0.. X' = 6/14.2
13.42 = 0.42 16. the other two piles are 8' 6" from heel and 1' 2" from toe respectively.
Applying equation (45)
6.42
+ 2.414. = 3.'"'''
men A IS over tff.14
then
+0.86 or 10".8 and may be taken With this value therefore three piles are taken.14
From
(45)
li I2 Is
= = =
(14.14(Vl +441) = 10.14
li
is
.
From Table
8. the value of i from equation (48) with X' = 6/11.16 X 14.1) = X 0. Assuming two piles in a row here.073. 14(\/ l +22 .
=
0.073 X 11.83
12.
as
4'.^
.606.Sfep Base
as shown.0) X
X X
0.66
+ 0.
— l+i
. Here B = 47. The required toe extension is thus 0. With an assumed number of piles.42
0.
=
0. is found to be 0.
m
necessary to permit a minimum spacing of 3' between the piles adjacent to the toe.43
and 10.
.
F
and
H are
and
65. and n = 3.75
I2
= =
(11.
1. with the value of i? = 31.43
1. h = 25'.33
:r7.
A surcharge of 500 pounds per square foot extends to the back of the wall. A wall of "quaker" section. 25 feet high is to rest upon a rock bottom. of course. It will be permissible to let the resultant intersect at the outer J^ point.
under
stood.DESIGN OF GRAVITY WALLS
Figs. 3.
.
Any
tension developed in the wall because of this location of the resultant
carried
must be
by
steel reinforcement. that in preparing actual plans for construction that the
plans will cover a much closer variation in the heights. 32
71
It is
and 33 show the wall proper and
its
foundations.
3M3(1 +
9s(l
p)
4B]}
replacing.
S(l
^^j
3N'[3(1
+ 2c)h AB 2^
2c) {4B.BhN =
hN ^
[3(1
is
+p) 
The overturning moment due
to the thrust
_
^+2c) ^^
Equating the
_ ghHl+2c)N hN ^^^^ _^ ^^ _ ^[3(1+. as before
g/m by s
4s(l
6pm^ + 3pN^ + N^
+ 3c)
9s(l
+ 2c)m 
+ 2c)pN' + 4s(l + 3c)Ar2
where
6pW2 + ZpNI +J=0 = Nil + 3s(l + 2c)] / = N^[l + s(5 + 6c)] .
+

p)
m
1
stability
and overturning moments
6p2)
miVHl
and
+
3p
+
=
g{l
+
.4s(l +
"
I
3c) /3
Solving the quadratic
pN = }{2{VQP Table 15
24/

3/}
.72
RETAINING WALLS
lever
The
vertical
arm of the horizontal component component is
is
simply
Bh and
4B]
that of the
y^a
+
v)hN
.
of tension
The
vertical
of the resultant pressure
components upon the base of each
section
is
scaled from the
load polygon. 0.
the proper
value of»c.7. 3. From an inspection of the figure it is seen that above
tension developed at the rear of the wall and
.74. 2.64.8. For the sake of simplicity and to reduce the number of lines to be drawn the resultant of each of these two forces will be used. To determine the line of thrusts it is most easy to
apply the principles of the funicular polygon. 35.50. 2. 34.3. 0.

Amount
in wall. 3. at the is first drawn.DESIGN OF GRAVITY WALLS
73
For the five sections starting from the top the ratios of the upper to lower base (m) are respectively 0.
Fig. 3.45 and 5.41 and 2. The centers of gravity of the thrust triangles are found most easily from table using
3. 2. 4.83 and the corresponding values of q are then 1. Since the surcharge used in determining the values of
is
B
5 feet.4. The pole of the polygon is taken at convenience and the rays are drawn to the individual resultants.42. A line through this intersection parallel to
right of the figure
the direction of the resultant shown in the load polygon determines this location of the
resultant thrust. 5. 0. The direction of each of the resultants is found to be the same and parallel to the total resultant at the base of the wall.35. 2.
each trapezoid is 2.60. it being assumed that the wall shall take no tension whatsoever.6.79 and 0. The weights of these
sections are respectively 2.
Whenever the point
outer third there
is
of application of the resultant thrust lies within the
it is necessary to determine this amount and supply sufficient steel rod reinforcement to take care of this tension. The funicular polygon is drawn in the usual manner and the location of the resultant thrust upon each section is determined by the intersection of the corresponding ray with ray 1.2.66. the respective values of c to be to locate the point of application of the
thrusts are 1. extended when necessary.38.60.0 and 8. The load polygon. 7. 2. 4 and 5 and the point of application above the base of
Fig.
and Si from
(40) is
Si
=
—
27?
(1
—
3A.
the line a the resultant pressure
From
(41). The area of this portion is x Si/2.
The area
is
then
. the steel area necessary to take the tensile stresses developed is that required by the shaded portion.).2A.
disregarding the negative sign.74
RETAINING WALLS
lies within the middle third and there is consequently no tension in the concrete above this point. From Fig. 35.
w
3
\
1
3k .
13
ratio is 0. result quite obviously expected. The top and base width of the wall are then 0.53 or the widths become 2'6" and 18'6" respectively.59 X 35 = 20 feet.723 and from Table 9 with this value of r. resultant should lie at the steel in the wall the point of application of the
outer third point. from table 12. 0.
s
M
3
N
= %. of the
+
area required of the dry rubble wall.
A
^8
0.
The
component of the resultant pressure upon the base is permissible soil pressure intensity is 6 kips per square foot.
x2
after putting p(ikf
+
1.07 and 0. is 0.11 X 20 = 2'3".59.

0.
The
total vertical
83 kips.
Referring to
= %2
+2X
0. The vertical component of the thrust is from (72)
(1
is
—
+ 2c)fe' N
352
and
in the variables of this
problem
100
X
1.8 and c = 5^s = H/
75
(74).
A
20
Fig.
For a wall witn Onehalf fluid pressure is 31 pounds per cubic foot.5 kips.
(54) r = wSi/2R = 0. That is.
Dry rubble
To avoid the necessity of placing thickness.5
The weight
of the wall
35
X
125
X
^'^
^°
^
=53. more area required when the unit weight of the masonry is decreased 15 per cent. 37
^
wall.02a.15
+ i^) = =0
From which
The base
0.375/2
=
29.02
H
3\ J.
. the necessary value of i The toe extension is 0. / J_ '''8/ 12
_ OS
\12
exf^xf
U
*
d
X
12
g2
+^
=
8^
a.13 { {M N) = 0.13 X 35 = 4 feet 6 inches and 0.
.11. usual practice the coping is made of concrete
From
. Note that for a wall of concrete or rubble masonry weighing 150 pounds per cubic foot the top and base ratios for the same conditions as the wall in the problem are.z'e'
and carried back
6. 37. of the vertical of intensity an has vertical back the lateral earth pressure
H
.15
1
The quadratic now becomes. 15 per cent.a
DESIGN OF GRAVITY WALLS
= ]ri2 and For this problem i''%25 = 0. The area of this latter wall is 85 per cent.
2'6"
rectangular wall is to line a rock cut twenty feet high and may be subjected to hydrostatic pressure up to onehaK of the full Determine the necessary wall water pressure.286
is
X
X
0.8(1
+ M)H =
1
1. As indicated on page 61 the depth of footing The complete section of the wall will be 4'6"In conformity with the is shown in Fig.
000 inch pounds. the footing must be 16 feet wide. it
beam. Footing for uniformly distrib
—
The shear
4
at the cantilever support.
The base
of the wall proper
12 feet wide. Clearly no reinforcement is necessary. 39.
As a simple beam the moment
fixed
is
45.
is
0. the step will be made 4 feet high as shown
2.
Design
the foundation. The unit tension is 63.
is
uted base load. The uniform intensity of pressure is then 3^g or 2. 38.
of the wf>ll for the conditions of
the problem
A
wall.
The resultant load per lineal foot of the wall was found to be 46.
is
The necessary thickness
9'6". with moment wl'/12 at the support.
in figure. since the wall
is
Fig.
Fig.
may crack near the supports for some reason unforebetter to investigate the stresses at the center of the span on the assumption that the beam is a simple one. The wall is on a rock footing. see Fig.2
is
X
=
15 pounds per square inch.2 kips per linear foot.47. satisfying an earth pressure thrust as given in (14) with c = = and c = 0.5
X
400/8
=
2275 kip
is
feet. The tension at the lower edge of the base is then 211.
8. 7. The section modulus is hd'/6 = 8600. the required ratio of base to From Table 12 with N =
is
M
height
6. However. 39. moment is then 45. necessitating a fourfoot toe extension. In the wall of problem 3 an opening is to be placed as shown in Fig.76
RETAINING WALLS
and with earth at 100 pounds per cubic foot (the usual value) this intensity 33 pounds per cubic foot.8 kips.
As a
total
beam the moment is 45. The safe value is slightly less than this (40 pounds per square inch) but this variation from the safe stress is a permissible one and no reinforcement will be added.
whose resultant brings a
vertical
linear foot of wall located at the outer third point
component of 35 kips per must have a uniform disis
tribution of loading. under the conditions of the problem the location of the point of application of the resultant is 8 feet away from the heel. The shear
The
455
. The shear is now 4400/(24 X 12) =15 pounds per square inch and the moment is 220 X 24 = 53.5 X 400/12 = 1520 kip feet. 8800 X 24 = 211.
For a uniform distribution the resultant must be at the center of the footSince. Determine whether it is necessary to rein
The unit shear
8800/(48
X
12)
=
The
cantilever
moment
at the
same point
is
force the section of the wall to
make
it
span safely the opening.
ing. For the economy of the material the step will be made in two sections oi like dimensions. and to make provision for stresses at the support in accordance with the assumption of a fixed
seen. 38.000.
The span in the clear is 20 feet. The problem is then merely to find a wall and K = }i. The section modulus is 12 X 24 V6 = 1160.000/8600 or 24 pounds per square inch. to bring the base of the wall below the fiost line.5 X 400/12 = 1520 kip feet. so that
set10
tlement is improbable and it seems reasonably safe to take the wall as a fixed beam.000/1150 = 46 pounds per square inch.
Since the usual depth of footing is four feet.5 kips per foot.
5)
~
'**""
To
is
9. Vol.
= 2780 or 19 pounds per No reinforcement is then Over the supports the maximum
Original
Anchor Fods
tension occurs at the top of the wall. Engineering Record. gravity wall.
the extreme fibre in tension at the center of the span. 715. Analogous to the location of the center of gravity of the thrust triangle the center of gravity of the beam section is located a distance Bh above the base. Vol..38 from Table 3 and the center of gravity of the section is located 0. where with c = 0. The unit tension per square foot is 1. 40.000/500 = 3040 and the unit tension per square inch Reconstruction of Fig.
Some Examples
in
Recent Practice
1. 16.5 = 500. on Piles. 242. on Piles. Vol.100 square inches giving a unit shear o 455.DESIGN OF GRAVITY WALLS
kips.
77
The area of the wall is 26. at the top of the wall and along the bottom of the wall from support to support
modulus
Wall
is
—
(see Fig. 64.
Retaining Wall as Beam over Arch.5')
+
12. The apex of the section (produced) is about 5 feet above the top of the wall. p.275. p.38 X 25 or 9. 64.
Wall.100 = 17 pounds per square inch.5
X
2
+
12.
Vol. Vol. Vol. p. Journal Western Society of Eng..
p.
16 (1911). Raising Existing Wall (see Fig.
necessary. the
/
moment
of inertia of the given section
=
25^(2^
+4X
36(2
12.000/26. 66. 40). 970. Engineering Record.5 feet. Engineering Record. Engineering Record. Wall on Piles. 4.
. 33 Feet High. the distance and the section modulus becomes 7800/9. The distance of the extreme fibre is now 25 — 9. 715.5 = 15. S. Engineering Record. 720.
5. Heavy Gravity Section.5 feet above the base. 61. is 21 pounds. Journal W. 3.520. Railway Improvement.5 and the coiresponding section
7800/15.5 or 820. p. 2. 132.
are respectively
is
Using foot* units. 137) the moment of inertia of the section about its center of gravity axis is given by an expression
J
^
d'(b'
+
4bbi
+ 61")
61)
61
36(6
+
where d
is the depth corresponding to h here and 6 and the lower and upper bases.. E. Vol. 39. B =0. p. Wall Across Marsh. p. While no steel is necessary theoretically. The unit tension per square foot is then
2. 970. Wall.
to
Meet
Special Conditions
2. 66. From the "Carnegie Handbook" (p. a prudent engineer may specify light reinforcement over the supports.2.000/820 square inch. Reinforced on Bottom on Account of Threatened Settlement.
Walls
1.
and a rubble masonry wall was built instead.78
RETAINING WALLS
Section avoided the necessity of deep excavation. with consequent heavyshoring of adjacent tracks.
. The author adds an interesting note: "It has occurred to the writer. backed by concrete. The first is to reach a material that will sustain a greater pressure and the second. The first is usually only necessary at the toe of the wall. The second. that there is one feature of this type That of wall. for almost any good soil will sustain the heel pressure. The abutting piivate property made it impossible to place face forms for a concrete wall.
the saving in excavation and masonry effected by setting the foundation There are usually but two reasons for carrying the foundations of a retaining wall lower than the surface of the ground. is only necessary under the toe for the heel is protected from frost by the embankment."
is
of the heel higher than the foundation of the toe. to get the foundation below the action of frost. that might frequently be employed as a measure of economy. also.
soil pressures
final section
and other wall functions are known only when the
1
ilr
'iT Cantilever
3
sections.
79
.nl'
"t'Canti lever
Courrterfbrt
Fig. of course.
This. once the forces upon
is
are known.
determined from the principles of design of
is
reinforced concrete.
given
As
in the case of gravity walls. 5 and using the standard thrust equation as given in (14). necessitates a process of
and
error until a wall section has been found satisfying
all
most economically
hand. as given
in the preceding chapter. varying
but
little
from the
final section of wall.
the necessary requirements of the data at assuming the standard type of loading
as shown in Fig. a brief outline of which principles
in this chapter. 41. and adding a few approximate conditions. Reinforced concrete retaining walls form a class of walls in which the weight of the earth sustained is the principal force in the stability moment. likewise govern the outlines of this type
of wall
and the same
criteria against
impending
failure
must be
satisfied.CHAPTER
III
DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS
General Principles.JilJil. 41.
On the other hand. the stress system. a tentative section may be chosen from appropriate tables.
it
The
actual section of the wall.
—Typical reinforced concrete
of wall
trial
is
known. The same fundamental principles
—
governing the general outlines of the gravity wall. Typical sections of this class of wall are shown in Fig.
.
Ihch
.
the thrust moment is
„
_
1
+
2c 1 l
+
3c
.
the ratio between the length of the toe extension and the The value of the lever arm is
y
=
^
L(Lpl =
iL+^
(83)
Let the ratio between the width of base.
Ms
is
Ms = Gy
(81)
Since.
wall.
i^)h'
(85)
^J(l
+
3c)/i=
=
2 gk'a
+
c)(l
.REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS
The moment
been defined by equation (12) and may be found from Table of the thrust about the toe P is then
81
3.
Ms = nMo
From
(81). the difference in weight between the masonry comprising the wall and the weight of the
retained
fill is
ignored. w. and the height of be denoted by k. the value of
G is w
(1
G=
i is
gh
(1
+
c)

i)
(82)
entire width of the base.3(1
+
c)(l

(86)
P)
.
TBh
and
if these quantities are replaced by their values as taken from the equation mentioned. and is denoted by n.
is
The
stability
moment
of the wall. (82)
(84)
and
(83)
c)il
Ms=lgk'{l +
From
equations 80. 85. as per the adopted approximation. h.i'W
and
finally
J(l
+
3c)w
4. 84. and ordinarily taken as 100 pounds per cubic foot.
3
=
J
Jg{l
+
Zc)¥
(80)
as before g is the unit weight of the retained earth. If the factor of safety of the wall is taken to mean the ratio between stability moment and the overturning moment.
it is seen that A. =
p_
2
=
1

if. as is assumed in the has the value }i. for the
ratio c and the earth pressure purposes of the problem. the location of the point
application of the resultant
and the toe extension
ratio.
For a given location of the resultant pressure the most economical width of base is had when the vertical arm is placed over the assumed point of application of the resultant pressure. or for i = e.
To establish the base ratio k in terms of the location of the point of application of the resultant and the toe extension (and
these are the two functions generally known.
coefficient
The surcharge
J
are. take
resultant. is a minimum when the factor {i — e) in the denominator vanishes.
related to that found in equation (81) in the ratio of the respective lever arms of the force G. stability
moment M. or easily found
in advance).
J
.qn^ ^^^^
Inspecting this last expression. Again.ey
.82
RETAINING WALLS
expressing the ratio between the width of the base and the height of the wall in terms of factor of safety assumed and the width of
toe extension.87)
(87)
Taking moments about the point 0. introducing this value of
When
the back of the wall
present analysis.
is vertical. M's
since
= M^ and from
and
Ms = nM„
A
of
relation
between the factor
of safety.
(.
Inserting this value of n in (86)
i=
which
J(l
/
+
3c)
i
A/3(l /3(1
+
c)(li)(14 c)(li)(l +
2e)
(89)
may
be written
/
J(r+3^)
\
1
ii
''Vsd+c) \Jl^eY 
. independent
of the functions of the wall outlines. which should be inserted in expressions (86) and (90).
moments about the point of apphcation of the if „. or if M'^ denotes the new stability
moment
M'JM.
The
newy. the thrust moment remains the same as before
and
is
is
given by equation (80).
with an advantage over the gravity type of wall in that.
^^^^
When the maximum soil pressure intensity S is given as well as the toe extension ratio i. is the total depth of fill plus the equation for e. The total load upon the base of the wall is G.
83
the economical criterion established above (90)
becomes
k
=
I
j^^\/(l+3c)/a +
c)
(91)
The application of these equations to specific problems is shown at the end of the chapter. There soil pressure and the both this weight
H=
+ c). When this value of e has been found."^)
lOSi
. Continuing the approximations given above. any tension developed in the wall may be taken care of by proper reinforcement. equation (90) is then applied to find the value of the base width ratio k. i
is
criterion).
Conversely when the point of apphcation of the resultant is assigned (and with a foundation known in advance. this equation may be used to locate the point of application of the resultant pressure upon the base..3^0. From (39) of Chapter 11 and from (82) above
—
S.
Place
= ?^ (2 h
{1
3e)
= 2gMl + c)(li)
_3
is.„. taking the unit Solve the depth of surcharge.REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS
J and
also.
in equation (93). that
H
is
2
'
=
3
. per cubic foot and expressing as 100 pounds weight g of the earth intensity Si in tons. The manner of the distribution of pressure on the base is again controlled by the type of soil upon which the wall will rest. the location of the point of application of the resultant is usually indicated) the toe extension necessary to give this resultant location is
found from
put equal to e (the economy and the resulting equation is solve d for e
If.
. Distribution of Base Pressures. further guidance may be had in shaping the wall to meet the anticipated soil conditions.
is
Clearly. Tables and Their Use. the factor of
. given
'
the toe extension The conditions under which the ratio i is determined at once.
should be placed where the economy over the indicated position of the point of application of the resultant upon the base.
if
no
it
limitation
placed upon
the location of the vertical
criterion dictates
:
arm. Tables are readily founded upon the preceding equations and simplify the necessary calculation of the wall outlines.84
RETAINING WALLS
Under the above
conditions. location of the stem is governed solely by the economy of the wall have been previously touched upon (see pages 42^4)
H
and
*Si. From the relation existing between the locadirectly
—
tion of the point of application of the resultant.
and
will
be discussed in more detail further on.
for a range of values of c. Venant. the stress is proportional to
the strain. e and i.
outlines of the wall approximately established
it is
aid of the foregoing. its prime intent is to permit an intelligent selection of a wall without a
tedious process of trial and error. usually govern the required reinforcement and depth of beam e. with the further assumption that Hooke's Law.C. these assumptions
of plane sections
may
be taken
as valid. The excellent report of the Special Committee on Concrete
of the A.— The assumptions in the design of reinforced concrete beams are those of the ordinary beam theory. However. stresses. the error becomes appreciable when the ratio of depth of beam to span exceeds onefifth.
The earth pressure With the general
by
constant J. giving the value found from equation 90.e. so that even though the selection of the wall outlines are finally determined by these
While
approximations.
possible to proceed with the actual
design of the several
retaining wall. has been taken as 3^. and the engineer may accept this been taken of all the has care as long beam' failure ensuing.
. that the approximations consist in ignoring factors which have proven negligible in controlling the wall dimensions..g. exact analysis of the wall.E. remains a plane section after bending. as
general table. i.
first
Theory
—
bending. Table 18 has been prepared. have shown that plane sections do not remain plane during bending.
has set the seal of approval on this
mode
of
figuring the action of reinforced concrete after
most thorough
investigation.
It should be pointed out.
is
true. to see whether the stress system in it checks with the one
determined.REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS
85
A
of k.S. namely: the Bernoulli Euler theory of The fundamental premise is that a plane section before flexure. with no fear of point. the unit shear
and adhesion. of the Action of Reinforced Concrete. no serious error has been committed.
Although the brilliant researches of Barre de St. Since for such ratios. so
stress criteria. other than those induced by bending moment. a careful and painstaking designer will analyze the completed wall.
members composing the
it is
reinforced concrete
not the purpose of the preceding analysis to replace a careful. both
from a theoretical and experimental standmethod. The concrete is assumed to take no tension. so long as the stresses induced by the bending moment govern the required depths and amounts of steel reinforcement.
86
RETAINING WALLS
Under
load, the distribution of stress across a section
normal recomthe Adopting to the axis of the beam is shown report, Es is the above in mended nomenclature as suggested ratio of n the and modulus, concrete the steel modulus, Ee the the steel modulus to the ^^ concrete modulus. A, and ^c
in Fig. 43.
»«o\
'
fe/
i'"*
/
T
Ac are the areas of the steel and concrete in the section respectively, fc and /, are,
respectively, the unit concrete
Fig. 43.
— Theory
of reinforced concrete.
and
steel
stresses.
Let
of the section at a
fio
and
e,
that at
b.
From
be the displacement the assumption that
a plane section remains a plane section after bending, and from
Hooke's
Law
e,
(1

kd k)d
e,E,As;
As,
(97)
/„= CcEo]/,
and,
=
pAc
=
pbd
by summation
fc kbd '—jz
of all the horizontal forces
.
_ — = e.E,A„
or
EcBckbd ^
e,E,p
——=
e.E.pbd
„
,
,
kecEc
=
whence
^
2pn ~k~
(98)
and equating
this to
(.97)
2pn
1
k
fc
(99)
and
finally
fc2 I
2kpn

2pn
=
0.
Solving this for
fc
fc
=
VpV + 2pn  pn
(100)
the two
which locates the position of the neutral axis, once the ratio of moduU are adopted and the percentage of steel assumed. It is to be noticed that it is a function of these two quantities only.
The
resisting
moment
of the section
may
be expressed with
:
REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS
87
either the steel force or the concrete force as the force factor in the couple. If M„ and M, are the concrete and steel resisting moments respectively,
(l
^
A;

)
 bd^;
Mo =
1
/c

2^^
M, = fAs {^l)d= fsP (l arm
of
bd^
I)
—
fc/3
=
j
and
is
the effective lever
of the couple, corre
sponding to the effective depth moments may be expressed as
homogeneous beams.
The
M, = kM^;M, =
where
ksbd^
(101)
K =
Ordinarily, the
fckj/2;
K =
fspj
is
(102)
most economical section
that one in which
the concrete and the steel are each stressed to their permissible
limits.
f
The percentage
as follows
of steel to satisfy this condition
may
be
Qund
Since,
from the summation
of horizontal
intensities across the right section of the
stress
components of stress beam, the total concrete
must be equal
to the total steel stress
pbdfs
A J, =
from which equality
= kbdfJ2
k
=
2p{'
(103)
Equating
this value of k to that
replacing the ratio 2f,/fc
by
2n
a,
found in equation (100) and and solving the equation for p
^
If in
^
2n_
the ratio a, the unit stresses are those allowed for the material at hand, than this value of p proves to be the most
economical one to use. The above analysis is of course, predicated upon the assumpOther tion that the section is controlled by the bending moment. the depth of steel or percentage stresses may determine the When the percentage of steel is above that necesof the section. sary for the economical steel ratio as given by (104), then the
concrete stress in the section will determine the resisting moment to be used and the section constant is found from fc^, as
88
defined above.
of steel
is
RETAINING WALLS
With
this value of k^, the
proper percentage
Again the depth of the section may be greater than required by the bending moment, and accordingly the percentage of steel to satisfy the bending moment will be less than that required by equation (104). The steel stress will be the governing stress in the section and the section
constant to be used will be k, as defined in equation (102). The proper percentage is found from Table 19 with this value of k^. The conditions under which these constants control are best illustrated by specific problems as given at the end of the chapter.
to be taken from Table 19.
no
100
^
90
80
70
'iSl.S
60
50
e
40
30 20
REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS
89
both the theory and in the experimental determination of the concrete constants, it does not seem good practice to carry the work out to any greater degree of exactness than shown here.
Table 19.— Reinforced Concbete Constants
—
90
Table
20.
RETAINING WALLS
Standard Ultimate Strengths op Aggregates as Suggested BT THE Special Committee on Concrete A. S. C. E.
Aggregate
REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS
91
If a rod is twisted about another rod then the twist should be at least one complete turn (360°) and carried beyond about six inches, not only to satisfy the theoretical requirements, but
work in the field. In bending a rod care must be taken that the radius to which the rod is bent is sufficiently large that the bearing induced on the concrete will be within the allowable
to aid the
limits.
For a rod bent to a circular arc, carrying a tension of T at either end, the condition is similar to that of a hoop (see any text
per linear unit of the rod
is
on applied mechanics) and the compressive stress upon the concrete
C = T/R
Where
R
is
the radius of the bend.
is
bearing on concrete and/s
If c is the permissible unit the permissible steel unit stress, then
introducing these factors in this last equation
R
t
=^t
c
is the thickness of the rod. The ratio fjc has a value of about 30 and in the work that follows this proportion will be used in determining the proper radius to turn the rod. To get the area of a washer necessary to hold the bar, with A the area of the washer and c the unit concrete bearing, let d be the side of the square (if a square washer be used) and with the
same units
c{d''
as
before,
the total bearing
is
Ac.
Since
Ac =
(108)
r)
d
=
tVif./c
+ 1)
With the usual unit
If
d
is
stresses, d is about six thicknesses of the bar. the diameter of a round, washer
With the usual values, the diameter of a round washer should be ' about seven and onehalf thicknesses of the bar. The vertical arm of a reinforced concrete wallas Vertical Arm. shown in Fig. 42 and as tentatively analyzed on pages 80 and 82 is
—
a cantilever beam, subjected to a horizontal load of T, located at In the skeleton wall, the basis for the a point Bh above the base. approximate analysis, h is measured from the bottom of the wall. In the actual final section, the correct value of h must be used.
If the economy criterion of (104) is used. The standard type of loading as shown in Fig. g is taken at the usual weight 100 lb. by using the proper values of c and h. per cubic foot. 2 with n = 15.0185. this depth will not vary much from that required by the bending moment depth and it is safe in this preliminary analysis to work with the depth required by the bending moment.000.
in the
above the top of the footassumed and correct h may be
ignored in the tentative selection of the thicknesses of the
arm
and
if
As above shown the cantilever moment in the arm is TBh. the steel
ratio
p
is
0. control the depth of beam required.
From Table
19.17 and since
in conformity with the other terms of (111) is to be expressed in units of pounds per square foot. from Curve Plate No. and B by its value in (12)
then
M=
The value
of
ijsf(l
+
3c)¥
(110)
taken as onethird (see page 80). and if in accordance with general practice a 1:2:4 concrete is specified with the resulting permissible stresses as given in Table 20.
The discrepancy
footing.92
RETAINING WALLS
of the vertical wall
namely the height
ing. 5 is to be used. and T is replaced by its value in (14). O.bkj
is.
/„.
=
3c)
(112)
The depth d necessary to satisfy the bending moment due to the earth thrust may be closely approximated from this equation
and the same expression may be used to find the required depth at any point on the cantilever arm. and solving for d
is
J
the unit weight of earth and
d
=
h^^'^^i^
(111)
J may be given the value I'i as above.
. The resisting moment has been given by (101) and equating this to the external moment given in (110). the bending
moment
constant
h
d
With these values equation
from equation (102) (111) becomes
0. g is c is the ratio of the surcharge height to the actual height of wall assumed.
for this value of p. While the shear and the unit adhesion may.0075.
0.i^'V(l
}
is
about 16. and frequently do.
approximately. whenever
is
the value of d as found from (113) that value as found from (112).
—^The
with
footing. With the same concrete
constants as assumed above.
Footing.Q03dh^(_l
+
2c)
(113)
Comparing
Table 21
this equation with (112).>S2pV2 Taking moments at
('
pV6
. the shearing stress will control the required depth of the arm. see Fig. for the purposes at hand. the shearing stress will determine the
.
foot of the vertical
Its loading is the
on
net difference between the downward weight of the retained fill and the upward thrust of the soil pressures.
44
_t
footing. at %. The above equations suffice to determine. apply equation (105).REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS
93
To determine the depth to satisfy the shear requirements.
its
is
again a
at the
ing
maximum moment
arm B. the shearing value for a simply reinbeam is s = 40 pounds per square inch or 5760 pounds per square foot. The required value of d is
forced
d
= r/5040 =
Jgh^il
+
2c)/10080
=
O. Its use is explained in the problems at the end of the chapter.
While such thicknesses are fairly accurate (the problems at the end of the chapter are illustrative of this) it is
better
practice to take the wall thus approxi
mately outHned as the tentative section and design finally by the more exact methods the required dimensions of the wall.
+
(Si

B Mb = Gp/2 . V is the thrust T and j may be safely taken.
soil
The
pressure intensity at
B
S2)
is
Sb
=
S.
necessary depth
greater than
Solving
this
inequality. 44. the thickness of the
arm
to satisfy the stresses induced by the earth thrusts.0
when
(1
"^
31(1
+ 3c) + 2cy
^^^^^
This may be termed the "critical" value of h and Table 21 gives the values of the "critical"
value of h for several values of surcharge ratio c.
cantilever.
Table 22 gives a
Table 22
series of values of I.
^
_
{I
Mb = Ig{l + 3c)/iV18 .
+
(2
+

i)
S2
and from
(39)
and
(40) of chapter 2
2S2
+
&
= 6^[e 
i{l
2e)]
The expression
(116) for the bending
moment now becomes
(117)
M.i)\l .2{\ .94
RETAINING WALLS
From
(115)
2^2
+
Sb
= (I
i) S.^^[l^^[eiil2e)]]
Note that p = w{l
—
i)
and that
(1
G =
for the
gh{l
+
c)
—
i)w.
. it is seen that the footing moment is / times the arm moment with I varying
from one to
onehalf.i)[e . as given in equation (110). the expression
where.
and
w =
kh
Using the value of h as found in equation bending moment (117) is finally
(90).i{l \\i 2e
(118)
2e)\\
(119)
Comparing the value of this moment as given in equation with that of the vertical arm.
For the exact analysis. Table 22 gives a set of
values for Q.
Toe Extension.
Fig.
of the footing. it is possible to wall in proceed with the definite final design. varying from zero to onehalf.
It is again necessary to
emphasize the fact that the shearing
and adhesion stresses must be ascertained. follows along lines similar to those of the preceding paragraphs. The dimensions of the wall are thus approximately determined. Referring again to Fig. (121)
QghU{l M'b =
where
2t"2[2
+
2i(l
6
Q =
The
with
toe footing
1
3e


2e)]
+i 
(122)
2e
Q
moment is thus Q times the arm moment.
if
—The approximate design
of the toe extension
such an extension is used. 45. For the approximate solutions now sought this refinement is unnecessary and taking moments about B
M'b = Sb
i%W/2 +
^'
~
^"
PkW =
(Sb
+
2Si)
^
(120)
and again replacing the
soil intensities
and k by
3c)
their values. 44 with the value of the soil intensities as previously found Sb is taken the same as in the design of the heel extension.REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS
95
the effects of these stresses. Laying out the
and with the
. the moments for the heel and the toe are taken at the intersection of the rear and face planes of the vertical arm respectively. Some problems at the end of this chapter bring out in detail these points.
outlines of the wall previously found.
— Graphical analysis
of reinforced concrete wall.
. freely supported at the ends. ~suppbr"ting walls are introduced between these members. the required thicknesses of these
members become
very largej* To reduce the sizes of the arm and of the footing. that as the walls increase
in height. These serve a function similar to that performed by the gusset plate on a through girder. Although. the location of the resultant and the soil pressure intensities are found and checked with the location and intensities of pressure assumed originally. 46. termed loosely. Jx(i+Cx)g This combination of counterfort. upon the strip in question.e. where the properties of the funicular polygon are utilized. i. anchoring the wall and base slab to each other.
wall and footing. generally. counterforts. The usual modes of
treating the wall
Fig. 45. the thrust may be found by the graphical methods or may. Several problems at the end of this chapter develop in greater detail the methods sketched here.
W
is
the
(b) The wall and footing are treated in strips as above. the moment
. will show. exactly speaking. no such exact analysis is attempted.:
—
96
RETAINING WALLS
accordance with these dimensions. forms a
quite
difficult
structure
to
analyze exactly and. Counterfort Walls. the moment at the support is WL/12.
follows
(a)
wall and the footing a series of independent longitudinal strips.
total weight acting
The bending moment is then WL/S. but the supports are taken as fixed at the counterforts. . With the thrust deter
mined. for this condition. 'A study of the expressions determining
—
the thicknesses of the
members
of the cantilever walls discussed
in the preceding sections. This is best found graphically as shown in Fig. at the
slabs
The
are
treated
as
composed
of
counterforts.
and base slabs
— Stresaes
of the counterfort wall are as
in a counter
forted wall. See Fig. 46. and that at the center of the beam is TFL/24. be taken with J = onethird as urged in Chapter I and then combined with the vertical weight of the earth on the projection of the back of the arm (if the arm be battered from the minimum practical width at the top to the required width at the base). once more.
no account is taken of the plate action that may exist in the slab.)g
"Vol. ^ It may be taken as a tension brace.
it is
in
understood that the other stresses.REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS
is
97
assumed alike at the WL/12. the two members
tend to mutually stay each other. by means of the rods contained in it. such as shear and adhesion are likewise to be ascertained. and. Prof. In the following work the
made an
counterfort will be treated as a cantilever beam. as a cantilever
forming the counterfort wall and
The design
of the counterfort itself
slab..
(123)
Ixx. simplicity of design should dictate the formulas to be used rather than an intricate analysis of questionable accuracy. Face Slab. Cain has exact analysis of a beam of this wedge shape (see his
"Earth Pressures. but it is difficult to make an estimate as to their degree of exactness. It is clear that there is considerable latitude permissible in
making
stress assjimptions
and
here again. will obtain here as have obtained in the former work on the design of the walls. is a matter of much controversy and practice is far from uniform here.S. the base slab and the wall slab to each other. If the slabs are designed as outlined
under
(o) and (6) the relieving action of the portion of the slab adjacent to the strip under question is ignored.
'See E. The intensity of earth pressure upon any horizontal strip (see Fig. anchored at the base and receiving its load from the wall stem of a "T" beam. Godfrey.C. reducing the possible deflection and thus the resulting stress.) but the theory of retaining walls and of earth pressures does not seem to justify such refinements of
design. p.
Not only
are
all of
the methods of stress computation above
discussed approximate. 57. or as the
beam. 46) at a depth x below the top of the wall is
of loading. Toward the junction of the base and the arm. the concrete merely acting as a protection to the steel. The same assumptions as to standard character
—
amount of earth thrust etc." etc. simply anchoring. it will be seen that these latter stresses may more often control the required dimensions than the bending moment stress. Method (b) is the one
center and at the support and of value
generally used in the design of the slabs
will
be used in the present text. Trans.
7
+
c.
While attention has been paid only to bending moments
discussing stresses. of
Jxil
discussion.
and accompanying
.E. That is. A. in fact.
so that v is the ratio between the distance from the top of the wall to the point in question and the total height of the wall. Footing. If is the counterfort spacing. and if the moment is as above
d
m
defined
WL/12. The shear (see equation 123). then Cx — h' /x = c/v. surcharge height h' to x and g is the unit weight of the earth.(l
+ OsmVSe
(124)
Placing X = vh. then
M
a.
(125)
of the slab. where c is the standard ratio between the surcharge height h' and the total height h. The mo
ment may now be placed
M=
As before
Equating
(see
^0
+
v)
gmySQ
moment
(125).
The use of the preceding formulas. control the thickness of the concrete and the spacing of the reinforce
ment. and may. in fact.98
RETAINING WALLS
is the ratio of the where J is to be taken at its usual value 3^. the resisting
condition of balanced reinforcement
this to the external
may be
placed equal to kcd^. is found to be
Ordinarily this depth
for
V = ^J X
From
m{l
+
Cx)g
=
is
g mh{c
+ v)g
(105) the necessary value of d
d
=
^M^)
(127)
Since the beams are comparatively short (the counterforts are generally spaced about 8 to 10 feet apart) it is quite likely that the unit adhesion stress will be high. for a
page 92). and the relative value of the several stresses and their effect upon the dimensions of the
member are illustrated in some problems at the end of the chapter.
moment
and solving
for d
is less than a certain minimum necessary good construction and a minimum depth of from 12 to 18 inches is usually specified to make the working conditions favorable for good concrete work (see later sections).—The loading upon the base slab is the net difference between the downward weight of the retained fill and the upward
.
Sx.
is
gh{l
+
c)
where the variables have the usual meaning as defined
in the
The
from
soil pressure intensity. the following
stronger actually required." p.
more
it is permissible to let the true or less.
99
lected. and
state of affairs color. the computations involved in
the design of this slab. the maximum deflection of the base slab will occur midway between the counterforts and toward the heel and the minimum at
The
. Since the downward load is.
not a uniform distribution of soil pressure. at a point x
from the heel
S.
slabs. the maxinet intensity of load occurs at the heel. It may again be emphasized. and the net
difference as stated
(In this
above does not exactly give the actual loads. where there is a maximum stiffness of base there will be less pressure (other things being equal) Accordingly for the counterfort walls. 157.
analysis. Again. Walls
Bins. This may be brought out algebraically as
will
likely
follows (see Fig. but not enough stronger to justify a highly refined analysis. distribution of soil pressures is of course conditioned upon the deflection of the base slab. with probably a
that a
little
excess section
may
be sacrificed to simplicity of
analysis. to all intents. there will be a net difference of pressure upon the base of considerable magnitude and directed in an opposite direction to the net pressure at the heel.
is. and since its intensity
So long as there
is
the
minimum upward
mum
be larger than the downward intensity of pressure. however.i so that at those portions.) The load distribution upon the slab is quite problematical.
the counterforts and toward the junction of the arm and footing These niceties of pressure distribution will not enter into the following treatment of the design of the base slab but they
should be borne in mind. 46)
The unit downward load
preceding pages.:
REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS
soil pressure. the maximum soil pressure occurs at the toe.
(39) after
makng the
proper substitutiens. uniformly distributed.
=
2ghil
+
c)(l

i)
[Se

1
+
3(1

2e)
^]
(128)
^A
and
discussion of this point
is
given in Cain "Earth Pressures. since Its
work the weight of the slab itself is negdownward weight is practically reflected in the upward soil pressure intensity caused by this weight. pressure occurs at the heel.
section of base than
method of design. gives a simple
is
Essentially.
.
of J.
(136)
is
to
Similarly to the design of the face slab. The depth of the face slab is governed by the
thickness required at the base of the arm.
with
(131)
=
Pi
=
ffA (1
+
c)/i
where
Ji
=
1

2(1

i)(3e

1)
(132)
toe.
and the maximum upward net pressure. P^. comparing equations (126) and (137). based
by the thickness required by the maximum value
.
gh{l
+

c)Jx
=
1

2(1

z)[3e
1
+
3(1

2e)]
is. the moment is
m
M = PtoV12
where the proper value of P from the preceding equations be used.
When the
resultant falls at the outer third point. the required depth of the slab. due to the bending moraent is
d
=
my/j^gh{l
+
c)/]2
(137)
upon the bending moment requirements ofily.
making the net downward load
Px
(129)
Px =
where
/. at the heel. there is
D
4
d. after placing v = 1. that of the base slab
A
theoretical comparison. the soil
zero and
within intensity at the end of the
c)
Pi
=
ghil
+
.
. or within the outer third the value of J^ is 1 enoting the respective required thicknesses of face and base slabs by rf„ and respectively.
(135)
The above equations determine the loads to be used in designing the longitudinal strips of the base slab and with the distance between the counterforts. at the
'
with x = w
(133)
P2 = ghil
Ji
+

c)
J2
with
=
1

2(1
z)(2

3e)
falls
(134)
When
heel
is
the point of application of the resultant
the outer third of the base.100
RETAINING WALLS
at the point x. The shear is P/2.
= 4V(l73/5
(138)
. may be had between the depths of the base and of the arm slabs. Pi.
(130)
The maximum net downward
X
pressure.
becomes
(139)
= 0. 
x. since it will
This relation.
intensity
At the point
gh{l
A
this intensity is equal to the
downward
+
c). is more of academic than practical be found that the thicknesses of these slabs
are controlled by factors other than the bending moments.584
interest. only. 46. and g the weight of the earth Using a value of 16. For the reasons given on the preceding pages no other refinement is desirable in treating this member. however. It is therefore necessary to provide anchorage for the portion of the base between A and B.)
^^^^^
the permissible unit steel stress. = mg
fs is
(^x
+
2h'
+ x. 51 of a section sufficient
by the loadings.
—The
counterfort
is
designed as a simple canti
lever beam. The point A is
To anchor
46) that
beyond the point
located as follows:
The
soil intensity
at
A
is
found from (128). For the face slab the necessary rod area to hold a strip of face bounded by the
to hold the stresses induced
two horizontal lines xi and Xa from the top of the wall.) {x. To anchor the slabs to the counterfort.
Counterfort. for which purpose
it is
of
some
practical application.
this relation
d. the form
yoU
the base slab to the counterfort it is noticed (see Fig. with m the distance between the counterforts. rods are placed as shown in Fig.000 pounds per square inch for fs and 100 pounds per cubic foot for g. this last equation takes
per cubic foot.
A.
Forming this equality.REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS
and with J^
101
=
1. A the slab and the counterfort are in compression. and taking the earth pressure coefficient
J
as
}^i is
(see Fig. 46). with effective depth e as
shown in Fig. and
1
solving for x

2(1

t)(3e
2e)
1)
^
or
~
'^
6(1

i){l

X
= Dw
(142)
. Later on this relation will serve a fairly useful purpose in obtaining relative economy of the several wall types.
it lies
and when
case.102
RETAINING WALLS
To facilitate the computation of D. The total rod area necessary to hold the portion of the slab AB to the counterfort is then that area required to Table 23.
the point of zero
intensity has been given
by equation
is
(41) of
Chapter
3e
and the
net difference in loading
1 1

(143)
.
For the former
2.
when the
point of appli
cation of the resultant force
within the outer third. Table 23 has been prepared covering a range of values of i and e.
without the
soil
oirter third.—Values op "D" hold the net difference in the
^\
upward and downward loadings between these two points.
Two
47)
lies
:
conditions exist (see Fig.
Table
24.
Valtjes op "E"
.—
REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS
The application
IS
103
of the
above expressions to
given at the end of the chapter.
is
(146)
the permissible unit steel
stress. The required rod area to hold the load
specific
problems
T
is
As = TIU
where/.
5 suggested by Cain. checking the
. retains an ordinaiy railroad fill subject to a surcharge of 600 pounds pei square foot. 6. and from (112)
way up
d
=
0. the resultant
feet
from the toe or exactly }4
of the distance
found to intersect the base 3. / = 0.40.2 and 2. wide. or 6 = tan"' (Ki) = 5° 40' = 6°. the rod section will be diminished to allow for the decreased moment.48. At the midpoint just investigated. as can be seen from Table 21.24. for c = 0. 48). with the top width a minimum practical width of one foot.05
and the thickness
At a point haUof the base will be taken as three feet.8. From Table 22. the moment determines the depth at this point. The value of the thrust T is. From Table 21 the shear and the bending moment require about the
With
is
same depth. from Table 2.
and triangular portions
(see Fig.2 kips
is
Graphically.
i
= =
0.28
For the sake of simplicity of forms. of height 25 feet.2
X
\/(l
+
144)
=
1.104
RETAINING WALLS
Problems
1.
loam on which four tons per square foot is allowable (see Table 7). It is placed along the easement The soil is a sandy line. / = 1.6) to the horizontal. From Table 1. From table 3.
the location of the resultant
e
2/3

40/93
0. Enough data has now been gathered to prepare an exact and final design. and as a counterforted reinforced concrete wall
is
desired. namely 3' 0" This thickness will be maintained to the end of the heel.
With
the above data c
i
=
=
6/25 or 0. The weight G of the supei imposed earth on the footing is 22 ). B = 0.118) the required depth will be y/l times the depth necessary for the arm (siBce the arm depth here is that practically demanded by the moment).
page 83.
—
Note here that the exact length
ance having been
of the
arm
is
now
considered. In the final design of the wall. A design as a "L" shaped cantilever. but less than the Adopting this value of e. and the depth will be the same as that required of the arm at its base. with
H
=
31 and
=
0.0033
X
252
X
1. See page 57.40 X 22 = 8. 18 the required value of k is 0.5 from the toe.1
=
30. Prom (111.
The weights of the footing and of the rectangular of the arm are respectively. whence Bh = 0. A wall.3. the wall will be given an unbroken batter from the coping to the base. proper allow
made
for the thickness of the footing. the thickness will then be two feet. beyond which no encroachment is permissible. a satisfactory one according to Hool.27. and is inclined at an angle of 15° (9 .8 kips.6 = 28 X
is
two
feet in
11
X
0. the factoi of safety against overtarn2 (Table 17).
The batter
of the
back
twentytwo feet.345 and B = 9°.
is
From
(93). since i = 0.28 feet.48
=
3. bracing and rods.24
ing
this value of e and with i = 0. Footing. the wall for which c = %25 = 0. 16 kips. 2.
Using the shear equation
d
(113)

0.57 and accordingly the base will be made 14 ft.0185 "X 44. from (14). in place of the required 1.
REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS
first
105
horizontal and vertical components of the resultant found graphically ate respectively 15.
=
^^
(2
.75) =
8.
.8 and 46. With the latter
assumption.
The
value and using equation (39) S.3 kips. a permissible
variation from the 4 tons or 8 kips assumed.0.5 kips.
0021.5. 48.i.)
Equating the resisting moment to the external bending moment and replacing c by its value 6/x. = 16. d = 40". again. on is.000d
=
16.0075 X 32 X 12 = 2.5x.73. which is not good practice. Since a further reduction in the spacing would place the rods 24" apart.
apart. = 0.0043. and for balanced reinforcement. 0.0075 X 34 X 12 = 2.2160=
which
is satisfied by a. = f.
Footing. the 12" spacing will be continued to the top of the arm.
The
steel area is
M
. Note that the moment at B is very nearly equal to the arm moment at B. there results a cubic in x
a. at a point 15' below the top of the arm the rods will be spaced 12" apart. and a = = ^^°'OQOX 12 ^ thicker concrete will be assumed. at what point it will be possible to reduce the steel section to oneinch bars at 12" spacing.88 square inches. is found to be.89
X
40
X
^
8
at what to space the rods 12" the expression (110) or
The
permissible stress
it is
is
80 pounds per square inch. where k.
^^^
then 2 square inches and one inch bars spaced 6" apart will be used.500X12
12
X
40"
—
.000 X 12 X 40" = 635 inch kips or 53 foot kips! Plotting this value upon the moment diagram of the footing.
The resisting moment is given by Af = k. the resisting moment of such a steel section. a rather heavy reinforcement.
i. affording another check upon the approximate method. To analyze the footing stresses. with p = 1/(12 X 40) = 0.pj.
= 106. pj may be taken equal to p. and with /.000 (9
+
1. For small values of p. With
—
d
40. then.004 and the required percentage of steel is 0.004 X 40 X 12 = 1.bd'. a moment diagram has been drawn in Fig.3
+
1SC2
_
360j. the resisting
moment becomes
M
=
16. With Mb = 110 foot kips.
fc.e.000 =
0. = 15.0021 X 16.•
T
fc. To determine.—
RETAINING WALLS
is
106
steel area required at B is 0. from
The
This
the properties of the section
.
p
=
1/bd..000 pounds per square inch.7(1
+
Sc)x'
taken as 12". since the thickness of the base is kept constant. note that the external
moment
is
given by
M
Since the coping width of the wall x is
is
=
66. If a thicker wall is assumed. and noting that since the area of steel is to be one square inch. it is found that at a point 6 feet from the heel it is possible to reduce the rod section to one
and pj
=
69/16. then.UUU ^ Ranannn
The steel area 0. depth is 34" This again demands too heavy a reinforcement for efficient handling. the required The necessary amount of steel is 0.
To determine
point
possible to stop one half of these rods.4 per cent.92 square inches and 1 inch square bars 6" centers will give the necessary area.
."^
^^
bb/lb. the effective thickness at any point
d
= 9"
+ ~
(40

9)
=
9"
+
1. necessitating great expense in handling and placing bars. The unit adhesion is
12.g. e.400
. Accordingly.
In selecting rod systems.
mixed and rammed concrete. ^^"^ ^°° = 0.98 kips. It will be seen later that this thickness will be controlled by a thickness necessary to get a practical spacing of rods for adhesion. h = 25. with balanced reinforcement taken as 12". both spacings and sizes. Chapter IV.
field conditions. The dimensions of the separate members as now found are less than those of the cantilevered wall.
.
"
i?52
0.
and a minimum
pour concrete in a wall this thickfor the height as given thickness of 12" will be adopted.004.73 feet. and since that wall as finally designed agreed with the approximate dimensions it is clear that the counterforted wall. that small sizes of rods are relatively more expensive than to the larger sizes. it is necessary to place a 6" projection at the toe and into the footing as
shown in Kg. for reasons. With a but. is from (125) 8.5 feet). h = 16.7 feet. For the reasons outlined above.265. The spacing of the secondary rod system
for shrinkage.89
5
= 4900 pounds.48 of 0. Counterforted Wall.
p.000. in confusion cause
on paper by
chapter. Adopting the economical' spacing of ten the counterforts. and wall thicknesses.3 kip feet.9 square inches
80
1
See problem. outlined above the thickness will be in pouring concrete wall of this thickness the utmost care must be exercised insure a well See Chapter VIII for the precautions to be used to into it. and p = With a depth to steel of 10". will likewise agree and it will not be necessary to recheck the outline
Vs
dimensions of the section. settlement
and
temperature will be discussed in a later chapter. working space to it must be borne in mind that there must be sufficient pour the concrete. To develop the adhesion in the vertical and horizontal rods. 50. h = 8300 X 12/12 X 100 = 83 rods on which inches. which gives a required area
The total shear is 980 X
i?52
0.
and
with at the base of the vertical slab (here h = 23. which must
be carried out 50 thicknesses or 4' beyond the point of maximum moment.
times that From (139) the required thickness of the footing slab is required of the vertical slab.REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS
107
inch bars 12" apart.
—
feet for
d
It is impractical to
=
0. from (126).89
=
X
10
X
6.
150. before the depth for this moment. square H" 0. there will be no further increase in this spacing. is
discussed
more
in detail in the
foUowmg
The moment
c
=
. that many variations in both length and spacing tend section economical the of limitation This construction. As P = 
^
is 0. and the unit shear from =
45 pounds per square inch
12
(105)
is
X
10
X
which
is
section wUl be maintained from (106)
„
stress of 40 pounds that the so slightly in excess of the permissible The area required for adhesion is as assumed. with v = I.
At fe = 10
feet.
Footing. To take care of the equal but negative moment at the counterfort.5 feet from the heel and thence.
the periphery required for adhesion
3.2 X
is
_
80
thus 30
and the
is. 23 with i = and e = J^. the same spacing will be maintained on the inner face of the vertical slab. 1 From (134) /j = 1 .5 X 100 X 28 = 4200 lb. since r
value of
rods. since 5 inches are required for adhesion the spacing at the base will be maintained beyond this point. For the portion between the midpoint and the vertical arm it is reasonable to assume that the slab is supported on three edges ^the counterfort edges and the vertical arm and that such support is uniformly distributed along such edges.P.88
3100X5 X 7. the %inch square rods will be spaced on 5inch centers to a point 3.7
which cannot be readily and practically provided. To avoid many changes in the spacing of the rods.%) = 1. while that required for adhesion
found to be 5 inches.5 The area required for the bending moment is accordingly 0. . to the midpoint on 10 inch spacing.
is
At A = 10
feet.
At h = 15.6 inches. For adhesion
—
3100
.108
RETAINING WALLS
of the rods
The adhesion stress thus governs the spacing
5" apart
kips.5. is from (138) 18".88
X
16
X 5 = X 80
13.2
slab
is
then. Eddy's brilliant little book on the "Theory of
tangular Plates. is 3100 pounds. At ^ = 5' the required wUl not permit a further reduction in the spacing of the There will thus be J^" square rods spaced on 5" centers from
r
the base to A = 10 feet and ten inch spacing from there to the top of the wall.8 kip feet and the shear is 700 X 5 = 3. Since the rods must be carried beyond the point of zero moment (approximately the quarter point) the rods on the inner face will be made five feet long centered at the
counterforts. It is seen that the adhesion stress will determine the spacing of the rods throughout the arm.
The point where the upward and downward
intensities balance
each other
from (142) and Table No. since the intensity
is
zero at the midpoint. Conversely since it is desirable to use a rod not exceeding the section of %" rod whose minimum spacing is 6" on center. The net weight on the footing excluding the excess weight of the masonry over the earth.8
and at
ft
=
5
the required periphery for adhesion is 2.
The
total length of supporting edge
2
X 7+
may
Rec
1 For an interesting discussion of this modification of plate theory it be well to consult Prof. As before a depth to satisfy the bending moment. At h = 15. d is found
d
=
0. at the midpoint' or seven feet from the end of the heel."
.
feet. with the corresponding adhesion stresses.
total
depth of the footing slab
+ 2"
=
32".18 square
is
inches.
and
%" rods spaced
will give the required periphery of section.2(2 . the moment is 5. The total net load between the counterforts reacting
—
—
upward upon the
4.
= 3.8 the rods may be spaced on 10" centers.
is
X
7
X
9/2
=
132 kips. = 1.
Designed as a cantilever beam.
=
41. with the radius of the curve 30t.140 kip feet
its
the cantilever
Assume. For the next five feet the required amount of requisite steel is 1. From the midpoint to the heel the rods on the lower face will be carried for the full length and those on the upper face will be extended five feet on either side of the counterfort. Therefore three %" Us as previously detailed will provide the remaining bond rods. with a value of F = 130. 51 satisfy the requu'ements of this portion. of the lower part 1.
Therefore two
=
^
(5 h 12)
X
5
=
0. the moment at the base .001 and the required area
2 square inches.9. Investigating the unit adhesion.
be bent in going into the base slab is 30 X IM = 3' 0".
kc
e of
=
130
X
0. the unit adhesion is found to be 85 pounds per square inch. For the five feet below this section A.89
80 X 30 square inches. Thus from the midpoint out to the heel the rods on the lower face will be carried full length and those on the upper face five feet beyond the counterfort. To anchor the face slab to the counterfort. it is found that.39
is
X
14'. It is then sufficient to carry the H.
To anchor
these rods into the base
it is
necessary to carry
them
fifty thick
nesses or about five feet into the foundation.
X
=27
—
M
The depth
as 1.
22
=
1. a permissible variation from the allowable 80 pounds. and three %" Us as shown in Fig. The remaining
space from 15' to 22' is divided into two parts. If two 1}4:" bars are used.
making p = 0.REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS
9
109
=
23 feet and the shear per linear foot
is
is
5.
For this reeison an extension will be buUt into the foundation two feet below the slab and carried six The radius to which the rods must inches on either side of the counterfort.27. With c = %2 = 0.000 pounds. tentatively." rods on 10" spacing to the toe of the base. = 1.
The bars must
be bent to a radius of 15".
thickness
is
of steel in square inches Therefore two inch square bars are ample to take care of the moment in this counterfort. it will be necessary to adopt the expedient of bending the rods into a U.
For a 30" slab the unit
u shear
.V then
5700
gg
x
12
X
30
"
^^
'^'
°°iisiderably
below the allowable
and the periphery
of rod required for adhesion
is
^^
. The rod spacing will be duplicated on the opposite face to take care of the negative moment and reversed stresses.89
H"
Us give
sufficient
bond
for this length. the unit adhesion is 110 pounds. is then TBh.4 and two ^" rods bent to a i7 with radius of 18" provide the bond. since the thickness of the face slab does not permit a straight extension of the rods into it. the area of the first part is found to be 1.9.6. with the thrust taken for a length m of the wall. To gee the necessary rod area to anchor the heel portion of footing to the and counterfort (the portion from the midpoint to the heel) from (144)
.7 kips.39 and h = 22. B = 0. From (141) for the top five feet of the wall A. Counterfort. T = 10 X 13 = 130 kips.0 feet.
see Fig. one on either side of the counterfort 32 are required.119
K
is
from
(34)
~^ 1.33 the total load to be held by these rods is 10 X 100 X 28 X 0. the thrust is then 10.
. 49. 10. of the footing. from (146) 129/16 = 8.6
Fig.
assume no tracks loaded. allowing no friction uponthe back of the = 0.0.
2. Using )4 square rods.5 foot spacing. Assume that all tracks but the wall track are loaded. 51). Modify the preceding problem to carry a railroad track system with wall track 8 feet away from the face of the wall and the other tracks on 12.33 X 14 = 129 kips.64 = .
For
face.286 wall. then
affected. Fig. 49 shows the force system on the
K
wall for this case. but it seems better practice to carry the rods for the full height of the portion of the counterfort affected (see
Fig.no
RETAINING WALLS
Table 24 with £? = 0.
Te.64 54 tan a = tan 6° 0. the surcharge extends to 14 feet fronj As above 6 = 6° and from (32) of Chapter I
the wall
The proper value of a to use in determining the coefficient with y = 14/22 = 0. The depth of the footing is ample to develop these rods in adhesion without any special detail and they will be carried to two inches from the bottom. Theoretically they need be carried into the counterfort the same distance. 13.1 square inches. With 6" spacing 15 spaces will carry the rods beyond the midpoint.
this case. The steel area is then.04
whence
a
7°
From
and
table No.6 kips.O
T=I0. In what way is the pressure upon the footing and do any of the stresses exceed those for the case of all tracks
loaded (the former case)?
Doffed Li'msshov Force Polygon for No Surface Loading.
51. e for the former condition
is
0. with = 0. no loading upon the surface.
Lower Face Footing
Fig.
— Cantilever
wall. Pig. the thrust becomes. 50.28 and
B =
37.
For the
37.
— Counterfort
wall.
Fig. 52.REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS
111
For the second condition. 49 shows the force system
K
for this case.
Upper Face
Footing
— Rod
layout counterfort wall.5. (38) Si for the former is 0.
From
Fig. r = 8 kips. 49.33 and c = 0.
I
no
ZI4 Bars
140
Fig.35 second condition e square 6750 pounds per square foot and for the latter is 5000 pounds per
=
and R =
From
.
both the exact Fig.
53.6
Refer to Figs. Fig. may be used.761
u
2.25
X
3]'
10. .i)wh
+
'
=
0. c —cos <i>.5 v/1. assume that the resultant intersects the base at the outer third point. With aoe making an angle of 35°.
in place of the graphical
method
of obtain
ing the thrust. 52 of the vertical and
base slabs.023«))
(A)
.
algebraic
geometric method outlined in the problem at the end of Chapter 1. n = cot^ 0.iywHan 35° G = g{\ .e.3.43J
=
13.
J. For the condition of no surcharge. A later chapter will indicate such distributions.
= sin <t>. p = sin and/ = 3. m = 1.
The em
<#>
H
T =
2
xx [1. The value of i is determined graphically.112
foot.43.v= —cos 0. the line forming the equivalent triangles as
shown
in Fig. n = —cot 35° cot (^ = — TO = 1 and/ = —2. ^ 100X400 ^ 4 ^ g^g _ 1^1.875^ + 0.
retain
301
to a surcharge live load of 750 pounds per square foot. and the approximate expressions for the thrust.
=
0. p
^
=
sin
X2.with the on page 14 may be employed. 53.
7g"
3. d = cot (t>. i = Y^.5. the compromise.67 w(2
+ 0. angle i = 30° 6 = 0' = and <^ = 30°. as given Exactly.
its use. which
15). h = 20 and tan 35° = 0. I.7 the weight G has the value g(l . that i=e.
In neither of the sketches are the temperature and check rods shown. The expression for the thrust is then
20'
(j>
embankment bankment is subject
ing an
shown
in Fig. Fig. « = = —3. is
not to be used (see page
value
T
=
(1
I
2c)
=
13. 50 gives the detailed layout of the "L" shaped cantilever.5. Noting that g = 100. The foundation pressure must not exceed 5000 pounds per square foot. 54. From Eq. the triangles afo and obe are equivalent. as the condition of economy. 22 L =
Fig. 51 gives the rod layout of the counterfort and Fig. gives a
since c
0.
l/cos^
4>
<t>.5

0.
A "T"
shaped cantilever wall
as
is
to
be built. In addition. 54. L = l/cos" (^ = 4/3.43. With this value the thrust may be determined as above. m = sin (^.52
+
0. Determine the proper wall dimensions and details. 42 and 53 assuming.
RETAINING WALLS
It is obvious that the analysis of the first problem will require no modification of stress distribution because of these latter conditions.
A variation from
the true value too excessive to permit of For the condition of a live load surcharge.5.7
The approximate method.
so far as the arm h.
The
—
The moment of at the third point or 4' 6" from the end of the toe.2
= IGlw =
40. 2' 6" from the toe or the heel cantilever is then taken at a point 4' 6" 6' 6" from the end of the heel.5. the bending moment becomes
20.44
=
15.
projection of the toe beyond the face of the wall is 4' 6"tentatively that the thickness of the base and of the vertical ar i at
is
The
Assume
its
base
two
feet.5. on the assumptions previously Footing.4
The shear
is
20.4/13.5/2
x
2. The face of the vertical arm is.
point of application
footing. 18 feet.000/5040
=
2.023U)'
which is satisfied by the and from (39)
Si
root.
T
and
for
its
=~X
18^
is
13.
The bending moment
d
onethird of ^ or 6 feet above the top of the is then 11 X 6 = 66 and with k = 16.
w =
13.
G =
20.500/5040 = 3.2
=
55.2
=
1.5
=
3 kips.25

h^^^^
X
6. the required depth on account
moment
is
=
\/(66/l6)
=
2.2 and again assuming that it is directed over the center of the heel cantilever.
Introducing the values above.000 pounds and the depth to satisfy this amount
d
=
11.2
X
3.
The
is
thiust.REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS
Taking moments about
0.03
is
The shear
is
11.5 — — X 13.08
.
Evidently the shear
will control the
depth required and
d
15.18
The thickness of the vertical arm at its base may be taken as 2' 6" back will be battered to a top thickness of one foot.44. for the purposes at
hand may be assumed
to
vary
as the square of
is
concerned
Since the effective height of the wall.
Taking the approximate value of G as 20.6
=
11.000
of
balanced reinforcement. At this point.
113
of application of the weight
and noting that without serious error the point may be taken at the middle of the base
G(l

i)w/2
=
Th/3. the
made
+
soil intensity is
6. this equation becomes
(1
—
i)w
(B)
and with
i
=
}i
G =
Equating (A) and
273/u)
(B). since Si is 3000 pounds. there results a cubic in
w
410 = 2w^
+
0.5
3
=
1.
With
this value oi w.
t6. so that
+ G2
17 17 17
=
12.5.
(2

0. The weight of the masonry has been divided into the triangle Gi and the rectangles Gi and Ge.7 160 = 2.
with
c
=
17.O3 [2.07
X X X
With the forces as above found the polygon is drawn in the usual manner.114
RETAINING WALLS
(See Fig.
'
Gi G2
= =
9 6
X X
4.0)
=
0.12)
=
3.5 X 160 = 6.55 13. 65.4/16) =
d
is
8.5/17
=
1.
10.55 150 = 2.77
.9
X
5.
6. see Fig.00
and ^2 =
~
(1.65 feet above the top of footing.06
X
3
This will be applied at a point 17/3 or 6.2

1.
thrust
is
The
found from equation
(22).14 kips.75
X
17
X
100/2 100
= =
2.
j^
Arm.
+
1.
S.)
Whence take 3' as the required thickness of base. The actual value of k is 5.03^^. 55.
Fig.6/13.3
= 2 X = 1 X Gs = 1 X Ge = 3 X
G3 G4
100/2 = 1.4
and the
depth to satisfy this
1.03
and
^ = T
The weights
100
X
17^
X3I2.4 and R = 26. It is now possible to proceed with the exact design.75
Vertical
— The moment of the thrust
moment is d = V(50.03'
A. The weights
are:
.2 kips.78
is
The shear
is
8900 and the corresponding depth required
= 8900/5040 =
1. and the location and amount of the resultant pressure is found. of the earth has been divided up into the triangles dbc = Gi) ade = Gs and the lectangle dcfe = Gi.2.65
60.
the two
Note that the two above act in practically the same may be added and treated as one force
Gi
vertical line. 55.6 = 0.
0075.i
h
= =
15. note that at the points 15'.
10'
d d
= 19" = 16"
and
p p
= =
1/(19 1/(16
X X
12)
12)
= =
0. this
to the top of the arm.2
Plotting these two values on the moment diagram. it will be found that one half of the rods are sufficient to carry the stress. incorrect. Fig.0042 X X 0. distribution of
1
function of
excessive pressures thus found.
Mii = Mio =
6.5 10..9
X X X
5
3.
oneinch rods at
. spacing will be continued top of the base slab. strictly speaking..17
2.75'
=
3.5 feet above the The sixinch spacing will then be stopped at a point 5' above the footing. allowing 3" for a protective concrete coat.59'
1.0047 X
16.9 1.17. 55. is equal to the external bending moment at a point approximately 4.
=
0.0052
resisting
The corresponding values of pj are 0.000 16.0044
0.
2. tion counterbalances the slightly
.5'1
'
=
0. the amount steel required is
A.3
1.REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS
'
115
The required depths are thus identical and the total thickness of slab at the base of the arm will be 2' 0".17'
=6. expressed in footpound units. the rods from this point on may be carried on 12 inch spacing. it is seen that the resisting moment of oneinch rods on twelveinch centers. for balanced reinforcement the steel ratio is 0. To obtain the thrusts for the moment.0042 and moments are then.e. As previously explained.67
= = =
34.0047.
and the
Mu
= Kio =
144 144
X 0.33'
= =
24.
100
100
100
X
2
15'
4
^3
10'
.
0.89.5' + 3 X
3.5.3
Ms =
0.0075
X
21
X
12
=
1. 55.
While this is.75

^'\/ 2.5
At some intermediate point along this arm.75'
+ +
3
X
1.9
'
1
10

X
2
^
5'
4
3
3
X
1.9 3.000
X X
1.75 and 3. The values of the thrust are then
ii5_.
assuming again that the thrusts are }i of the distance
above the point
in question.3
19. since the thrust is not a linear there be a triangular h. which condition is the necessary one that problem with that assumpthe handling ease of the pressure. 1.3
X
2
4
^'
^3
["4.5

2^ 4. Since. 7^ before the width of the wall at With a spacing of 12 inches for the the coping will be taken as 12 inches.
section. 10' and 5' from the top of the wall the corresponding values of the surcharge ratio are 1. i.9
The moments
are.
Spacing 1 inch square bars (deformed) 6" apart will furnish the necessaryAssuming that there is a triangular distribution of pressure.17'
^"\ 2. ' the moment diagram is shown in Pig.
the dead load will be 75 pounds per square foot. For the reinforcement of the vertical arm. or 3" thick. For balanced reinforcement
required
is
=
d
=
v/(790/16.116
Footing. Toe.22
X
4.5
X
3
X
150
=
is (?i G2 base slab (maintaining the thickness first 2. The steel ratio is then 0.22 kips.
The upward
soil
pressure
is
1 3 X 6.
With 2" protective concrete over the rods the total thickness
.003
then 0.0023.3)4.
—
M
and the shear
is
=
(3
^^
t t^i^^^'
= =
26.8 kip feet
+ 2. Since a 1" bar requires four feet to develop its tension by adhesion.
The
moment
for the heel is thus
15.
found)
heel
is
is
6.
(eilective) of 27". 56 shows the complete section of wall.3 kips.9 kips.22. it will be necessary.5/16.
Vi
With the net depth
=
31. The rods necessary for shrinkage and temperature stresses have not been shown.0023 and the area 0.000) =0.9 kips
As before the shear requirement
will control the
depth of the section
d = 11. which usual manner of pouring the wall is practically mandatory.
fc.33
in view of the
The same thickness of both heel and toe will be used. 4. Assuming that the concrete bracket will be 6" thick.
With a pro
tective concrete over the rods the thickness of the heel slab will
as 30".18.2 kip feet
for shear is 2. making the entire load upon the bracket 175 pounds per square foot. 57.
The shear
which
is
15.5 and
section of rods becomes 0. for a given stretch to provide a footwalk as shown in Fig.
The required depth.80 X 12 12 X 272
_ ~
^^
37/16.003.0023 X 27 X 12 = 0. an extension 1' 0" wide and 1' 6" deep will be built into the foundation to provide the required length. At the toe the cantilever moment is
42.
RETAINING WALLS
— The force acting upon the base slab over the heel
The weight
of the
or 12.25

4.003 and the necessary Oneinch rods spaced twelve inches apart will provide the requisite steel area and this spacing will be carried out to the end of the heel. The total downward load upon the
+
15.9/5040
=
2. the heel rods will be carried four feet beyond the rear face of the vertical arm and the toe rods four feet beyond the front face of the vertical arm.2
X
4.
_ "'and vj
26.
steel ratio is
=
=
The
X
27
X
12
=
0.2/2.
of slab is 5". 1inch bars spaced twelve inches apart will provide the steel reinforcement.5 —'— = —
—
4.2
—
=
11 kips.83.000
0. design the bracket to carry this walk.000 =0.97 square inches. is greater
than that required for the moment. In the wall of problem 1.2 kips.2
3.33
=
31. Without changing the outlines or the design of the wall proper.5/2
11. subject to a live load of 100 pounds per square foot.
clearly.252
=
be taken 42. Fig.
To provide the necessary bond the J^" rods will be bent as shown and carried into the vertical arm. The pressure at the base of the vertical slab is JghiX .
excessive and the depth of section must be increased at the cantilever junction between the wall and bracket a fillet is placed as shown in Fig.51 X giving a value of fc from Table 18 of 0.1 = 1.
and }i inch square
rods.REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS
The required
steel area
is
117
0. the unit adhesion at the point D is of that above found or 70 pounds per square inch. is to take a surcharge
of
sion. From Table 17 the factor of safety is found to be two.04
. and the foundation rock e may be taken equal to K.1 12 X 16.
A counterforted wall. 12" apart will provide the required steel section.83
1. Assume that the counterforts will be spaced ten feet apart.1 X 0.
From
(126)
/l
=
The depth
for shear
is
in
\3
d
100 X 50 X 1.
The unit shear
is
The
unit adhesion.0075
X
3
X
12
=
0.51.
500 pounds per square foot. With i = 0.89X3X12 = with r = 2.
3
= . is
'
1^ P°""'*'
=
is
525
X
3
X
2
= 98 pounds per square
inch.
If at
%
/feinforcemen^
y'of YirHccU^rm
Fig.
This latter value
this point. 57. 50 = 25' 6". 56.
Fig. 57. The width of base is thus 0.
B. The easement does not permit a toe extenDetermine the general wall outlines from the approximate formulas
'
given and design a counterfort made up of a steel truss.27.83
5.000
1.0
=
X
5
=
1.33 X 50 X 1.83
kips per square foot.c) = 0. resting upon a rock bottom.
dimensioned The main body of the slab will then be taken as 2' 9" as shown in Fig.
.5
X
—— ——
1. 58.5
X
16
The
or
stress
minus
as
polygon is drawn as shown and the stresses are denoted plus they are. The skeleton outline The loads at the panel points A.
2
2
+
. C are.89
X
=
8
49"
To avoid the use of so heavy a slab throughout the base.
Fig.„ ^12
. spaced 6" apart are to be used. respectively tension or compression. B.83X16.„.
The design
is
of
sions just found
the counterfort proper (note that a final check of the dimen is omitted in actual practice such omission is poor design)
—
of
most conveniently made by graphical methods.. The vertical
. later that the thickness of the face slab at the base be controlled by the necessary dimensions of the member composing the The thickness of the base slab is controlled by vertical arm of the truss. If 1" square bars.
allowing for the ten foot spacing of counterforts
„ n
P"
=
1.
thick.. 58.83
28
X
16
. 58. then the depth necessary to satisfy the limiting adhesion stress of 80 pounds per square inch is
d
=
80
5500
X
5
X
0.
7
X
16
2
X
5. a fillet of concrete will be placed at the junction of the base and counterfort.5X16 ^+ g

„
„
7 X 16 5.
118
RETAINING WALLS
will It will be found.
p
12. the depth necessary for the adhesion stresses.5 X 16 6""" + ~^r~ +
.
—
.5
X
15
5. the truss is shown in Fig.
— Counterfort
wall.
X
5 6
X
16
=
.
15
.
foot. 4 Ls 6 X 3.5 tons and
6.5 X ^ M.5 X 2 Ls 6 X 6 X Ke 2 Ls 6 X 6 X Kg 2 Channels 15" 40#
Since the
% H
member
AB is
subject to bending only. be assumed that the truss work is either encased. Web plate 18X%.
Mci =
llAJA^ =
424
ft. Modulus 138 X ^Ke = 103 plate 15 X %. to let the concrete take the load from the steel adhesion so that the member carries only the bending load. must carry the slab reactions.
kips kips
kips
= lO^je" ^ 320 ft. M.
ag. subject to a surcharge of 6 feet.
gross section are necessary because of rivet holes.
A
to rest
upon a
H
. 24 feet high. = 320 X ^Ke = 240 EB M = 320. These moments are
Mat
Afj.4Ls6X6X ^He FD M = 424. S. or is coated with gunite. and i = e From (95). long column.
M = 138 Sect. It is the practice.
ij^6 inch open holes will be assumed.
will
Such practice
be adopted here.000 pounds per square That ia compression.REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS
members
the
of the face
119
moment induced by
and the horizontal member of the base.
counterforted wall.
for
members member by
thus stressed.
28
. = 424 X iJie = 318
AB. = 30 feet.
5
^ ^
M
"""
_
r.
not given of the connections.
=
4 3
V
„ O
1fi2
=
138
ft.5
X
2 is 6 X 3. The vertical arm and the base arm are buried in concrete.
stress in tension will be assumed to be 16.
Web
The
plate 24
X M.
Where deductions from
not shown here. 4 Ls
6
X
6
X%.5
of the design
is
X
3.
The actual work
2 Ls 3.
Web
S. 12. member by member in concrete.
The unit
inch. with Si = 2.000 pounds per square inch. is soil capable of holding not more than 6000 pounds per square Determine the general wall outlines and design the toe extension. etc. or other preparation of similar
details are
It will
nature.
5(0. 209.m. Journal Western Society of Engineers.5 kips.16/0.
is
From
the location of the point of zero intensity of
found at
=
= I j^
4.44)
=
1..
The
center of gravity of this loading may be found the value of c is 7.
For shear
d=
16.0014.
required becomes 0. includshear.
The
following
is
a
list of articles
of
Vol. etc.3. England). namely 80 pounds per square inch.6. ing the protective concrete over the steel rods
\^4'0'4<.
'
^""/P^. Engineering & Contracting. Recent Retaining Wall Practice.
pressure
heel.40'>
^iu be
3'
6".
„
. the section as used is developed and not merely the stress existing in it) the bars will be carried by the face of the vertical arm for 50 X
M
=
4
feet. 146. In a later chapter these rod systems will be completely detailed.. is
16. Vol. 61.47 and the location of the force is 1. It must be again emphasized that in none of the preceding problems have
the secondary rod systems. Since. p.600X2. = 28. This is subThe area of steel stantially the steel ratio p.
.
a. 26.
The toe as finally laid out is shown in Fig. for the proper adhesion stress.
'
_ 16.000 = 0. been shown. the periphery of steel necessary square inches.. 59. From (39) Si = 4. with reference to these problems.88 from the toe.
=
soil
first
30 X 9.
Tables for Reinforced Concrete Walls. xlii. 59. 59..
FiG. little error would have resulted in taking the center of gravity
at the center of the load. 1915.8/4.:
120
RETAINING WALLS
22
0.
=
3. Engineering Record.600/5040
is less
The moment requirement
and
the depth chosen will be that required by the The total thickness of the toe. Reinforced Briclfwork.fi3k
^tMx4=16.1
The loading upon the toe extension is shown in Fig. mches.89
X
39
X
—
80
6 sq.600
0. Bibliography
Standard Design
on reinforced concrete walls 5516 Linear Feet of Wall. Vol. Based on Fluid Pressures of 20 and 26. 9 to 24 Feet in Height.^
I
I
by
aid of Table
noting that
0. for temperature.6 Pounds per Cubic Foot. July 2.63 feet
from the
3. p.0 = 2 approx. The Engineer (London.89.9 kips checking the
(41).66 Taking j again as 0.
. Steptoe Smelter.
B =
The
total load is
/'^>i/.
This latter requirement controls the selection of the reinforcement and J^ inch square bars spaced on 6" centers will be used.5 X assumption. to develop the stress (and in accordance with the principle of the proper detailing of structures. whence
/3ig« .12 X 12X39^
12
^
and pj = 23/16.0014 X 39 X 12 = 0.
73. April 6.
p. 1910. Some Economical Types of Retaining Walls. 72. Engineering &
Vol.
Reinforced Concrete Retaining Walls. Railway Age Gazette. 21. E.
1912.
1917. Engineering News. Cornell Civil Engineer.
. (See Also Bibliography in Appendix. 1913.
p. Vol. p. xxxiv.
Walls for Yale Bowl. Dec. Lining a Stream Channel.
Maximum
Height 42 Feet.REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS
Design
of
121
Retainiag Walls. March. Vol. Engineering and Maintenance of Way. 997. Godfrey.
Counterforted Walls with Structural Steel Frame. Vol. Engineering News. 72. Enginemng News. 776.
Counterforted Walls.
The Design of Counterforted Walls. 1258. March.)
Contracting.
In a finished wall. 60.
It is essentially a gravity type.— Cellular
wall.
Theoretically the wall
without a base. The principles governing its outlines are thus idenwith those governing the outlines of the rectangular gravity walls. and
to avoid unsightly settlement.
Occasionally.
To
insure no possi
bihty of failure during construction or at some later date in consequence of an adjacent excavation. Such walls_are described briefly
tions are such that these general types are inapplicable
below. with the correct allowance made for the reduced stability moment. it is well to make the rear
wall like the face wall. For the base. complete with the fill outside
an earth
and
inside.CHAPTER
IV
VARIOUS TYPES OF WALLS
The types
of
walls
discussed in the previous
chapters are
those generally used in engineering practice.
The design of the separaite members is identical with the method used in the design of the several members composing the counterf orted wall. when such is used. condi
and it becomes necessary to devise special types to meet the peculiarities of the given environment. to insure
may be built an even distribution of
upon the bottom. the interior concrete replaced
by
\
I
V//////1
a
Tt
Fig.
pressure
Practically. the rear wall is
under no pressure.
—A type
of wall insuring
a light foundation
is
pressure approaching a uniform distribution
shown
in Fig.
aJ
Section aa
Plan
60. the slab
should be designed for the net difference between the upward
122
.
Cellular Walls. a
base
is
generally used.
tical
fill.
a hollow cellular wall may be used. 61. Its stability is
—
_. Prior. by J. Vol.
123
given in Engineering
A description of a wall of this type is & Contracting.VARIOUS TYPES OF WALLS
and downward
loads. 35. H.
. To insure even lighter soil pressures than given by the type previously discussed. as described in Fig.
Hollow Cellular Walls. p. 530.
It is
pointed out in this article that the
. to diminish the load upon the base. The walls are thinned down towards the top and a circular segment is cut
22.
City. The transverse ties are spiked to the stretcher ties forming the rear and front faces. would be at an angle of 45°.
Concrete Cribbing.
Vol. giving promise of little future settlement. a highway along the west bank of the Harlem River. See Fig. 62.
A
out of the transverse walls.
p.
It is described in the Engineering Record. shown in Fig. was used in supporting the Speedway. Rock
Timber Cribbing. 62. 20. It was not feasible to use piles. The distribution of the pressure is practically a uniform one. Such a wall was used in Chicago by the Chicago. In exactly identical fashion with the use of timber cribs.
good foimdation could be had upon a timber cribbing already in place.
—Timber
orib.
twenty
Island and Pacific Railroad for heights varying from four to feet.:
124
RETAINING WALLS
This type also permitted a full use of the easement for tracks. 63.
tons per square foot. Vol. The second type. causing a uniform application of the loads upon
the foundation cribs. the members
the four corners. forming practically cellular walls.
New York
66. Upon this basis. To quote from the article
"The
tributed
transverse walls are so spaced that their weight
is
evenly dis
upon the foundation cribs by the 3 foot concrete flooring."
been constructed of old ties. concrete cribbing may be used. The wall is about square in section and the sidewalk forms the upper slab of the cell. below mean high water.
763. It was assumed that the line of thrust at the base of these walls due to their weight and the weight of the sidewalks which they carry. the lines of thrust from the
bottoms of successive transverse walls intersect just at the base of the 3 foot concrete floor. Vol.
—Walls have
See Fig.
—
constructed in units of a shape similar to a tie and reinforced at A description of the use of such cribbing in Oregon along a highway is given in the Engineering Newsp. There is an interesting discussion on the use of this type of wall in the Joural of the Western Society of Engineers. 63. 81. 232
et seq.
Fig.
Record.
64. pp. This is another type of hisAs constructed of brick with torical interest rarely used now..
An
interesting example of a wall of this kind
given on
p. 65. but is occasionally used for small light walls usually along the water front A typical wall of such character is described in Engineering and Contracting. 410. metal one. Walls with Land Ties (or Backstays). It should be encased in concrete. 328. 37. 65
23rd Ed. Walls with Relieving Arches. It is shown in Fig.— Wall with land
ties. Concrete cribs.
Fig.VARIOUS TYPES OF WALLS
life of
125
timber cribs is so short that their use is not economical.
principles of statics
If the tie is a
—
Fig. The theory of such walls is given by Rankine 23rd Ed.
afforded an economical type of substantial conof such a wall is given by Rankine7in
Fig.. 64. which adds considerably to the expense of the wall.
64. Vol. would not be open to this objection. Its design follows from the ordinary
—
.
cheap labor
struction.
and the force system is shown in Fig. p. On a fair foundation and for a small wall.
353 Handbuch Fur Eisenbetonbau III Band. this type may prove economical.
—Wall with
relieving arches. This is a practically obsolete type of wall.
The relieving arches
. 1907. 411. there is danger of its gradual destruction by rust.
his
it
The theory
p. 412.
shows a typical view of such a
is
wall.
66.
The
wall thus built
in effect
a modification of the counterforted wall and so far as the actual design of the wall itself. 369 to 402. It is notable
to see the latitude allowed individual engineering talent in the
—
adoption of the various designs and such freedom of thought should prove. 67.
A novel type of wall is shown in Fig.wall
is
The
section
ofj
shown
in Fig.
—
r
1
4'
^
i
^
—Special shape
\^
120
A
Fig. 67.^ ^The construction of embankments through narrow easements. 66.n
126
RETAINING WALLS
masonry
of brick.
Euorpean Practice.
rn
rm
L
Fig. the theory as previously given is sufficient
. The intricate rod systems and complicated form details necessary in the construction of these walls would preclu.de their use in America. requiring retaining walls on either side of the fill makes it possible to utilize the
—
mutual action
of the
two walls to
effect quite a
reduction in the
is
section of each wall required.
are of cast iron and the wall
.the.
'^
—Briek wall with oast iron
4'
relieving arches. very fruitful in useful wall sections. mostly of European origin are given in the Handbuch Fiir Eisenbetonbau III Band. pp. and is a compromise between a cellular and cantilever type. Embankments Bounded by Two Walls. in the long run. Some very interesting types of walls. It is taken from the handbook on concrete quoted above.
wall.
The widening
Co.
Retaining Walls.Walls of Hell Gate arch embedded in the face walls (see approach. 60 feet wide
of earth pressure
and high. and especially stiffness against wind stresses prior to the placing of the fill within the wall.
would have necessitated enormous
A
carefully specified
embankment
compacted
21). A most careful system of drainage was placed at every row of tie rods to prevent
the accumulation of water with a consequent increased pressure.
Hell Gate Arch
Approach. 69).VARIOUS TYPES OF WALLS
to design this wall. The interesting details in connection with the use and nonuse of expansion joints are discussed in the
following chapter. 68. Extension.
—'The
embankment
to be retained was practically
of square section.
S7S
well
drained
it
and
page
made
possible to reduce the
(see
thrusts
The
\z!i'°Rods
walls were divided into ten foot
square panels. at each corner of which a tie rod 23^^ inch diameter extended between the walls and
tHU
was anchored to a steel channel rjf. Eastern Parkway Improvement
The
walls here were about 25 feet high
and
tied to each other
at intervals of 20 feet
(see Fig. Fig. Every fiftyfeet. a partition wall ran between the face walls giving additional stability to the section.
New York
Connecting Railroad. forming the true cellular wall as described
by Lacher
in
the previously mentioned issue of the Journal of the Western
Society of Engineers.
The ordinary theory
sections.
Interboro Rapid Transit Railroad. Structural steel
. 68).
127
Two
interesting examples of this type of
construction are given here.)
of
an existing right
of
way
prior to its final
pletion (White Plains Rd. Interboro
comRapid Transit
the
made it possible to adopt an unusual expedient of anchoring new wall directly to the existing wall. Fig.
by
reinforced concrete partition walls
In both examples
it is
to be noticed that no
bottom slab
is
used.
of the anchors they were embedded in concrete partition walls. The thickness of the was the minimum width it was found practicable to construct in the field with the equipment at hand. merely in that an extra dead or dead and alive load.
This
r—
.
R. In placing the fill care was observed to carry up the fill levels at the same rate on either side of these partition walls to prevent
aJ
Plan
Section aa
Fig. 26). 70 (See Plate II.128
RETAINING WALLS
frames were anchored through the existing wall as shown in Fig. 69. Fig. The new face wall consisted of To insure the permanence slabs supported by upright channels.
— Walls Eastern Parkway Extension Interboro Rapid Transit R. Abutments.
placing an earth pressure
face slabs
upon them. The design of the abutment differs from that of the ordinary retaining wall. is superimposed upon the wall and serves to
—
counteract the overturning
moment
of the earth pressure.
The others. Such relief. due to the uncertainty of the action of the roller bearings and had better be neglected in the design of the wall.
of course. Live load approaching the span.
by
his design. forming a beam out of the abutment with both a top and bottom support.
(rf)
The live load is on both the span and back of the abutment. The abutment has the full earth and surcharge load.
(a) The earth backing in place. the span construction.VARIOUS TYPES OF WALLS
companying
Fig. is most difficult to compute.
Fig. (c) The construction complete. however. The abutment is a plain retaining wall.
embankment and
erection of the bridge. Here the abutment is a retaining wall with a surcharge load due to the erecting crane. within the' province of the experienced engineer
to determine
how
best to adapt the design to take care of the
. 71
129
may
serve to give a better idea of these
combinations as
listed below.
(c)
(d)
. (6) The crane to be used in erecting the span is in place behind
the abutment. in addition to the relief afforded by its weight upon the wall also exerts a horizontal relieving action. however. but no span construction set. such as the sequence of operations in the
There
placing of
It
is. 71
— Conditions of Abutment loading. In connection with the conditions of loading subsequent to the completion of the structure. This latter case gives the greatest total loading upon the base. may give a greater toe intensity. govern the design of the wall by the above four conditions and not attempt to control the field conditions.
is here the maximum earth pressure and maximum relief. The designer should. but
only the dead load of the span as a relieving load. of course.
temporary or otherwise. 73. or
—
'
\
'
. 73. Their location is governed by the conditions of the intersection and may either be in line with the abutment. It is thus possible to secure the best type of soil pressure distribution. 74. 75). Abutments may be either composed of plain
of
The
masonry or
or
ot reinforcedconcrete.
FiQ. 72. 73.— Reinforcedconcrete
abutment.
The
flexibihty
reinforcedconcrete in permitting slender walls
Fig. as
economy
of
other factors
dictate.
Abutment
types.
location of an abutment is usually transverse to the right way. but it does not seem advisable to permit the soil intensity under any combination of loading. Wingwalls.
and
overturning
be temporarily lowered to take into account the conditions prior to final completion. 75.
may
Fig. 74. Several of the usual types of abutjnents are shown in Figs.130
RETAINING WALLS
The
factor of safety against sliding
construction loadings.
with projecting heel and toe indicates that for practically every condition a reinforcedconcrete type of wall may be found that will prove more economical than the gravity masonry walls. by. permitting the footing to encroach upon the crossing. to exceed the safe allowable
pressure. whether pubHc or private. 72).
Fig. Since the abutment is a combination of a retaining wall and an ordinary pier subject to vertical loads only. The wing walls attached to the abutments are r ordinary retaining walls and are so designed. following the slope of the fill. keeping. it is customary to extend both the heel and toe (see Figs. 74 and 75.placing a cap over the top to form the
girder seat (see Fig. an economical section of wall.
The counterforted retaining walls may readily be adapted to form an abutment. at the same time.
VARIOUS TYPES OF WALLS
131
.
. 205. For rock or shale bottoms the base is ^'i the height.mi. the abutment frames into the two parallel retaining walls on either side of the embankment forming a boxlike Other details are made to fit into the special cirstructure. For ordinary highway abutments it is possible to compile
is
standard sections to cover practically all the cases expected. if deSince such structhough otherwise designed. The work performed by the moment between any two points Si and Si is given by the expression
(b)
(c)
The
that does no work
derivative of this expression with respect to a force i. 77.^"S!^"
signed as a monolith.
The
principles
of the theory
work apphcable
I
to the
problem in question
t
ijH. Bilger in a paper read before the Illinois Society of Engineers and Surveyors' states: For walls up to 25 feet in
height:
For ordinary earth bottoms.e. a force whose point of apphcation is at a
fixed point. where full trackage on a limited easement essential.
may
(a)
be stated as follows
Subsurface FiQ. Box Sections Subject to Earth Pressures. cumstances of the given location.
tures. pp..
—
The work performed by the shear
j. Vol.
'ci„^r
'Line
quite desirable to
of
least
^^^^^ t^® t^^® stresses existing in them. The footing is 18 inches thick and is offset 9 inches at the heel and toe. the base is }^ the height. 77. structures.:
:
132
RETAINING WALLS
For track elevation. The section.
. shown in Fig. both horizontal and ver
—
tical requires
. E. Gravity walls
(a)
(6)
are generally used because the character of local labor does
not permit the use of the reinforced concrete sections.mww. subjected to earth pressure.
•
j ^°"
xu
ttirust IS neghgible
i
i
i
. Thus H. 415 to 422. The back of the wall is vertical. p.
^
Given
in Engineering Record. 63. A number of examples of the varied types of gravity and reinforced concrete abutments is given in the Handbuch fur Eisenbetonbau iii Band. is zero.
an intricate analysis. m comparison with
•
•
the work done by the moment. are
it is
actually rigid frames.
The
to
forces
Mi and
H shall be taken as the forces with respect
which the partial derivatives of the work are zero.W(x a)+ Hx^dx
Ja
2EI BZijo
[Ml.W(h a)+ Hh^dx
(149)
w
w
H
Ml
Vd
Fig.
Loads on subsurface frame. 79. and E the modulus of elasticity roof and
AtoB: B to D:
= . 78 the moments between the following points are
C
to a:
M=
Mi + Hx
a) a)
a to A:
same as c to A work is.Wih 
+ Hh]hdx\ =
L\
EI 1I2 [Jo
r
2i.W{x 1
+
Hx\xdx\
+
a)
2EIi
r 2[Mi .wlh 
+ Hx + Hh
Eh\jo
{Mr + Hxydx+l [Ml. thus
5£V(i^.Ml
+
Hx)dx
+
. with The total 7i and /a the moments of inertia of the sidewalls respectively.
(148)
it shall be arbitrarily taken that a moment which causes compression in the outside of the member is positive. The points C and D are taken as fixed.«)<^.Afi . From the corollary and since
dw/dH = dw/dMi =
^\ r2(Mi
EliXJo
+
Hx)xdx
+
a)
/:
[Ml .W{x = Ml .:
\
VARIOUS TYPES OF WALLS
:
133
Corollary It is permissible to differentiate the expression under the integral sign with respect to a variable other than the variable of the integrand. In Fig.
Fig.p^'^
Finally. 78.
of loading on the side wall. sidewalls or upon both simultaneously. multiply the expression by dx and integrate between the hmits
and
are
h. the expressions become
hh
60
+
2bh
^^^^^ ^^^^^
hh
+
2bh
'See HiBoi.x ^^^^^
+ 2a)7i + h{2h + /i'(Mi + 26/2)
horizontal thrust due to concentrated load
to be
In similar fashion..]
i
. the base moment and upon the roof is found
M.5(^f5Jj
(153)
Using these four equations as a foundation. in similar manner integrate the expressions given in (150) and (151) between the hmits and h. . it is possible to some general conditions of loading on either roof. . replace in (152) a by a. 79.^
2[
Ml .' referring to Fig.. The thrust and moment are then
Mi=^
with
^^^
+
^^^^
(157)
Again for a triangular distribution
maximum
base intensity 20
^^'
q."
.„. For a uniformly distributed load on the roof of w per foot.
.
„ ^
WQi 
mhh + 2bh)
ay[h{h
^^^^^
^i^.^„(6 establish
«)r{jj^^.
The
expressions for the thrust
H
and the
mo
ent
Mx
For a uniformly distributed loading p on the side walls.a)]
a)/.. "Statically Indeterminate Structures.W{x
a)
+ Hx]dx] +
Solving these two simultaneous equations for
Fa(fe

a)[/i/i(fe

g)
H and ilf + 6/2(2/} .134
i
RETAINING WALLS
r^' =
. H^ by w.
^Z.
+ 5e)/ + 16e)/
159)
become
roof. =
wall.
^ by
Then
(1
e
and
let
1/(1
+
2e)
=
Zi. With the above substitutions the expressions given in (154 to
2e)
+ +
2e)
= =
+
+ 3e)/(l + 2e) = Za .

1)
(161)
For triangular loading on side
=
^(3+ Z.
I2
{Z2
(160)
For uniform loading on side
H H
To apply
sure
=
?^Zi.
Ml =
wall.
is
w
the roof alone the respective thrust and
moment
are
H
= ^fZi
.1.). (3 3 Table 25 gives the values of Zi and Z2 for several values of the ratio e. (2
(7
2Z2.
Ml =
60
(1
+
2Z2)
(162)
these expressions to a sube
Table 25
surface structure subject to earth pres
and sidewalk.
M. with the usual terminology
that
ing
c is
the ratio of this surcharge height
h.
For uniform loading on
H
=
4A
Z^.
to the full wall height
The
roof load
then gch and the side wall pressure is compounded of a uniform intensity p = Jgch at the top of the side wall. and a triangular loading with base For a loading upon intensity q = Jgh. + 8e)/(l + 2e) = 1 + 2Z2.VARIOUS TYPES OF WALLS
Denote the
(1 (1
135
ratio
Zi. let the loading above the roof Hne be treated as
roof
upon
a surcharge.
107. usually subsurthe very Any cracks developed in the face.136
RETAINING WALLS
For a simultaneous load upon roof and sidewall the two above It expressions are added to give the total thrust and moment. provision must be mad for
essence of the design of
.
The mutual
effect of the
members upon each other makes
be combined as
will
it
essential that such conditions
produce the
maximum stresses at the separate points of the structure. structure due to ignored stresses are fatal to the integrity of the It is patent that regardless of what method is emstructure.— Broadly speaking. 31. With the thrust H and the base moment Mi known the moment at any other point of the frame can easily be found by the ordinary principles of statics. ployed in designing such structures. since there may be no surface load over the roof and a surface load whose weight will affect the sidewall pressure. both theoretical
of stresses in large sewer pipe
is
and
practical. that they be waterproof. Bulletin No. Fig. the selecis governed by one. See also for a comparison between theoretical and actual stresses "Analysis and Tests of Rigidly Connected ReinforcedConcrete Frames" by Mikishi Abe. while treating subsurface structures that avery thorough analysis. This is taken care of by giving the proper values to the surcharge ratio c in the above expressions. character of foundation. in which latter may be included the relation between walls and property line. the wall entering into a part of some general landscape
demands
of the
. or more of the
following reasons:
economy of section.
stresses as
found above. is possible. environment.
such structures.
Economy
of the
tion of a given type of wall
Various Types.
given in Bulletin No. It may be interesting to note.
A
radically different distribution of stress
exists in this structure
when analyzed
exactly as above than
It is
when
it is
treated as an assembly of independent units. of course to have a different surcharge for the roof than for the sidewall. 89 is a typical section of such a structure analyzed by
the above method. The theory as above outlined and the formulas as given are ample to analyze any subsurface structure subject to lateral and
vertical pressures. Engineering Experiment
Station. architectural treatment. issued by the Engineering Experimental Station of the Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. University of Illinois.
a class of men just a shade above the common excavators. Upon attempting to pour a reinforced concrete wall. consemore room to move about and can thoroughly spade
and turn over the mix. The reinforced concrete wall has thinner members. careful the rods^. necessitating
labor and quently. together with the network of rods within it. it is necessary that the engineer adapt the
constructed. The slenderness of this wall.
137
scheme the availability of materials necessary for its construction and the character of the labor to be had in the vicinity of the
work.
quite a
possible to get shipments from local markets at short notice. giving better assurance of a flawless wall.
more competent foremanship. orders are given
.. the wall
that the section of the wall
'
While
it is
premium must be paid for this material and such only when economy must be sacrificed to urgency.
So far as the economy of the section is involved. With a policy of awarding the work to the lowest bidder where competitive bids are asked. the laborers have. Unsuspected variations in the character of foundations.VARIOUS TYPES OF WALLS
.
it is
type of wall to one that can safely be built by the general run of low bidders. it must be noted that the relative economy of gravity and reinforced concrete walls is not that given merely by a parallel comparison of
materials required for the finished wall.e. may demand an abrupt change in the section of wall. desired the obtain to deeper sary to excavate the rods have been Since of wall.
It
is
necessary
be determined at the time of ordering boring made at the site of the work. type the or even to change if a new section is and inflexible design is ordered.
concrete wall. This is a very important item and one too frequently overlooked. makes it more difficult to properly
place
are
and
distribute the concrete. A concrete gang of the average type. equipped with the proper labor gangs to do such work.
more skillful The gravity walls
more capacious within the forms. i. requiring more form work per cubic
yard of concrete. For a reinforced concrete wall the rods are usually ordered some time in
advance
of the actual construction of the wall. Despite bottom of the wall may prove proposed the at the soil encountered it may thus become necesand assumed that from to be different character of bottom. a very inferior piece of work
is
Before preparing plans for a thin reinforced essential to insist upon a capable contractor. will tackle a gravity section of wall and turn out a good looking section.
This
gravity wall
changed
has been shown in the previous work. the reinforced concrete type of wall may be molded to adapt themselves to any distribution of soil pressure desirable. where the character of the soil is assured. 4a) with a net work of obstructing rods at A makes it very hard to get a good concrete at and below that point. will under ordinary conditions be cheaper than the reinforced
concrete types. the undesirable splicing of rods or the placing of a plain concrete base all to bring the actual bottom level up to the theoretical one expensive and undesirable expedients.
must be emphasized that wall details should be simple..
the construction limitations of the several types.
et seq. that such a wall..) and in the permament structure
possible to determine the
it is
parison of two types or
more economical wall by comby mathematical and tabular methods as
given at the end of this chapter. 20. It is understood that the proper weight is given to the indeterminate factors of cost as above
mentioned
It
i. with the
bottom left out offers great resistance to sliding and overturning and "occupies the right of way so as to afford little opportunity
for encroachment. in the same issue of the Journal in discussing the relative demerits and merits of the cellular types it was pointed out^ in connection with track elevation work. both during construction (forms.
P. For this condition the
—
is the more flexible type and the section may be without any additional trouble should soils at variance with the originally assumed ones. Vol. for walls of the height required for track elevation and track depression a gravity wall. etc. Thus for example. It has been pointed out^ . 232.e.
filling
the other hand "it occupies considerable and may thus interfere with the use of the
Settlement may also give an unpleasing appearance.
it
RETAINING WALLS
may mean
delay awaiting mill shipments of the new lengths needed. Shapes that apparently make for economy may prove exceedingly difficult to pour in the field.138
ordered. 80 (see also Photo Plate No. On the other hand.
p. a section of a cantilever wall as shown in Pig.
Again.
^
.
It permits of
ready driving of a
pile trestle
right over it." So far as the actual amounts of materials involved. costly orders of rods from stock supplies. be encountered."
On
space before
tracks. 653. The break in the form work is also objectionable because of the added labor and
1
Journal of Western Society of Engineers.
One is tempted. that wall is most effectively and economically designed which is most compactly and simply shaped.
details.
Fig. Much. steel work and labor and should therefore be employed with due appreciation of the possibility of their added expense.VARIOUS TYPES OF WALLS
difficulty of
139
shown
It
IS
pouring the concrete. On the whole. in designing counterforted walls to mold corners and make steel details as shown in Fig. depends upon the ability of the contractor to carry out the niceties of the design and it is thus incumbent upon the engineer planning an intricate section of wall to see
that
its
execution
is
placed in the proper hands. With the rapid development of thin slab construction as markedly shown in the construction of concrete ships and barges. 80. of course. there is excellent promise of the extension of such work to retaining walls. such as just much more economical than the straight battered back. These
Fig.
will be found that the counterforted wall will prove even more economical. 81 may prove troublesome and more costly in the end than the plain rectangular section.
Sloping the footing as shown in Fig. 81. and should therefore be adopted.
Fig. again. When a shape. 82. demand extra form work. 82. If the construction of thin slabs and intricate
. in order to effect a thorough bond between the slab and the counterfort.
At present the practical limitations of construction have restricted retaining walls to but few types which in turn are limited in economic thickness by
field conditions. so that the span loads will be confined within the abutment proper as shown in Fig. 73.
. 83. The distribution of these girder loads may be assumed to foUow within planes making an angle of 30° with the vertical as shown in Fig. but also by the assumed location of the girder reaction. offer. then a vast field is opened to economic wall design. it is assumed that (for reasons given in the following chapter) the abutment is independent of the adjacent structures. 83.
Since the reaction from each girder is 100 kips. In the case of a gravity wall. in. Determine the necessary dimensions of both a gravity and a reinforced
concrete
nomical design
combination of a retaining wall and a pier. The plate will be placed as shown in Fig.
Each
of the
stringers. The abutment should be made long enough to permit the distribution to follow along these planes. A plate 12" X 18" provides this bearing area. the girder load falls within the outer third.
An abutment
is
to carry
two tracks as shown in
Fig.
under full load brings a reaction of 50 tons upon the abutment. induce tensile stresses in the back of Thus in Fig.5 kip per square inch.140
details
RETAINING WALLS
becomes commercially applicable.
its
violating an essential requirement of gravity walls. 83. the
is
"T" wall. permitting the shape to follow every peculiarity of the environment and to take advantage of whatever economies the site may.
Problems
1. is 200 sq.
as
point of application. Its ecoby the type adopted. while assisting in the stability of the wall. In addition.
The selection of a type shown in Fig. 74 brings the girder reaction towards the center of the wall and assists quite materially in the stability moment of the wall.
may by
the location of the wall. allowing 0. An abutment is ia
affected not only
vertical girder reaction. the area for bearing upon the concrete.
developed
add to the wall stabiUty.185)
=
7 kips per square foot. 84. as in the case of the ordinary reinforced concrete retaining wall. The
cases are lettered
graphical analysis
is
and discussed in the same order as on page shown in Fig. together with the dead weight of the span
This tensile stress in the concrete. 85. (d) For this case (that
exactly at the third point.5 = 4. prior to the setting of the steel. a face batter of 5" to the foot will give the necessary dimensions for stabiUty.
S2
= T^( — 0. or 15
pounds per
square inch.7
+
65/13.2 kips
per square foot.VARIOUS TYPES OF WALLS
84. 85.
of full loading) the resultant
/J
is
found to intersect
Si
=
84/13.44) =
2120 pounds per square
foot.
129.
(o)
FiQ.
The
and
<Si
B =
=
28. The permissible soil intensity in this and the following work is taken as 4 tons per square foot.
The
Fig.2
resultant intersects the third point (Checking the tabular value) 4.3 kips. 83. leaving a margin for the
. As shown in Fig. satisfies all the necessary conditions of design
and
construction. From Table 12. under a crane load prior to the setting of the span.
141
details of the girder seat are shown. i = e. the criterion of economy. (c) This condition is quite similar to the preceding one. then.
The
section.5
= 42 kips = 6.
where the remaining
niaking the load per linear foot at the foot of the abutment ^o%8 = 8.
— Graphical analysis
of
abutment. the distribution of the loads spreads between a distance of 48'. with the exception that the indetenhinate factor of the frictional resistance between the girder bearing and the abutment. Assume. the height is 30' (above the footing) without any surcharge. which
is
within the
permissible value. and will also satisfy the details of the girder seat.5 = 32. As a retaining wall. is a permissible stress.8 kips per square foot. Let the total toe pressure not exceed 7 kips per square foot. and from (39) Si
= 70^(2 —
fifi
fifi
3
X
0. (b) The resultant intersects at the ^ij point. The crane load is taken equivalent to 500 pounds per square foot.
Reinforced concrete section.
with the point of application of the resultant located at the vertical stem of the wall. From (113).95 kips and the depth for balanced
A thickness of 4' will be used at the base. and the location of the face abutment at the quarter point of the base. Prom Table 18 with this value of e and i. can have no effect upon the wall dimensions. from (101)
d
to take care of
requiring a thickness of 3 feet. located 11. 86.3 at the quarter point. that since a skeleton assumed.5 tons per = 38' (taking the thickness of footing 3 feet) allowing for a square foot. The height of the vertical stem is 30'. and merely increases the intensity of the soil distribution. The thickness of the toe extension will
is
be taken as 3
feet. Note here.3 „
0. a permissible excess over the allowp.26
Take the point of application of the resultant. from (39)
of the
2
X
8. accordingly 16. From (95). with Si = 3.
If
= V(iiM6) =
2. the girder load.04
=
ft.
bearing in
mind that the thickness
of the footing.75
no special stirrup reinforcement is placed the diagonal tension.5 kips).25
and the total toe pressure is 8. k = 0.
H
five foot surcharge:
5 '=1 6\ 1 + IV
'
120
X
38
3.
.
forcement
also
For this reason it will be assumed that such reinemployed here and the depth of the slab adopted will be that required by the bending moment.50 and the base width w is.
3.
the shear (24.4 feet above the top of the footing.
— Graphical analysis of abutment. the thickness of wall because of shear is
d
=
20/5.25 kips. The thrust for the given surcharge is 20 kips. With a girder load of 8.6
=
0.142
toe pressure caused
RETAINING WALLS
is
section of wall
by the girder load. and from Table 21 the critical height.
The footing moment is found to be 119 reinforcement is.5 feet. above which the shear controls the thickness of the stem is less than 30'.ble 4 tons per square foot. which is at the same point. an excessive depth will be required for
Fig.75)
=
1.
for construction reasons.5/16.VARIOUS TYPES OF WALLS
both heel and
toe.
Omitting the span load (Cases 6 and
resultant
is
c)
at
e
=
4.3 kips per
square foot. The wall should be recalculated.273 and with
the point of application of the R = 51 Si = 7. etc..
with
J?
pounds per square
59 kips. are cheaper than the complicated rod details of web reinforcement. be kept the same
of concrete fillets at the junction of the footing obviate the need for web rods and a comparative estimate
and arm
that the fiUets. Si
= 8100
foot.
V^
oV">tV
a4"
i_r
Fig. 87.
The section as shown therefore satisfies the governing conditions.5
=
0. 88. using the dimensions and loadings as actually found. 88. whence = from
(39).
may prove
Discussing the separate cases of loading.
It
shows the sections of the gravity and reinforced concrete walls. 87
2. is necessary to make a preliminary assumption in order to proceed with
.288.
Fig. in a box section as shown in Fig.
eroundSurface
^Surcharge of SO'
T'iiiiii)iii)>iimi)imimmmiwuui'Kiimmiiiiminiiiimmmmr
^
2B0
FiG. moments. Find the stresses.
143
The introduction
would
must. treated graphically in Fig 86 for the case of total loading (Case d) the point of appHcation of the resultant is at e = 4. with the extra work involved.75/16.5 = 0.
38 X
27.
—2
.144
RETAINING WALLS
the analysis of this section uhder the theory of least work.7 + 66A.69.7 =4.875
X
27^
X
16
^ ^^^ ^
+19.
At any point
x.7 kips
X
.
From Table 25. tentatively. The roof moment at any point y. Adding two feet to b and one foot to h.
=
kh.k)k^ + 2k'] = .38.8 kips
2. that the moments of inertia of the sidewalls and roof are equal.p) A table has been similarly prepared for a set of values
of p.875.1 kips.
^^
+
(1
^^^
^
^^^^
=
7. directed = 27 + 20 = 7 kip feet.
Af = . where y = pb.
For simultaneous loading
= 7. gives the dimensions along the gravity axes of the section.
The value
of c
= 1^6
For roof loading alone
ff=:i^^^^X 0. it will be assumed.
.38.46 + 510p(l . For this reason. . The value of e is now ^ J^g =
1.23 and Zj = 2. where x
outwards.438 + 6.2
up to the center
of the span.
For sidewall loading alone
= '^^20 = .
o
X
an oU
.7/cH5.
kips. Zi = 0.
M
H
il^.1
k
M.0 kips. J is then taken at its usual value }i. M^ has been tabulated as shown in accompanying table.22.
above the base. is.
^
07
.k) For the various values of k. the
moment
is
M^ = 7 + Hkh [3(1 + c . — 46.7
ft.
=0.23
M
H
=
1
=3.6 . taking the last found value of Afi as given in the table.8 — 3.
37
.6

22A.6

k)
The tabular values
accompanying
k
. from before
H
=
3.23 .8 kips
.
^
.7
.1 ft.
M
.6
.
M:.9kip feet.2
span are given in the
table.
M.
kips
=
6.1
for the
moments
in the sidewall are again
shown
in the
table.7. from (162)
^r—2^^^3+2.0
10
14 22 31 40 52 63 74
74 28
.
^
For side wall loaded alone.3 and = 13.9
1.6 ft.„.23
r>06
.7A.2 .1
The The
roof
moment is 74
+ 510p(l moment up
v)
values.
Let this state of loading be analyzed upon the assumption of a full roof loading and a sidewall pressure as given in the work immediately preceding. with p the same as above. = kh.5 directed outwards.
^—^
(1
+4. the side wall pressure may be considerably less than that assumed.
22.38) K2. A further condition of loading may be
anticipated. kips The net thrust due to both loadings is 1.4 directed outwards. and the moment is +6.6 
A
table of values of
M for the side wall
The
roof
of
k)
is
given here.7i. With time the effect of cohesion may materially reduce the sidewall pressure.2(3.
_
3
X X
27'
27^
X X
.4 . or due to a variety of conditions.3 . Ml = .
k
A table
moment is.
145
from (160)
H
jj.7
ft.
M= M

19. Af = .5 .p) these moments up to the center is given here.44 + lllpd .==:.1lkip_feet
Under the simultaneous loading
As
before.
For the side wall loading as assumed H = 2. kips.76)
13.
.
For roof loading alone.3
^ =0.5
+8
+33 +48 +53
.VARIOUS TYPES OF WALLS
For roof loaded
alone. .
M +7 +4
+1
p
. x
H = 1.H3.22.4 .3. and c = M^ = 9 + 24A.
.8
. for this
to the center of the
..
35 respectively. requires 2.
do not fulfill the the ratio as found for the sections above.
E6
3' >
Fig. kips. The maximum side wall moment will occur
A
about at A. or 3 feet overall is finally adopted.146
RETAINING WALLS
The structure is designed to satisfy the maximum moments shown in the diagrams. for the three conditions discussed above are
Condition op Loading C
and sidewall Dead weight roof and light wall Full roof and fight wall
Full roof
— —
2 5
fll
A 56 50 83
Center of roof
+71 25 +44
.9 (since the roof is 3' thick).
0. which requires a steel reinforcement of 1 inch square bars spaced 6".79.25 feet. whence Af = — 63 ft. it is noticed.
of e is
The
ratio 72//i
=
15. thickness of 33". The steel ratio 0.58.0075. and for this reason an intermediate value of the moment of inertia ratio.
assumed condition. between that first assumed and that now found will be used. Again. too heavy a reinforcement. = 0.
/"fflsofe
•^
60
J8 "OoC. with an overall dimension of 2' 6". The moments of inertia of rectangular
The moments
of inertia of these sections. For this condition 1" bars 6" apart are required. 89. The thickness for balanced reinforcement is found to be 2. will again prove slightly incorrect in the final analysis. to keep the rod weight within reasonable limits a 27" slab will be used.3. making Zi and Z2 0. The maximum roof moment is 82 with practically an equal but opposite moment at the fixed corner. between these Poinfs
tl"'f!ods. first
taken
is
0.6'afvC.
To take
sections.
In tabular form the moments at the three important points. of the
same width
are to each other as the cubes of their depths.
The value
The average of this value and the value now 1.28 and
2.6/27
=
1.4 square
inches per linear foot. although balanced reinforcement needs a 2' slab.
clearly. with the rod layouts as indicated by the previous work. It must again be emphasized that the stresses existing in a structure of this character are quite different from those which are found upon analyzing the structure into its separate members and when a subsurface structure is built as shown above. 26. such several a greater variation in the probably. and to a negative moment of —25 foot kips at the center of the roof. it is justifiable to mathethe least involving that analysis. It may be well worth while to establish
some given
some method
It is true. save by actual comparison of two completed designs. It is quite clear that variations
'
1919. a wall is so designed as to satisfy. shear. as the height is varied.
Again. may each in turn control the necessary thickness of the several parts of the It is to be noted that. if.
With
this in
no mind. and. extraneous factors may control the selection of types of walls and the dimensions of the component members. but generally.
its stresses. for
becomes cheaper than a cantilever wall. the various thicknesses
and the counterforted walls are those
selected in accordance with the bendingmoment requirements.'
height. In the work that follows. most economically. The final section must take care of the moments throughout the frame detailed in accordance with the adhesion requirements and bent in accordance with the bearing formulas given in the preceding chapter. subject to a bending moment of 70 foot kips at the center of the roof and at the upper fixed corners. though thickness of section.
of obtaining this "critical" height. Reprinted from Engineering and Contracting. since it is a comparative estimate of select the cost of the two types that is sought. 89 gives a layout of the section. amount of reinforcement requirements a large percentage theoretical the dimensions follow dimensions are these further. assuming that the wall In required. Feb. the bending moment. present as a type for the in the toe matical analysis. of both the cantilever
stress of simplest expression. or bond stress. covered of actual cases are
taken in accordance with the
serious error results. a counterforted wall
—While.
.VARIOUS TYPES OF WALLS
It is seen
147
that quite a large variation in the assumed values of the moment but sluggish effect upon the moments and it is probably safe to take both the roof and sidewalls of the same thickness. provision must be made for the distribution of stresses
of inertia ratio has as given
by
the analysis just made. Fig. a search of pertinent hterature fails to yield any method of obtaining such a height.
The
Selection of an Economical Type. usually require about the same stresses ceptions. with few exwall.
For the counterforted wall the amount of concrete is
Lid\h
+
khd'i)
^ +m
^
2
. r be the cost of placing concrete into the forms (the cost is practically the same for both types) and let t be the cost of the form work and necessary bracing. For the counterfort wall.
estimate are then: the
The variable factors in the comparative amount of concrete in either type and the
forms required for the counterfort itself.7 and the required thickness of the footing slab is then y/Tf or 0. from
and the thickness
of the top of the
mum
value one foot.
=
0. Let L be the total length of wall under consideration. will not affect.
The
wall
two
cost of the steel rods is a small part of the total cost of the relative difference of the cost of the steel rods in the types of walls would thus be negligible. from (112)
d. with a further provision.
length or in the assumed position of the resultant. the condition for
economy
as given
For this on page 82 is adopted
(91)
here.0132m \A(1 + c) = C'.
=
ylM\.
(126) with the usual value of the constants the thickness of the
vertical slab
is
d\
= 0. per square foot of concrete face supported.0185
h^Vl +
3c
= C^h^
arm is taken at its usual miniFor the footing.
The
counterfort itself is usually one foot thick
and
will
be so taken
here. the comparative estimate.
to
reason.
With these conditions
k
then becomes
"2Vt
"T"
+ 3c
The dimensions
for the
cantilever are taken as follows:
is
the thickness of the base of the vertical arm.148
RETAINING WALLS
any material
extent.mylh
from (138)
d'i
is
and that
of the footing. that e
=
^^. the usual soil pres
sure distribution. from (119) /is about 0.
and the
The amount
types
is
of face
substantially the
and rear forms for the vertical arm of both same and will not enter into the com
parative estimate.84 times the arm base thickness.
0132
vTTc
is
+
k^/S)
0.OlSeVi
of h^*
+ 3c
The value
—^
+
.(^
+
2~)
0.5
h^
with C2
=
Ci
.84A.84A.1 Rhy*
With
this value (.5
+ ci!„(0.84fc)
+
~
and
= .)
by
their values given
Replacing the thicknesses above
of the sections
C\mVh(l +
it will
hy/2.)}
(168)
Equating (167) and (168)
d'„(l
+ WW) + ^(^ +
=
0.5 + 0.h (0.)
+
~
(1
+ 2") =
+ C.169)
becomes
Cih^
a quadratic in

RCihy*
+M =
3.VARIOUS TYPES OF WALLS
and
its total
149
cost
Lrtjd'„(l
+
kVS)
+ ~\
IS i
The
cost of the face forms for the counterfort
m
making the
Lrt{d'„(l
2
total variable cost of the counterfort wall
+ fcV3)+^(l+2^))
cantilever
is
(167)
The volume
of the
"T"
L (^^/i
and
its total
+
khd.84/b)
0.1 (1
(0.5 + 0.
)
= m[^
+
d„
g+
OMk)
]
cost
M'"{~
+
rf.5
(169)
Later be shown that the economic spacing of the counteris given by forts
m=
where
3.
Table 26 gives a
h for several
values of the cost ratio t/r and the surcharge ratio
V
Table 26
.150
RETAINING WALLS
series of values of this critical height
c.
*»
•
"'
*'''«''fF
'^
' .0)
.'
7!
#
(F'irhifi
page
ir.Plate
II
»
.
rack
:i(.
C.Plate
III
^
.
.
sharp corner of wall due to tension component of thrust.
(.i»i»<
l'i.'
'.i.
the smaller will be the variation of temperature at that point for any given surface range of temperature. Plain concrete monoliths. automatic temperature recording devices have been incorporated in the work so that an exhaustive record of the variation of temperature is available. to concentrate the tendency to
cracking at assigned intervals and then.
by properly introducing
rods. this distribution of temperature and.
'
Trans. because of the longitudinal continuity of the wall. unreinforced. mathematically. in view of the fact that the theoretical results so obtained are reasonably in accord with the experimental results. covering quite long periods of time' and in recent masonry dam construction.
It is patent. to place an actual joint at such places. Vol. EXPANSION JOINTS.
possible.E. stresses are induced in retaining walls
which. despite
It
is
the insertion of rods to prevent cracks. 151
. however. must be resisted by the material itself..CHAPTER V
TEMPERATURE AND SHRINKAGE STRESSES.C. A. A theoretical discussion of the temperature changes that may be expected within masonry masses may be interesting as indicating the expected amount of stresses to be anticipated by rod
reinforcements. It seems desirable to attempt to express. to avoid unsightly
breaks.S. will crack at well defined intervals because of failure
of the material
through tension.
Experiments have been made to determine this range at various points. Ixxix.
walls are at times built without
Reinforced
any
joints
and seem to have
such proper reinforcement that no cracks are apparent.
It
is
quite difficult. that the further
from the exposed surface a point
is within the mass. 1226. WALL FAILURES
In the setting and curing of concrete and in the seasonal variations in temperature. p. they should prove of service in making
provision for temperature stresses in masonry structures.
that at
any plane x away from the
surface
UIx
In discussing seasonal changes. Table 29 gives a parallel comparison between the theoretical and the experimentally determined range. 89. it can be shown! that the temperature u at any distance x from the surface
at the time
t
is
u =
in which e
is
A +
Be''^cos
{2t/T

kx)
fc
_
=v/^
(171)
o^
the base of natural logarithms and
is
of thermal diffusivity. and for concrete fc = 0. for concrete (Smithsonian Physical Tables) is 0.
2
E. The daily range may in itself be taken as periodic and expressed by (170) and (171). For climates in the
the surface.0058 in the C. For this period. "A Short Table of Integrals. In the distribution of heat through large masses. The ratio of the range at any
known as the coefficient
+
point X to that at the surface
e''"
is
cos kx
=
Ix
(172)
and
if
U is the
is
surface range.
The
u
in
= A
+ Bcos^t
(170)
which u is the temperature. It is seen."
. Table 28 shows a comparison with the results from the formula and those experimentally found in the records quoted above. system. which
must be expressed in seconds in accordance with the diffusivity constant a^. one day expressed in seconds fc = 0. in making provision for the temperature range to take a seasonal range based on about weekly averages. Btbrly. The maximum range of temperature occurs between t equal At the surface this range any integer say n and t = n ^ibecomes. Tables for r" are to be found in Pierce. "Fouriers Series and Spherical Harmonics. T is the period of change and t is the time. where the temperature at the surface is a function of the time.LS
may
be
variation of seasonal temperatures at the surface given by an expression of the form. A and B are constants." p. from a study of the daily variation of temperatures
that the surface range
is rapidly decreased a few inches from In designing masonry structures it is sufficient.
'W.00413. the period
T is
one year. which.S. For this period.079.^
152
RETAINING WAI.G. at any point x from the surface the range is from (171) 2Be~'"' cos kx. from (170) 2B.
States.TEMPERATURE AND SHRINKAGE STRESSES
Middle Atlantic the mean. this range
is
153
about 40° either way from
Table 28
Table 29
.
= 200 pounds. whence
V = 0.76 X 40° = 30°.
s
= nE
(175)
For concrete
Replacing
this value of s is
for every degree
about ten pounds per square inch.
s'
The required
ratio of steel is then. = 45. and since for a cantilever wall.
w
in (173)
by the area
is
of the concrete section Ac. as above of 40°. change in temperature (Fahrenheit). and average slab thickness of two feet. and /.
(176)
Let the range of temperature where the steel rod is to be placed be U' and let the area of steel be As.87.
from
(179) with
=
^
15
X
11
=
165
10
^
0.
above value just found. with the ratio of steel to
concrete area. where the vertical rods are at the rear face it is customary to Ukewise place the check rods (for convenience of construction) at the rear face from Table 28 7^ = 0.
(177)
The concrete can take fc pounds per square inch before failure steel can take /s pounds per square inch up to its elastic limit. From the Table 30 c = 0. take a range from the mean.154
If
RETAINING WALLS
E
denotes the modulus of elasticity for masonry and n the
coefficient of expansion.76. The resisting section to the above temperature stress
and the
thus
fsAs
is
+ fcA.000 pounds. of steel
for temperature reinforcement. as before p. The total stress across a section because of a surface range of U is then
csUAc
+ Ass'U'. /<.
It is seen that
fairly well with the a steel of high elastic
.
the total stress across a section
csUAc. = fsvAo + fcAa
(178)
Equating (177) and (178) and solving for p
For example. The stress developed in the steel by a change of one degree is s' and will be ns.87
X
45. with n the ratio of the
two moduli (see page 86).000

X4 ^_j00 _ 165 X 30° ~
which agrees
'""'^^
Specifications usually require about }i of one per cent.
require a distinct distribution of loading. Iowa State Agricultural College. n and p the usual concrete functions.^Unlike temperature stresses.
.TEMPERATURE AND SHRINKAGE STRESSES
limit should
steel
155
be specified.
Shrinkage. it was seen that certain types of soil
Settlement. The stress induced in the steel is then
/.
=
fc/p
(181)
With the amount
of reinforcement as specified for
is
tempera
ture stresses. In the same paper the stress due to the shrinkage is given by the expression
shrinkage
fc
= CE.
—The settlement of a wall
woven
in with the vertical stress rods. or
will
'
with carefully distributed reinforcement. since. While there is little definite regarding the theory of shrinkage experimental data has shown* that the shrinkage of concrete is about 0. no cracking occur in the wall body. Since the maximimi temperature ranges occur at the surface.000 pounds per square inch.
The expansion
coefficients of
both
and concrete are fairly alike so that there is no stress induced between steel and concrete because of this temperature
change. with a proper spacing of expansion
joints. from (181) 40 pounds per square inch and the corresponding steel stress about
12. the
soil
more
yielding the
was.
*
^ +
1
np
(180)
C is the coefficient of shrinkage (given above) E the concrete modulus. that.
ally these rods are
is intimately connected with the character of its foundation. It has been seen that for the cantiGenerlever walls it is not feasible to place the rods at the face. 30.0004 of the length. From the discussion on foundations in Chapter 2.
To provide for temperature and shrinkage stresses the rods should be placed at right angles to those put into take care of the earth pressure stresses. it is desirable but not necessary that the rods be placed at the surface. within pressure be a uniform one. Unequal settlement produces
See Bulletin No. reasonable limits (these limits determined by the structures adjacent to or supported by the wall) a uniform settlement of the wall is harmless. the concrete stress
seen to be. the stress due to is induced in the steel by the action of the concrete in curing and drying out. the
more urgent
it
became that the
distribution of soil
It is generally agreed.
90. where
Rods in Vertical
Arm
Fig.
be expected on yielding soils where not a uniform one. Such reinforcement will tend to distribute any impending movement and thus prevent a crack.
ment. one type yielding more than the other type. at junctions of new and old work. Joints should also be placed between new and old work.
is expected. For the first case it has been sufficiently emphasized that there must be a uniform distribution of pressure.156
cracks. to reinforce the bottom of the footing with longitudinal rails or rods as shown in Fig. The remedies for these are quite obvious. It is a good detail.
settlement
While of common occurrence it is poor practice to make a wing wall monoUthic with the abutment.
The character
of loading for
each type
is
radically different
mak
. the new. where the character of the soil changes. 91.
RETAINING WALLS
which not only prove unsightly. but
may
indicate incipi
ent failure. in gradually taking up its settle
Unequal settlement
may
the distribution of pressure
is
Deformed
Bars
'Hailroad Kails "
Fig. necessarily destroying the bond between the new and old work. the old work having settled with the soil. A joint should be placed in the wall wherever the character of the soil changes and especially between a yielding and nonyielding soil. save on unyielding soils.
—Bottoms reinforced because
of threatened settlement. 90.
the provisions to be made against expected settlement demand most mature engineering judgment. 92. it is vital that every precaution be taken against unsightly cracks.TEMPERATURE AND SHRINKAGE STRESSES
ing unequal settlement inevitable. This makes ample provision for temperature and shrinkage stresses and makes it possible to have complete concrete pours from joint to joint. and tar are placed fabric of water into the joint.
becomes unpardonable. As in the case of foundations. due any of the interior or exterior changes discussed in the foregoing pages. 92. Where movement is expected in a wall. A large crack in a wall is usually an indication of lack of engineering foresight and where such work is adjacent to public highways.
One
section of wall
is
poured completely between the
joints.
—Expansion
joints.
157
Reinforcement across the junction of the two walls is uncertain and cracking may occur despite such rods. vertical joints
—
to small sections of the wall.
line. joints are essential and are customarily spaced at from 30 to 50 feet intervals. several layers of either side over the back of the joint and extend about l}i feet on wall up of the bottom the of it and from the row of weep holes at
to the top of the wall.
An
excellent detail of such a joint
is
shown
in Fig.
.
freedom
of
movement
in every direction except a transverse one.
are placed in the wall at regular intervals
and are constructed so
that no
across
movement can be
carried vertically or longitudinally
them. 2a) and Fig.
good
Since it is desirable that a wall be kept in the joints are usually so built to prevent transverse
movement.
to
E^ansion Joints. it is customary to attempt to localize such movement
For
this purpose. giving
Fig. Where the face of the wall is to receive special treatment or
is to be panelled. 91 are
given illustrative of
"While settlement
this.
is
an uncertain problem.
After the joints are given a coat of some
tar or asphalt prepara
To prevent seepage tion the adjoining sections are then poured.
In a monolithic gravity wall. careful attention to
the foregoing points will reduce to a minimum the chances of cracks on these accounts. A photograph (Plate No.
to build two adjoining counterforts with the
:ExpansionJomi
XantikverArms
^'Rods
to fake
Canfi lever Momenh'
Fig. 92.
Fig.
joint immediately
between them as shown in Fig.
This applies equally well to the cantilever type of wall. described on page 127. of course. no joints were used.
distributes all
The check rod system then
movement
safe against cracking. Accordingly. It is. possible.
The details of an expansion joint for the cantilever wall are simple and may be made the same as the detail for the gravity wall shown in Fig.
General however.^
158
RETAINING WALLS
While. such implicit confidence in the theoretical action of such rods is not wholly warranted and expansion joints are usually placed with about the same
frequency as in plain concrete walls. a break cannot be made in the face without providing a special detail. 94. The bottom slab. in the walls of the New York Connecting Railroad. theoretically. steelconcrete walls can so be reinforced that expansion joints are unnecessary. Gustav LindenthaP has stated that
to these> joints
expansion joints are a source of danger because of the possible accumulation of water in them with a threatened wedge action due to ice formation. full dependence having been placed in J^ per cent.
. Vol. 886. in the case of
counterforted walls.
p. 93. but where the stones have carefully been bedded any
1
Engineering News. not in accord with this view and expansion joints are almost universally used in reinforced
concrete walls. In stone masonry walls it is inexpedient to place any joints in the wall. 93. of reinforcement to take up whatever secondary stresses were induced
by temperature changes.
and the wall is surely Mr. Generally the joint is made midway between the two buttresses and the slab in between is made up of two cantilevers as shown in Fig. 73. 94. buried in the ground can usually be made continuous and the expansion joint need only extend to the bottom
detail is necessarily a costly
of the vertical slab.
engineering practice
is. but such a one and to be avoided. shrinkage and settlement. For the counterforted and other slab types of wall.
. G.
usually.
up and
distributed
by the mortar
that there be the proper ratio of headers to stretchers to effectively distribute all such
of course. Vol. square inch. Minutes of the Proceedings. It is not generally
possible to pour a section of a wall between expansion joints
—
completely in one continuous operation.
It
movements. the of per cent. For the abutting faces roughened and wetted the efficiency was 56. A series of six tests gave an average ultimate strength of the joint of 185 pounds per square inch. indicate such construction joints in advance. of 329 pounds per square
inch. of the sohd. ideal location for such joints.
For the abutting faces (newand old) merely wetted. an average ultimate strength. the efficiency of such a joint was 38.2 per cent. Inst.5 of the joint was of 281 pounds per joint the of strength ultimate tests gave an
square inch. of the solid. clxxxix. St. A series of five tests gave an average ultimate strength of the joint of 126 pounds per square inch. From the above
it is
evident. 85. in tension. For the abutting faces treated with acid the efficiency of the An average of six tests gave joint was 82 per cent. of the solid. to. Any break in the continuity of pouring a wall.
While such a sequence does not by the proper keying and cleaning of the construction joints. The steps in pouring are generally: the bottom slab is poured. of C. E. has performed the following series of tensile tests taking the efficiency of a solid prism A series of five tests upon this solid prism gave as 100 per cent. H. Part III. that
by cleaning and grouting the
is
surface on which the
new
concrete
to rest almost the full
effi
ciency of the joint will
be attained. the vertical is later poured
in as few operations as possible.
Construction Joints. leaves a joint in a wall.
give the. per pounds of 270 strength an ultimate grouted the efficiency and roughened faces abutting For the An average of four solid.
is is
159
usually taken
essential. It may be interesting to note a series of tests on the efficiency of various modes of treating a construction joint to insure a proper bond between the old and new work.
. the strength of a wall may be satisfactorily maintained. other than at an expansion joint.3 per cent.TEMPERATURE AND SHRINKAGE STRESSES
movement
joints. 313.
It
is
impractical. 19111912. which is usually termed a construction joint. p. Robinson. due to
the exigencies of field conditions.
act
as
such rods are unnecessary in the footing. it becomes necessary to splice these rods.
neer.
It
is
now
possible to complete the reinforced concrete design of
Chapter 3. The rods are carried beyond the point of splice each a distance
sufficient to
develop the rod in adhesion. In the
"L" and "T"
walls the rods are horizontal as
shown
in Fig.
Fig. usually attached to the primary system of the wall.
160
It
RETAINING WALLS
must be noted that construction joints in the face of a wall This matter is leave a permanent.
of the adhesion area
A
—
that no engineer could claim to be experienced in the design and
construction of retaining walls until he had several failures to his
credit. Small size rods are desirable for this secondary system.
yCheckFfods
Chuck Rods.
If the distance between expansion joints is too large. 95. the check rods are vertical and placed at the outer face. 96. fail
for
not only to extreme precaution that such a foundation will be maintained permanently in its proper condition.
which provision can be made.
It is
fail. see Fig. shrinkage and settlement may now be added to the sections shown For simplicity of construction the rods are in that chapter. they a distributing system in case of threatened
settlement. It is essential to guard against possible
It is necessary. or if there are no expansion joints.
For the counterfort and other slab sectioned walls.
and because of the ease in handhigh elastic limit steel should be specified (see specifications at end of book) Wall Failures.
Fig.
While
will
strictly. It was a famous maxim of Sir Benjamin Baker. when they do for definite reasons that can generally be anticipated and
Such. The secondary rod system for temperature.
find a proper foundation for a wall.
is not the viewpoint of the modern engitoday clearly apparent that walls. both
on account
ling the long lengths. 96.. and often unsightly mark. discussed somewhat in detail in a later chapter. but also to take
. however. 95.
a foundadifferent on Walls wall. if long continued. A failure of a barge canal wall in New York State^ is alleged to be due to this cause. may be mentioned the following.
The improper and
insufficient
attention to drainage (discussed in a later chapter) may permit the
accumulation of water behind a
wall
increasing
the
pressure
to
Fig. 384. Care should be observed in dropping big stone from trestles or from the partially built embankment against the back of the wall. reduce the
A soil and lead to subsequent failure. marring the face and eventually develop erosive
gullies. due to frost and other weathering action. majority of partial and complete wall failures are clearly attributable to foundation weakness developed subsequently to the construction of the wall.
1
Engineenng News. small cracks.TEMPERATURE AND SHRINKAGE STRESSES
161
saturation of the bottom and against erosion of the soil beneath the toe by streams of water which. Thus a wing wall tq an abutment. setting up heavy vibrations in the mushy mass. material
may
be dropped from some height. due to the impact may be developed. later. The junction of radically different types of walls without a very light proper joint. they become unsightly.
It is possible that in placing the
fill
behind the wall. Cases of failure due to excess of overturning moment over
bearing capacity of the
stability
moment
are rare. or joints spaced too far apart.
either striking the wall or setting
While complete failure is unlikely. At first not serious.
of failure. p.
11
67.
complete
Lack of expansion joints. Among minor instances of possible causes or partial. from considerable height. section heavy a section wall to
A sharp angle in a the earth pressure of component is a there that gravity wall.
. Photograph and Fig. so Plate No. (see acting in tension
tions. The fill behind the wall was saturated and in a quaking condition. 97. Vol. which eventually destroyed the wall.
up vibrations in the retained mass that may exert an excessive action upon the wall. 97. 3a).
Walls carrying a building load. The material was dropped behind the wall by a clam shell.
such a degree as to push the wall out of line.
55. 386. 26. The section of the abutment is shown in Fig. Vol. p. notes that:
"it was disquieting to note the high percentage of failures in works
Taking all the available records of works subject which had failed.
In the Trans. p. p. Vol. that
"Such
failures as
to poor construction
have occurred have been due. 96. both as a fill and as a foundation material. Bell. Part
1. Lindsay Duncan^ has described the tilting and settling of an abutment prior to the setting of the span upon it.„
Fig. accordingly was made from onefifth to onethird the height. where the base varied from
/
M to 3^ the height."
In discussing the action of clay. C. Engineer's Society of Western Pennsylvania.
Vol. Subsequently the filling became waterlogged and since no weep holes or other drainage had been provided to dispose of such accumulations of water. 45. Engineering News. still this preponderance is remarkable and would perhaps of itself indicate that there is something wrong with existing methods. 98. Baillarge^ has pointed out that
the retaining walls in Quebec has been but a brief one. cxcix. Inst.
Mr. to the most part and lack of drainage..
They were designed upon the assumption of a dry granular fill and the base.
233.:
162
RETAINING WALLS
Vol. 19145.
Some Wall
the
life of
Failures. Minutes of the Proceedings. the excessive pressures developed caused the failure of the walls."
constructed in clay. The wall rested upon an adobe foundation and surface waters gradually softened the
1 2
Engineering News.— Chas.
^

.
to earth pressure. E. While every one recognizes that clay is a treacherous material and that it will always claim a substantial percentage of total failures. referred to works constructed in clay. it appears that 70 to 80 per cent. 100.
. it was noted in gravity walls.
'
'
Engineering News. and the wall sUd forward from one to two feet. followed by the complete failure of the
fill
wall. and these failed causing the wall to settle about two feet. Engineering Record. p. 102).TEMPERATURE AND SHRINKAGE STRESSES
163
adobe. p. 102. causing the wall to tip forward. supported a
Fig. Engineering News. 586 (see Fig. p. 63. Excessive loads developed on the piles. 7. Vol.
Fig. of small stone rubble.
Fig. p. This seems to be an instance of insufficient frictional resistance between the
footing and the
sary resistance
1
wall— the brick pavement supplying the to prevent the forward movement of the
neceswall. A wall of rectangular shape. 503. 41.
in Fig. 61.
slightly surcharged. Vol.' The brick pavement lining the road was taken up. 44. an additional fill supported by the wall "A" was placed upon the old embankment. 101. and a section of the wall between two expansion joints was moved out. 100 was placed in an old creek bed ^ The freshet from a spring thaw undermined the foundation washing away the soil adjacent to the piles. A wall of section shown in Fig. "Vol. 'Vol. It had already given evidence of incipient failure by bulging in several places. An ingenious method of reinforcing the wall and bringing it back to line is described in the above article. 99
dam^ the foundation of a wall shown in was washed out.
Due
scribed in the Engineering Record. supported a reservoir embankment adjacent to a roadway.
. In grading an adjacent lot. A wall failure due to excessive overturning moment is deto the failure of a
. 101. and
A
wall
shown
in several places tilted out of fine about 6 in. 285.
.
^With the exception of very small construction jobs amounting to biit a few hundred dollars in value. contractors.
The
in
principal factors of a general nature determining the
amount
of plant required are. must be made if the selecto stand the test of experience.
Such auxiliary ap
pliances are termed plant. between hand labor and the proposed plant. The ultimate comparison. and plant charges are incurred out of all proportion to the volume of work to be done. Few jobs are exactly alike or sufficiently similar that the plant requirements become identical and it is a matter of economy to so buy plant that its cost less its salvage value.
165
. if is not worth the that a job plant. it would seem obvious that no more should be invested in plant than will yield a good return. This relation between plant and labor is apparently ignored in many instances. It is a insures a selection of plant most fitted for this work. machinery and other implements
to supplement
VI
—
and replace manual
labor. the purchase of this or that machinery. the time given
which to build the wall and the manner
of the distribution of
the wall over the work. at the completion of the job. has Contractors and engito a large extent been more or less haphazard. slogan of most the job
is
not worth having.PART II CONSTRUCTION
CHAPTER
PLANT
Plant Expenditure. if any. whether made directly or indirectly. "The selection of plant.
There are no fixed relations between the amounts to be expended on plant and the total value of the work contemplated. is carried by this job This permits a careful study of the field conditions and alone. or between this and that plant.
"Inasmuch^ as plant is in reality but a substitute for labor. it is necessary to employ tools. the yardage of concrete wall. tion
is
1
From "Concrete Plant"
issued
by Ransome Concrete Machinery.
Similarly. permits the use of a compact concreting train.166
neers. "In estimating plant cost. is a definite constant. the availability of a track adjacent to the proposed wall. Usually conditions are not
—
and local topographical conditions. In many cases a
higher salvage return will offset to a large degree higher
cost. other things most expeditiously built. has
in
of plant. must be considered on the one hand. that wall
of Plant. again.
is
most economically built which. the matter of
lUd. too.
. etc. Cost of installation. as well as the character of the work play an important role in determining the character of the plant best suited for the job.. labor."
It
Standard Layouts.
The
general layout
of the work. regularly or irregularly. This necessitates a
certain degree of flexibility in the plant that little time lost in bringing concrete to the forms awaiting it. while the
manner
to the site. " There seems to be a strong tendency toward excess in plant expenditure and a fact worthy of note is the tendency toward simplicity in plant upon the part of engineers and contractors whose experience and success in the field entitles them to be considered as leaders. which is an unknown quantity subject to great variations.
first cost. including
freight. to eliminate grade crossings.
being equal. interest
upon the investment. There are certain types of work. as against the resultant saving in labor and salvage value of the plant on the other. cost of
maintenance. all within strategetic
reach of a center not exceeding some maximum distance away.
is
—
It
may be
stated as almost axiomatic.
RETAINING WALLS
experienced and successful men. In track elevation work.
but
it is
nevertheless deserving of careful study. calls for a central mixing plant and a tower system of distribution. cost of removal. generally speaking. various elements other than first cost of plant must be carefully considered.
so typical
Arrangement
that. Thus a concrete wall in a compact area.
First
can be positively assessed and proper allowance made for it in estimating. whether in an important bearing upon the type
'
which the materials are to be delivered cars or in wagons. cartage. have been slow to awake to
the possibilities for loss or gain afforded
by plant
selection. in this respect differing from maintenance. for which the plant layouts are obvious.
may
be
"The
upon
character^
and arrangement
of plant
depend to a large extent
local conditions. First cost is perhaps less important in influence on final results than cost of operation and maintenance. regardless of whether or not it costs a few dollars more than something less suited to the conditions. "In general the plant best suited to the work is cheapest.
such as contour of ground.
'It seems natural to divide the plant necessary for concrete retaining walls into three subdivisions: (1) the plant to bring the ma(2) the terials to the mixer. When
mixer.
penalty. the bin It may be possible.
the plant to bring the materials from the mixer and place it in the forms. "Contour of ground is principally effective in determining the location of the plant with respect to the work and the storage of materials. material into the below the delivery bin this of location due to the advantageous
wagons may unload directly point.
imposed by total yardage. For example.3)
—
5forage
Pile
such that one or a few central plants may be used. and the time of the year during which the operation must be carried on. the layout of the 1. It may make for the adoption of two or more separate installations rather than one central plant or it may cause the adoption of a portable plant rather than a
stationary one. Loading bin by derrick from storage pile of aggregate. that the material cars or and reliable delivery regular a requires This into the bin. with sporadic supplied. etc.
—
alongside a storage bin and is having a hopper to drop fed to this bin as required. Fig.
"Delivery of materials is principally effective in determining the arrangement for the storage of raw materials. which under other conditions would not be
advisable. subject. "Total yardage. a steep slope will often make advisable a system of overhead bins with gravity feed. Usually the
.
(. winter work requiring very different plant arrangement from summer work. 103. are generally the controlling factors
in determining the
amount
available for plantage. of course. etc. will have a bearing
upon plant
"Other considerations which may affect materially the selection is the amoxint of ground available for material storage. constantly bin system to keep the
work would frequently be delivery of material the concrete to accumulate in a allowed is material delayed.
The material
is
dumped
Pig. See mixer.PLANT
total
167
yardage to be placed.
"The
general layout of the work will usually be the determining factor
in the adoption of to modifications
means
for
handlingmixedconcrete. time limit. of bonus or
selection."
Subdivision of Work. since. this problem' is comparatively sim
work
is
ple. 103.
of
time limit set for the work.
The requirements of good concreting (as described in a later chapter) should be noted and a type of mixer chosen that
this latter of the distribution of material the
pile. etc.
the material
to be
in the concrete. according to whether or not the fill his own barrow. Naturally a mixer attached to a central
mixing plant if run continuously will have a greater output than one of like capacity carried about the work. there is
considerable loss due to rehandling. but these differences will influence the final result less than a defective For example. with preferably a clam of loading the skips. it is common practice to employ extra men organization. Such losses may amount to quite a large percentage of the material ordered and proper allowance must be made to determine the final net cost of the material
matter such as
dirt. Similarly it is common practice to
handle mixed concrete in small wooden or iron barrows holding an average
two cubic
1
feet. to the gathering of foreign
bottom on the ground for some time then a large portion of it may be lost on account of the weather.
is
The
necessary capacity of the mixer
readily determined from the
expected daily output required to prosecute the work within the assigned time limit.
save the labor
When a central plant is not used. a type most suitable for the work can readily be selected. to fiU wheelbarrows.
. The selection of a proper mixer is comparatively simple. a practice which increases the cost of this work
cycle.
and to the inevitable
If
loss of the
is
portion of the pile
on the ground. the material is distributed along the site of the work in small piles.
"It^
is
true that one mixer
may have an excess of power with resultant
acceleration of the various operations going to complete the mixing
one machine may be quicker in mixing or discharging than another.
is
mixer Other modes of getting the material to the mixer are easily determinable from the local environment.. to
bin by a derrick.
For
mode
usually fed
by wheelbarrow from the nearest
—
will
make
it
possible to carry out these requirements. The catalogues of the manufacturers of the various types of mixers can be consulted to good advantage and. with the advice of their experienced salesmen. Mixers. It must be remembered that when the material is distributed in this fashion.
wheeler helps
of
twentyfive to thirtyfive per cent.
By
furnishing substantial runways
and the adoption
Ibid.168
RETAINING WALLS
and
is
storage pile near the bin
fed from this pile to the hopper
shell.
Canniff.
may
be designated as Paddle Mixers. and the more readily the operator of ordinary capacity can keep it in working order. Ransome. through the various stages. a story of heavier.
upon a series of deflectors. L. The make for excessive wear. location of the work.
subjected to the severe usage nature of the materials handled
"Trough
mixers. or conical hoppers. mixers may be divided into Drum Mixers. "Considered broadly. Properly handled. In the Ransome and Canniff mixers. of adapting the machine to the character of the work by reducing parts to a minimum.
form from a broken worm. It to such elements of organization that attention should be directed. pegs. as a whole. to which should be added the fact that the machinery is ordinarily handled by a class of labor not calculated to give it the intelligent care and attention to which it is properly entitled. "Pneumatic Mixers include the various types of pneumatic mixers developed during the past two or three years by Wm. It is to long experience upon the part of the manufacturer in this special field that the purchaser must look for protection against failure. of varying or uniform pitch. In the former class the mixing drum is mounted on a swinging frame.
* * *
*
*
is
*. "Gravity Mixers are of the same general characteristics. concrete plant becomes an important factor in setting the pace for the work. the less likely it is to get out of order. " Drum Mixers may again be divided into Tilting Mixers (Smith Type) and NonTilting (Ransome Type). elements
varying with the character of the plant. depending
though the paddles
in
may vary
for success
the mixing action. and the discharge of the mixed materials is accomplished by a tipping of the frame and drum. stronger parts. cartage and erection. Pneumatic Mixers. In the latter class mixed materials are drawn out through a chute inserted in the drum.PLANT
of carts
169
is
if
an average load of 4. etc. These
latter
machines depend
for successful results
upon such mixing action
. for They are not adapted to building work in any case
and do not deserve serious consideration here. In the McMichael and Eichelberger machines the materials are assembled in a container and forced through pipes without premixing. McMichael. with
respect to the source of supply.
you would cut down the cost of operation. " The fewer parts your machine has. chains. W. A. The history of success in this line of work is a history of constant changes in design. the materials are first mixed by air in a container. "Cost of installation includes freight. Trough Mixers. Gravity Mixers. Eichelberger. under the severe conditions which actually prevail in the field.
"No
other class of machinery
imposed on concrete machinery. to the continuous worm and the conveyor flight may be single or double. and the mixed
concrete then forced out through pipes to its ultimate destination.5 cubic feet can easily be handled.
may be raised and its contents spouted directly. Cableway distribution.
mode
of distribution. 104). Pneumatic distribution. by gravity.
—Pouring concrete
Fig.
—There
is
greater latitude in the selec
tion of plant for a distributing system than in the selection of
plant for the two prior operations and since this portion of the
work is the most costly of the three..
id)
(e)
(/)
Tower distribution. making a compact. or barrows and run over platforms along the top of the form into the wall (see Fig. generally.
—
The greater mass of the wall lying above the ground surface. 105. the concrete must be raised to permit its placement within the
forms. 104. single distributing system from a single central plant usually out of the question.
Pouring concrete from platform erected on trestle.
economically the use of one or more central distributing plants. The mixer. with
large concrete yardages within fairly restricted areas
may permit.
may
Pneumatic mixers are
expensive to operate and cannot be used to advantage except in
special cases. a long narrow strip. greater care should be spent upon the proper selection of the necessary plant. A retaining wall covers.
(6) The mixer is on the ground and the concrete taken from it by cars. The mixer may remain on the ground and its contents raised and delivered into the form. 105)
(c) A derrick takes the bucket from the mixer and dumps its contents either directly into the form or into a spouting device
leading to the form.
. into the form.
with a tower and hoist (see
Fig.
This is accompUshed by several methods."
Distributing Systems.
by tower and mixer mounted
on
flat car.
"Taiver
Mixer
„
TTjnt^
Flat Car
\wiiiimivmiiiiminn
FiQ. a travelhng one.
170
as
all
RETAINING WALLS
take place in transit through the pipe. Following
are
(a)
some possible methods of The mixer is on a flat
this latter
car. Nevertheless. heavy walls.
There should be just as much water. and the outer end supported by a
boom moves freely about the work. There should be a sliding of materials down the spout rather than a
rolling. none of them. the slope must be a little steeper. thoroughly mixed and of proper consistency will flow on a slope of eighteen degrees. preferably from twentyseven to thirty degrees. "Spouting plants may be grouped under Boom plants. are based upon a rigidly supported chute. the use of line hoppers in connection with
to rectangular troughs. and should not be undertaken blindly. the latter having the preference for flat slopes and the former where there is necessity for varying pitch.
p. however. some of steeper pitch than named above. proving entirely satisfactory.
"In guy line plants.
"Many means have been tried to facilitate ready moving of the free end. nor with expectations of abnormal savings.
"It has been found by practical experience that concrete. By proper consistency is meant a mixture with approximately one and a quarter to one and a half gallons of water to the cubic foot of material. This type of plant has a greater freedom of movement than either guy line or tower plants. and as in many other similar developments. or 10inch open troughs. Spouting systems have been installed on many buildings where the distribution might have been better done by barrow or cart. but is not as free moving as might be desired. with the best results obtained at twentythree degrees. A suggestion has been made to counterbalance the free end. been tried out thoroughly. 23. the spouting is suspended by ordinary blocks and falls from guy lines or from special cables set up for the purpose. "In Tripod plants movable towers are used to support the ends of
various sections of spouting. so that the stone particles will be carried in suspension in the mass.''
Ransome Concrete Machinery. "The installation of a spouting system is expensive. In the former. Where the spouts are supported from guy lines.
"Various types of spouting have been tried. however.
'
"Concrete
Plants. "With open spouting.PLANT
111
"The handling! of concrete through spouts or chutes is of compara^ tively recent development. A second length of spout ordinarily completes the unit.
as yet. ranging from round pipe Best results have been secured from the use of 5inch pipes. In some cases the outer end of the cable is mounted on a portable tower or "A" frame and the blocks and falls are preferably arranged so that necessary adjustments in the line may be made from the ground. but this has not. there has been a tendency to overdo. Tripod plants. as the material can carry without separation. Guy line plants.
. the spouting is mounted on a swivelled bracket at the tower end. These slopes.
14 gage metal will seldom handle more than two thousand yards without renewal This is due to the abrasive action of the material. The best results are attained with the chute line pitched with a fall of one foot in four up to 150 feet radius." "The economy' of distributing concrete through properly designed chuting plants has been demonstrated time after time. Where the work is light and scattered any attempt to spout concrete into place is foredoomed to failure.
and maintenance. "Concrete should flow at a uniform speed of from seventyfive to onehundred feet per minute.
subway bridges was
There were about
hampered by the necessity
Bulletin No. decreases with an increase in span. Vol."
When it is remembered that a cableway mode of distribution moves in but two dimensions i. on all kinds of construction and it has been conclusively shown that properly proportioned. p. For longer distances the fall should be about one in three. 23. Engineering News. 629. (see Fig. the illustrations selected
more or less typical and the character of the plant used probably the most fitted for the environment and character of the work at hand. starting with one foot in four and increasing the grade towards the discharg
ing point.
. especially as affecting the rivets which join the
installation
. thoroughly mixed concrete may be conveyed to any
to advantage
mechanically
practical distance without disintegrating the mass.
used.
The Lakewood Engineering Co.
various sections.
pitch. its use as a distributing system is usually discarded for the methods of distribution previously
mentioned. Cent. R. The ordinary stock spouting which is made of No.e. R.
"In general we would say that whether or not you can use spouting must be carefully considered for each job.
are thought to be
(A)
TOWER DISTRIBUTION
Railroad station at Memphis * * * 111. 106) for the skeleton layout of the work). and the amount of load to be carried. in a vertical plane only and that its cost rapidly increases. "Maintenance charges are particularly heavy.
Below are given a series of descriptions of various plants While it is impractical to attempt to make a standard
classification of construction problems.
"The
'
construction of the retaining walls and
of providing for traffic.
72.172
flexible
RETAINING WALLS
The
spouting accomplishes satisfactorily the necessary changes in greatest items of expense in spouting plants are first cost.
"
(B)
CONCRETE TRAINS
compact
As has been previously noted. described in Engineering
Vol. using selfsupporting trussed chutes. 890. such
as track elevation or depression. the handling of concrete whUe keeping clear of the trains andthe inability of the contractor to get certain parts of the site delivered to him for work at the time desired. The entire concrete yardage was 30.000 yards improvement is described as follows
of concrete
"Concrete train consists of a mixer car. permits the use of a
concrete train. Two stationary plants with 100' towers and one portable plant with a 50' tower were used.
"The concrete was delivered in place by spouting from elevator towers. 74 p. 670. in order to twocompartment material bin or hopper was erected over the mixer. four to seven stone cars and The mixer car is a thirtyfive two to four cars of sand. 106.
Each had its mixer. 74 p.000
*****
cubic yards.
A
typical piece of
work
is
the track elevation
work
of the
Rock
Island lines. Vol.
switchmg
this part of the line
service. the heaviest traffic being a p.
The
materials were brought in railway cars
and unloaded direct to the mixer bin or to small storage piles. For all work * * * the storage space for materials was limited and it was necessary to regulate shipments of all kinds so as to be able to use the material upon arrival. each of the former being set up twice (in different locations) and the
latter being shifted as required. railway improvement work. which were hauled up a cable incline and dumped into the material hopper.m.
to
noon and 3 to
were in
movements over
great difficulties encountered were the limited space available. 1275
crete plant
and
Vol. equipped with a % yard Smith nontilting mixer 10 h. and.
__l
Z50'
^
JU
Fig.
The
h

zfoo'

.p. The incline had a four rail track in the lower portion and a three rail track at the top.M The only freight
_
173
from 7 a. a
cubic yards of sand. A derrick with clam shell bucket took the materia] from the car or storage pile and dumped it into IJ^ cubic yard cars.
News The con
for this
which placed the necessary 30.
i
—^Layout
. foot flat car.Jt
of retaining walls
and abutments.
******
. there being little room for storage. holding about 30 cubic yards of stone and 15
work
to full capacity. The maximum output per day was 550 cubic yards. p. 73.:
PLANT
60 trains daily.
107. thus
*******
dispensing with the constant attendance of locomotive
and crew.
Engineering News. A.
train here
. the track being out of commission while the concrete train was on it. one stone and one sand. It discharges the concrete into a swivelling chute which may be swung to discharge
the end or either side of the car. 70. 240. 494. which is anchored ahead. Fort Wagner Track Elevation. been necessary to elevate the concrete.
700 gallon storage tank and 60
The machinery is housed the roof of the gallon feed tank for the mixer. Engineering News. p. The concrete train worked on a temporary operating trestle. p.
Sfeam Dsn/iej/
A
Fig. Vol. a crane and
bucket being used to place the concrete in the forms.
Engineering News.p. car being higher at the discharging hopper than at the ends of the
thus forming an easy incline from the runways on the tops of the gondola The mixer is located cars to the charging hopper above the mixer.
RETAINING WALLS
20 h.
"Each
train
is
placing at the rate of 20 to 30 cubic yards per hour. p. about 8' from one end of the car and faces the end.
with a monthly total for both trains of 11. 1192. 75. Vol. a concrete train of three cars one mixing. PauK
. A man on top of the car regulates the charging of the mixer. Chicago.174
vertical engine. " The mixer is designed to carry a tower and hoisting engine if required. it has
For the upper part spouted to the form beneath. and building the necessary retaining walls.
and the concrete
is
of the piers. Vol."
Other instances of the use of similar work trains are mentioned
below.000 yards of concrete. the supply of water and the dumping of the Usually the mixer train stands on trestles concrete (see Fig. p. This enables the mixer car to move the train along as the work progresses. vertical
boiler. 107). In filling in an old trestle. were used. 634. 76.
Loading
Chuhs:
dOpirahr's Plaifarm
— Connecting
train. so that concrete can be dis
from
either
charged at different points. valuable feature of the car is a powerful winchhead for a cable.
different angles or
This arrangement of pouring from end of the train eliminates the necessity and of turning the mixer car (as required with the other types) space. train working in saving makes a considerable •'The chute has intermediate openings. Vol. car. Milwavikee and St. Engineering Record. 75. The interesting feature of the work was the fact that the hoist was operated by steam from the locomotive.
described by R. Passenger & 16. The best run was 24 yards per hour. Q>) A runway with rails ran around to a hopper which concrete of buckets the A derrick hoisted
. This proved cheaper than tower cars and hoist cranes. N.
Cableway. from one wall to the other without being dismantled. 108). rectangular a enclosed walls The retaining by two street crossings and the parallel easement lines. It was placed over each wall in turn and was shifted laterally 80 feet. Vol. W.500 yards of concrete by dollies under the tower.
yffai/roaJ Tracks
\Hmnq
M

V
1190

>
Via.
different plant layouts for a series of similar pieces of
plant layouts to pour the walls were as follows: (a) A cableway.
"The cableway was 800 feet long with an 80 foot tower at the mixer end and a single bent 60 feet high at the further end."
An
interesting comparative analysis of the use of several
work is Soc. bounded layout. This
The
plant did not prove economical and was of low capacity.
Vol. the top of the wall forms. this was done by placing timber Handling the 12. cableway was economical as the amount of concrete at the ends of the walls is small and wheeling it in buckets would have been slow and
expensive.PLANT
A
175
The concrete train operated upon a trestle. Terminal: C. 72. New Engineers. The same derrick and
—
unto stock
clam shell bucket handled the material from the stock piles to the 200 yard bins over the oneyard concrete mixing plant which was located just east of the structure and on the north side of the tracks. 930 (see Fig.
—^Layout for cableway. of Journal of the Western in the Armstrong Mr.
''Concrete material was delivered in cars on a siding and unloaded piles by a stiffleg derrick mounted (with its engine and hoist) on a tower or platform some 15' high. 108. cableway on the concrete train took materials from the intermediate cars to the bins. p. placed on movable trucks was used. permitting the shifting of the towers to pour each of the walls. R. The use of a cableway for pouring the concrete walls of a viaduct is described as follows in the Engineering News.
. This proved very unwieldy and could not get close to the forms.
— Central mixing plant. 73.
'
Engineering News. 50 feet in
is
height.
Combined tower and
trestle distribution. The most economical mixer. All of the preceding equiprailway.
is
the one which discharges
its
mixed batch
and receives
its
new batch
Trestle. 109.176
RETAINING WALLS
dumped
This was into cars running along the form runway. from the adjacent high level
Concrete from the bottom or delivery end of this mixer was run into an elevator whence it was lifted to be dumped into a hopper and chute leading to another hopper with a bottom dump located on a frame just outside of the wall forms. since the dump cars were eliminated. where it was easily loaded by derrick.
(c) In place of the derrick as above a short tower was used with a hoisting engine. (d) A mixer. Less labor was needed here. The best results with this
plant were about 25 yard of concrete per hour. the following description
given of the plant used."
^In
Tower and
—
concreting a high wall.
Si'orageffm
and liiur
Railroad
TnsHe along '
tiall
Fig. ^
in the shortest time. The dump cars ran as much as 500 feet away from the tower. elevator and a hoist were mounted on a car and ran around the forms. Vol.
The
following
is
a trite recommendation
by the author
of the
above paper:
"It might be stated as a general principle in the design of plant
that the capacity of the mixer should be made the determining factor in the output. The best average was 37 yards per hour. A Hains gravity mixer was located about the center of the length of the wall.
other things being equal.
"For concreting the wall a very efficient plant was installed. however. p. The charging hoisting and conveying appliances should
be designed with such a degree of flexibility as to preclude the possibility of retarding the mixing process by delay in charging the mixer or delay in removing the discharged concrete. 776. cheaper than the cableway and had a capacity of about 33 yards
per hour.
and the stone was loaded into an elevated bin by a derrick with a grab bucket.
(This work
is
also described
on
page 211 under winter concreting. of concrete in abutments and approach retaining walls for a steel highway bridge across the Chicago & Northwestern Ry.^
"Hopper cars. Engineering NewsRecord. 110. 109). yds. March 13.
as shown in Fig. 1919. Each approach has a retaining wall on one side.PLANT
177
ment was stationary. The number of chutings given each batch should be especially noted. A narrow gage railroad ran alongside the roadway and brought the concrete from a central mixing plant about onehalf a mile from the work. and the wall on the
south side of the railway is about 600 feet along.
12
p. 111. 110. Vol. 269. "A concretemixing plant was located beyond the end of the cut.
. 76. so that long inclined approaches were required. at Wheaton.
Engineering News. p.
The
following
is
of handling the material
an interesting description of several methods on a bridge abutment job. as shown by the accompanying plan (see Fig. To give increased headway the bridge is at a higher elevation than the old span parallel to it. The mixer discharges the concrete into a sidegate hopper car." In pouring a retaining wall for the Baltimore and Ohio Improvementsi the inaccessibility of the site made it necessary to use a gantry crane device with a platform and stiff leg derrick. elevator buckets and inclined chutes were combined in placing 3360 cu. The sand was wheeled to the loading chute. Sand and gravel were unloaded from cars into stock piles on the side of the adjacent fill. practically at right angles
to the bridge.)
SHfflej
Derrick:. The gantry served
also to support the wall forms. but alongside of the wall was a trestle which took concrete from the last noted hopper and dumped it through another chute to its proper place in the forms (see Fig. 111). 553.
^
Consiruciion Din hst/ Line
Fig. derrick skips.
178
RETAINING WALLS
.
being placed opposite the end of the chute and sloping in the opposite direction. Bearing in mind that most jobs are unique in character. plant
is
employed
solely to effect
an economy
in the construction of a wall. that all economies accompUshed are legitimate ones.
"For the remainder of the work the cars ran up to the derrick and discharged the concrete into a homemade wooden skip which was placed in a pit at the side of the cable track and was handled by the derrick. Such illustra
.
movable gate was fitted to one end of the skip. having a feed hopper at its upper end within reach of the derrick. The tower chute or spout extended across the road and delivered the concrete into lateral chute supported directly above the forms by falsework. is unjustifiable. show a saving because of its employment. the opposite side and inclined chute was extended across the tracks. with inclined boards on the inside to guide the concrete to the opening and to prevent it from being pocketed in the corners.
To
use plant that
does not. This was operated by an endless cable with a hoisting engine placed near
the derrick and on tioned above. whUe beyond this and close to the abutment was a guyed derrick. At its lower end was a vertical drop line leading to the head of the chutes over the abutment form.
—To summarize."
Conclusion. This sufficed for about onehalf the
length of the wall. "Concrete for the abutment on this side of the railway was placed For the abutment and short wall on directly by the derrick and skip. in the final analysis. so that the direction of the concrete was reversed just before
its final
discharge.
A
"Baffles were used at the discharge ends of the long chutes to prevent segregation of the concrete as it was deposited in place. of course. plant
should be bought for the sole requirements of the work at hand and in proportion to the total cost of the work. A narrowgage track with one automatic siding extended from the mixer plant to the tower and derrick. In some cases these were short troughs secured to the trench bracing or form struts. It is understood. both tower and derrick being on the narrow strip between the old road and the top of the cut. these being shifted to deliver the concrete
in the desired portions of the form. not such as are made at the expense of good construction.
it
the concrete was handled in the hopper cars men
"At first the concrete was delivered to the elevator buckets and spouted to the forms. The skip was dumped into a feed hopper at the summit of the inclined chutes carried along and above the forms for falsework.PLANT
179
"Between this plant and the bridge site an elevator tower with a chute was erected.
the ideal thus are contracting condition.. however. "Concrete Plant. This etc.180
RETAINING WALLS
work
of general plant layouts
tions of actual construction
an idea
plated
—but each piece
as
have been cited
of
may furnish
work contem
taken of
must be studied out individually that advantage may be all local situations.
The
cost accounting and the preparation of bids for new work vastly simplified and each job carries itself. may survive a job and be easily fitted to other work. Taylor and Thompson. A good mixer. Little mistake is made. derricks and small plant such as barrows." Vol. railroad and highway location and the like. shovels.
Plant Literature
Ransome Concrete Machinery
Co. T.
To
secure
the proper results as indicated in those chapters requires a coordination between the plant and the methods used and plant that will
make it difficult to secure the desired results should not be employed. In the following chapters some stress is laid upon the require
ments
of
good form work and
of
good concrete work. 376380.
is
plant
a matter of judgment." HooL. hoists.
"Handbook
of Construction Plant.." Hooi." pp. carts. It is only just to add that plant manufacturers are keenly aUve to the demands of modern construction and strive to cooperate with the engineer and contractor to supply ma
chinery that will aid in turning out flawless work. "Concreting Plant. such as topography."
. Naturally some pieces of plant are standard. "Concrete Costs. "Concrete Engineers Handbook. Dana. if is procured for one job and charged off to that one job. II. and Johnson. "Reinforced Concrete." R.
such as a
is
gravity wall and the
pressures. or give way entirely. The details should be such that the panels can be assembled. For a wall of heavy section. Concrete Pressure. this linear
law would give excessive
Concrete pressures are quite often underestimated with the
result that the forms yield.
288.
it is
To
insure
maximum economy.
necessary that the panels be stoutly built. it is necessary that some attempt be made to determine
—
the
amount
of the concrete pressure. both on account of the setting action and of the solids contained in the concrete. were those crete pressures and the one most frequently are as follows: conclusions His Shunk.
level rising with a fair degree of rapidity.
then. put in place and made grout tight with a minimum of carpentry work. forms are usually de
signed to be used several times.
afterwards. is placed in the form. this hnear law ( p = wh) a good approximation. the fluid weighing 150 pounds per cubic foot.^ Major by performed
>
A rfeum^ of
these experiments
is
given in Engineering News. 62. yet of such
dimensions that they be easily set up.
experimentally.
it
Both
theoretically
and
has been found exceedingly difficult to formuAt the instant it late the action of wet concrete upon the form. spoiling much work and entailing an expense far in excess of that required by
the increased amount of material to hold the concrete properly. p. That the form panel be properly designed.
like. its pressure approximates closely a fluid Soon pressure.
(a)
—Form
the form panel in place. Vol. the pressure drops away from the For a thin wall with the concrete linear fluid pressure law.CHAPTER
FORMS
two
VII
work for concrete walls may be divided into the form panel proper.
181
. Probably the most extensive series of experiments upon conquoted. stripped and carried about.
With the exception
of
very small jobs
or of intricate and varying shaped walls.
parts. consisting of the lagging with the supporting joists and (b) the necessary bracing to hold
Panels.
Temp.
.
having an equivalent fluid value as low as 70 lbs. that concrete pressures are not readily formulated
fact.
all safe
w w w w
= = = =
150 100 75 50
will
These are
not yield.
have demonstrated that such pressures do seems better to follow the scheme of pres
The forms should be designed
preference to using the experimental then. per cubic foot in very dry mixtures. 448.
the
concrete 10 to 20 feet."
ments
There is apparently a large divergence of pressures as experimentally obtained and until more extensive experimentation has been performed it is hardly justifiable to use other than an empiric table of pressures. "The general conclusions to be drawn from these and other experiis
is that the lateral pressure of concrete for average conditions equivalent to that of a fluid weighing 85 pounds per cubic foot. "American Civil Engineers view of the In method.
"In the first series the temperature was fairly uniform throughout.
and that form
failures
reach a high value. and w is to be used as follows
For For For For
heights of concrete less than concrete 5 to 10 feet. * * * For concrete in which little water is used in mixing. the pressure is rather less. values just given show quite a divergence in numerical curves Shunk (the Major The pressures using the values given by found be T are to and C giving the maximum pressure for a given are far Book") Pocket on p. by the results of the above quoted work. using these values in aximum pressure.
values and insure.
5'. h concrete head in feet.:
FORMS
183
to mixing and laying were similar to those of the first tests and the concrete was carried up to a height of 10 feet above the center of the pressure
face. it sure intensities given above. guided. a form that
A comparison of the pressures obtained by using the results as
tabulated by Major Shunk and by using the suggested series of values. lower than those found by the latter however. while in the second considerable variation was experienced. concrete over 20 feet. but the effects of the differences in temperature on the lateral pressure cannot
be traced and would appear to be very small. however. A simple code may be used as indicated below wherein the pressure is obtained from the equation
p
= wh
is
with p the lateral pressure in pounds per square foot.
m
.
when used.
at
it
any point
of the face of the wall.
—Generally
The boards
.
At the end
of the chapter a
problem
is
given illustrating the
application of the preceding formulas to a specific example. Another most important feaLagging. it is possible to treat the panel as a plate. no reUance should be placed on such plate action and the boards should be designed as either smple or fixed beams. Ordinarily. or where such
(see
rods are not used. 112).
the load to
Fig.
which in turn
to
the
Fig. 112.
— Typical form assembly.184
RETAINING WALLS
The extra cost of the stronger forms thus obtained is far less than the expense entailed in remedying the result of a form
failure.
tongue and grooved lumber is specified are continuous over the joists and with the support of the tongue and grooving.
mum
it. to shores placed against the rangers
for the sheeting.
longitudinal rangers.
Range]
should be designed for the maxipressure that can come upon The concrete pressure is
carried
by the lagging to the
carry
it
joists.
tie
These carry rods.
Since a form panel
Joist
may be placed
Lagging.
because of the nature of the loading and the temporary character of the work. railroad timber stresses.
A.. R.—
FORMS
Table
33.)
Douglas
fii
.
185
Safe Timbeb Stresses for Form Lumber
(Taken from A. the stresses increased 50 per cent.
Longleaf pine Shortleaf pine White pine Spruce
Norway pine Tamarack
Western hemlock
Redwood
Bald cypress
Red
cedar
White oak
1800 2000 1600 1350 1500 1200 1350 1600 1350 1350 1200 1600
. E.
The loads may again be increased in the same proportion for a permissible unit stress greater than one thousand pounds per square inch and again when the beam is assumed as fixed in place of simply supported. This same table
be used to design the rangers supporting the panels. The diameter of the tierod depends upon the size of the panel supported and its position in the form. The unit timber stress taken is 1. That the deflection exceed oneeighth of one inch. Table 32 gives the load per square foot to be carried by a board 12 inches wide. L feet long (L the distance between joists) and h inches thick. for simple span.
It is well to keep the an inch. Should the permissible stress be greater than that used here the load
deflection of the panel within oneeighth of
may be
if
increased in direct proportion to the
is
the board
to be treated as a fixed
new stress. Table 34 gives the maximum loads to be carried by the joists
for various spacing. The concrete pressures may be taken from the empiric scheme given on
also
may
Tierods.186
ture
is
RETAINING WALLS
the amount of defection permissible.
—
.000 pounds per square inch. Again.
The
thickness of the joist
is
b inches
and its depth h inches. beam the load to be carried
be increased 50 per cent. The boards are designed as simple beams.
may
may
not
L must
and
for a fixed
be
less
than 25 y/h
span
L must
be
less
than 45
s/h
Table 33 gives a range of unit timber stresses for several woods.
propelled electrically or by gasoline is a marvellous labor and time saver
ordinary
wood
and few
jobs. When the lagging becomes splintered marring the face of the concrete and making it very difficult to strip the form. a panel maybe used from 3 to 10 times. Rangers. such as the universal clamp {Universal Clamp Co. then
joists.
however
small.
187
A simple detail carrying the tie rod load is shown in Fig.
.
end and fastened to the rangers by nuts and washers. put in place and stripped. make for large economy on the work. If the panels are built in stout units. If plant is available to handle these units. a most competent man in his sphere.000 per square inch. with span between tie rods L. The tie rods may be threaded on the
page 183. with spans between tie rods and carrying the
—
If the ranger is to be b inches wide and h inches deep. and p may be taken as the safe
permissible unit stress in the timber.
It is a
poor economy to substitute for such labor the
butcher. It is essential that a careful study be made of the form work. This obviates the necessity of boring a large timber to allow the rod to pass through. 112. Two inch tongue and grooved sheeting makes a good strong form but its weight Hmits it to small panels. the form should be abandoned.) may be used on a plain round bar. depending upon the assumption that a fixed or simple one. taking into consideration the expected daily output It must of concrete and the time the forms must remain in place. The rangers themselves may be designed as simple or fixed beams. can afford to be without one. The unit stress in the steel is usually taken at 16. or a patented support. quickly assembled. be remembered that forms of simple shape. Skilled carpenters will prepare excellent. wellfitting forms of long
—
—
duration.
WL/I = pbhye and
I
bh^
=
^
(184)
may
the
beam is
be taken as 8 or 12. Form Work. Usually a Hmiting section would be about 8' by 10'. In this connection the use of a portable machine saw. carefully put together. With care in placing and stripping the forms. Small diameter rods may be pulled out and this should be borne in mind in selecting the rod spacing. Table 35 gives the load on tie rods for a range of unit steel stresses.
Form Reuse.FORMS
lb. this objection is removed and as large sections maybe used as is found convenient to assemble. they may be used several times.
tie
When
the tie rods are placed or wire used in place of
details. an overlapping of the bracing unnecessary above the lower lift.
.— Form
brace..
When
walls of
some height are to be
joists
poured in several hfts.
nailed to the rangers and held against foot blocks or stakes in the ground (see Fig.
Occasionally the environment
is
such that bracing cannot be eye bolts
lift
used on either
into the
side. requiring forms on one side only. The tie rods and wires must remain until the concrete has set (see
rods and tension put on
without any further
later chapter)
Bracing. stock. Formwork is a fertile field of study for the engineer and the designing and detailing of such work is worthy of as serious attention as the design and construction of the wall itself.
188
RETAINING WALLS
The rear and face forms of the wall are kept the proper distance from each other by means of wooden separators called
spreaders. 113). the spreader is knocked out. no tie rods or wires can be used through the concrete and the bracing on the one side must take the full concrete pressure and are to be
—
designed accordingly.
Fig. or 4 in. It is essential that foTms be stripped as soon as it is possible to do so.
them the spreaders are held in place As the concrete is poured and reaches the lever of a spreader. To keep a form in place longer than is required makes it impossible to get the full economical
—
. Such stresses are obviously not to be computed and experience alone dictates the proper amount of bracing to be used.
may
render
Fig.— Holding forms by bolt in concrete. or shoring is necessary to take care of unbalanced pressures and the possible overturning of the form due to the vibrations and shocks set up during the pouring of the concrete. by 6 in. with a result
and making it impossible to run plant close to the forms.
114. Bracing.
lift
It is possible here to concrete
bottom
and into each succeeding
is
and to anchor
the forms to these (see Fig.
113. They are made usually of 4 inch by 4 inch. 1 14) Generally an excessive amount of bracing
ing forest of timber
used. Where concrete is to be poured against a permanent mass.
Stripping Forms.
For a wall of large yardage and of fairly constant outUne. The sooner after stripping these rods and wires are cut. the rubbing sludge. e.
absorb the water pecuUar from honeythe face due to concrete pockmarked appearance of the pail wetted by should be forms combing of the surface.
of Chicago.
Wires are rarely recovered and are
the same fashion as the rods. permitting many reuses of the form panel. The two best known types of such forms are the HydrauUc Pressed Steel Form and the Blaw Form. both in the construction of the form and in the labor of setting
—
up and stripping the forms. which is a heavy Although this stains the concrete face. they should be cut back an inch to an inch and a half and ibhe face of the wall
If it is possible to
diameter
may
K
plastered at these points.
FORMS
189
reuse of the form and makes it very difficult to finish and repair the concrete surface. Patent rod pullers^ may be used to take out the rods. warm weather should elapse before the fill is placed behind the wall. in the process of curing..
will
—A dry form
the concrete. oiled. pour concrete the or hose immediately before usually is form of the face inside the in the stripping of the form. When in doubt as to the hardness of the concrete a small portion of the form may be taken off and a thumbnail impression made. In the spring and fall months
they should be left in place from 48 to 72 hours. a greater period of time should elapse. This is especially important for the reinforced concrete walls.
1
An
excellent rod puller
is
sold
by the Universal Clamp Co.
remove the tierods (rods inch or less in be economically recovered.
From ten days to two weeks of favorable. and washing of the concrete surface easily removes the oil marks.g. termed a form oil..
Oiling and Wetting Forms. Where the rods are left in the wall. the use of some of the patent forms may show quite an economy. In the warm summer months the forms may be stripped after 24 hours. the easier it is to repair and cut
off in
finish the face of the wall (see later chapter of wall finish)
. it is safe to take off the balance of the forms. with a heavy oil.
. where the concrete will receive the full load immediately after
the completion of the embankment. The aid To is started. rods of larger diameter are usually left in the wall) these should be taken out before the forms are stripped. If there is no indentation. If the fill is to be placed at a rapid rate. leaving a
Patent Forms. by dump cars from a temporary trestle and the like.
form assembly
of liners
and
plates. Where a job will permit a reuse of the form panel exceeding twenty or thirty times.190
RETAINING WALLS
Steel
The Hydraulic Pressed
Form
consists of
two
parts: the
bracing and the form panel. they maintain that their form will prove cheaper than the wood form
ordinarily built. 115.
It is claimed by the company that the panels may be reused about 300 times before wearing out.
. form. The bracing is formed of upright Us spliced as necessary and held together by tie rods and spacers
or Uners.. Around the periphery of the panel a U steel edge is put.
standard Upright
Standardnail Plate
"Standard
Wall Plate
Standard
Yfall
Plate Clamp.
The
panels are held in place against the uprights
by
means
of stout
Us spaced about one
foot apart (see Fig.
— Hydraulic Pressed Steel Co. to which the boards are screwed (see Fig.e.
The form panel consists of a sheet metal (all metal used in these forms both panel and uprights are no.
116).
— Section of Hydraulic Pressed Steel Co.
Fig. oneeighth inch metal) backed by 2" boards. 115).
FiQ. i. 116.Liners Punched f'Cenfvrs
Metal Apron S^ri'p
\forAolJusfmeniof Uprights
f^
I
:
Fig. 115
shows a sketch of the bracing and
its details.
^E^ ^
. 11 gage.
^i\i%:^
(FariN^j pvin I'.Z^^^»i~^
>:
t
..*&i^jngV
^'^^
'^
/'
'
•
^''^'/.^'
3^
=^4
.tn
.%
f^.Platk IV
.
.
.
essentially
a steel
panel. thus permitting a thorough spading
and tamping
of
the mass: quite a vital point where the wall special shape. together before placing in the wet con
.
wire a net of these rods. therefore. be set up and
in place before the wall forms
are up.
Many
simple devices
Fia. In the "L" or "T" SfafKS as shaped cantilevers.
—Since
most
of the rod
system in a reinforced concrete wall must
be in place before
the concrete pouring is started.
The horizontal rods in the footing. since the form is now anchored against the lower half of the wall. B.
a steel assembly of joists and rangers. itself. The uprights be built up to the top of the wall. Plate IV) shows a typical and efhcient
117. A large number of instances of their use for both heavy and Hght retaining walls
are given in their Catalogue 16.. Patent wire chps may be used to wire the horizontal and vertical rods together.
method
of taking care of these rods. 117. the heavy ZounUrmiqkl'S Lon^ihd/nal
.
rod system of the vertical arm extends into the footing and
Rods
must. the uprights and liners remaining as much longer as is necessary before the
may
wall
is
selfsupporting. the form panels are braced against this travel
and held in place with By an ingenious travel
which runs on rails alongside the work. reinforced with angle on the back
Ung gantry
ler.FORMS
The advantages
191
of the form are quite obvious. device. After the lower lift of the wall is poured no further bracing becomes necessary. Fig.
—The
Blawform
consists. thereby anchoring these rods. the wall forms are set in place and the rods are wired and held the required The horizontal rod distance away from the concrete face. The panels may be removed after twentyfour hours.
Supporting the
Rod Reinforcement. some means of support must be provided. are laid in the conIt is preferable to crete when the proper level has been reached.
the footing
has been poured. (See Fig.
The
panels need only be put in as the concrete comes near
their level.
is
thin or has a
of
Blawform. system is wired to the vertical rods and helps to maintain the proper spacing of these vertical rods.
— Supporting rod
When
reinforce
ment
of cantilever wall.
may
be used for this purpose.
The rod system has.
The problem
of supporting the rods extending into the footing for the slab
types of wall
is
comparatively a simple one.
The main system
(particular stress
is
framework to carry is placed upon the
counterfort and box types of wall)
face
suspended to the forms in
the usual manner and kept at the proper distance
away from the
are
by means
of small
wooden spreaders which
removed
in
pouring as quickly as the concrete reaches their level.
Undoubtedly walls are at times designed with excessive reinforcement due to indifference or carelessness and the knowledge of such excessive strength has encouraged the engineers in the
field
and the contractors constructing such walls to alter the rod spacing to accommodate minor construction exigencies. Spading and spouting of concrete are liable to shift the rods unless they are stoutly supported. Simplicity of rod design insures an easy concrete pour and leaves the engineer with a reasonable assurance that the rods are finally placed where they were originally designed to go. where a proper attempt should then be made to reinforce the weak spots resulting. to permit placing timbers through the wall. been carefully and economially designed and no variations in spacing should be permitted in the field. Such acts are. except in isolated instances. for example. or to place large
It is
the rods should be held firmly in place. 118. whatever method of support is employed. It is understood that in the design of walls involving intricate rod systems (see Chapter 4) proper consideration has been given to the practicability of the rod layout and to the feasibility of supporting the rods and of pouring the concrete. presumably. The tie rods form a good sujpport for the horizontal rods and are generally
so used.
in portions being
Fig. The rods should be bent around these openings as shown in
Fig. as. unfortunate and designs which can
. since these rods are
little
the light system and therefore need
them.
P^'P^ ^**'' "^i^^ result. Leaving openings in the walls rijll "tpr p for construction reasons.
I
when the wall is finally patched without the proper reinforcement. will be kept.
important that.192
Crete to
RETAINING WALLS
make
sure that the proper spacing as called for on the
of the other types of the reinforced concrete
plans. 118. in the main.
The rod systems
walls are supported
and placed
in similar fashion.
pour
ing and dismantling).
Track
"The walls are built in travelling forms which straddle the site of the wall and are carried by wheels on either side. not threaded. {Engineering News. Walls should be designed as economically as possible with due considera
tion for
all
contingencies and
when a
design has left the hands
of a competent. Sept. Elevation Rock Island Lines Chicago. of the cost (including erecting. no changes should be permitted in the field save with the concurrence of the
man
responsible for the design.
retaining walls are built in alternate sections of 35 feet with It takes about six hours to fill the form. It then takes about 20 hours to form move seventy feet forward and adjust them ready for the concrete. Plank sheeting is used in both cases and the two lines of sheeting are held together by tierods instead of wires. The use of the travelling forms work to be done in about 25 per cent. Vol. conscientious engineer. of the time reordinary forms (from the building to the removal of about 50 per cent. * * * The abutments are built in fixed forms of the usual type."
New Passenger Terminal. Vol. and are fitted with clamps instead of nuts. each being long enough for a 35 foot section
and having grooved wheels riding upon two lines of rails.—Engineenng News. W. 16.FORMS
193
safely permit many such liberties are to be deplored. Each
V
rod is imbedded in a tin tube. were drawn out when the forms were removed. The footings were and allowed to set. 1914).
The forms were buUt iu sections 30 feet long. R. Travelling Foims. securing rigidly in position.
sheeting. 73. so that it can be withdrawn readily. Armstrong. which
then
left in place
release the travelling
and the sheeting
has enabled the
quired with the
the form) and at
about 15 hours. 67. p. The forms for the super walls were then built. but the pipes were left
in place. Both wood and steel forms of this type are used. C. 10."
. R.
"The
is
the travelling forms. & N.
mixing plant. in order that no horiThe forms were constructed
by 6inch studding and 2inch by 8inch dressed and matched The two sides were tied together with J^inch rods which The rods were passed through iron pipes consisting of old boiler fines. a set screw jams the rod against a slot in the clamp. When a clamp
is it
in place. Journal of the Western Society of Engineers. the holes being then packed with stiff cement grout at each end. It was required that an entire section of superwall should be
first built
"
poured at one continuous run
of 4inch
of the
zontal joiats might occur in the walls. the opening in the face of the wall being filled with mortar. The rods are plain bars.
using a carpenter level.
"Run
position. R. The rest of the boarding can now be nailed to the studding. For this work the forms were built in a central yard and were shipped out to the work as required on flat cars. p. cleating them together as fast as they are put in correct
wall.
Engineering
Record. but in building forms on curves of short radius there is great difficulty in making a symmetrical surface and eliminating the segmental effect. but very little attention is given to the mold itself. This is very noticeable in massive work. springing each one carefully
The purlins (Rangers) are put in and rods run through and tightened. remove the batter boards used in lining up.
Brown. Arc of radius of 150 feet can easily be handled.
With
this
center to
work from. " Take a wire about the size of that used in telephone lines and upon a smooth level surface strike on the board an arc of the radius of the centerline of the wall or dam. If the following method is carried out a piece of concrete will be produced which is a true curve in every foot of its length. Erect a wellbraced series of batters around the curve and set the top ledger board at the exact crest of the
Place the centerline templates on these boards and plumb them over the plugs.
—R.
"There
is
is
nothing more unsightly in concrete work than to see the
impression of the forms running out of level. 714. the lower
end following the inequalities
of the
"Start the bottom board as low as possible and run it along the curve on both sides making it absolutely level. one edge straight and the other
bevelled to the batter of the front and rear faces respectively. Care must be used in doing this that the wire is always straight.194
RETAINING WALLS
Built in Central Yard. the outside and
inside curves
can be
set. 1913.
Erecting
Forms on Curves. 649. The rear and face templates can be struck from this one
by means
of a Tsquare. Milwaukee and St.
A
great deal of pains
taken to produce smooth surfaces by spading. They were taken from the cars and set in place by
means
of locomotive cranes. Chicago.
"Make two
studding can
ground.
is
presented to the eye. Track Elevation. This template is now sawed out on a band saw in about tenfoot lengths."
.
boards four feet long.
The
will
now be
set.
June 11.
The upper end
rest against the template. p. 61. Vol. After everything is well braced. On a straight wall there is no excuse for this. Paul R.
H. When the forms are removed a true curve
into place.
Forms
—Engineering and Contracting.
out the center line of the wall in chords of 10 feet and put in permanent plugs at these points.
this to
govern the
lift
of concrete poured. The forms will be designed upon this basis.FORMS
Problems
195
It is required to design and construct a set of forms for a wall 30 feet high above the footing with expansion joints 40 feet apart.
of the wall requiring
The portion
—
. It is figured that the mixer can pour 100 yards of concrete in an
8hour
shift. It is thus possible to complete the pouring of the section in one continuous pour within the time specified the ideal arrangement. 119.
forms contains a volume between expansion joints of 93 cubic yards. of section shown in Fig.
Table 34 permits a threefoot spacing
and accordingly the first ranger having been placed as close bottom as is feasible. a handy merchantable size. per square inch. The rangers will be made up of two 3inch by 6inch sticks. 119.196
RETAINING WALLS
In line with the recommendations of the text.
avoid using large size tierods which cannot be recovered two tie rods be used together at the lower lift. The sheeting
will
be treated as continuous. 1500 as before. The other tie rod spacing.. A good working size for a joist is a 4inch by 6inch stick. the ratio of ^^^^MooOi to permit a direct use of the Tables. Let the lower ranger carry
12
=
a threefoot panel of sheeting. From the figure. the dressed thickness is V/s" and the table shows that a load of 670 pounds will permit the joists to be spaced 30 inches apart. p = the tierod spacing.
of this size joist
to the
WL
or
if
=
648. In view of the fact that the forms are to be used several times. the lower three feet bring a tabular equivalent load of 4. per square inch. For 2" material. with 7 = 12.
54. two J^inch rods will be used. and the necessary rod section are both found by identical means. to maintain the same size of joist.5
X
3
X
1500
=
15. 6=6 and ^ = 6. The loads have been divided by the constani 2. Table 34 is to be used in the design of the joists. and of the heaviest dimensions required. the next four rangers must be spaced on three feet centers.25 i.
The tie rods will accordingly be spaced 3' 6" apart at the lower lift The panel load that a tierod will be called upon to carry is
3. the next will be spaced three feet above it. The rangers are set after the panels are in place and may therefore be spaced to accommodate the concrete pressures. 119 gives the load layout for the 30inch spacing of the joists. The remainder of the spacing is shown on Fig. and will therefore all be constructed alike. A similar study of the loading above the lower panel shows that. so that the product hp of Table 32 is 1500 X 18000.000 per linear foot (the actual loads are
The lower ranger will carry 4500 used here).000
expressed
w is the load per linear foot upon the ranger and L is the length
wL''
in feet
=
lbs.700 lb. From Table 35 with a unit stress of 16. whence
L =
3'
6"
of rangers. to use the table directly. the panels may be set at any position in the form. or will become 670 lb. Since the loads on the sheeting of Table 32 employ the constant 8000. Fig.8 kips.000 pounds per square inch for steel. 2ineh tongue and grooved sheeting will be used.e. the above load of 1500 pounds per square inch will be reduced in the ratio of ^^''''^ooo. The safe load span upon these two pieces will determine From equation (184) page 187. North Carolina spruce dressed all sides will permit a working stress for the form work of 1500 lbs.
will
To
.
both partial and complete are attributable to excess of water. Johnson. the voids in the coarser aggregate (see
following pages on Prof.
Each element
entering into a concrete mix performs a definite
is.
some
of
which may. but the amount of water used is vitally important. The evaporation of this excess amount of water leaves pockets and crevices in the concrete.
The widely varying
of safety
results of concrete tests
and the necessary high factors
are thus quite obviously explained. with
be quoted here. Johnson^ and other laboratory investigators have strikingly demonstrated the vital importance of the correct amount of water and it has been shown that concrete failures.
^Engineering News Record.
and separate function and each
more
or less completely.
profit.
to
of
'The cement and the mixing water may be considered together form a paste.
Its Solution. capable of affecting favorably or unfavorably the strength of the concrete. 1919. June2&. C. this paste becomes the glue which holds the particles
the aggregate together. The action of water is in part a solvent and in part a chemical one.CHAPTER
Vlll
CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION
Water Content. 1266. accordingly. N."
Also "Better Concrete— p.
effective area capable of resisting stress. Talbot^ has
made
a series of timely pointers on concrete. 1919 for a resum6 of his remarks at the annual convention of the American Railway Engineering Association.
in the
—Recent years have noted a marked increase
of the proper mode of selecting and mixing aggregates necessary to produce good. this condition). Concrete is usually so proportioned that each finer material fills. Journal Engineer's Club.
197
. The excess or deficiency of water seriously affects
knowledge
the
the strength of the concrete.
' Engineering NewsRecord. strong concrete masonry. materially reducing the
of the concrete does not require.
The Problem and
Philadelphia.
Abrams demonstration
that the strength
prima facie. Pa.
Prof. Not only must the various aggregates be put in the correct proportions. May 1. The results of Mr. Nathan C.
that aggregate will give the higher strength which has the less voids. since additional pore space will require a larger quantity of paste and therefore more dilute paste. " The coating or layer of paste over the particles forms the lubricating
materia] which
easily placed to
makes the mass workable.
"For a given kind of aggregate the strength of the concrete is largely dependent upon the strength of the concrete paste used in the mix. the
aggregate.
"Increase in mobility
of the layer of paste. the amount amount of mixing water.
makes
it
mobile and
a space compactly.
the cement paste
Smaller amounts
of cement.
"The
wholly and also goes to
paste coats or covers the particles of aggregate partially or fill the voids of the aggregate partially or wholly. this (resulting in a
may be obtained by increasing the thickness may be accomplished either by adding water
weaker paste) or by adding cement up to a certain point
(resulting in a stronger paste)
"Factors contributing to the strength of concrete are then. "For the same amount of cement and the same surface of aggregate.
and plasticity is obtained only when there a thickness of film or layer of paste over the surface of the particles of aggregate and between the particles suflacient
"The
requisite mobility
is
sufiicient paste to give
to lubricate these particles.
"Any element which carries with it a dilution of may in general be expected to weaken the concrete.
•
198
RETAINING WALLS
of the paste is
"The volume
approximately equal to the
sum
of the
volume of the particles of the cement and the volume of the mixing
water.
filling of
Full coating of the surface and complete
the voids are not
usually obtained. " The strength given this paste
the more
its
is
dependent upon
its
concentration
—
dilute the paste the lower its strength. this paste being less dilute will therefore be stronger. the use of additional mixing water to secure increased
mo
. since it will require the less amount of paste to produce the requisite mobility and this amount of paste will be secured with a smaller quantity of water. that
fill
is. the less dilute the greater
strength. which forms the gluing material between the particles of the aggregate. "For the same amount of cement and same voids in the aggregate. the amount of voids in the combination of fine and coarse aggregate and the area of surface of the
of cement. The relative surface area of different aggregates or combination of aggregates may readily be obtained by means of a surface modulus calculated from the screen analysis of the aggregate. that aggregate (or combination of fine and coarse aggregates) will give the higher strength which has the smaller total area of surface of particles..
in methods of mixing which increases the mobility of the mass will permit the use of less dilute paste and thereby secure
of
Any improvement
increased strength. "3. the mix is not workable and less strength is developed in the concrete. 'In varying the gradation of aggregate a point will be reached. the degree varying considerably with the nature of the work and generally it will be found necessary
m
to sacrifice strength to secure the requisite mobility. that the effort should be made to produce as strong a cementing layer of paste as practicable by selecting the proper mixture of ag
gregate and by regulating the amount of mixing water. upon the injurious effect oj the use oj excessive quantities of water in mixing
upon other factors. a decrease the amount of mixing water below that necessary to produce sufficient paste to occupy most of the voids and provide the lubricating layer wUl give a mix deficient in mobility and lower in strength. The compressive strength of concrete is just as much dependent
"1. It is readily seen. however.
. "2. there
standard of compressive strength can be assumed or guaranmade with any aggregate unless all the factors entering into its fabrication are controlled. the voids are greatly increased. "More thorough mixing not only mixes the paste and better coats the particles. and increased voids in the aggregate all operate to lower the strength of the product.
No
workmanship and the use of the mixing the concrete as it is upon the use of the proper quantity of cement.'
CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION
199
m
bUity in the mass. 58.
Investigators. increased surface of aggregate."
In connection with the above remarks by the Dean of Concrete may be quoted the conclusions of a classic report prepared by the Bureau of Standards.
1
[The itahcs are mine. Only a fractional part of the desired strength may be obtained unless other factors are controlled. when the advantage in the reduction of surface of particles is offset by increased difficulty in securing a mobile mass. such proper amount of water
as careful
in
concrete. No. The compressive strength of concrete may be reduced by the use of an excess of water in mixing to a fractional part of what it should Too much emphasis cannot be placed attain with the same materials. "A certain degree of mobility is necessary in order to place concrete the forms in a compact and solid mass. however.]
Technology Papers of the Bureau of Standards. A concrete having a desired compressive strength is not necesteed for concrete of any particular proportions
sarily guaranteed by a specification requiring only the use of certain types of materials in stated proportions. but it makes the mass mobile with a smaller percentage
•
mixing water and this less dilute paste results in higher strength. For a given aggregate and a given amount of cement. "4.
the compressive strength of a concrete increases directly.
No
and poor aggregates
"10.200
"5.
"8. even though suitable materials were used and proper methods of fabrication employed. An increase in the ratio. The relative compressive strengths of concretes to be obtained from any given materials can be determined only by an actual test
if.
after fabrication. There are good
"9.
"14. "6.
RETAINING WALLS
The compressive strength
it is
of concrete may be greatly reduced exposed to the sun and wind or in any relatively dry atmosphere in which it loses its moisture rapidly.
total
combined aggregate
type of aggregate such as granite. Contrary to general practice
and opinion the
relative value of
several fine aggregates to be used in concrete can not be determined
testing
them in mortar mixtures. aggregates which appear inferior and may be available at the site of
the work
By
may
give as high compressive strength in concrete as the
best selected materials brought from a distance.
They must be
tested in the
by combined
state with the coarse aggregate.
. but may give even.
of those materials
combined
in a concrete.
of
each type. differs
strength.
"15. The mixture having the highest density need not necessarily have the maximum strength but
of several different mixtures of the
have a relatively high strength.
in
all
give
maximum
assuming the same ratio of cement to
cases. The
gradation
curve
for
which
is
usually the
same
as for
maximum compressive maximum density.
They should be
will
tested in such combination with the fine aggregate as
density. gravel or limestone can be said to be generally superior to all other types.
"7. Contrary to general practice and opinion the relative value
of several coarse aggregates to be used in concrete
cannot be determined
by
testing
them with a given sand
in one arbitrarily selected proportion. With the relative volumes of fine and coarse aggregate fixed. There is no definite relation between the gradation of the aggregates and the compressive strength of the concrete which is applicable to any considerable number of different aggregates.
for each
aggregate.
of cement to total fine and coarse aggregates when the relative proper" tions of tie latter are not fixed does not necessarily result in an increase in strength. but not in a proportionate ratio as the cement content.
proper attention to methods of fabricating and curing.
when the
latter are
"11. Density
is
a good measure of the relative compressive strength
same aggregates with the same proportion of cement to the total aggregate. Two concretes having the same density but composed of different aggregates may have widely different compressive strength.
carelessly or improperly used. a lower strength. "13.
it will
"12.
"
Of the different methods of proportioning concrete.
all
engineers and constructors
who have
The
problem involved "1. Prof.
an aggregate
is
made
to secure
Design of Concrete Mixtures.
is
also present. "3. The results included in this paper would indicate that the comof
The compressive strength
combined
concrete
materials.
Structural Materials Research
. or more by employing rigid inspection which will insure proper methods of fabrication of the materials. Density of concrete in which the attempt concrete of maximum density. as commercially
made can be increased 100 per cent. such as 1 :2 :4 mix.
is
'The
design of concrete mixtures
a subject of vital interest to
to do with concrete work.000 tests are
and some
of the principles following a
noted therein. Duff A. The importance of the report and its vital conclusions justify the rather lengthy excerpts below. Chicago.
"3.
crete at
may
is
be one of the following: necessary to produce concrete of proper strength
With given
materials what proportion will give the best concost?
minimum
With
different lots of materials of different characteristics
which
is best suited for the purpose? "4.CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION
"
16.
201
composed of given and fabricated and exposed under given conditions can be determined only by testing the concrete actually prepared and treated in the prescribed manner. size or grading of the fine and which the endeavor is made to secure in aggregates of "2.
in definite proportions
pressive strength of most concretes. Bulletiii Laboratory. What mix for a given work?
"2. Arbitrary selection. Density
of maximum density. What is the effect on strength of concrete from changes in mix."
25
to
In a striking report on how to properly design a concrete mixture to obtain the utmost strength from the aggregate at hand by Prof.
1
1. Abrams^ it is shown how little the present day standard methods of proportioning concrete make for concrete strength. the question of relative costs as well as their combination. Abrams has noted the following as among the most important:
"1. "17. The general problem of concrete mixtures has been defined
in the report as follows
series of 50. Lewis Institute. consistency or size and grading of aggregate?
"Proportioning concrete frequently involves selection of materials In general. without reference to the coarse aggregate.
Aggregates of equivalent concretemaking qualities may be produced from materials of widely different size and grading. Aggregate of equivalent concretemaking qualities may be produced by an infinite number of different gradings of a given material. and shown that the water is. covering a Abrams has established the following
important principles in regard to the correct design of a concrete
mix. Surface area' of aggregates. in fact.202
RETAINING WALLS
is
"4. See end of chapter for a complete definition of the fineness modulus.
of
"2.
The
sieve analysis curve of the aggregate
may
be widely
dif
ferent in
form without exerting any influence on concrete strength.
With given concrete materials and conditions of test the quantity mixing water determines the strength of the concrete.
"6.
"5. We have found that the maximum strength of concrete does not depend on either an aggregate of maximum density or a concrete of maximum density. so long as the mix is of workable plasticity.
1 '
See end of chapter for a definition of Surface Area." "5.
After performing a series of over 50.
far
from satisfactory. Sieve analysis. simple method of measuring the effective size and grading of an aggregate has been developed. the water in concrete mixtures. since very small variations in water content produce more important variations in the strength and other properties
of concrete than similar changes in the other ingredients. "3.
period of three years. All of the methods of proportioning concrete which have been proposed in the past have failed to give proper attention to the water content Our experimental work has emphasized the importance of of the mix. "4. Our experiments have shown that the other methods mentioned above are also subject to serious limitations. This gives rise to a function known as the "fineness modulus "^ of the aggregate.000 tests. "7. The sieve analysis furnishes the only correct basis for proportioning aggregates in concrete mixtures. the
most important ingredient. in which the grading of the aggregates
to
made
is
approximate some predetermined sieve analysis curve which
considered to give the best results.
"It is a matter of
common experience that the method of arbitrary selecand coarse aggregates are mixed
is
tion in which fixed quantities of fine
without regard to the
size or
grading of the individual materials.
"1. Prof. The fineness modulus of an aggregate furnishes a rational method
A
for
combining materials of different
size for concrete mixtures. and that the methods that have been suggested for proportioning concrete by sieve analysis of aggregates are based on an erroneous theory.
.
The absorption of the concrete. hence.
Abrams has experimentally determined
the relation be
tween the water content and the strength of the concrete and reports the following most important conclusions together with an empiric relation between the two. This gives us an entirely new conception of the function
of the constituent materials entering into a concrete
mix and
is
the
most
basic principle which has been brought out in our studies of
of the curve of the
concrete. The quantity of water required is governed by the
following factors
A
"(a)
used
" "
— the relative
The condition
of "workability"
of
concrete which must be
plasticity or consistency.
"The equation
is
form
.
maximum
richer the mix. The size and grading of the aggregate— measured by
the fineness
modulus.
m
"9. In general.
The shape
have
less influence
of the particle and the quality of the aggregate on the concrete strength than has been reported by
other experimenters."
Prof. The contained water in aggregate. There
of the
cement
—waterratio. A
maximum
density
is
grading necessary for highest
" 10. the greater the discrepancy
density and best grading. " 13.
is an intimate relation between the grading of the aggregate and the quantity of water required to produce a workable concrete. fine and coarse aggregates of widely different size or grading can be combined in such a manner as to produce similar results concrete.
IS
coarser than that giving concrete strength. The water content of a concrete mix is best considered in terms
"12.
"(d) " (e)
"(/)
The relative volumes of cement and aggregate— the mix.
(6)
(c)
The normal consistency of the cement.:
CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION
'
203
"8.
complete analysis has been made of the water requirements of concrete mixes.
The
aggregate of given
between
"11. the coarser the grading should be for an maximum size.
"14.
"It is seen at once that the size and grading of the aggregate and the quantity of cement are no longer of any importance except in so far as these factors influence the quantity of water required to produce a workable mix.
The aggregate grading which produces the strongest concrete not that givmg the maximum density (lowest voids).
14. that is. "This equation expresses the law of the strength of concrete so far as the proportions of materials are concerned.
. These 8.
%
Table
36. Each sieve has a clear
sieve analysis
is
the Tyler standard series: 100.
determined by using the following sieve from and 1}4 in.
etc.
voids in aggregate. A and B are constants whose values depend on the quality of the cement used.
sieves
Method or Calculating Fineness Modulus of Aggregates
used are commonly
The
known
as the Tyler standard sieves. sieves are made of squaremesh wire cloth.
The sieve analysis may be expressed in terms of volume or weight. It is'seen that for
volume
given concrete materials the strength depends upon only one factor
the ratio of water to cement. the water. etc.
"A
vital function entering into the analysis is the socalled 'fineness
modulus' which
may
be defined as follows:
"The sum
"The
of the percentages in the sieve analysis of the aggregate
divided by 100. the age of the concrete.
in the past for this purpose contain terms
Equations which have been proposed which take into account such
factors as quantity of cement. 28.
term which
is
but they have uniformly omitted the only of any importance.—
RETAINING WALLS
S
is
—
204
where
of the
the compressive strength of the concrete and x
of
is
the ratio
water to the volume of cement in the batch. divided by 100. The fineness modulus of an aggregate is the sum of the precentages given by the sieve analysis. curing conditions.
Each
sieve has a clear opening just double that of the preceding one. 4%.. 48. proportions of fine
and coarse aggregate.
" This is. of course. It is stated that the relation between the compressive strength of the concrete.
now
possible to proceed directly to assemble an aggregate to meet
The
waterratio forming the fundamental basis
of the process.
if
of concrete will
plastic concrete
we should omit
2 to 3
. it is
increase in the compressive strength. A little study of his methods will show that the contrary is true and that the correct design of a concrete mix predicated upon his assumptions (and these assumptions are assuredly based on most valid
a matter of very simple analysis. The exact dimensions of the sieves and the method of determining the fineness modulus will be found in Table 36.
With an assigned compressive strength
this strength. the empiric relation
above mentioned
is
to determine the proper value of x. consistent with his
thesis that the waterratio is the all important function in determining the concrete strength. showing the method of obtaining the values of the constants. of cement from a onebag batch."
Prof. Abrams notes that there is a direct relation' between the fineness modulus as above defined and the compressive strength of the concrete. The noveltj' of the method and its apparent intricacy (and such intricacy is
only apparent) and the fact that concrete mixes usually just "grow" and are not scientifically developed may make Prof. Abrams' procedure seem very cumbersome. after noting that the "fineness modulus
simply reflects the changes in waterratio necessary to produce a given plastic condition. The details following. It will be noted that the sieve analysis is expressed in terms of the percentages of material by volume or weight
coarser than each sieve.
when S
is
given and
employed A and
B are known.
main
an increase
in the fineness
modulus has a proportionate
of concrete.
i. of the fineness modulus and of the several combinations possible to satisfy most economically the strength requirements of the concrete are given with
elegance and clearness in the Bulletin just quoted. as brought out by tests and the fineness modulus is to all intents a linear one.CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION
205
opening just double the width of the preceding one. comments on the design of a concrete mix.e. given The at the conclusion of the Bulletin are worthy of quotation here:
premises)
is
further
"The importance of the waterratio on the strength be shown in the following considerations: "One pint more water than necessary to produce a
reduces the strength to the same extent as lb.
Rich mixes and wellgraded
all. In all this discussion the quantity of water is compared with the quantity of cement in the batch (cubic feet of water to one sack of cement) and not to the weight of dry materials or of the concrete as is generally done.
"The grading
of the aggregate
may vary
over a wide range without
. The universal acceptance of this false theory has exerted a most pernicious influence on the proper use of concrete materials and has proven to be an almost insurmountable barrier in the way of progress in the development of sound principles of concrete proportioning and
construction.206
RETAINING WALLS
"'Our studies give us an entirely new conception of the function performed by the various constituent materials. "The above considerations show
and carefully proportioning the cement. This shows the absurdity of our present practice in specifying definite gradings for aggregates
at the
now practicable.
are
that the water content is the most important element of a concrete mix. no benefit be gained as compared with a leaned mix. whereas in many instances nothing more has been accomplished than wasting a large quantity of cement. This factor is the only limitation which prevents the reduction of cement and water to much lower limits than
aggregates are. only a means to an end. but we now have a proper appreciation of the true function of the
constituent materials in concrete and a more thorough understanding of the injurious effect of too much water. that is.
In a similar
way we may say
that
the use of more cement in a batch does not produce any beneficial effect
except from the fact that a plastic workable mix can be produced with
a lower waterratio.) It would be more correct to carefully measure the water and guess at the cement in the batch. The use of a coarse wellgraded aggregate results in no gain in strength unless we take advantage of the fact that the amount of water necessary to produce a
plastic
mix can thus be reduced. but because the concrete can be mixed (and usually is mixed) with a waterratio which is relatively lower If advantage is not taken for the richer mixtures than for the lean ones. after
plastic.
"Rich mixes and wellgraded aggregates are just as essential as ever. to produce a workable concrete with a minimum quantity of water as compared with the cement used.
water. due to the use of an excess of mixing water. "The mere use of richer mixes has encouraged a feeling of security.
of the fact that in a rich
will
mix relatively less water can be used. Workability of concrete mixes is of fundamental significance.
is
"The reason a rich mixture gives a higher strength than a lean one not that more cement is used. then guessing (The italics are mine. in that small variation in the water cause a much wider change in the strength than similar variations in the cement content or the size or grading of the aggregate.
while a more or ^ess efficient machine has some difficulty in producing a well mixed batch of low water content in a shorttimed mix."
Practical Application. grading
and
size. the role of the water content of a concrete mix. if little attention is paid to the final steps in concrete mixing. Clearly.— Some of the details of these copious
eventually prove without adequate experimental fundamental truth conveyed in all the foregoing must be recognized namely. The proper mixing of the ingredients is conditioned upon the plant used. A little patience in educating the mixer operator to keep the water contents low and an insistence that the concrete be not dumped until a specified time of mixing has elapsed. impurities. The important of any
rule
method of mixing. handling. The character of such plant has been described both generally and in some detail in a previous chapter on plant. but this will not affect the concrete strength if all mixes are plastic. both for mixing and for distributing. yet the
excerpts
may
—
Stone. A batch of concrete must be in the mixer a certain minimum time before the aggregate has been properly transformed into
sible
.
of applying these truths to actual concrete
products are naturally
much
costlier
than are aggregates unre
stricted as to nature. sand and cement companies have been educated to furnish products meeting with the requirements of long continued experimental and field research. The average mixer. These
manner and means work in the field. The possibility of improving the strength of concrete by better grading of aggregates is small as compared with the advantages which may be reaped from using as dry a mix as can be properly f f J placed. expense and the posdelay of securing specified concrete materials. will go a long way towards meeting the experimental requirements of good concrete. gravel. The consistency of the concrete will be changed.
It is essential
then that this added cost be not squandered without any benefit through oversight of some simple principles. it is of no avail to go to the bother.CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION
207
producing any effect on concrete strength so long as the cement and water remain unchanged. placing and finishing concrete which will enable the builder to reduce the water content of the concrete to a minimum is at once apparent. The question of paramount importance is the
basis. f
**********
"Without regard
is^
to actual quantity of mixing water the following a safe one to follow: Use the smallest quantity of mixing water that will produce a plastic or workable concrere.
in the dryness of the aggregate all make it impossible to apply a constant amount of water and turn out the same consistency of mix. the socalled one or two bag batch mixers. 200. 28. to use the colloquialism of the field. Careful inspection will then insure that each batch of concrete
time
is
will receive this length of
time for its proper mix. Nov. p. it is exceedingly hard to get a uniform water ratio for all the batches. A little care and study of the particular machine at hand will determine the correct time for . 1918.
—^The question of competent labor proves
It
of concreting (see chapter
on Plant).
It should
be definitely predicated that the principles of good
concrete should determine the plant and not. the
plant determine the
a
mode
Concrete Methods. In the use of small mixers. 966. The average time of mixing a batch is about one minute.
may
be set
down
of
as axiomatic that
and in spite ship cannot mix and place good concrete.
willing. the construction superintendent will "get away with" as much as he can. but the engineer does well to prepare for the worst.a batch mix.
. the minimum requirements of the engineer form the maximum goal of the average contractor and. as in every other industrial enterprise.
common labor.
of the carts
However. the best is decidedly the cheap
The use
different
of poor materials and the employment of lax and inmethods together with incompetent labor are dependent
upon the
laxity of inspection and. p.
RETAINING WALLS
What
this
depends upon the character of the machine and the number of revolutions it makes per minute. True. in the barrows.
is a most shortsighted policy and here. there are many exceptions.
most
irritating one. unfortunately. however
is
competent leadertrained concrete
A
force
necessary for this work. Variations in the piling of the stone and sand. by a careful attention to the piling and by an insistence that water be used in measured quantity only preferably from an overhead tank attached to the machine and certainly not by an indiscriminate use of the hose or pail a concrete can be obtained meeting with a fair degree of success the water requirements of workable plastic
— —
concrete. This time can not be specified in advance nor can good concrete be expected merely from long time mixing. 23. In this connection see the Engineering NewsRecord.208
concrete.
The use
of
incompetent labor
on concrete work
est in the end. 1919. conversely. and Jan.
so that in matters of
field
decision the concrete
is
given the benefit of the doubt. in addition.
properly delivered
bring
it
to its final place in
work should be necessary to the form. the and steel the between bond grout in getting a firm in the The distributing systems have been discussed in detail should be read again preceding chapter on plant. inspaded at the form to permit the grout to collect at the to aid rods the at spaded be also should and face suring a smooth concrete. 14
good concrete. gate of solids in a fluid vehicle and. when transported in any but
the
like. contractors. will separate mix The offence. The concrete should be
face. shovels and hoes by and spread forms dropped vertically into the in any direcform into a concrete a Spouting into thin layers. must likewise be properly distributed. At present it is necessary to specify in detail the desired concrete aggregates and the methods by which these are to be mixed and. engineers. plant manufacturers
and promote a cooperation that will make it a much simpler matter to secure the maximum strength of concrete from a given assembly of materials.
The
distributing system
and any subsequent hoeing.
To
assign proper
inspection. especially in light of the above
comparatively an easy matter.
is. As the details of the requirements
of good concrete become more
generally
known undoubtedly
the
common
welfare of the con
crete interests. shovelling
or spading will prove inef
Upon stripping the forms the inevitable pouring streaks fectual. to make ample provision for carrying out the intent and letter of the specifications.
209
specify a good concrete.
is
a
far
more difficult matter. With a concrete of workable
into a form. evidence of poor workmanship and
most unpleasing appearance.CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION
To
researches. serious is a tion but the vertical
natural laws. tempered
by practical judgment and equipped with a thorough knowledge of good concrete. Poor distribution will nullify the The concrete mix is an aggrebeneficial results of good mixing. will
—
a vertical direction. Concrete. properly mixed. Distributing Concrete. presenting a will appear. Keying Lifts— If the day's pour
. will tend to separate in accordance with
must aid in overcoming concrete should be this reason For this separation tendency. but
httle additional
plasticity. which chapter
in the light of the present observations
upon the requirements
of
is finished before reachmg should be brought to a surface concrete the the top of the wall.
the use of plums is inadvisable. They should be sound. The stones are kept about 12 inches apart and about 6 inches from the face of the wall. wellcleaned and should be placed by hand into the concrete and not dumped indiscriminately from a bucket or thrown in at random. for the usual type of cantilever and counterforted walls. or of stones and carried about one foot into each of the layers. It is highly desirable and it is generally so specified that concrete be mixed in such a manner that it reaches the form at a favorable setting temperature and is then to be suitably protected against
frost until it
is
—
thoroughly
set. For the eflSciency of various treatments of this joint see "Construction Joints. hard rock. In large concrete walls. Use of Cyclopean Concrete. the setting
time of concrete increases. sound rock must be used. As a general rule. In reinforced concrete walls it is questionable whether the use of such "plums" should be permitted. This much. Local conditions will generally indicate whether good stones are available. the timber key.'' page 159. A little care in placing the stone will permit a larger number to be used and thus cut down the cost of the wall by economizing on the
—
of concrete aggregate required. before the forms are stripped or any load placed upon the wall. is certain a frozen concrete must thaw out completely and then be given ample time to set. it is permissible to place stones over 12 inches in diameter wherever the thickness of the concrete mass exceeds 30 inches.210
RETAINING WALLS
rough level and a long timber to form a longitudinal key should be imbedded in the top.
The setting action stops when the frozen and does not continue until the concrete has It is doubtful whether frost injures a concrete perma
nently.
seems a httle inconan indeterminate material. the surface to be thoroughly cleaned and the fresh concrete then placed upon it.
imperative that its construction proceed As the temperature drops.
even though the wall exceeds 30 Since the concrete in this wall is highly stressed in compression. is to be removed. however.
. it
—
it
retaining" wall
makes
despite winter weather. if used. At the pouring of the next layer. Winter Concreting.
concrete
is
thawed. Quite often the urgent need of a concrete
sistent then to permit the use of
fully specified aggregate for the concrete. made up either of steel rods. With a careto place the stones. Dowels may be inserted instead. however. The rod system makes
it difficult
amount
inches in thickness.
This pipe was at the bottom of the form and ran longitudinally the entire length connecting with the boiler by a T
space between the
connection and vertical pipe at about the middle of the section. into a 50 gallon measuring barrel. Engineenng News. Vol.
76. being heated to scalding temperature
by another
jet of
superheated steam. In both the methods care must be taken not to burn the material next to the metal. Old form lumber is an excellent and cheap fuel for this fire.
similar
A
ing on
is to pile the material on large metal sheets reststone piers. "A stationary mixing plant was installed adjacent to the main line The concrete of the railway about half a mile west of the wall site.
simple method of heating the aggregate is to pile it around a large metal pipe (a large diameter metal flue. ordinarily. Another. through pressure steam from one of the boilers on the deck was diffused which low by a perforated 1" pipe.
An
here:^
interesting description of a winter concreting job
is
given
"The sand and crushed stone used in making the wall concrete were heated by diffusion of steam from perforations in a coil of a 2" pipe placed at the bottom of the storage pile. the above temperature should preferably be the controlling one. While."
1
Retaining Walls. The bottoms of the charging bin above the mixer were also fitted with perforated piping so that the heat might be retained in the materials. " The water used in mixing was maintained at about 100° F. retaining a 2"
steel (metal forms were used) and the wood.
"The
and
walls forms were insulated with straw and plank on the back covered with tongue and grooved flooring on the face. permitted without heating the materials until the temperature drops below the freezing point. or a water pipe is just the thing) and have a fire going within the pipe. or The overflow from the tank discharged reservoir kept constantly full. was conveyed to the wall in buckets on cars drawn by a dinkey on narrow
gage.
211
Concrete should not reach the forms at a temperature less than 45° (Fahrenheit) The aggregate and the water should be heated
when the temperature drops below
concreting
is
this mark.
.CONCRETE CONSTRVCTIOX
. and beneath which sheets fires are kept burning. The water may be heated in large containers over fires.
p. Baltimore
&
Ohio Railroad. by a live steam jet discharging at the bottom of a 3000 gallon tank. 269. either directly in it or through coils. or by passing hve steam through the water. and not to use such material if it
method
little
does become burned.
at a faster
Under natural
it sets. and a general rule was therefore made that work through the cold season is to be continued until the thermometer drops below 20°. than work at the Whether this extra cost is less than the break in the continuity of the work and
is.
the delay in receiving the finished structure.
the loss involved in
more costly. observing the necessary precautions
to prevent freezing. it
construction
became necessary to plan reducing the interruptions of concreting to a minimum. "Provision for heating aggregates by steam coils built in the bins has been made at all three of the dams where concreting has been going on * * * Means have also been provided for protecting the surfaces from freezing by tarpaulins and salamanders. Vol.
purposes) " Care is taken that no fresh concrete
is
placed on frozen foundations. disposed of uniquely for each piece of work."
Concrete work in winter. the
is
amount
of
water used in the mixing
closely regulated. 618. As the nature of the enterprise demands that progress be rapid and according to schedule. Ohio.— The quicker a concrete other things being equal. that the precautions to be used when the temperature falls below a given point (which must be clearly noted) are emphatically set forth.
212
RETAINING WALLS
general note on winter concreting on
is
A
Miami Conservancy
Work
topic'
given here as of interest in connection with the present
"Concreting has been carried on through the winter in the dam work of the Miami Conservancy District. the specifications must so be drawn. and as it is important to keep the working organization intact to avoid losses and delays.
is
If
a matter to be the work is to
proceed regardless of the weather.
sets. the
warmer the concrete is the quicker
Therefore work in the
summer can proceed
1
Engineering NewsRecord.
seasonable temperatures. 82. "Study of the extra costs involved in heating materials and protecting deposited concrete led to the conclusion that the greater part of the
extra cost is incurred only at temperatures below 20°. p.
conditions. with only occasional interruption. the quicker the forms can be stripfill
ped and the sooner can the
be deposited behind the wall.
unsatisfactory
—the
General specifications as to heating are
details should be given.
of course. or..
With a view
to reducing the liability of freezing also.
Acceleration of Concrete Hardening. in some instances by steam coils (where steam was available because it was used for other
.
.
of these concrete
A
requirements the bearing of the type read once more the previous pages upon and the relative imstrength of the aggregate on the concrete of the aggregates proportions portance of the character and of preparation methods the (including water) as compared with
1
Engineering News Record. in mortar slabs exposed to the weather.CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION
rate than
213
work at the other seasons. "Compressive strength tests of concretes gaged with water containing up to 10 per cent. The effect of the addition of calcium chloride has been noted as
follows:^
"As
the result of some experiments
made by
the Bureau of Standards
to develop a
method
to accelerate the rate at which concrete increases
in strength with age. although the amount used is relatively small.
two or by weight
water to the mixing water results in an increase in strength. causes appreciable corrosion of the metal within a year. by adding certain chemicals to accelerate the hardening of the concrete."
Concrete Materials. It is possible. comprehensive series of tests was inaugurated to determine further
the
amount of acceleration in the strength of concrete obtained in this manner and to study the effect of such additions on the durability of concrete and the effect of the addition of this salt on the liability to corrosion of iron or steel imbedded in mortar or concrete. This appears to indicate that calcium chloride should not be used in stuccos and warns against the unrestricted use of
of this salt in reinforced concrete exposed to weather or water. p..
82. the addition of calcium chloride
lar concrete
up
to 10 per cent. of calcium chloride.
—Concrete
aggregates and cement have
and placed under standard specifications characthat any typical specification will serve as a model for the
been so well
classified
construction of a retainter of the material to enter into the given of the essential be brief description may ing wall. over simigaged with plain water. Vol. of from 30 to 100 per cent. it
of
A
was found that the addition of small quantities calcium chloride to the mixing water gave the most effective results.
" Corrosion tests that have been completed indicate that the presence calcium chloride. 507. It may be well to constituents. the best results being obtained when the gaging water contains from 4 to 6
per cent. calcium chloride. at the age of one year gave no indication that the addition of this salt had a deleterious effect on the durability of the concrete. Some cements are more quickly setting than others.
"The
of
results to date indicate that in concrete at the age of
three days.
.
Table
Mixtures
37.—
214
RETAINING WAILS
and distributing.
ment through accidental weathering. These are the It must be borne in mind that the theoretical requirements. method of distributing the material. whether in central bins or
in local piles (see chapter preceding on "Plant") will involve a
certain
amount
ation in ordering the aggregate.
Proportions for Mixing Concrete
. Table 37 is given here based upon the standard proportion and shows the amount of cement. The amounts of the material required depend upon the proportions specified.
the storage of
wastage which must be taken into considerProperly constructed shacks for cement will reduce to a minimum the loss of ceof
etc. sand and stone required for the various mixes.
25 after being thoroughly gray. between the palm the hand from loam and dirt. to those at 28 days.
6 days in water) 27 days in water) 6 days in water) 27 days in water)
175 500 600
lb. on a No. has been
made subsequent
to calcination. Tests for constancy of volume will be made by means of pats the of neat cement about 3 inches in diameter. 200 sieve.0024 of an inch in diameter. checking.
of 10 per cent.
lb. lb. 100 sieve and not more than 25 per cent. of foreign matter.0045 and 0. of anhymagnesis drous sulphuric acid (SO.
Sand.
be determined and limited as follows: The cement shall leave by weight a residue of not more than 8 per cent. It should not more No grains should be left on a ^inch sieve and
fine
It should
.
Its fineness shall
The minimum requirements for tensile strength for briquettes one inch square in minimum section shall be as follows
Heat Cement
Age
Strengtn
24 hours in moist air 7 days (1 day in moist 28 days (1 day in moist
7 days 28 days
(1 (1
air.
170 225
lb. the wires of the sieve being respectively 0. from the tests at
the end of 7 days. air. These pats to answer the requirements shall remain firm and hard and show
no signs of distortion.—Sand
for concrete shall be clean.10 dried at a temperature nor more than 3.:
CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION
215
properly proportioned mixture of argillaceous and calcareous materials to which no addition greater than 3 per cent.). The time of setting shall be as follows: The cement shall develop initial set in not less than 30 minutes.
of 212°F. free from yelbluish The color shall be uniform. and shall develop hard set in not less than 1 hour. or more than 4 per cent. of
(MgO).
One Part Cement. lb. or disintegrating. cracking. The cement shall have a specific gravity of not less than 3. When rubbed be well graded from coarse to should be left clean.
Neat briquettes shall show a minimum increase in strength and sand briquettes 20 per cent.75 per cent. }i inch thick at satisfactorily center and tapering to a thin edge.
air. Theee Parts Standard Sand
day in moist day in moist
air. nor more than 10 hours.
contammg not more
be reasonable free
than 3 per cent. on a No. The cement shall contain not more than 1.
low or brown
particles.
the run of a gravel bank may be taken. including the proper specifying
of the materials entering into its composition. should pass through a 100 mesh sieve. Structural Materials
Institute. A coarse smoothgrained sand is not objectionable and will produce. with
other things being equal. Fine sand is undesirable and its presence in a quantity greater than
that just specified will materially weaken the concrete.216
RETAINING WALLS
than 6 per cent.
The
sieve analysis is determined
by using the following
sieves
iSee preceding pages on the fineness modulus. A. ^Bulletin No. For
ordinary gravity walls.
mix them
supply the in the
A resume of the above methods of selecting the aggregates and cement is presented in the appendix in the shape of a standard
specification for retaining walls. or from rock cuts encountered in the work should be used only after tests have been made on concrete containing this stone. 1142 to 1149. also Engineering NewsRecord. including the gravel with the finer sands. Either method of supplying the aggregate is far from ideal and does not lend itself well to a conscientious
proportioning of the materials. 1919. Parallel to this method. 1.
Crushed Stone and Gravel.
. It may be defined as follows:
The sum of the percentages in the sieve analysis of the aggregate divided by 100.
Research Laboratory. Crushed stone should be made from trap or limestone.
For the
thin reinforced concrete walls the stone should not exceed
%
inch in
Occasionally the sand and the stone are delivered already mixed in the required proportions. a note in the appendix is
given on the selection and mixing of aggregates
area
tion
by the surface method and by the fineness modulus method and the relabetween these two modes of selection and the strength of
"^
the concrete. the size of the crushed stone or of the
gravel
—
may
size. Chicago.
vary from ^i inch to
1% inch in diameter. June 12. pp.^—The experimental work carried out in the laboratory has given rise to what we term the fineness modulus of the aggregate. an effective and strong concrete. Abrams.
Fineness Modulus of Aggregate.
It is preferable to
coarse and the fine aggregates separately and required proportions in the mixer. Stone from local quarries. Lewis
D.
In
connection with the selection of the aggregate and the proportioning of the coarse and fine particles.
8. and l^in. A modulus as low
100
modulus of about 3.50.00.80. 48.
. These sieves are made
cloth.00 a coarse aggregate graded 41 ].CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION
from the Tyler standard series: 100. ^^in
squaremesh wire sieve has a clear opening just double the width ot the preceding one. It will be noted that the sieve analysis is expressed in terms of the percentages of material by volume or weight coarser
Each
than each
sieve. The exact dimensions of the sieves and the method of determining the fineness modulus will be found in Table 36. a mixture of the above materials proper proportions for a 1 :4 mix will have a fineness modulus of
.
of
217
28. will give fineness modulus of about 7. 4. 14. Min.^in. 4 sieve will give a fineness
m
about 5.
A wellgraded torpedo sand up to No.
fine
sand such as driftsand
may have
a fineness
as 1.
and the sieve size (platted to logarithmic
scale) as abscissa.
Test Series No.
modulus of the material Each elemental rectangle is of the graded fineness modulus The of that particular size. The method given in Table 38 is probably the simplest and most direct. areas. 120 that is.: 13 Sq. several different methods of computing it. all of which will give the same result. using the per cent. Any elemental summation of these aggregate is then the same total area give the which will curve analysis other sieve require and will the fineness modulus same the to corresponds plasticity of same a mix the produce of water to quantity same and gives concrete of the same strength. so long as it is not too coarse for the quantity of cement used. In.
Sand
letter
.—
218
RETAINING WALLS
If the sieve analysis of an aggregate is platted in the manner indicated in Fig.
Tables Showing Mixtures op Test Mobtaks
1.
Cement Content
—
1
G. it is in fact a summation of volumes of material. The fineness modulus may be considered as an abstract numThere are ber. coarser than a given sieve as ordinate.
Table
38. the fineness
modulus
of the aggregate is
mea
sured by the area below the sieve analysis curve
rectangles for aggregate
The dotted
"G" show how
the fineness
this result is secured.
It is appUcable to graded materials provided the relative quantities of each size are considered. Briefly.
The latest of such methods and one which in the tests gives promise of some success is that devised by Capt. N. Logarithms are to the base 10. testing engineer of the Department of Works. This relation appUes to a singlesize material or to a given particle.
120. The fineness modulus is then a logarithmic function of the diameter of the particle. and the diameter of each group is used. Toronto.94
+
3. Edwards.E.R. and that upon the total surface area of these particles depends the
quantity of cementing material.32 log d
fineness
modulus
=
diameter of particle in inches
perfectly general so long as
mentioned above. this means that a mixture of mortar for optimum strength is a
^Engineering NewsRecord. Ontario.. By applying the formula to a graded material we would be calculating the values of the separate elemental rectangles shown in Fig. This formula need not be used with a graded material. Aug.
factory. U. 15. 317
et seg.
.CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION
Some
219
of the mathematical relations involved are of interest.' Volumetric proportioning of concrete is notoriously unsatis
—
Many investigators have been studying other proportioning methods which will at the same time be practical and will insure a maximum strength of concrete with any given material. 1918. Reduced to practical terms. since the value can be secured more easily and directly by the method used in Table 36.S. p. ihe tollowmg expression shows the relation between the fineness modulus and the size of the particle:
m= Where m =
d
This relation
set of sieves
is
7." presented to the American Society for Testing Materials at its annual meeting in June. which was explained in some detail in a paper entitled 'Proportioning the Materials of Mortars and Concrete by Surface Areas of Aggregates. Captain Edwards' principle is that the strength of mortar is primarily dependent upon the character of the bond existing between the individual particles of the sand aggregate.
we use the standard The constants are fixed by the
particular sizes of sieves used and the units of measure.
Proportioning Concrete by Surface Areas of Aggregates. L.
000 40.
The sands were then regarded to different granulometric analyses in order to get representative and different kinds of aggregate for the tests. As a corollary to his Edwards also lays down the principle that the amount of water required to produce a normal uniform consistency of mortar is a function of the cement and of the surratios of the
investigations.800
20. Using these sands for the aggregate.000
With a specific gravity of sand of 2. This gave a
basis of surface areas for the various groups of sand in hand. a number of different sands were graded through nine sieves.000 99. the surface area per gram of sand was determined for each group. From each group. the following averages were obtained for the number of sand particles per gram:
sizes 3 to 5
counted. and for the smallest sizes 34 to 1 gram were For six sands counted. which is approximately correct. Captain
face area of the particles of the sand aggregate to be w^etted. The results are shown in Fig. that strength of mortars and concrete is a definite function of the amount of water used in the mix. retained 40.
retained on
8
10
retained on
retained on
Passing Passing Passing Passing Passing Passing
10. the test procedure was as follows First. the average volume per particle of sand was determined for each group. already demonstrated in a number of previous tests.220
RETAINING WALLS
function of the ratio of the cement content to the total surface area of the aggregate regardless of the volumetric or weight
two component materials. and the material passing one sieve and retained on the next lower was separated into groups.689. an actual count was made of the average number of particles of sand per gram.
8. retained
on 30 on 40 on 50 on 80 on 100
16. numerous briquets and cylinders were made up and tested in
. which had been determined by a number of tests.
Passing Passing
4. For the larger sizes 8 to 10 grams or more.500 4. medium
:
grams. varying from 4 to 100 meshes per inch. retained 30.
20
14 55 350
1. including a standard Ottawa which is composed of grams passing a 20 and retained on a 30mesh sieve. retained
80. and assuming that the shape of the particles of sand was spherical.
In demonstrating the cementsurface area relation. then. retained 50.
Some of the tests deduce the fact. 121.
and while these showed
.oted from for series No. as In series No. 317. were markedly constant. 1 20 and 1 25. As will be n. p. to 10 sq. Aug.11. and. 1 :15. in.001
120
Diameter of Particle of Sand
Fig
121
Inch
method — Capt. to 1 gram to the cement constant varied from 1 gram shown in Fig 123.)
News
Test mortars were then made. 122. 1918. These two
are
shown
in the
Table 38.
{From Engineering of surface areas. as
cementarea ratio. Edwards' Record. in. o cementtoaggregatebyweightvarysfrom volumetric in therefore spite of this wide variation in weight and
relation of the
accompanying table.CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION
221
tension and in compression. 1 the cement content is one gram
cement to the aggregate. The basis of the ratio of grams of cement to square inches of surface area were 1 :10. but the sand area that the ratio different grading and therefore total surface In 1:1. series by varying the ratio and using the same and. in test has such a thirteen square inches of surface area. of sand surface.
by keeping the cement
surface area ratio constant and varying the kinds of sand. curves are proportionate te the
investigation
Edwards extendmg this Further tests were made by Captain the same gento concrete. the strength values.
eO
40
60
80
100 in 0. 15. 2 shown in Fig. The consistency throughout was controlled so that the water content
: :
would not
affect the relative strengths of the different specimens.
first. varying the mix according to the ratio of the weight of cement to the surface area of the sand aggregate. the strength 25 sq. second. 12to 1:3.
He says
method and once done need
"The adaptation
and concretes
to
of the surface area
method
of proportioning mortars
field
both laboratory investigation and
construction
.
D
E
Lether
F
Sand
— Capt. p.000
sand grams for one sieve group alone would
deter anyone from contemplating such a program for practical
5500
C
Fig. the very considerable labor involved
in counting 125. Captain Edwards points out that this elaborate counting is
required only as a prehminary to his not be repeated.
if such a count had to be made very often. the tests
RETAINING WALLS
were not sufficiently elaborate to warrant an
is
abstract of
It
them here.
Edwaida' method of surface areas. 1918. 122. Aug.)
work. (From Engineering NewsRecord.:
222
eral results. 317. However. might seem offhand that there
no practical occupation to
the method.
Certainly. 15.
vTl
^^V!^ ^^ ™y °^ equipment the use of only the nec
g
4500
^
35
3500
o
2500
1500
. since the computation work of determining areas and quantities of cement may be largely reduced to the most simple mathematical operation by the use of tables and diagrams "
5500
c
/ eS« essary scales.CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION
223
SSw w'
il
IS
°^' ^'^'''''^. standard sieves and screens.^^' outstanding feature of '!^*' "'^''^"^ application is concerned. is the im^TtTn^lfl portance of knowing the granulometric composition of the aggregate '" '"/"* ^"^^ ^'^°^'^^*^.^°l« ^ comparatfvely
"""
'f
amount f?'^
The time element involved comparatively negligible.
224
"^
RETAINING WALLS
.
0
30
40.)
Example No. Edwaras.
Sand Area
Sieve
Grading.
Fig.c.348
932
5.
P 4R P 8R P 10R P20R P30R P40R P50R P 80R
10.
20.0 15.
cement to 15 sq.)
=
5856 yg'
390. per cent.
Weight.0
100.0 5. in. (normal consistency)

+
5856 = 115 210
.
Area
g.
Capt. Thousoinol Sq. of Sand.
. of
sand
in.5
=
J
390 5
X
22.
15.856
100.
80.
a cement content proporsand area. Aug. sq.000 g.0 10.0 10.
CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION
160
225
140
IZO
10
o
100
o
o
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Surface Area of lOOOg. 50.000
142 75 694 676 997 992
1.
Cement
Water
(c. 1. .
A and
tioned: 1 g.0 15.
15.—Required
of
to find the composition of a batch
mortar
using 1.
{Fig. 127.25 per cent.0 25.
(From Engineering NewsRecord. 1918. 4).)
(g.
Totals
.In.—
.0 5.
150 50 250 150 150 100 100 50
1.
the nearer the cement content approaches the volume of the
voids the greater
is
the strength of the concrete. July 10.
that for certain classes of concrete
used under certain conditions there is an optimum sandaggreIn that ideal mix the cementvoid ratio is computed and the amount of cement necessary to bring the actual mix up to that ratio is found. inasmuch as it requires only to be known the gradings above and below a No.
. W. the author's scheme rests on the assumption that the ratio of cement to air and water voids is an indication of strength. 4 sieve.
for concrete to be
volume
—
—
^for
that particular aggregate. In other words. Basically. That would presumably have to be determined by investigations of the aggregates involved in any case. Crum. to be determined by the method. This gives the best mixture reducing to
gate ratio.'
Ratio of Fine to Coarse Aggregate Basis for Concrete Mix^Another method of proportioning concrete mixtures is proposed by R.
'
Engineering NewsRecord.
loose
—
—^that
He
assumes
is. he does not tell in the paper just what degree of workability is reached by his method nor the standard of consistency or workabiUty which was used in making the tests. Analyses of
thor states that the proper grading depends
or
amount
of water in the mixture.
prospective aggregates may be readily made in the field for the method. 1919. in a paper. By its use a proper concrete can be had with any pit gravel by the addition of the correct amount of cement. He claims that the method gives results about midway between the finenessmodulus method of Abrams and the surfacearea method of Edwards." The method was devised for and is specially applicable to Middle Western gravels which occur in assorted gradings. and entitled "Proportioning of
PitRun Gravel for Concrete.226
RETAINING WALLS
The author does not give anywhere what he considers to be proper ratio of the cement to the sand surface area. read before the American
—
Society for Testing Materials.
ture.
Although the au
upon the consistency and although he says specifically that one must get a concrete which will yield a workable mixture for the conditions under which it is placed.
lie
1^27)
.Plate V
c:
c.G
t
Mothnd
Of layi.ig
slone wall hy series
of derruKS.ji"'^'
^ '
'<
^
:7
F.
b.Plate VI
I'^iG
A.
— Itu
jDie wail
(Los Angelew) wntli face formed by niggerhends.
.
— UncoLirsed rubble
wall with coursed effect given
by
false pointing
J'
lu.
A guy
derrick
possibly preferable in that
It is limited
permits a greater swing of the
it
boom. A derrick.
No
special plant
is
therefore required and the wall
is
built entirely
by hand
labor. For work of large size three portions of one cement to
Mortar —The mortar for use in the deHvered mixed alongside the wall and is
rubble masonry walls is to the working gangs
. This derricks at such intervals that no gaps are left in the caused cracks to tendency of the work will obviate the
continuity
up new work with old work (see Chapter V. Photographic Plate No.
however by the fact that
requires ample
room
in
to anchor its guys. the adjoining aid of by positions mantled and set up in their new the method shows A Fig. especially
A stiffleg derrick is a self contained unit. In setting a derrick care should be observed that it is placed back from the wall a distance sufficient to ensure 'topping' out the wall. sand. weight of the hoist and power plant providing the necessary anchorage. V. Rubble and cutstone walls up to 5 or 6 feet in height are built of stone of such size that they are easily raised and set
—
by hand. is probably the most serviceable and
efficient piece of plant to
use in setting stone walls. derricks. high) by means feet (over 32 high rubble walls
by
joining
of constructing of such plant. the city work.
electricity or air.
room not always
available.CHAPTER IX
WALLS OTHER THAN CONCRETE
Plant. to insure a wall properly bonded together and it becomes necessary then to employ plant to raise and set the large stone. either a guy or a stiff leg. when set up in sequence.
it
It is op
erated
is
by a
hoist run
by steam. When the yardage of masonry permits.
good construction requires the use of larger stone.
As the
walls increase in height. it is most economical and proves most time saving to set up a chain of wall. "Settleare easily disment").
The usual mortar is mixed in proin bucket loads as required. The derricks.
is quoted here.
—In
constructing the wall the largest
stone should be placed at the bottom course. these cracks will
disfiguring. or for two adjacent mortar by mix the to gangs.'
1
Track Elevation.
}i
of the total
all
The
stones should be most carefully bedded. When a section of wall is to be finished some time before the adjoining section is to be built it is well to "rack"
the interstices
back the
sides to insure a good bond between the old and new work. bottom course may consist of a lean concrete in place of the rubble stone. especially in hot weather. finished off with the cement mortar.E.
.
Wagner. mortar. Germantown and Norristown R. The wall should have a proper proportion of
may
headers (stones lying transversely) usually about
yardage. A. Philadelphia.
15 to 20 per cent.
Usually. T. both dry and cement requires a most conscientious cooperation between the engineer and the contractor and it is only by such mutual aid that a good masonry wall can be built. sound stone.
Construction of Wall. Due care in dressing the stone and chinking up the interstices with spalls will help to keep the amount of cement required to a minimum. the finished wall should contain from
by machine
in a central plant
over the work.228
RETAINING WALLS
it
conveniently located. must be taken up by the masonry itself. p.
S.S.
become very
The stone should be good. however. and
filled
with spalls and if the wall is a mortar one. It should be wet before setting.
Trans. With mortar mixed in the proportion of one cement to three sand. Ixxvi. 1833. The cement required for a rubble masonry wall of fairly large size (varying from twelve to forty feet in height) will average about one and onehalf bags to the finished yard of wall. Friable and soft stone should not be used.
shghtly yeilding one the stones
If the soil is a be dropped from a height The of two to three feet to insure their thorough imbedment.C.. thoroughly cleaned and roughly dressed to take off the soft and cracked edges. R. It must be remembered that a masonry wall has no expansion joints and that all movement of the wall. Cracks will therefore a pear along the plane of weakness and unless great care has been
exercised in the laying of the wall.. The construction of a rubble masonry wall. Vol.
may
prove economical to mix the mortar
and deliver by cart or otherwise it has proven most efficient for hand each gang. An excellent example of rubble masonry specifications.
the stones used shall average 6 to 8 cubic feet in volume and the length of the headers shall be equal to twothirds the thickness of the wall. the coping should be about one foot thick and offset from the face of the wall about 3 or 4 inches. definite cracks appear in the wall.
Coping.WALLS OTHER THAN CONCRETE
229
" Thirdclass masonry shall be formed of approved quarry stone of good shape and of good flat beds.
The
stones in the foundation shall generally not be less than 10 inches
and contain not less than 10 square feet of surface. about of placed at intervals tarred. in
all
other cases the smaller stone must bond the joints above
and below at least 10 inches. Any carethe coping should be well built and carefully broken coping wavy in a shows forms coping lessness in lining the built of 2 inch be should forms The unsightly.
Headers shall generally form about }4 of the faces and backs of the walls with a similar proportion throughout the mass when they do not
interlock. The foundation shall consist of 1:3:6 concrete. The form for Uned. is usually topped joints in this coping should be Expansion with a coping."
in thickness
dry or cement. expansion joints may be placed. if so directed by the Chief Engineer. No stone shall be used in the face of the walls less than 6 inches thick or less than 12 inches in their least horizontal dimension.cubic feet in volume and the headers shall not be less than four feet long. Generally no stones shall be used having a less volume than four cubic feet except for filling the interstices between the large stones.
shall be well scabbed or otherwise worked be set close and chinking with small stone avoided. a blue stone flaggmg from 4 to If a stone coping is an effective top finish for the wall makes 8 inches in thickness
. desired. carefully wired and braced. The coping be or may paper plain be separated by been constructed wall has the after placed should preferably be This permits settlement to take place and where for some time. of the form will permit a thickness the and of the coping face
frequent reuse of the form. In walls more than five feet in thickness the stones used shall average 12. either
—The
to avoid unsightly cracking of the coping
itself.
wall. The sections may five to ten feet. In no case shall stones be used having a greater height or build than 30 inches and these stones must bond the joints above and below at least
and the face stones
so that they
may
18 inches. proves
fine
and
This will prevent the bulging stock. In walls five feet thick or less.
When
built of
concrete.
rough.
using Hmestone. For walls as generally built in the outlying districts. With care and with a fair attempt to dress the wall needs but httle other work upon it except
X
some pointing of the joints. For walls entering into a costly and decorative scheme of landscape work.
plaster finishes. The character of the masonry comprising the wall body may be completely masked by fbrming the face of the wall with specially selected stone. (To secure the coursed masonry effect. the stones are cleaned
whatever mortar has accidentally dropped upon them. more surface of the wall must receive a mortar coat than is
necessary otherwise. more attention must be paid to the selection of face stones and to the pointing of the joints.)
to
It is of questionable taste to
attempt
mask the nature of the wall by such face treatment.
it is
are of considerable thickness
pleasing types of
masonry construction. with the expensive stone at the surface only. Fig. the mortar slowly spalling off with the weather.
The
details of construc
tion of these walls are thoroughly discussed in a
number
of
. Walls of this type are the most costly of all walls. selection of special face stone. Face treatment may. sandstone or granite.
receives such treatment as the environment of the wall requires
Chapter
in the selection of face stone
these stones.
A
photograph
of this class of
shown here (Photo Plate VI.
on "Architectural Treatment"). special or false pointing. A).
Rough Pointing.
of
—After laying the wall. roughly be divided into the following classifications Rough
:
pointing.
joints are raked
False Pointing.
to give the appearance of coursed masonry.
(see
—The face
of a rubble or other
masonry
wall. This mode of treatment is usually hmited to small walls forming the
street walls of residential plots. The and then brought to the rough face plane with mortar. Special Stone. or other coursed masonry
wall
is
—
When the walls usual to build them thus.
—To
obtain a somewhat more pleasing and
decorative effect. uncoursed
face stones the face of the wall
masonry
is
pointed falsely. this type of treatment is sufficient. yet present the most imposing and
effect. The rough masonry may then be considered a backing for the selected stone masonry.230
RETAINING WALLS
Face Finish.
After cleaning the
is brought to a rough plane and is then coursed with the trowel into rectangles. Work of this nature is not of great permanence. the face may be made an ashlar. As the demand for special face treatment increases.
.00 per day Masons. the ing
It is
Cement Rubble Wall.50 678. Various modifications of work of this kind are readily adapted to local environments with exceptionally
pleasing results. 114 days at $6. B) (used extensively in Los Angeles).
2750 Cubic Yards
Foreman. Because of its limited permanence great care must be exercised in applying these coats to the face of rough masonry walls.
—
merely a labor charge and does not include the cost of obtainstone.50
.00 751. The following is an analysis of the cost of a wall 36 feet high.42 per yard.
231
Baker's
here. when applied to the face of a wall.00
all
The average
charges. The netting may be attached to wooden plugs inserted in the mortar while the wall is in the course of construction.g.00 per day Signalman.
This is probably the least desirable of surface both in effect and in duration of life.
53901. etc. plant
.50 per day Hoistrunner. etc. No trowelhng is done upon the face. 625 days at $2. the mortar being placed with the usual wooden mortar board. 167 days at $4. To insure permanence some form of wire mesh or other netting should be
finishes.
—
fastened to the face of the wall to hold the plaster coat.50 per day
Total cost
S684. 90 days at $2. exclusive of is $1.WALLS OTHER THAN CONCRETE
standard
textbooks
{e. are rough cast or stippled.50 per day Laborers.
Plaster Coats. Plaster or stucco coats.
"Masonry Construction")
and need not be mentioned
A very pleasing effect secured by the use of boulders or "nigger heads " is shown here (see Photo Plate VI.
overhead. 113 days at $6. insurance. Cost Data. averaging about 13 cubic yards to the running foot.
cost per yard. materials.00 225 00 ^562. Fig.
Board marks are left after the forms are stripped which may be more or less masked by careful treatment. To insure a successful surface finish.
232
.
—The concrete face
of the retaining wall
may
either be rubbed. however.
Prehminary to applying the face treatment. WATERPROOFING
retaining walls form a which ornate decorations are of questioned taste. it is imperative that the wall be well built. for example. however. employing a stiff mortar for this purpose.
Face Treatment. where the main hne is on the fill. Occasionally.
The
the
face of the wall receives such
treatment
as
will
remove
unavoidable
blemishes
of
construction. must be in keeping with the architectural motive of the building itself. some special face treatment becomes necessary to permit the wall to enter into the general landscape improvement involving a particular architectural scheme. the more certain it is that the surface treatment will be of pleasing and permanent character. In general. wires. the tie rods. etc. A surface finish cannot conceal poor work and poor work will eventually destroy the best surface finish. picket fence. Thus. In addition a hand rail. The less a wall is patched or otherwise repaired. tooled or receive a special composition surface. and the face patched where necessary. retaining walls forming an approach to a bridge. to conform with good taste. Walls in parks must receive such treatment as will make them harmonize with the park landscape work.
— Concrete
class of engineering structures for
effect as conditions indicate. It may be set down as almost axiomatic' that board marks can never be entirely eradicated. especially a concrete arch are usually made to' follow the general viaduct architecture. are cut back.CHAPTER X
ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. Concrete walls are finished on top with a coping. Walls for a railroad station. simphcity of treatment is essential. or concrete parapet wall is placed on top of the wall of plain or ornamental
Architectural Treatment. usually about one foot thick and projecting 3 to 6 inches beyond the face of the wall. DRAINAGE.
It has
been pointed out in a previous chapter that construction
joints leave a distinct cleavage mark.ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS
233
no matter what face treatment is applied. A photograph of a wall so treated is shown here (See Fig. it is specified that the section of wall between the expansion joints shall be
poured completely in one operation.
To make
sure. The distance between expansion joints may be made such that it is practicable to pour a section complete with ordinary plant in one pour. marks. even to a minute degree.
—The
the same remove the
facial blemishes
by rubbing and
it is
therefore im
soon as good construcperative that the forms be stripped as and over 90 per cent. For this reason care must be taken in the continued use of the same set of forms.
Briefly stated. the yielding of the form. A. where wires and rods the the forms. Defective concrete work appearing at the surface must be removed immediately upon stripping the forms and a rich mortar concrete iaserted. it is to easier the concrete. It is but a temporary expedient and the patch will soon spall off leaving a disfigured wall. If the forms are not held tight. Haphazard patchwork will not do.
Rubbing. bringing out the dehneations stripping upon Immediately etc. or are not carefully caulked above work aheady completed. Plate VII) and is eloquent of the effects of poor concrete work and poor patch work. so that no panel is used in the face after its edges become sphntered
or frayed.
. and after cutting face is rubbed and after making such patches as are indicated. For the average tion permits.
face of concrete mirrors most faithfully the of the board inside face of the form. necessary. will permit the grout to run down coating and
disfiguring the concrete work. diseases of the concrete body of a wall are usually exhibited by symptoms of facial
blemishes. the is appHed at wash grout thin and a down with an emery block. the The fresher time. that there shall be no construction joints. conscientious vigUance in the observance of the edicts of good concrete work is the price of a good surface finish
and using the analogy of pathology. for walls
that will occupy a position of more or less architectural prominence. the hps of the panels. This is a praiseworthy mandate and is worthy of adoption for all character of work. regardless of merely the insistence of an architectural finish. environment.
Special Finishes. especially in the direct sunlight. The coefficients of expansion between the wall concrete and the rich mortar are unlike. ordinary plaster coat may be applied to the wall.
it is
work the hammer.
an ordinary wedge
bits. or
quite pleasing in effect. in tooling the wall to stone.
An
after the forms
To apply a coat of mortar or other finish have been stripped and the wall set gives Uttle assurance of a permanent finish. prevent ravelHng.
where the rubbing
Tooling.
presents finally a surface that
pleasing. When broken stone is used. a special face finish is
construction finish. to use grout mixes of
different strengths leaving the surface finished in
—
If
the cement skin of a concrete wall
two shades.
is
not done on one day. four and six edged
of surface to
there
is
a large
amount
be so treated. care must be taken to use a constant proportion of the cement
and water. producthe wall and the coat.. such as rods. etc. removed or cut back several inches from the surface. care being taken not to start
a matter of
to use an air drill to
ravelling the stone. wires. In applying such a coat it is essential that due appreciation should be had of the proper bond between
masking
its
of a retaining wall. It is understood that toohng is much more expensive than rubbing (roughly about ten to fifteen times) and. The hammer is passed Hghtly over the surface. the concrete wall must be carefully patched and construction devices.
economy
A gravel concrete seems to give a better appearance than a broken stone concrete.
As in the case of rubbing. the ordinary commercial stone should be hmited to With larger stone it is difficult. or a granolithic or other fine grit finish may be placed upon its surface. If
This skin may be removed by hand with with special two. Care must be taken not to tool too near an edge as the concrete may be broken
off. the sparkhng effect of the pebbles presenting an excellent appearance. apphed just long enough to remove the grout skin.
—To
enhance the architectural appearance
appHed to the wall. is removed by
sharp
bits.
In applying the grout wash. ordinarily is only
%
specified to effect a special architectural feature. the size of the inch stone.
.
It is quite possible.
the abraded surface gives a rough stone appearance
bit. It is usual to finish the edges of a tooled surface by means of a rubbed border of one or more inches in width.234
RETAINING WALLS
rubbing a wall
is sufficiently
of retaining walls are built in such environment.
T.ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS
235
ing eventually voids between the wall and coat. "The surface shall then be immediately washed with water until the grit is exposed and rinsed clean and protected from the sun and kept moist for three days. Philadelphia. two parts coarse sand or gravel and two parts granolithic
made into a stiff mortar. 3 Engineering Record.
m
1
S."
Finishes of various colors
grit.S.
A red finish grit. so that the coat is a part of the wall itself. Vol. For horizontal surfaces the granolithic mixture
grit. Track
Elevation. Granolithic grit shall be granite or trap rock crushed to pass a J^ inch sieve and screened of dust. clay courses of three feet or less and plaster the insides with wet evenly apply is wet worked to a plastic consistency. For vertical surfaces the mixture shall be deposited against the face forms to a least thickness of one inch by skilled workmen. Vol. Trans. p.. The face forms shall be removed as soon as the concrete has sufficiently hardened and any voids that may appear shall be filled up with the mixture. Albert Moyer Erect forms of rough boards of the Vulcanite Portland Cement Co.
lithic
coat
is
quoted here and
An excellent specification for a granomay be used as a model clause for
all grit finishes. etc.^
colored
may be secured by the use of properly may be secured by the use of brick
is
a method
whereby a sand coating is applied may be secured by the following method. Care shall be taken to prevent the occurrence of air spaces or voids in the surface. a gray by bluestone screenings. While the clay pour in the concrete.
'
. loose buff.E.
Wagner.C.5 inches immediately after the concrete has been tamped and before it has set and shall be trowelled to an even surface and after it has set sufficiently hard shall be washed until the grit is exposed. Ixxvi.
Germantown and
Norris
town Railroad. 454. p. A. outlined by Mr. as the placing of concrete proceeds and thus form a body of the work. and is therefore more or less immune
to the weathering actions.^
"Surface of concrete exposed to the street shall be composed of one part cement.
shall be deposited on the concrete to a least thickness of 1. "AU concrete surfaces exposed to the street shall be marked off into courses in such detailed manner as may be directed by the Chief
Engineer. It is therefore usually specified that the finish coat shall be applied simultaneously with the pouring of the wall. red or other colored sand and then
"A surface finish for
concrete. 61. Below of obtaining still another type of surface finish. The action of frost and the other destructive elements finally cause the coat to spall. 1836.
The
is
following table gives the proportion of coloring matter
to use to secure a desired shade of concrete finish. Panelling. Tooling the Surface with Bushhammers or other tools. Mr. Scrubbing and washing.
The
table
taken from "Concrete Construction for Rural Communities."
"1. " 3.
Color of hardened
mortar
Mineral to be used
Pounds of color to each bag of cement
Gray
Black Black Blue Green
Germantown lampblack Manganese dioxide
Excelsior carbon black
>'2
12
3 5
Red
Bright red
Ultramarine blue Ultramarine green Iron oxide Pompeian or English red
6 6
6
6 6
Brown.
Roasted iron oxide or brown ochre Yellow ochre
"Colors wUl usually be considerably darker while the concrete is after it dries out and the colors are likely to grow somewhat lighter with age. "8. "4. "9. "Popular Hand Book for Cement and Concrete Users" (see chapter "Artistic Treatment of Con
—
crete Surfaces").
The various methods
of finishing
a concrete
surface are classified as follows
and trowelling the surface. Seaton. Facing with Mortar. Grouting. The treatment of concrete surfaces of all types is ably discussed in a book by Lewis and Chandler." by Roy A.. "6. Surfacing with gravel or pebbles. "7.
.
The
sand. "2. wash off the clay with water and
necessary
scrub lightly with a brush."
wet than
Artistic Treatment of Concrete Surfaces in General. Facing with Stucco. Hence considerably more pigment should be used than is necessary to bring wet concrete or mortar to the desired shade. Spading
.
Moyer
states will adhere to
the concrete and givs a surface of pleasing color and texture. page 148. Etching with Acid.
:
236
RETAINING WALLS
if
After removing the forms. Tinting the surface.
"5. "10. Mosaic. carving etc.
Buff
.
— Ornamental parapet
wall.
{Fiicing
page 23G)
.Plate VJl
Fig. B.ed borders.
— Showing
effects ol
poor concrete work
Fia.
.1.
Tooled
willi ruljl.
Plate VIII
Fic;.
A.
— (hiiiimcMilal
hmiJiail
— aijproacli
1
^;;;r:;:;:rZ::Z~^^^n.n,
,:,ep,e.ed ope. cut a„„n,a.h to
(Facino
P''ffe
...eet
"'''
Plate IX
Fig. a.
— Ornamental concrete hanJiail
approach
to
connote
aitli.
"
ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS
237
The methods specially applicable to retaining walls have been analyzed in detail in the present chapter. In connection with the artistic treatment of retaining wall surfaces, it may prove of interest to note that an exhaustive study of a special surface was made by John J. Earley, Proceedings
American Concrete Institute, 1918, in a paper entitled "Some Problems in Devising a New Finish For Concrete. " The wall under discussion was built in Meridian Hill Park, Washington, D.C. The original plans called for a stuccofinished wall. A
sample of wall with such a
plaster wall, nothing
finish
more
**********
was
built.
"The
result
^j^g
^g^y
was a ^^^
size
without scale. It did not give the appearance of strength or equal to its task as a retaining wall. " It was finally decided
(from 24 to 48 hours) and scrub the surface with steel brushes "until the aggregate was exposed as evenly as possible.
"This method
of treating the surfaces at once supplied the sense of
to strip the forms of the wall as soon as possible after pouring
strength and size that was lacking before.
The
wall was no longer a
else,
plastered one, but was reinforced concrete and nothing
and
it
seemed big and strong enough upon it."
to suit all
demands that would be made
The
face
was panelled and the
piers
were treated
differently,
to afford a contrast to the tooled surfaces. Hand Rails. To prevent accidents and trespassing or to lend
—
a pleasing finish to a retaining wall a raihng of some kind is built into the coping of the wall, of a character in conformity with the needs of the environment. When a wall retains an embankment rising above the surrounding country, the raihng is reqtdred as a protection to those walking along the edge of the embankment. If the environment demands a raihng more ornate in
be made of concrete, stone, concrete Some photographs of raihngs of this latter character blocks, etc. A). are shown here (see Plates VII, Fig. B, VIII, Fig. A and IX, Fig. which walls walls, or To prevent trespassing, by cKmbing over low
character, the raihng
may
Hne cuts along a highway, it is usual to build a picket fence. A photograph of a standard type of such fence is shown on Plate
VIII, Fig. B.
raihngs are anchored to the wall by bolts. Holes raihng bolts and the bolts are drilled in the wall coping to fit the To properly or sulphur. lead are fastened in by means of grout,
The metal
238
RETAINING WALLS
and securely fasten concrete
railings to the wall reinforcing rods should be incorporated in the coping while it is being poured and should project a distance above the top of the coping to obtain a good bond to the hand rail. For all types of raihng provision should be made for the expansion due to temperature changes.
Drainage. The presence of water in a retained fill increases the earth thrust in an uncertain but considerable amount.
Again, to insure a well founded roadbed, water must not be permitted to accumulate in the fill. For these reasons means
are provided for the removal of
—
the
fill
behind the wall.
The
simplest
any water that may collect in method of accomplishing
this is to insert pipes in the walls at frequent intervals, permitting
the water to drain through
them and out on the surrounding
ground.
To
insure ample provision for the runoff of the water
and to prevent the pipe from silting up, a large size pipe, about 4 inches in diameter has proven to be most satisfactory as a weephole drain. The pipes should be spaced from twenty five to tenfeet intervals depending upon the anticipated conditions of water accumulation. That water may be permitted to reach these openings in the wall, some rough drainage must be placed at the back of the wall. A well planned wall will provide for a layer of broken stone, from 6inches to a foot in thickness upon the back of the wall and extending down to the level of theweepIf this method is considered too expensive, or unnecessary for the conditions at hand, a layer of broken stone may be placed immediately around the weephole, preventing the silt
holes.
from accumulating at the opening and permitting the water to drain off. Under no circumstances should the fill be placed immediately against the wall drains. It is sometimes objectionable or impossible to dispose of the water through drains leading out from the face of the wall, because of private property, or important public thoroughfares adjoining and a regular sewerage system must be installed to dispose of the water through the neighboring sewers. For example in the track elevation work of the Rock Island Lines. ^
"An unusual feature is the provision of drainage wells in the ends of the retaining walls adjacent to the abutments at the subway bridges.
These are 3 feet by 3 feet and extend to the bottom of the wall (see Fig. There are no weep holes through the retaining walls, but along 128).
'
Engineering News, Vol. 73, p. 671.
ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS
239
the backs of the walls are laid inclined drains of 6inch porous tile on a grade of 0.5 per cent, extending from subgrade level to 6inch pipes,
in the rear part of the waUs and discharge to the drainage wells. Each well has an 8inch connection to the catchbasin of a city sewer as shown."
which are imbedded
Again in the track elevation work of the Philadelphia, Germantown and Norristown R. R. i The walls were on private property and a layer of loose stone made up in sizes varying from inch to two feet were placed along the 4'Tile Drain back of the wall. A 6inch vitrified tile pipe was laid along the bottom of the wall below this stone layer, on a 1 per cent, grade, with open joints and led 6' Drain to sewers on the cross streets. Another efficient method of
%
Tile
securing a well drained
fill
is
to
Fig.
place wells of broken stone at each weep hole extending from
128.— Drainage of retaioed carried to sewer system.
fill,
the subgrade of the fill to' the weep holes. In the construction of the retaining walls for the Hell Gate Arch Approach (see page 127) it was vital that no water be allowed to accumulate in the fill and wells were built at each weep hole to insure the
drainage of the earth work. Waterproofing. The presence of water in the wall body, aside from that left originally from the concrete mix, has a harmful effect both on the concrete mass itself and upon the face of the wall. Generally it is specified that some means shall be
—
taken to keep the water out of the wall. Retaining walls are not made of very rich mixes so that the wall cannot be said to be inherently waterproof. It is an easy matter to coat the back While it is exceedof the wall with tar or asphalt preparation. skin and keep it intact, care an intact to ingly difficult to get preserving it from waterproofing and in placing the exercised in placed will give membrane it been a after has accidental abrasion It is much of sufficient integrity to save the face of the wall. waterproofing of upon the place coats two better practice to are bare spots on there no insuring that wall, thus back of the
the wall back.
1
Trans. American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. Ixxvi,
S.
T.
Wagnek.
6%) of the bitumen soluble in the The . receive more detailed waterproofing. involving the extensive use of fabrics. in a tin box two and onehalf inches in diameter it shall lose not over five percentum (5%) by weight nor shall the penetration at 77 degrees Fahr.. extending about a foot or two on either side of the
joint. it is absolutely necessary
that the wall be dry. after such heating be less than onehalf of the original penetration. several layers of fabric coated
with hot tar are placed across the joint to insure its watertightness.
Where expansion
joints occur. of brick laid in an asphaltic mastic.05. must. The asphalt shall not flash below 350 degrees Fahr.. or asphalt prepared by the and shall comply with the following requirements The asphalt shall contain in its refined state not less than ninetyfive percentum (95%) of bitumen soluble in cold carbon disulphide. and melt at 120° F.
the tar has been placed the
it is
good practice to carry up the
soft
fill
against the back of the
wall (unless a stone drainage well has been placed against the
back
of the wall) to act as a cushion for the rock
fill. The melting point of the material shall be between 115 degrees and 135 degrees Fahr.
Subsurface walls and walls whose exterior face receive special
any moisture is damaging. when tested in the New York State Closed Oil Tester.. as determined by the Kraemer and Sarnow method. cold carbon disulphide shall be soluble in cold carbon tetrachloride. and at least ninetyeight and onehalf percentum (98. Where a mixed fill. determined by the cube (in water) method.
architectural treatment to which
A
back
typical
and
welltried specification for a tar coating for the
of the wall. and shall soften at approximately 70° F.:
:
240
RETAINING WALLS
membrane
fill
Before placing the
of tar. being a grade in which distillate oils distilled therefrom shall have a specific gravity of 1..
After
should be deposited with care and large boulders should not be permitted to roll down and against the back of the wall. remaining ingredients shall be such as not to exert an injurious effect on the work. of course. free from frost and well cleaned. or the possible additions of chemicals to the concrete mix itself (the integral method of waterproofing) all of which fall without the province of the present text.
careful distillation of asphaltic petroleum
.
may
read as follows
Coaltar shall be straightrun pitch containing not less than twentyfive percentum (25%) and not more than thirtytwo percentum (32%) of free carbon.. rock and earth is used.
Asphalt shall consist of fluxed natural asphalt. When twenty (20) grams of the material are heated for five (5) hours at a temperature of 325 degrees F.
A
shall
briquette of solid bitumen of crosssection of one square centimeter have a ductility of not less than twenty centimeters at 77° F.
The penetrations indicated" herein refer to a depth of penetration in hundredth centimeters of a No.ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS
The consistency
shall
241
be determined by the penetration which be between
75 and 100 at 77° F. acting for five seconds.)
centimeters per minute. the
(5)
material being elongated at the rate of five (Dow moulds..
16
.. 2 cambric needle weighted to one hundred
grams
at 77° F.
such as city monument Hnes.
COMPUTATION OF VARIOUS SECTIONS. the location of the easement Hnes of the wall. or other governing hne. regardless of the degree of exactness required and larger error factors should be used for less important structures. ISOMETRIC WORKING SKETCHES. As the wall is
Surve3ring. a retaining wall more special field work than other masonry structures.
242
. The presence of adjacent structures. a preliminary Hne. and yet close enough that it can readily be employed as a reference line. the nearness of the wall to important easement Hnes.
the face. will each control the permissible error in the fieldwork. the face of the wall must be laid out on the concrete bottom of the wall in its correct location with respect to the property.CHAPTER XI
LINES AND GRADES. the proposed permanence of
the wall. If th location of the work permits the Hne should be about 25 feet away from the waU Hne and referenced at frequent intervals to fixed land marks. The trenches within which the wall is to rest must be staked out. forms the base line of the wall location work.
An
allowable error of one in 25. the main railroad survey Hnes and such Hnes as control more or less. COST DATA
requires but
an engineering structure.000 is sufiiciently exact for any type of wall. or other important line of the wall.^
little
—As
essentially a longitudinal strip. It should be tied in to other important Hnes of permanent nature.
either public or private. and the accuracy with which this Hne is laid out determines all the accuracy of the Hnes subsequently staked out from this Hne. the necessity of tying other structures
to the retaining wall (or abutment). The degree of exactness which must be employed in laying out the wall is conditioned upon several factors. The importance of the base Hne with reference to the field work which foUows and is dependent upon it makes it necessary that it be laid out at a distance away from the work that will keep it safely out of the construction way. and finally the forms must be checked as to correct section and location. parallel to
This is staked out.
e. that
easily
may
by recourse to the permanent base Une. to be used in i. and where possible. which lines are directly employed by the mechanics to lay out the excavation lines and the
concrete lines. ^ ^ middle ordmate wiU not exceed staking out the waU.g. note that from the the permissible allowance a (see the offset y to an arc. so that its Fig.
As the
they
lines are destroyed in the ordinary course
be restored.
^
rough work is. unless steel structures are to be tied into the wall {e. net wall lines) may be placed at twenty actual line stakes (i.
Employing
this
formula in the
present case
o
It
is
= LysR
waU shaU not
flatness of the generally specified that the
.>i

/^^
Rad
lines
more
quired. abutments supporting steel bridges.). This is a matter of judgment.
It is patent.LINES AND GRADES
243
In conjunction with the location of the base Une. points must be selected that can readily be found and used for the construction work.
To
refinement is redetermine the proper
j. 129). The base line as above described is not
—
used directly to stake out the construction work.^^
missibie
i29.. that in the establishment of both the base line and the bench run. L. the should be placed they On curves. retaining walls carrying building walls upon them. It is customary to place a Une about five feet from the face of the wall. so that the progress of construction will not disturb them. at a approximate paraboUc relation that is given by the formula distance x from the point of tangency
y
=
x^/2R
where
R is the
radius of the arc. safely established. to twentyfive foot than the permore do not diverge chords the close enough.
chord length. of course For the concrete permissible. On tangent walls. intervals. another line ten feet from the face.
lines.
^^_
U'""t^
^''*^^^^. where necessary.Length of chord for peramount of flattening. Construction Lines.
of construction. a run of benches is made. The accuracy of this run need not be high.
missible Umit from the true arc For the excavation of the waU. etc. tempered by much field experience and vexatious delays must occur through poor selection of important surveying points. and both parallel to the base line.
using the value 0. by reference to the table. or 0. For example.244
RETAINING WALLS
is
exceed }4 oi an inch.000 feet permits the
use of twentyfivefoot chords. a radius of 800 feet makes it necessary to stake out the wall in eightfoot chord lengths.01 feet. that the chord offset shall not exceed oneeighth of an inch. Table No.
. 39 is given herewith showing the necessary chord length to be used for any assigned radius of arc. while a radius of 8.01 for a
r
This last equation when solved then
_
V2R
To aid in the use of this equation. for L.
and whose heights at the beginning and end of the section are Ai and 'hi. For this twodimension merely gives a drawing when the bring out clearly and to serve may drawings isometric reason volume obtain the of the necessary to dimension the exactly all
other walls.
—^Method of lining in concrete forms. or
product
points. 661. The volume of a wall. so that
made
at the expansion
between two adjacent expansion joints the width of wall at the coping and at the base remain constant.
1
^
See Engineering NewsRecord.
Computation of Volumes. 130. wired and braced. and the grade for the top of the wall. its volume is the
—
by the distance between the two Generally the section of the wall varies.LINES AND GRADES
plans.
.
it is
essential that a careful
is
difficult to
show
clearly the
portion sought.
nails driven in the side of the
form at these
CpncreU Farms
•
Sfripaf Molding
Hailed to Foofing
Fig.
of the area of the section
in other but the vertical dimensions. the top of the wall following a given grade. and then plumbed to see that the section meets that theoretically required. It section. is
Y = ^{a^
To
get the
b)ihi
+
hi)
volume
of sections of the wall
which are irregular
because of breaks in the wall. they be rechecked from the reference line. p. The proper grades at which to make the breaks in the wall section. Breaks in the width of the wall. or because of intersections with
and detailed drawing be volume in question made. respectively. April
3. are most
commonly given by
elevations.
1919. When the section of a retaining wall remains constant between two given points.
245
may
After the forms are assembled. are
joints. To make the isometric drawing correct to scale and to be able to interpret mathematically the lengths scaled from the isometric drawing the following matter gives some formulas and tables which should serve to make the isometric
layout as easy to handle as the plane detail drawing. if there be any. whose coping and base widths are respectively a and h.
and c and makes an angle In isometric projection the length L becomes either Li or L. /I
+
2 cot
<^\ <t>\
=
.
/I .
To
Lines not obtain the angles
which these lines make in actual space. by the law of sines
<t> <j)
b/c
b/c
= =
sin <^i/sin (180°
sin ^.
)
<t>. The angle is again 4>i or 4>j in isometric projection.
jr.246
RETAINING WALLS
It is assumed that the isometric taxes of the figure have so been chosen that all the important Hnes of the figure he in planes parallel to the axes. 132._.
Table 40 gives the values of 0f and
Referring to Figs.
c
c
Fig. The lengths b and c remain unchanged.
j''
= jL = 1 —
sin
^ cos
^. the lengths of such hnes in isometric projection and the angles which they make with the isometric axes. tan ^ = b/c.
/ 2 cot
<^

1\
cot'
\
Vs
^.2
for the several values of
Li^
Lj^
b
= 52 ^ c2 = &2 + c2 = = L cos
tj)
26c cos 120°
and
c
= b^ + c^ + = 62 + c2 = L sin <^
be 6c
Substituting these values in the preceding equations there
finally
is
Li
=
kL. Referring to Figure 132. and the actual lengths of such lines and conversely. In Fig. 131.
length
by
parallel are not
shown
correctly to length. the UneL has pro
c
Fig.
.
The plane and
jections b
isometric triangles.)
From which two
equations. refer to Figs.^
=
1
+
sin
cos 0.
Lj
where
A. 131 and 132.depending upon whether it subtends an angle of 120° or 60°.
with the projection c./sin (180°

120°
'
60°

<^i)
0. 131. The following theorems apply solely to
such
lines.
Lines parallel to the axes are shown correctly to
the principles of isometric projection. 131. 132.
—
LINES AND GRADES
Table 40 gives a
values of
4>.
247
j for the
series of values of k
and
run
of
Table
40.
Isometric Functions
*.
1
0°
.
so that items of cost unique to a peculiar environment be disregarded. while possibly not so easily compiled or anticipated as material cost. the labor cost.
apparent that the elements entering into the cost data must be properly weighted. independof the
more
or less. should not.
Cost
may
cost.
Cost analysis in general may be said to serve two purposes. material
be divided into several general subdivisions Labor cost. an accounting of work already done. to
data be reduced.
Merely gathering
cost statistics without an intelligent interpretation of the operations affecting or controlling costs
is
a valueless and time wasting
procedure.
The
first
item. Cost Data. In this sense it is properly an accounting job. Proper attention to the former purpose of cost data is of course essential that the latter purpose may be efficiently carried out and the more voluminous the files of cost accounts (intelligently kept)
It furnishes
the better able
is
the engineer to
make
a scientific prediction of
of the relative value
the cost of future work.
. as far as is fundamental and elemental operations. in order that proper disbursements may finally be made and a correct financial history compiled of the job in question.
in its proper deterMaterial costs are simple.
That a true comparison may be made
of the various types of retaining walls. it is best that cost
practicable.
peculiar character of
any
piece of
construction. The compilation of worthwhile cost data is conditioned upon the proper valuation of the relative operations involved in the piece of work under analysis as well as a correct understanding as to how much of the work is standard in connection with retaining wall construction and how much is peculiar
—
to the individual piece of
work
in question. at least
and one requiring experience and judgment
mination. are easily compiled.
this purpose. Plant cost.248
RETAINING WALLS
shown
are the true ones. based upon payroll and material forms prepared by the timekeeper. can easily be anticipated and with a proper allowance for the wastage involved in the several operation are estimated with a high degree of accuracy. It may also be an anticipatory analysis of work to be done and then comes within the province of an engineer preparing such an estimate.
it is
For
ent. the isometric lengths as shown having been corrected by means of the tables above. plant cost and general administrative
:
expenses.
is
the uncertain item.
are apt to work hardships upon
large
work unless the percentage factor so applied is the result from several jobs of similar nature. salaries of the executives.
While
an indefinite character. It must plan a scheme of the work together with the amount of plant to be had
and the character of the labor to operate it. It must be remembered that it is a constant charge carried continuously."
is
taken from the point of delivery
See Dana. prove In a previous chapter the character
and the distribution
of plant employed for a number of pieces of typical retaining wall construction may furnish a good working clue to the type most suited to the work under analysis. Before employing such data it is well to read again (chapter on "Plant") the important bearing of plant selection and arrangement upon the cost A good bid is not one that contains merely a carefully of labor. light of the in used be must the cost of work as are given below
above remarks. etc. General
administrative expenses will cover office expenses. insurance upon the labor.
amount of experience. minor expenses in connection with the
prosecution of the work. miscellaneous casualty and public liability insurance. Naturally the number of items of uncertain amount appearing in an estimate of future work will be in inverse proportion to the amount
of data compiled of experience of the engineer preparing such estimates. regardless of the weather or other delays and in
of
work
tions. and detailed analysis of the cost of the labor." Gillette
"Handbook
of
Cost Data." Taylor
and Thomson. "Cost Data. Haphazard bidding all but the most or snap judgment estimates are unpardonable in eventually must and engineers. experienced of contractors and of estimates quoted and figures Such lead to financial disaster. while excusable in small work.
may effect materially the cost of the opera
Blanket percentages added to cover items of this nature. ^ some general labor costs may be presented to guide an estimator in preparing a bid for contemplated work. it must be properly ascertained or anticipated in order to be included in the estimated cost.
The
1
material for the wall
Costs. taxes. Labor Costs. fares. such as telephone. Without entering into a detailed analysis of
—
the various labor elements involved in wall construction. This item is usually termed the overhead of the work and is
spread over
all
the items entering into the construction of a wall.
of long duration.LINES AND GRADES
to the engineer with a moderate
difficult of
249
computation. "Concrete
.
Cost of labor of forms per cubic yard of concrete . averaging about 35 feet
in height is as follows:
Gravity Type 1935."
Cantilever wall. Sept. carpenters 50 cents
per hour. the concrete wheeled to the forms and
poured
1
in..82 per day. 250 feet long." for a detailed description of the
8.^
See "Enlarging an Old Retaining Wall. Total cost of forms per cubic yard of concrete Cost of material per cubic yard of concrete Cost of mixing and placing concrete per cubic yard
. Engineering News. cubic yards of concrete. the length of haul will determine the average number of trips that the trucks can make. nearest raihoad station or
may be hauled by hired team or auto truck.
A resume of the total labor cost of pouring retaining walls of both gravity and reinforced "L" type.
Total cost of concrete in place (including superintendence) $12 03
. follows.
Labor 20 cents per hour.
.
.O.
may
be used to examine the cost
of
numerous pieces
From Taylor and Thompson "Concrete Costs.
. .
..
$3 60 4 75 1 25
. With the latter method.
methods and plant used.
Labor 20 cents per hour.
$2... Cost of mixing and placing per cubic yard
$6 23 4 75 1 25
. 16:
•
common
labor $2.00 per day.250
•
RETAINING WALLS
may
and brought
the bid)
or
to the site of the
per yard (which price
if
work either at a contracted price be ascertained at the time of preparing dehvered F. the price per yard for delivering
the material can be computed with no
analysis
files of
great difficulty. and knowing
hghterage dock
the load that can be carried.
Cantilever wall 16 feet high.B.
.75 $3 91 $3 57 $1 35
.
An
The
of the cost of several pieces of work. Plant used was two small batch mixers.
.
p.
Total cost of forms per cubic yard of concrete Total cost of material per cubic yard of concrete . carpenters 50 cents
per hour.
the Engineering Press
of work.
Total cost of forms per cubic yard of concrete Cost of concrete material per cubic yard Cost of mixing and placing the concrete
Cantilever wall 8 feet high..
.
Concrete yardage 277 cubic yards.
carpenters $3.. 16 feet high.
1915.
A similar detailed labor cost to pour a volving a yardage of 1697 cubic yards is:
"L" shaped
cantilever wall.
when properly
altered to take care of
changed labor rates.
. 190 days at $3.
While endless data might be furnished of the cost of existing work.50 60.94 per cubic yard of concrete. exclusive of all overhead insurance. 197 days at $5.75 220 00 178.00 per day Masons.00 $665 00 230. conditions are usually too unique to make such data of Unit costs as quoted above may fill in general usefulness. 20 days at $3. . Barring unforseen contingencies an estimator with a fair knowledge of construction work should be able to anticipate the labor cost within 20 per cent. 24 days at $3. 1197 days at $1.31 per cubic yard.50 124. in the final data it will amount to merely 5 per cent. 14 days at $3. 33 days at $1.00
$3747 00
This makes the labor cost per yard. 55 days at $4.LINES AND GRADES
The forms were used on the average about
Foreman. 46 days at $5.
251
$875.75 per day Teams. of its correct final value.00 per day Watchmen. 37 days at $5.
$5619 75
.50 per day Timbermen.50 per day Engineer. averages about onequarter the total cost of the wall. 926 days at $1. .
42. 21 days at $3. Should the discrepancy amount to the hmiting value of 20 per cent. in
Foremen.00
. As an example of the analysis of a proposed piece of work.. 124 days at $1. 51 days at $3. . roughly.00 33. exclusive of all
overhead charges as above enumerated
is
$3.50 per day Engineer. 503 days at $3.00 per day Laborers.50 185 00 72 00 2094. of the total cost
of the work.00
'.
uncertain data in a bid.00 per day
Total labor cost
four times.
.00 148 00
.00 per day Laborers. The labor cost on a retaining wall.00 per day
Total labor cost
$985 00 1760.00 per day Riggers. $1.00 per day Carpenters.75 per day Masons. 37 days at $4.00 per day Carpenters.00 per day Teams. 175 days at $5.
The
unit labor cost per cubic yard for pouring this type of
wall..50 per day Watchmen.
1620 50 73. plants charges etc.
Estimates of work can hardly be expected to
let
reach a higher degree of accuracy than this.00 per day Riggers.
000 yards stone at $2. This mixer should be obtained in the neighborhood of about The other plant requirements. cement $3. cement at $3..
.50 5. such as wheelbarrows.000.000 yards of sand will be required.00 per yard. for temporary offices..
construct the wall.50 per yard and sand for $2. there will be required about 1.2 barrels of cement for
—
each yard of concrete placed.
—Assume
that 2 inch tongue and grooved
sheeting will be used to
the form panels.00
$46.5:5 mixture of concrete.000.50 11. stone for $2.252
it
RETAINING WALLS
be required to determine the cost of constructing a retaining
wall about 1.000 cubic yards. The material totals are then
13. (Exactly. no allowance for bags). Assuming that the wall is a 1:2. wall surface that must be coVered with new form lumber is then
(allowing a footing thickness of four feet)
make
36
X
2
z
X
1000
=
^^^ square feet.50 per barrel (net. it is cusdouble the board feet required for the sheeting.200 27. Materials. Allow about 20 per cent.
. on the job. shovels. $1.400
^
. should not cost more than an additional $1.
To
allow for the joists.
charge $2. Theoretically about 10.
about 100 yards per day capacity (a 3^^ to }2 yard batch mixer will easily satisfy this requirement) should pour the required yardage of concrete with an ample time margin.000 making the total plant
of
—A mixer
One year is The wall is a
the allotted time in which to
cantilever type.000 feet long.500 yards sand at $2.
Plant. 40 feet high.. rangers. with a yardage of about
10. and to allow for wasto
tage in material due to cutting
tomary
it to required lengths. lumber for runways for pouring the concrete etc. bracing etc.000
The
total material will cost
$84. shanties for storing cement and tools.200 bbls. etc. wastage of forms each time the forms are stripped The area of (this is equivalent to a form use of five times). the forms may be designed as outUned in the chapter
.000 3rards of stone and 5. To allow for wastage of all kinds these quantities will be increased 10 per It will be assumed that the materials will be delivered cent. 14.500
11.700
Form Lumber. where required for the following unit prices.
770
With an allowance
neighborhood
yard.00 per day.
Overhead.750.320
Labor Costs. An estimate of the cost of the work.
—^The work
will require the
employment
of a super
intendent for one year ($4. amounting to about 10 per
cent.320
Ins. Engineer and Carpenters. or $6. the total lumber requirements are 4 board feet for every square foot of new lumber surface.000.
The rods
are usually quoted at a separate unit price and are
not mentioned here. With a price of 175
per for timber delivered on the timber cost is
14.000 84. justify such refinement. or at a unit cost of $20.00 per day and the other items in keeping. and it is better to use the rule of
thumb method just stated.500. $7.00 per cubic
.) Since the sheeting is to be 2 inches thick. The unit cost is then about $6. and detailed as shown in the problem accompanying the chapter. This will practically
double the unit cost of labor as given.4
M
job. laborers $4. This factor will be omitted
here. To get the total labor costs on the wall. To this must be added the item of insurance.
tongue and grooved. or the total cost is $67. The ofifice overhead is indeterminate. To summarize:
Plant Materials
$2. depending upon the number of jobs going on at one time. however. of the labor total.250
6.700
4.LINES AND GRADES
253
on FORMS. does not.00 per day.500
$171.000) and a timekeeper ($1. making the field overhead about $6. the analysis of the cost of the reinforced concrete wall at last outlined
—
may
be used with the following revised rates
of labor:
Foreman
$8.)
Lumber
Labor (and Overhead
Total
74.75 per yard. the
X
4
at
$75
=
$4.500) Miscellaneous expenses around the work should not exceed $1.
for profit the wall will be estimated in the of $200.000. and the required amount of timber taken from these estimates.500.
Reinforced concrete walls up to but not including twenty (20) feet in height from subgrade to top of coping.
all
— — Payment for the walls as indicated
—
ing of
where a rubbed finish is indicated. including the cost of all scaffolding. —^Reinforced concrete walls over thirty
Payment. marked A on the plans. of whatever height indicated.
(30 feet) in height from subgrade to top of coping.
cement as has been given on pages 214 to 215. to
—
walls to be constructed under
tions
—
follows
Class A. Concrete for class A walls shall be mixed in the proportions of one part cement. two parts sand and four parts ot stone or gravel. Walls of cement rubble masonry of whatever height indicated. Reinforced concrete walls from twenty (20) feet up to but not including thirty (30) feet from subgrade to top of coping. by volume. also the cost of finishing the face
—
— — Class D. Class E. C and D) shall be mixed in the proportions of one part cement. Class C. The cement shall be Portland Cement of a brand that has been
of the wall
—
on the market for the
last five years.:
SPECIFICATIONS
General Layout of Work. by volume. Stone for concrete shall be a clean sound. The retaining walls shall be classified for payment as
The retaining shown on Plans Nos. Broken Stone. two and onehalf parts of sand and five parts of stone or gravel. Cement. These specificaand the plans are intended to be consistent and where any apparent inconsistency appears the interpretation shall convey the intent of the best work and construction. Concrete for reinforced concrete walls (classes B. Class B.
matter in
254
. not exceeding Ji inch in size. Concrete Proportions. Sand for use in making the concrete shall be clean and well graded. Where the
(Insert here the details of che propertie.s of
—
—
thickness of the concrete wall is twelve inches or less in thickness the size of the stone shall not exceed threequarters (^) of an inch in diameter.
It shall
fully stored along the site of the
be screened and washed to remove all impurities and shall be carework to prevent the gathering of any foreign
it. Not more than six per centum (6%) by weight shall pass a 100 mesh screen. hard broken limestone or trap rock and graded from threeeighths {%) of an inch in diameter up to one and threequarters (l^i) inches in diameter. forms and the cost ot removing the same. Classes of Work. Walls without reinforcement. It shall contain not more than three per centum (3%) by weight of foreign matter.) Sand.
shall include the furnishlabor and materials necessary.
this contract are
inclusive.
— The forms for concrete shall be made
and braced and
of stout
tongue and grooved
sheeting. This time shall be increased when Forms shall the temperature of the air drops below sixty (60) degrees Fahr.. If so required the contractor shall submit to the engineer plans of the form work and bracing. the very essence of these specifications that the water content of the concrete mix by kept low.
SPECIFICATIONS
255
Gravel. The contractor shall permit the Engineer to take samples of the concrete mix to be tested and no charges shall be made for material taken for such purposes
The use of a continuous mixer is forbidden and a mixer that is found incapable of delivering a concrete in conformity with the specifications shall be removed from the work and a mixer substituted for it that is capable of mixing concrete in accordance with these specifications.— Gravel shall be screened. properly supported
of strength sufficient to
meet
the concrete pressures. cleaned and graded in the same manner as the broken stone.
Use of Large Stone.
shall
be used on the concrete to insure a free
circulation of the grout around the reinforcing bars
and against the face
of
Forms. or thoroughly wetted and before reusing shall be cleaned of all adhering cement. the presence of be stripped in the Placing Fill. The Engineer. is contractor the it Engineer. or his duly authorized representative shall decide upon the length of time each batch shall be mixed and upon the amount of water
shall proceed
that shall go into each batch. Concrete shall be conveyed to the forms in watertight conveyances and shall be dropped vertically into the forms. clean stones and shall be carefully placed in the concrete. Concrete shall set at least twentyfour (24) hours before the tierods are
loosened or any of the sheeting removed. Before pouring the forms shall be oiled.— In Class A walls (and in these walls only) where the thickness of the wall exceeds thirty (30) inches the contracter will be permitted to imbed stones of at least 12 inches in thickness not closer than four (4) inches to the face of the form and not closer than six (6) inches to each other. It shall then be shovelled into place and thoroughly compacted and rammed to insure a concrete of uniform
density. dirt.
it
Concrete.. The joints shall be watertight and shall be carefully inspected while the pouring is in progress to prevent the escape of any grout. In case of emergency shall be within the discretion of the Engineer to state whether the mixing
It
is
by hand.— No fill shall be deposited behind the walls until ten days have elapsed since the walls were poured and not until the assent of the
Engineer or
his
duly authorized representative has been obtained. The stones shall be sound. so directed. No machine mixer shall be used that is not equipped with a tank or other device for supplying a measured amount of water to each batch of concrete and a competent operator shall be in attendance upon the machine. to insure a smooth face on all exposed concrete work.
Spades or other special tools
the forms.
.— Concrete shall be mixed by machine. etc.
canvas. Evidence of extensive defective work shall be sufficient cause to order the contractor to remove portions of the work showing such defective work and all such repairs and reconstruction work shall be made at the contractor's
If
—
defective work.256
Defective Work. No concrete shall be deposited in the forms when the temperature drops below 20 degrees Fahr. tile drains of spacing and diameter shown on the plans. the contractor. the Engineer. after the fill has been in place the face of the wall shows evidence of water leaking through it. Concrete deposited in freezing weather shall be protected while setting by means of salt hay. no additional concrete shall be deposited on such a joint when work is subsequently started until the joint has been thoroughly scrubbed to remove all laitanoe and other foreign matter. If so directed a layer of cement grout shall be deposited upon the joint immediately before placing fresh concrete.
Drains. The back of the retaining walls shall be given two coats of hot asphalt or pitch. When. There shall be incorporated in the wall.
RETAINING WALLS
upon stripping the forms there is evidence of any work shall immediately be repaired and the surface of the wall finished in a manner that will present as little evidence of such defective work as possible. any unsightly appearance of the face of the wall after the forms have been
—
stripped. It is the intent of these specifications to secure a section of wall between expansion joints free of all joints as above and the contractor shall use plant of such capacity that a section can be poured complete in a regular day's operation. Joints. it shall be within the discretion of the Engineer to order the contractor to heat the concrete materials before pouring them
into the forms. as far as possible. Where a break occurs in the day's pour..
—
No concrete shall be deposited in the forms in freezing temperature that has not been mixed with materials heated by means of suitable appliances so that the temperature of the concrete upon being placed in the forms shall not be less than 60 degrees F. to prevent freezing of the concrete mix. or by other devices which will maintain the temperature of the concrete above freezing until it has set.) Extreme care shall be exercised in placing the fill back of the wall so that the coats of tar shall not be abraded. When the temperature of the air drops below 45 degrees Pahr. such defective
own
expense. unless such forms have been constructed in a manner approved by the Engineer.
Concrete Work in Winter Weather. Waterproofing. due to an emergency. The back of the wall. If. before the tar is applied shall be thoroughly dried and free of all frost. if so directed by the Engineer. or his duly authorized representative shall instruct the Contractor as to what details of construction must be adopted to obtain the full efficiency of such a joint and to prevent. such a construction joint is unavoidable. tarpaulin. (Insert specifications for tar as given on page 240. shall excavate back of the wall to the indicated position of the defective
—
—
. Immediately back of the drains shall be placed one cubic yard of broken stone.
He shall then point up these places with a rich mortar or concrete. be deformed as approved by the Engineer. the Contractor immediately upon removing the forms.
.. with actual sea walls. in diam.C.. and of Masonry Retaining Walls.
1902.E... Reinforcing Bars. no additional
payment
shall.
retaining walls.
Around
their
own
diameter. or cut them back to about two inches from the face of the wall. in diam.
designs. 17. on
Soils A." Thrust of Earth Allen J RoMiLLr. Illustrated
T. 341342. Retaining on] Committee of [Report tion. and dock walls. 110 degrees. 3 solution.
1 in. 1909. Contains chapters. Reinforcing bars shall be placed in the concrete walls of dimensions and spacing as shown on the plans.04 per cent. not more than 0.05 per cent.
and Thomson. Including Lateral Earth Pressure'
Alexander. Eng.
shall
be made by the open hearth process with the following maxi
mum impurities
Phosphorus. Tenth Annual Convention. Design of Retaining Walls. p. in. 356357. 130 degrees. in diam.^ in. etc. }i in.. p.
to be
made
Concrete Finish. in diam. The face of the wall will then be rubbed down with suitable appliances as approved by the Engineer and the entire surface given a coat of thin grout wash. The elastic Hmit or yield point shall not be
less
than 40. Plain bars may
not be used.
op Way AssociaAmerican Railway Engineering and Maintenance Walls and Abutments." p.. rods. not more than 0. Behind a Retaining Wall. Ry. ing {Engineering RecAllen Kenneth. practical design of On 393. diag.
shall
be bent to radii as indicated and
shall generally
be delivered
in the full length as required on the plans. Investigation of the Question of the EngineerNostrand's {Van 1877.
J. W. 140 degrees. Magazine. 1892.
iprom Report
17
Spec. " Apphcation of the Ellipse of Stress "The Scientific Design to the Stability of Earthwork.
675
p. 80 degrees.
Elementary Apphed Mechanics.
}4 in. Where no special face finish is indicated.:
SPECIFICATIONS
waterproofing and shall
257
make such
work
repairs as are necessary.000 pounds per
square inch. and (Proceedings. A.. Test specimens for bending shall be bent under the following conditions without fracture on the outside of the bent portion:
Around twice
^i
their
own
diameter.) 374. Mathematical 155158. Sulphur. 90 degrees.
Comm. 7086.S.
in. or less in diam. 180 degrees
Retaining Walls.
%6
in diam. remove all wires.) v. Payment for these rods
—
for this
—
includes
all
Rods Rods
Rods
shall
labor and material required for their installation as indicated. Am. ord V 26..
as 241. 54. d'une Hauteur et d'une Density Donnfies. Inst. as developed by Rankine and Darwin.) and diagrams. Short review of Audi's work presented by Poncelet." Brussels.)
BoussiNESQ. p. {Engineering Record. v.
Note on the "Horizontal Thrust
3. C. 13171337. pour Contenir un Massif Terreux. dont la Surface Sup(3rieure est Horizontale. Complement k de PriScedentes Notes sur la Pouss^e des
P. H.
Woodbury
1884. Calculations of earth pressures. formation regarding earth pressures is quite inexact. distinguished from "textbook'' pressures.lly incorrect
1881.) 1905. Calcul Approch6 de la Pouss^e et de la Surface de Rupture. {Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Stances de I'Acad^mie des Sciences. 25. v. 65. to design of
vertical walls. Integration de I'Equation Diff(5rentielle qui pent Donner une DeuxiSme Approximation. 1 diag. C. Bone. p. 28. {Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Stances de I'Acad6mie des Sciences. J. {Minutes of Proceedings.) AuDB.258
Maintenance
of
RETAINING WALLS
Way
Assoc. Concerning Retaining Walls and Earth Pressures. p. 790793. Inst. p. 6. Terres.
1861. 166169. v. p.. J.)
Aims to present data on actual lateral pressure of earthwork. 277283. 98. 187utes of Proceedings. J. 60. J. v. 1882.
(AnnoZesdesPowiseiC/iauss^es. 6. Concludes that in{Engineering News. v. 70."
{"Mathematical Monthly. Suggests conducting series of tests on large scale. 565566. Condensed. Evan P.) Application of the theory of earthpressure. (MinDiscussion. p. p. p. 3. 448452.
rived by D. 107110. 1884. I'Academie des Sciences. 492505. 57.) Baker.) BoussiNESQ.)
Bard WELL.. Reinforced Concrete Retaining Wall Design. p. 1881. v.
ser. v. 1881. Nouvelles Expfirieiices sur la Pouss^e des Terres. 7. J. 140186. {Van Nostrand's Engineering Magazine. 1909.) BoussiNESQ. p.) BoussiNESQ.
{Van Nostrand's Engineering Magazine. BoARDMAN. 1876.)
Finds the formula de
to be correct. 1870. Contenu par un Mur {Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Stances de Vertical. 1877. p.)
Gives information showing practice of various railroads in the designing of retaining walls. C25643. {Annates des Ponts et Chausshes. p.
F. sans Coh&ion. dans le Calcul Rationnel de la Pouss6e Exerc^e contre un Mur par des Terres D^pourvues de Cohesion.
of
Embankments. 1907. 1 diag.
P. 751754. E. dans un Terreplein Horizontal Homogfene. v.
353
371. Equilibrium of Pulverulent Bodies.
67. 1849. {Engineering News.) Abstract translation of "Essai Th6orique sur I'Equilibre des Massifs Pulvfirulents. 1 diag. 51. Note sur la Determination de I'Epaisseur Minimum que doit avoir un Mur Vertical. v. 333342.
W.
. Compare k celui de Massifs Solides et sur la Poussfie des Terres sans Cohesion. 288290. ser. E. 25. Committee submits method of determining earth pressures based on
Rankine's formula. BoussiNESQ. Actual Lateral Pressure of Earthwork.
443481. v. which latter the author holds to be genera.
v. v. p. p. v. Benjamin. p.
1884.
Sur les Lois de la Distribution Plane des Pressions a I'ln1874.)
BovBY.
ed. pressures on bracing and shor
Carter. Earth Pressure. Emphasizes throughout the presence in earth of
cohesion as well as of friction. Cohesion and the Plane of Rupture in Retaining Wall Theory. MacquornRankine pour le Calcul des Pressions Exerc. une Surface Cylindrique k Generatrices Horizontales. Sur la Pouss6e d'une Masse de Sable. 593594. {Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de TAcaddmie des Sciences. 7576. J.)
BoussiNESQ. Comparative Sections of Thirty RetainingWalls. Note sur la Mfithode de M. 5961. v. p. slides.
98." p. 799. 67. etc. 86. BoussiNESQ.)
Computes
{Engineenng1910. terieur des Corps Isotropes dans I'Etat d'Equilibre Limite. and of bins.
Critical review. 98. &. p. et qui est Inddfini de Tous les Autres C6t6s. 169187. {Engineering News.) Takes
porter. 5. p. Louis.) Criticism of
Kankine's theory of earth pressure. 667670. Cain.
835
p. 1916. Gives special attention to coherent and of earth thrust.
V.) Letter to editor discussing Hirschthal's article " Some Contradictory Retaining
Wall Results/' Engineering News. v. 78.
Cain. but without ReCalculations FOR Retaining Walls.) BoussiNESQ.
V.
all
factors into consideration. Bursting Pressure of an Earth Fill.
J. v. 1912. 287 p.
"Angles
of repose of various earths. a Surface Superieure Horizontale. p. v. 720723. Contre une Parol Verticale ou Inclinde.
wall in St.
Sur
le
Coulomb dans
la
Principe du Prisme de plus grande Poussee Posd par Thdorie de I'Equilibre Limite des Terres.
Engineering Cain. p.
Contracting. p. v. 1880.ees aux Divers Points d'un Massif Pesant que Limite. and
. 3. Retaining Walls. 901904.
259
J. made up of Uttle grains. Contre une Parol Verticale dans le Voisinage de Laquelle son Angle de Frottement Interieur est Suppose Croitre Legerement d'apres une Certaine Loi. Surface Superifiure Horizontale. William. 1884. 68. 109. 1911. Retaining Walls and Bins.
Carter. p. 975978. Frank H. WiLLiAii. Henry T. p. William. Frank H. 992.
J.)
1900. 1 diag. 8. 7678. {Van Nostrand's Magazine. 1874.)
BoussiNESQ. J.
Includes section on earthwork and retaining walls.
ing for well underdrained excavations in virgin soil. Contains chapters on the theory of earth friction and cohesion.
{Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de I'Acaddmie des Sciences. 34. 98. earth pressure. v. p.
Bracing and Sheeting Trenches. V. {Architect and Contract 4344. noncoherent earths.
wind
pressure. du C6t6 Sup6rieur. 265277.
Theory
of Structures
and Strength
of Materials. 8587. Sur la Poussee d'une Masse de Sable." tance to sliding over each other called friction. Wiley. (Annales des Fonts et Chaussees. 1912. 22. 109110.) Considers "the earth as a homogeneous resisand incompressible mass. 1884. 757759. {Engineering News.SPECIFICATIONS
BotJSsiNESQ. p. {Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires de? Seances de rAcademie des Sciences. ser. Editorial discussing the causes of failure of a retaining p. possessing the cohesion. 9697. v. 67. v. {Comptes Rendu? Hehdomadairet^ des Stances de rAcademie des Sciences.
161172. Casimik. E. so that the points of interest may be discussed without resorting to mathematics. {Ahhandlungen der Konig
. A Textbook for 160 p. V. 19. p. 1874.
{Van Nostrand's Engineering Magazine. (Annales des Fonts et Chaussees.
Couplet. 8.
Cramer.)
Condensed. {Transactions. 68. D. 1879. 1887. 173195. Zur Statik unfester Korper. Coh^rents ou sans Cohesion. Professional Memoirs. 81. 28. Note sur la Pouss^e des Terres. 6. {Hisioire de I'Acad^mie Royale des Sciences. Frankhn Inst.)
Die Gleitflache des Erddruckprismas und der Erddruck gegen 4 diag. ser.. De la Pouss^e des Terres Centre leurs Revestemens et la Force des Revestemens qu'on Leur Doit Opposer.) Develops a method of graphical determination of thickness
of retaining walls. 64diag. Soc. {Journal. 106108. Etude Sp6ciale des Murs de Soutenement et de Barrages.
M6moire
Mouvements. E. of wood blocks and filling composed of oats and peas.
v.
et
Chaussees.
p. p.) Discussion.
p. Determination Graphique de I'Epaisseur des Murs de Soutenement. p.1 CoENiSH. V.
made
1873. 1850. 8 pi.
la
Rupture des
Massifs en G6n&al.
ser. v. Treats of lateral pressure of saturated soils in connection with the design of retaining walls.
Retaining Walls in Theory and Practice. Am. v.. 29. Design and construction. 1910. 1456. ser. v.
l'Aoad6mie des Sciences.
v.
Wall Design and the Lateral Pres(United States Corps of Engineers.
Cornish. Avoids advanced
1870.
375377. 317322. E. 30.
6775. 3 diag.
CotJSiNBRT. {Zeitschriftfur Bauwesen. p. 1873. T. p. 95. Endeavors to show graphically the results
:
obtained in actual wall design by the use of the different formulas (principally those of Rankine and Cain) and by values obtained in certain experiments. p. v. p. Discusses theoretical earth pressures.
Shows how to apply the theory
of earth pressure
in connection with this graphical construction.
593683. 1 pi.. D. 202221. Retaining Walls An Attempt to Reconcile Theory with Practice. p. p. 2. Presents considerable mathematical data on the treatment of saturated soil in such design work. Quelques Considerations sur la Pouss(5e des Terres. 167184. les
Clavenad. E.29
Crelle. 13. CoNSiDERE. Soc. v. 3. {Annates des Fonts et Chauss6es. (Annales des Fonts Extension of Levy's theory of See Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de
4. Am.) Discussion. Earth Pressures A Practical Comparison of Theories and Experiments. v.260
RETAINING WALLS
Some Notes on Retaining Wall
64. 106164. p. 1841.)
using walls
Abstract. p.
p. 521526.
8. v. {Transactions. An dem Beispiele des Drucks der Srde auf Futtermauern. p.)
earthpressure. 17261728. C. 113138. 1 pi. 1916. 2.)
Coleman. 191201.
geneigte Stutzwande. Design.
Students.)
[Engineering News.v.
sur la Stability.
:
Constable. p.
547594.
mathematics where possible.
1916.
132141. 1909.
Gives results of a number of experiments with models. C. giving formulas. v. L. v. L.
Fallacies in Retaining
sure of Saturated Earth.
)
Diagram was {Engineering News. 491518. 1906. p. L. v. R6{Anponse aux Objections. i5.
Trois Notes sur la Th^orie de la Pouss^e des Terres. {Z&itschrift fiir Bauwesen. 1873.) To be found in section " Mathematische Abhandlungen.
Curie.
{Zeitschriftfilr
. 1 diag.
V. v. p. {Zeitschnftfur mauern.) Curie. constructed by Charles H. p. v. 490.)
Curie. {Annales des Fonts ei Chaussees.)
Duncan. 65. {Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Stances de rAoad(5mie des
Theoretical paper. 5.
{Revue Generate de
Architecture
des Travaux Fublics." CuNO. 41. 3. v. J. 778781. 188b. 67. Note sur la Brochure de M. history of the subject. p. Hoyt. Die Steinpackungen und Futtermauern der RheinNaheEisenbahn. p.)
pamphlet.. p. 389392. 1873.
Sur la PoussSe des Terres et la Stability des Murs de Revetments.)
J. C. 11. 1875. Paris.)
L6vy. 108. J.
Sciences. v. pi. v. p. 55. Short review of Curie's nates des Fonts et Chaussees. v. 243. 142146. 1 diag. 6.36. 77. ser. Sur la Th6orie de la Pouss6e des Terres. 558592..
Daly Cesar. v.SPECIFICATIONS
lichen
261
Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. Futterder Lage der Stutzlinie Bestimmung Analytische DYRSSEN. Disaccord J. Sur le D&accord qui Existe entre I'Ancienne Th^orie de la Pouss6e des Terres et I'Experience. 57.
77. p. Nouvelles Experiences. p. 101106^) Bauwesen. 1871." 9 diag. v.) 1891.
for Earth Diagram for Overturning Moments on Retaining Walls
or Water. p. Bois A J Upon a New Theory Gives a concise Inst. 1873. {Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Stances de I'AoadiSmie des Sciences. 1879 in detail Weyrauch's theory. 1 vorrichtung. 34.
Curie.
et
1859. p. v. Benjamin Baker Intitulee: "The Actual Lateral Pressure of Earthwork.
of Proceedings. 4 diag. 15791582. ser.) Franklin {Journal.) 1907. Stvitzwunde angeDoNATH Ad. Inst. 460.
l' pi. 1882.
1868. 366369. Futtermauerquerschnitten.)
Curie. Untersuchungen uber den Erddruck auf Versuchserbauten Berlin in Hochschule Technische stellt mit der fiir die {Zeitschriftfilr Bauwesen. p. p. 17. 6197. p.) {Engineering ment. entre I'Ancienne Thfiorie et I'Experience. p.
Sur la Th^orie de la Pouss6e des Terres. 386.
tes
J. 1 diag. E. GauthierVillars. v. Critical review of the theories advanced by Maurice p. J. Lindsay. p. 76. v. Dyrssen. v. 1885. v. of the Retaining Wall. Reply to SaintVenant's criticism in same volume.)
Curie. v. {CompRendus Hebdomadaires des Stances de I'AcadSmie des Sciences. 361387.
Curie. 613626.
Nouvelles Exp(§riences Relatives k la Th6orie de la Poussde des Terras. 140. {Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Stances de I'Acadlmie des Sciences.
Mur
de SoutSnment de
l'
la Terrasse
du Chateau de Meudon. 9.) Criticism of Baker's paper
in
Mmutes
J. {Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Stances de I'Acad^mie des Sciences. v. 72.
1861. Ermittlung von Bauwesen. 14 diag. 11 diag. 12161218. L.
m
. and develops
Du
Plumbing a Leaning Retaining Wall and Bridge AbutNews. 1873.
v. 71 and 72.
dr.
Geometrische ErddruckTheorie. p.
Godfrey. 1880. 3. Inst. 127130.
Pubhes par la Soci6t6 des Ing^nieurs {Annates des 1883. v. a. la Poussee des Terres. Gives series of conclusions..)
Eddy.) Considers earth Pressure. pour les Besains de la Pratique. v. p.
1
ill. J..
Design
Reinforced
Concrete Retaining Walls.)
"Lateral Earth Pressure. 402403. 21. Experimentally determines ratio of lateral to vertical pressure. {Zeitschrift far
{Annates des Fonts et Chaussees. Edward.
Soc. 99. p.
Considers lateral pres{Engineering News. C. 1882. v.. ser. C.)
Determination Precise de la Stability des Murs de Soutfenement {Annates des Fonts et 1883. {Annales des Fonts et Chaussees. Inst. Flamant.
{Transactions. 510. A. Bestimmung der Starke geneigter Stutz und Futtermauern mit Riicksicht auf die Incoharenz ihrer Masse. 140.
Flamant. 6. angles of repose. Tables Numeriques pour
le
Calcul de la Pouss6e des Terres. 192193. et de
v. Fr. schrift fur Bauwesen.)
Inst.
1911 {Canadian EngiTreatise on Retaining Wall Design. 6. and necessary calculations. 237. p. 460
. p. 4. Poussee des Terres. 56. A.) Expounds Rankine's
Flamant.
Contains section on
{Zeitschrift
Enqesser.262
Dyrssen. 17.
RETAINING WALLS
Ermittlung von Futtermauerquerschnitten mit gebogener (Zeit1886. v. p. Points out some faults in Rankine's Chaussees. v. v. 305321. 36.
{Annates des Fonts Pouss6e des Terres. ser.. 11511153. 71 diag. Ernest P.
by Boussinesq Gives many and based on the experiments of Darwin in England and Gobin in France. 3 diag. and gives various applications
of
and
results of experiments.
Flamant. 1872. E. {Minutes of Proceedings. Gaudard's and Boussinesq's papers in Minutes of Proceedings.
theory. E. 6.
in
Minutes of Froceedings. Henry T.) Flamant.)
torial. 633634.
fur
Everest.
R6sum6
d' Articles
Civils de
Londres sur
la
V. E. p.
Bauwesen. A. p. 98231.
J.
1885. 30.
1877. p. 53.
neer.
Am.. p. 1 pi. C. 6. See also edi
Abstract. v. 477532. 1904.
2 diag.
H. 264265.)
—
Bauwesen. p. 189210. Lateral Earth Pressures and Related Phenomena.
Gobin. tables of constants for the relations derived
5155'tO.
New Constructions in Graphical Statistics. 49. v. A. A. 110. Fonts et ChaussSs.
9. C. p.
451.
weights of materials.)
theory.
et
Note sur
la
Chaussees. develops his
own
theory. 158. p. ser. Glauber. v.) sure of different materials. slope. Mostly a review of Baker's paper 616624. 30.
6. 1884." p. p. ser.
Formules Simples et trfes Approch6es de la Pouss6e des Terres. v. 65. V. 242275..) "Retaining Walls and Abutments. Goodrich. v.
Discussion. v. ser." Engineering Record. p.
44 diag. v. Note sur la Poussde des Terres.) Review of Darwin's.
{Van
Nostrand's Engineering Magazine. 3
272304. G. 5. p. {Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Stances de I'Academie des Sciences.
1906.)
1880. Oder gebroohener vorderer Begrenzungslinie. L. p.
etc.
1904. E. 6372.
p. 1909. 7.) Retaining Walls. C. C. {Engineering News. p. 1877. and a Part of the Retaining Wall of the Euston {Minutes of Incline.
233256. p. 25. v. London and Birmingham Railway. 53. 1907. 3. 465466. C. Graphic Methods of Determining the Pressure of Earth on {Builder. p. 27 diag.) Condensed. 16. Railroad
Structures.
4.
ed. Constructions Diverses pour Determiner la Poussfie des Terres sur
un Mur de Soutenement. E. Retaining Walls. Walls. Franklin Inst. 5 diag..
Proceedings. as developed by Levy. p. v. Construction. v. 67. p. 1 diag. E. p.
HosKiNG. Engineering News. 478479. 3. Note sur la Determination Graphique de la Pouss^e des Terres. v. Engineering Magazine." Takes up design. v.
7. 4. Albert.
Hughes. See also Cain. 421422. v. Illustrated with Examples from Practice. High Reinforced Concrete Retaining Wall Construction at Seattle. ser. 9.Walls for Earth. {Engineering News. 28. Railroad
Railroad Location. 4 ill. Sherman. 1845.) HiRSCHTHAL. Kirk. 14 dr. v. 799800. v. 99120. 6.) Reprint.)
Develops a general graphical solution apphcable
to a load of any character. or Other Uncertain Soils.
On
Deep Cuttings
the Introduction of Constructions to Retain the Sides of in Clays. Some Contradictory Retaining Wall Results. of author's original essay on "Practical Designing of Retaining Considerable attention to earth pressure. {Van Nostrand's Engineering Magazine. with a Short Treatise on Foundations.
8. 67. p. and others.
{Beton und Eisen. E. 2 diag. 1883. v.
1912. 463472. 1846. with a few emendations.) Howe. Malvbrd A. 1117. HisELY. v. F.) Methods of design. 1905. p. London. {Journal. Track Work. 1844. and London and Birmingham Railways. p. 34B. Sherman.]
(Inter
national Library of Technology. 13 diag.)
Theoretical discussion.
{Annates des Fonts
et
Chaussees.)
Kleitz. M. Inst.
167
p.
Determination de la Poussfe des Terres et Etablissement des Murs de Soutenement. {VanNoslrand's Engineering Magazine. 7379. ser. P. p. v.SPECIFICATIONS
Gould. v. 17.
(Annates des Ponte e< C/ia«ssees. 262264..
1899. {Building News. p.
. 899912. p. v.
7886. Gould.) Gives the theory of J. Including the Theory of Earthpressure as Developed from the Ellipse of Stress. Graff.) Letter to editor reviewing some accepted formulas of earth pressure on retaining walls.
V. Wash. E. Consid^re.
{Minutes of Proceedings. 77.
384387. R. 2. Thomas.) 1882. Klein.
V. 355372. 992. ser. 233235. ^1873. 204207. Jacob. 194204. 1884. 41.) and design of retaining walls.
263
Retaining Walls. On Retaining Walls.
Includes section on theory
{Van Nostrand's 1873. p.. p. {Annates des Fonts et Chaussees. v.) Jacquier. Bases his graphical construction on Rankine's theory. Die Form der Winkelstutzmauern aus Eisenbeton mit Ruoksioht auf Bodendruck und Reibung in der Fundamentfuge.)
International Correspondence Schools. Description of the Method Employed for Draining some Banks of Cuttings on the London and Croydon. p.
Dubosque.
[473
p. Arthur. Inst. Retaining. 1899.
1844. p. 2. 1 pi. Graphische Bestimmung des Erddruckes an eine ebene mit Riicksicht auf die Cohasion des Erdreiches. v. (Annales des Fonts et Chaussies. 20. C.) L'EvBiLLE. 441471. aux Murs de SoutenSment et de Reservoirs d'Eau. p.
J. v. 232265. 1888. Nouvelles Formules pour le Calcul de ces Murs. E. ser. 1869. 49. LaFont.) Gives calculations for ejirth pressure of level surfaces on
vertical retaining walls. 1904. 4.
Oesterreichischen Ingenieurund ArchitektenVereines. 2 pi. but it does not possess as great a potential factor of safety as a monolithic wall. 1870. (Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Stances de I'Acadfimie des Sciences.
31.
(Zeitschrift." by Ernest P. De I'Emploi des Contreforts. v.) Derives formulas for proper
. Walter S. (JourExperiments gave the nal. p.
RETAINING WALLS
Wand
p.
Abstract translation.)
Consolidation of treacherous slopes
in
heavy cuts by means
of rubble spurs perpendicular to face of slopes. H. p. 1881. Note sur la Repartition des Pressions dans les Murs de Souten^ment et de R&ervoirs. 16. 380462.
F. A. 466468. (Annales des Fonts et Chaussees.
1883. ser.
199203. p.) Editorial comment on "Lateral Earth Pressure and Related Phenomena. C.
Mahan. 12. 8 diag. p. but is open to
the
same objections
as the block wall. p. v. 68. E.. Note sur la Poussfie des Terres Avec ou Sans Surcharges.)
Krantz. ser. (3. 116120. 14561458. 1866.)
1882. Note sur la Consolidation des Terrassements du Chemin de Fer de Gien a Auxerre. Domergue. Translated from the French by
64
p. 397400. 68. (Annales des Fonts
et
Chaussees. 15. 2 v. Essai sur une Th6orie Rationnelle de I'Equilibre des Terres Fratchement RemuiSes et ses Applications au Calcul de la Stabilit6 des Murs de Soutenement. of Engrs. Lethieh and Jozan. 336
Lateral Earth Pressure. de.. Suivant leurs Profils. Retaining Walls on Soft Foundations.
Levy.
(Minutes of Froceedings. v.
518. v. (Annales des Fonts et Chaussees. p. 1 pi. v.
design.264
Klbmperer. 1868. (Annales des Fonts et Chaussees.
Mfimoire sur la Poussfie des Terres et sur les Dimensions k Donner. (2) the heavy batter mass waU is economical. Maurice. Goodrich. 208232. 1889. p.. de. Inst.
LaPont.. 2 dr.) Gives in tabulated form experiments performed and constants arrived at by Aud6.
6. de. (4) the mass wall on piles gives maximum security.
Lachbr. Inst. (Engineering Record. and may be constructed in several stages. but occupies considerable space
before fUling and may thus interfere with use of tracks. v.) following conclusions as to types of walls and their advantages: (1) The block wall is economical.)
Lagrene. and SaintGuilhem. ser. Western Soo. 633634. 7. the cellular wall offers great
resistance to overturning or sliding. p.
Study on Reservoir Walls. but is expensive and may givd trouble because of damage to adjacent buildings on insecure foundations. v. (Miniaes of Froceedings. ser. 95. p.) Develops
. 6. 1915. v.
B. 4.
337.
Abstract.
Retaining Walls.
for
J.)
MoHLER.
1912.
its
265
application in design of retain
grands Murs de Souttaement de la Ligne de 2 pi.)
Abstract." p. 13. 58.
197199. {Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Stances de I'Academie des Review of the author's 270page essay Sciences. "Literatur. p. and basis of this theory deduces analytical relations. 19. C. p.
and
letter
Mehriman. 13 dr. Engineering Record.) Discussion.
1907. E. M6moir6 sur la Stabilite des RevStements et de leurs Fondations. 10 diag.
Erddruck auf Stutzmauern. See also Record.
and
calculates design
Design of Retaining Walls. 220. 123. 56. J. p. S.
Western Soc.SPECIFICATIONS
a theory of earth pressure."
to editor.
Bracing of Trenches and Tunnels. Mistaken Ideas with Reference to the Resultant Force and the Maximum Pressure in Retaining Wall Calculations. v. p. {Transactions. Earthpressures on Retaining Walls. Pichault. 210266.
1
ill.
published in Memorial de I'Officier du Genie.
C.
Mebm. 2. v. v. S. p.
les
Notice sur
Mazamet a BMarieux. p. G.
A. {Engineering Diagrams are given. No.
MullerBeeslatj. pt. Contains a thorough discussion of the theory of the lateral pressure of sand and loose earth. Mathematical treatment of
Poncelet.. Failures.
Tables for the Determination of Earth Pressures on Retaining Walls. 757769.
Leygije. E. ser.) Considerable attention is given to design.
{Mimoires et Compte Rendu des Travaux charges Quelconques. 641643. v. C.
of retaining walls. p.
earth pressures on retaining walls.)
Discusses foundation mathematically.
Author
is
an able
. p.. p.
3 dr. p. 588589. 24100.
soil
Pearl.. London. Graphic Determination of Pressures on Retaining Walls.)
p.
J.) letter by C. with Practical Formulas
2 diag. 1908. 134140. 5 ill. 122 p. 777778. 528. Calcul des Murs de Soutenement des Terres en Cas de Sur
Petterson.) 1909.
435^36. (Annales des Fonts et Chaussees. and shows ing walls. 1898. de la Society des Ing^nieurs Civils de France. 1893.
Earth Pressures. v. 66. 1903. 60.
171. Maconchy.) C. 113172. C. 54 dr. supporter of Coulomb's theorv. 1840. E.. Develops a theory of earth pressure. 98114.) Bibliography. 608. 62. 256257. Textbook on Retaining Walls and Masonry Dams. 56. 484^185. 1887. Harold A. 1906. 1899. James Warren.
See also editorial 'JSheet Piling and Earth Pressure. p. {Engineering News. {Engineenng..
{Journal. 57. 264266.) Gives simple method for calculating overturning moments. Am. 844846. V.
v.
of Engrs. K. v. 1908. Theories and Safety
Factors. p.. 158159. 113.
{Minutes of Proceedings. D. Inst. v...
1908.
{Feilden's Magazine. Heinrich.
9. 159 p. MoFFBT. Day. {The Engineer.. and a full description of
the author's extensive experiments. v. 6. Soc. v. 5 ill. p. Mansfield.
Main. 4:MiQ6. V.)
11. 1899.
{Engineering Record.
13.
1914. p. p.
Abstract.
p.
1914. 387. 34.
1. 63. PuRVER. of Western Pennsylvania. for students rather than professional engineers. S.
19031910. Graphical methods are given for solving problems concerning the slopes of earth embankments. U. 115117. the lateral pressure of earth. {EngineeringContracting. H. 73. George M. and defends the socalled rational 241. V. Graphical Determination of Earth Slopes. 34. Chaelbs. de Moseley.) Includes "Tables for Allowable Pressure.
Rbsal. 211.)
und ArchitektenVereines. 1910.
RETAINING WALLS
1840. v. v. 1910. 386417.l deals entirely with soils lacking cohesion. p. Theorie des Erddruckes und der Futtermauern mit besonderer Rticksioht auf das Bauwesen. Theorie des Erddrucks. Formulas for the Design of Gravity Retaining Walls.) From Professional Memoirs. p. pt. First District.
Mathematical calculations. {Proceedings.
2 v.
(Enzyklopadie des
Travaux
Stability des
Theorie des Terres Coh&entes.'' p." Ramisch. {EngineeringContracting. v. 323425. 42.)
—
Murs de Soutenement. and the thickness of retaining walls and
Design of Retaining Walls. Comparaison de ses Evaluations au Moyen de la Consid6ration Rationnelle de I'Equilibrelimite.
V. db. " Vorlesungen iiber Static der Baukonstructionen und Festigkeitslehre. Army. 894897. W. 1871." 1910. PoussiSe des Terres. Oesterp. Charles M.)
Pbelini. Adapted from Georg Christoph Mehrtens. SaintVenant. p.
{Revue Oenerale
de
V Architecture
et
des
Travaux
p. Tables Num&iques. Examen d'un Essai de Th6orie de la Pouss6e des Terres Contre les Murs Destines k les Soutenir. 4. 581585.
233240.
—
. p.) theory developed by Levy.
dams. 23. 2. Applications. 316354. {Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des S(5ances de I'Acaddmie des Sciences.
Publics.
Oesterreichischen Ingenieurv. of Rebhann's book. Corps of Engineers. 1. City of Pittsburgh. p. (Enzyklopadie der Mathematischen Wissenschaften. v. v.266
Abstract. Retaining Walls and Dams. Purely theoretical work on earth pressures as affecting the design of structures. Neue Versuche zur Bestimmung des Erddrucks. 70. Baldermann. SaintVenant. Rbbhann. 234Criticizes Curie's theory. de. p. 355367. Reppert. Soc.)
v. p. published in 1870 in Vienna by
Carl Gerold's Son. 26. 1910. Arvid.
Publics. Gbokg. 1870. v. Adopted by the Public Service Convention [Commission?]. by O.
reichischen Ingenieurund ArchitektenVereines.
Pouss6e des Torres. p. 62. H. {EngineeringContracting. 388395. Rose. {Zeitschrift. State of New York.
Reissner.)
Discussion. p. 1908. 129 p. 1873. Recent Retaining Wall Practice. Jean. v. p. {Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Stances de rAcad6mie des Sciences. From the Soil Up: A New Method of Designing. {Zeit^
schrift. v.) Review. 4. and working from that basis.
v. 482483. Elementary treatment. Engrs.
Givesatte ntion to calcu
lation of earth pressures as affecting design. Advocates starting with the bearing capacity of the soil. Reutbrdahl. et au Moyen de I'Emploi du Principe dit de Moindre Resistance.) Considers especially retaining wall design. 1910.) "Literatur. v.
ou Exacte ou d'une Ties Grande Approximation. giving a historical review of the works on earth pressure.
Sheetpiling and Eabth Pebssube. „„. p. Prd3 Juin.
J.
"New
Experiments on the Thrust
p. 1867.
translation. Sur une Evaluation. (Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Stances de I'Acadc^mie des Sciences. p.] of the formula derived fur Bauwesen. de. Oesterreichisohen Ingenieurund Archi1871. 190196. . p. 217235. 336338.
Brief abstract. ArchitektenVereines. et ses Applications au Calcul de la Stabilitd des Murs de Soutfenement. {Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de I'Acad^mie des Sciences.
972497^5. v.SPECIFICATIONS
SaintVenant. 98. (ff
JJe ^f™'. 1 diag. 850852.
Schaffeb. 23.
Condensed
1887 SiNOEK. ^''f 1. 28. 1 pi.. 1884. une Tli6orie Rationnelle d'Equilibre des Terras Fraiohements Remu^es.
le
1870. p.) Discussion by Schwedler at a meeting of the ArchitektenVerein zu Berlin.
SaintVenant. Edu ABD Empirische Formeln zur Bestimmung der Starke der Fut. 1907. 13. of method Gives 198200.
of
Sand.
Contre un Mur ayant une Inclinaison quelconque. et Intitule: Essai sur.
Sohwedleb. 1870.) SaintVenant. p. 32. MAX.
{Zeitschrift 1871. 70. Contre un Mur dont la Face Posterieure a une Inclinaison quelconque.) {Engineering Record. 15 diag. du Sable. p. 1906. v. 281286. Stability of Sea Walls. D. pt. Erddruck und Stiitzwande. v.
{Le Genie Civil. 56."
v. 717724. {Comptes Reiidus Hebdomadaires des Stances de rAcaderaie des Sciences.) Experimental des Fonts et Chaussees. Experiences Nouvelles sur la Poussee method 488505. de.
p.'^te
. 527548. 6. de la Poussee des Terres Sablonneuses Contre un Mur Destine k les Soutenir.) 54. v.)
SaintVenant. {Annates SiEGLER.
"The Bracing
of
Trenches
. Mathematical calculations on the tektenVereines. p. 21. 1870. 1878. de la Poussee qu' Exercent des Terres Depourvues de Cohesion. Maurice Levy. V. de. Reproduit le 21 Juin. ser. 528. and discussing in detail Maurice
Levy's theory." by
C. 50. [Unterschnittene Futtermauern.) ScHMiTT. of earth and their supporting for studying reactions between masses to determine intensity of used was dynamometer Friction walls. p. El 1 diag. p. 229235.
Recherche d'une Deuxifeme Approximation dans le Calcul Rationnel de la Poussee.) News. p.
Development of Levy's theory.)
1906.
267
senU
Rapport sur un Memoire de M.
Refers particularly to paper on
J.
{Zeitschrift.
termauern. {Scientific American Supplement. 34. v.
W. Exerc^e. Fliessende ffinge. 56. Sur une Determination Rationnelle. 280282.)
basis of Rebhann's
tables. par Approximation. 1869.)
'
Ingenieur
und
1902. 3 diag. {Zeitschnft fur Bauwesen. v. design.
Meem. par des Terres non Coh6rentes dont la Surface Superieure s'Eleve en un Talus Plan quelconque Partir du Haut de Cette Face du Mur.) Report of a committee.
and Tunnels. {Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Stances de I'AcadSmie des Sciences
v. p. 70. v. v. 1887. de. 70. Based on Levy's theory.) Based on
Boussinesq's works. v. C. {Engineering Seebek.
Theoretical calculations for retaining walls. 65.
with methods used for retaining embankment. 59
VanNostrand. Franklin Inst.) Concise and simplified account of the theory of earth pressure and its application to the
p. 7 diag.) Ueber Sttitzmauerquerschnitte.
design of retaining walls. On the Pressure of Earth on Revetment Walls. Analysis and Design of a Reinforced Concrete Retaining Wall. 6. and methods
diag. 2. v. E.
(Zeitschrift. {London. London. E. F.]
1870. etc. John D. 9.
119125.)
Letter. Am. p.
1871. a.
Skibinski. p. {Van Nostrand' sC Engineering Magazine.
Sinks. Gobin.
1
Theorie des Erddrucks auf Grund der neueren Versuchen.) Criticism of theories of Coulomb and Rankine. p. 122124. 4.
670.
V. 756757.
1888. Tables for Use in Determining Earth Pressure on Retain{Engineering News. Jambs S. 6577. E.
Winkler. 138. v. Theory of the Actual Earth Pressure and Its Application to Four Particular Cases.
{Zeit
. 93. p. Austria. M. Tate. Gives a graphical construction of his theory.
1873. and Darwin. Beitrag zur Kenntniss des Erddruckes. 37.. p. 189198. 20. 3. F.
1898. 193221. {Journal.
Stiitzmauern.
v. T.) Walmisley. v.
647648. v. p. 1911. gives results of some experiments.) Thornton.
of practical application. Soc.
1904. 20..und Develops his own theory of ArchitektenVereines. An appendix gives a number conditions.
1
pi. Sinks. 182197.) ing Walls. 89. Retaining Walls. v.
1873.
v. Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and 1860.268
RETAINING WALLS
scribes yielding of sides of railway cutting in valley of the Eger.) Abstract of a paper read before the ArchitektenVerein zu Berlin. Vedel. ser. {Engineering News. {The Builder. p.
19 diag. C. Carl.. 676677.
"Literatur. 313318. 1 diag. v. J. 1894. v.
od. Rebhann. p.
p. Surcharged and Different Forms of Retaining Walls.. Retaining Walls. 45. F. Design for Reinforced Concrete Retaining Wall. Mathematical calculation.
Van BuREN. Karl.) 1905. Quay and Other Retaining Walls. foundations. Jr. {Transactions. support of his own views. v. 481494. 3. {Zeitschrift.)
Critical review of the salient points of the earth
In pressure theory as developed by Coulomb.
(Handbuch der Architektur. Weston. Oesterreichischen Ingenieur.) earth pressure based on the experimental work of Forchheimer. pt. 1885. 4 dr.
Spillnek. F.
[Die Theorie des Erddrucks.
Neue Theorie des Erddruckes. p.
2 diag." p.
{Zeitschrift
fur Bauwesen. 37. p. v.
666
Skibinski. 139148.. E. 489499.
{Zeitschrift.)
Discusses calculations of earth pressure.. 6 diag. 53. Sylvester. 1907.
Oesterreichischen Ingenieur
und ArchitektenVereines. v.
of mathematical relations. J.
Oesterreichischen Ingenieur
und ArchitektenVereines.)
Strukel. 1904. Journal of Science. v. 1879. 1872.) Establishes practical
formulas for the dimensions of walls of various shapes and under various Follows Coulomb's theory. W. p. p. {Railroad Gazette. 196. p.
Wbingartbn. and others. p. 20.
40. William M. (Van Nostrand's Engineering Magazine.
1 diag.
)
Woodbury. D.
P. 175177. Franklin Inst.
269
v.) Mathematical paper. 23. (Journal. and Dimensions of Revetments.
1859. v.)
. 1. 7989.. P.SPECIFICATIONS
schrift. 117122. 17. p. Remarks on Barlow's Investigation of "the Pressure of Banks. 1 diag.
Oesterreicliischen Ingenieur
und ArchitektenVereines." 2 diag. v. {Mathematical Monthly. 1845. D. On the Horizontal Thrust of Embankments.
p. 40. WooDBTTRT. p.
.
120.. 215 Center of gravity. 200
fineness modulus. 213 methods..INDEX
Numbers
refer to pages
Bullet. 99 modification of coulomb theory. building. 143
H. general theory. 156 types of. 3.
E. effect on concrete
strength. 197
Cyclopean.
crete. 41.
concrete strength. 91
•
200
Portland. 209
materials. 202. 140 settlement cracks. see Adhesion. 3.
Wm. waterproofing. 201
.
A. 77. 90 compressive strength. 240
B
Baker. fine to coarse. 188
methods
271
of proportioning. 216 Abutments. Boussinesq. 1
Bureau
of
Standards. C. 31 Box sections. concrete stress. 89 Aggregates. 214
ratio. 232 Bond.. 200
construction. D. cohesion.
Concrete. 128 highway. 28
Calcium
chloride. face treatment. 5
heating. 18 Bars. 208
Bracing.
effect
on concrete strength. 175
Cain. Soc. 132
problems. 130 Adhesion. 23 Bernoulli. 19
factor of safety. 199
201. 52 Cofferdam. 132 problem. walls. 202. 210
distributing. J. Sir Benjamin. Special Committee on Soil. 232
Cement. 65
proportions.
allowable stresses. E. 20. 10
Clay. see Rods. 132 Board marks. cohesion.
vertical. 2. 20 Colors. 214
proportions. 8. pressures on. 63
Asphalt. 31 Cohesion...
surcharge. 57
footing of counterfort wall.
CodeS.
212
standard abutment sections. 22 experimental data. 52
Am. Bearing. 50
failures. 216
Cableway. 214
specifications. 219
213
Architectural treatment. 257
Bilger.
hardening
con
surface area. reinforced concrete. 90 Belidor. 211
revetment
226
wall. as a foundation.
Report on
Abrams. 2 Bell. acceleration of
set. 85
Bibliography. theory of flexure. 235
Concrete.
162
permissible bearing.
Arm.
trapezoid.
197. 3 Enger. cableway. 249 rubble walls. 193 Foundation. 170 pneumatic.
101
economical spacing.
Couplet. 1
Factor of safety. 189 on curves. 124
timber. 93 Forms. pressures. Am. 150 Counterfort walls.
permissible in wall survey. 5
see also Fill. Sand. 36
theories. 96. 7 Coping. 2
2.
Error. Clay. 18
F
Face treatment. 248 labor. 84 Failures. 181. 50. 108 Edwards.
242
Euler. 129
Cribbing. 57. 231
Counterfort. 126
52
specifications for concrete. 107 economic comparison with
walls. 194 patent.. 4 sea walls.
Eddy. C. method of surface area. see also Aggregates.. 202. history problems. 67 see also. 226
Curves. bounded by two
walls. 85
Experimental data. counterfort wall. effect upon abut
ment.
rolled in layers. 210 Conjugate pressures. 31
EquiKbrium polygon. Frame. 160 Fill. 173 water content. 49 problems. 187 blaw. theory of flexure. 98 design of reinforced concrete. 238
E
Earth pressure. design
of. Rock. M. 190 lines and grades. 170
concrete. wall. 170. rubble walls. erecting. experiments on transmitted pressure. 171.
Soc. 170
tower. L. W.
design. 232
Cost data. 132 Friction.
soil. 85
Report Tests Bureau of Standards. 243
D
Details. 5
of theory. between wall and earth. 5. 35 Fineness modulus. 44
G
Grades.
Reinforced concrete. 183 proportions..
Report Special Committee. 138
Distributing systems. 219 Embankment. 191 hydraulic pressed steel. 242
Gravel. character of. N. E. 216 Finish. ideal and actual. winter. 172
Drainage. 8.
11
Crane. 48
in
wall
also
Aggregates. 124
Crum. 181. 56. 188 traveling.. permissible flattening. 199
see
Empiric design. R. 203 Concreting. 195 reuse. stresses in rigid. Piles.272
Concrete. theory of plates. 48. 229
trains. 187 stripping. Architectural treatment. 214
INDEX
Embankment. 147
"T"
Coulomb. Footing. see Face treatment. 19 between wall and foundation. 3. use
Cement. 170 spouting. L. 216
. Prof. 189 problem in. concrete. 244 oiling. wall..
31
Godfrey.. 208 Mohler. 21. 2
127 Isometric drawing. H. Surcharge. 158
Joists..
N
Navier.. 67 stresses.
K
Kelly. overturning. 69
131
proper centering. 77 Plant. transmitted pressure through solids. 137
problems. 249 Lacher. criterion against. M. Mixing. E. 127
Johnson. 227
standard layout.. proper methods. construction. 56 Mixer. A. E.. . E. see Plant. see Purver. center of gravity. 216
Neutral
axis.
Moments.
of
reinforced
con
87
thrust and stability. see Pressure.
Mayniel. Middle third. N. 166
Plaster coat. taining walls of. 227
Interboro Rapid Transit Co. 8.
86
re
New York
Connecting Railroad. K.. forms. rubble wall. Prof. pressure of saturated soils.INDEX
Gravity wall. 52 walls on. M. see Preface. 209
50 problems. 186
Passive stress. 61
273
merits. E. 23 Husted. Keys. 63
direct design. 166
central. 64
types. 44
resistance
crete. C.
C. 97 Goodrich. cellular. 44
expansion. 159.. 179 arrangement. 184 Levy. 159
Overturning. G.
forms. 2 Mehrtens. 57 Prof. thrust expression. 157 omission of. A. 165.. 197
233
Offset. 48
table of dimensions.
237
see. 131
Hool. 231
. 32
Howe. factor of safet}. 65
Lagging. 30
13
rubble walls.
New York Con
necting Railroad.
earth
pressure
18
PI
Hand
rail. reinforced concrete. Eastern Parkway Walls. 158
efficiency of.
M
P.
details of.
Hell Gate Arch. 47
Mortar.
Labor. concrete. 207 time of. 58
Joints. Love. gravity wall. 17
wingwall.2 Lines and grades.
tests. 242 Loads. 127 White Plains Road Extension. 23
Piles.
168
concrete. 123 transmission of liveload. concrete. G... F. costs.
192 temperature. 230 Poncelet. 85 Subsurface structures. 104 skeleton outline.
specification. 240
Temperature. criterion against excessive.151
.
thin.
5'!
Pressures. 142 constants.
139
Rankine. 2.
Soils. M. 2 Sand. 35
abutments.
Codes. 223 Rubble. theory of flexure.. 90
counterfort walls.
cellular walls supporting.
51
vertical. base.
124
Stone. counterfort walls. 47
cofferdam. 25 sea walls. bearing. 26
Shrinkage. broken.
Talbot. D.
etc. 242 Sweeny. 46 dry. 257 Rondelet. 3. 155 Shunk. 202. see Cofferdam. abutments. 197 Tar. 131
'
Settlement.. specifications. face. Prof. 2
Sliding. 50
HetchHetchy Railroad..
sea walls. J. specifications. concrete pressure experiments.
5
graphic
thrust
determination. A. 155 supports. 35 Surface area. 187 see also Rods. Building.
Foundations. 89
cellular walls. 88 theory. 136 Surcharge. 152
stresses. 123
Public
Service
Commission. R.
30
215
transmission of
Prior. distribution in large masses. 97
see
Reinforced concrete. Venant. 137 problems. 216
St. 50
see
C. 2 Rubbing.
44
values
see also
of. 155
Shear. 219 Surveying. 49. stone walls. anchoring.
Serber. see Aggregates. 84 Reinforcement. 83 base ratio. G. 84 merits.274
Plates. concrete
pressure
experi
ments. economical. 32
see
>
also
Earth pressure.
2.^
Sallonmeyer. cement. shrinkage. 154
Resal.
Speedway. 31
permissible
soil. 89 see also Reinforcement. reinforced concrete.. 82 see also Aggregates. theory of. 85 walls.
52
plastic. 108
INDEX
Rods.
Robinson. distribution.
Specifications. Purver. 46
Pointing. 79 base pressure.
Shale. 187
Slabs. F.
Fill.
Earth pressure. H. 80 tables. 90 bending. 82 factor of safety. foundation. 52
Rods. 182 Rock.
52
toe.
50
saturated. 182
R
Rangers. see Friction. 5 Reinforced concrete. 101 periphery for adhesion.
38
Pressure. 82 economical width. N.
230 plant. 230
147 stone. 186 Timber. 17 Mohler. 123
Trapezoid. 231 face finish. theory of least. concrete. rod anchorage.
125
relieving arches. 229
sea. 96
. 9.
245
selection
economical type. 229 construction. 125
Tooling. 228 cost. 132
43
counterfort. center of gravity. 176 Track elevation. method of Cain. 91 Water content. 234
Tower. K. 210 Work. 65 rubble coping.
W
Walls.
Vauban. 1 Volumes.
42
Rankine expression. 8
standard form. 122
classes. 59
reinforced concrete walls. computation
of. 125 cellular. 3
revetment. 45 Washers. 11
Winter concreting.
34
also. offset gravity walls. Ashlar.
see
Gravity walls. general. 17
275
Walls. 95
economy of various types. 185 Toe.. C.
123
ties. 8
Trautwine. economic location and height.
Wedge beam.
backstays. safe stresses. 126
hollow
land
cellular. 137 European practice. 10. 15 Tierods. 227 specifications. see Concrete. 14 fluid expression. Reinof
forced concrete walls.INDEX
Thrust. coulomb expression. 42. 97 Wedge of maximum sliding.
.
.
.
.
.
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