Pollution is the Degradation of Natural Environment by External Substances Introduced Directly or Indirectly | Global Warming | Greenhouse Effect

Pollution is the degradation of natural environment by external substances introduced directly or indirectly.

Human health, ecosystem quality and aquatic and terrestrial biodiversity may be affected and altered permanently by pollution. Pollution occurs when ecosystems can not get rid of substances introduced into the environment. The critical threshold of its ability to naturally eliminate substances is compromised and the balance of the ecosystem is broken. The sources of pollution are numerous. The identification of these different pollutants and their effects on ecosystems is complex. They can come from natural disasters or the result of human activity, such as oil spills, chemical spills, nuclear accidents ... These can have terrible consequences on people and the planet where they live: destruction of the biodiversity, increased mortality of the human and animal species, destruction of natural habitat, damage caused to the quality of soil, water and air ... Preventing pollution and protecting the environment necessitate the application of the principles of sustainable development. we have to consider to satisfy the needs of today without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This means that we should remedy existing pollution, but also anticipate and prevent future pollution sources in order to protect the environment and public health. Any environmental damage must be punishable by law, and polluters should pay compensation for the damage caused to the environment.

Comprehension
1. The damage caused by pollution might be irreversible: a. True

b. False 2. The ecosystem a. can always cope with pollutants

b. may not always be able to cope with pollution. 3. Pollution a. is always caused by humans.

b. may sometimes be caused by natural disasters. 4. An ideal solution to prevent pollution would be to a. b. refrain the development of some countries. continue developmental projects.

c. take into consideration the future generations need to live in a healthy environment.

A list of vocabulary items related to the environment:
Important environment issues, natural environmental disasters and other environment vocabulary.

or when people or animals breathe out.acid rain rain which contains large amounts of harmful chemicals as a result of burning substances such as coal and oil. or the problem of preserving and protecting this. desertification the process by which land changes into desert. Deforestation is destroying large areas of tropical rain forest. carbon monoxide the poisonous gas formed by the burning of carbon. the destruction of forests by people. biodegradable able to decay naturally and harmlessly. carbon dioxide the gas formed when carbon is burned. a new National Biological Survey to protect species habitat and biodiversity. The Mediterranean climate is good for growing citrus fruits and grapes. especially in the form of car fuel. climate the general weather conditions usually found in a particular place. deforestation the cutting down of trees in a large area. disposable products describes an item that is intended to be thrown away after use. Biodegradable packaging helps to limit the amount of harmful chemicals released into the atmosphere. climate change there has been a growing concern about climate change. disposable nappies . biodiversity the number and variety of plant and animal species that exist in a particular environmental area or in the world generally.

forests. . This year (a) severe drought has ruined the crops. coal. There are different types of energy: solar. Petrol fumes always make me feel ill. which can do work. The energy generated by the windmill drives all the drainage pumps.drought a long period when there is little or no rain. extinction Many species of plants and animals are in danger of/threatened with extinction (= being destroyed so that they no longer exist) flood a large amount of water covering an area that is usually dry.. energy the power from something such as electricity or oil. nuclear. water and land in or on which people. earthquake a sudden violent movement of the Earth's surface. animals and plants live. which exist in a place and can be used by people. endangered species endangered birds/plants/species animals or plants which may soon not exist because there are very few now alive. sometimes causing great damage. such as providing light and heat. etc. hydroelectric. natural resources things such as minerals.. energy conservation the process of conserving energy environment the air. unpleasant and sometimes dangerous gas or smoke. fumes strong. Certain chemicals have been banned because of their damaging effect on the environment.

by harmful substances or waste.. tsunami . cannot be replaced. such as natural gas and fossil fuel. green peace an organization that fights for the protection of the environment. Scientists believe that there is a hole in the ozone layer. greenhouse effect an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide and other gases in the atmosphere which is believed to be the cause of a gradual warming of the surface of the Earth. air. which contains a lot of ozone.. A large international meeting was held with the aim of promoting sustainable development in all countries. usually because an accident has caused it to escape from a ship or container. renewable energy sources such as wind and wave power oil slick a layer of oil that is floating over a large area of the surface of the sea. sustainable development a development that is causing little or no damage to the environment and therefore able to continue for a long time. pollution damage caused to water. global warming a gradual increase in world temperatures caused by polluting gases such as carbon dioxide which are collecting in the air around the Earth and preventing heat escaping into space. renewable energy describes a form of energy that can be produced as quickly as it is used. and which prevents harmful ultraviolet light from the sun from reaching the Earth.. ozone layer a layer of air high above the Earth.Some natural resources. recycle waste to collect and treat rubbish to produce useful materials which can be used again.

often that which is left after useful substances or parts have been removed. volcanic eruptions. Climate may be inherently variable as evidenced by the irregularity of the seasons from one year to another. In addition. droughts. our climate also has its extremes (such as floods. gases. atmospheric particle count and other meteorological elements in a given region over a long period of time. The green house effect . use up natural resources The degradation of natural resources because of human pressure volcano a mountain with a large circular hole at the top through which lava (= hot liquid rock). in recent decades. hail. steam and dust are or have been forced out. Climate change and global warming Climate change Wikipedia defines climate as follows: Climate encompasses the statistics of temperature. It is related to changes in ocean currents. humidity. a number of indicators and studies show more and more evidence of climate warming across the globe.an extremely large wave caused by movement of the earth under the sea. solar radiation and other components of the climate system. Climate can be contrasted to weather. wind. However. which can be devastating. often caused by an earthquake (= when the Earth shakes) unleaded petrol describes a type of petrol or other substance that does not contain lead. which is the present condition of these same elements and their variations over shorter time periods. A disturbing phenomenon that challenges human habits and activities which are responsible for greenhouse gas emissions. waste unwanted matter or material of any type. This variability is normal and may remain partially understood. tornadoes and hurricanes). rainfall. Erupting volcanoes discharge massive quantities of dust into the stratosphere. atmospheric pressure.

Climate is by definition variable.The greenhouse effect is the process by which absorption and emission of infrared radiation by gases in the atmosphere warm a planet's lower atmosphere and surface. Climate change observed in the last decades is natural. reduced summer stream flows. in addition to melting of land ice. species extinctions. b.000 years. methane. tropospheric ozone. False 3. The concentrations of CO2 and methane have increased by 36% and 148% respectively since 1750. Other consequences are listed below:       Sea levels are rising due to thermal expansion of the ocean. droughts. Over the last three decades of the 20th century. Changes in temperature and precipitation patterns increase the frequency. CFCs (chlorofluorocarbon) and nitrous oxide. Sources: Wikipedia | Time for change Comprehension: 1. duration.4° to 9° Fahrenheit) by the year 2100 and Rise of sea levels by at least 25 meters (82 feet) by the year 2100. the period for which reliable data has been extracted from ice cores. False 2. and tornadoes. True b. Consequences of global warming There are two major effects of global warming: the increase of temperature on the earth by about 3° to 5° C (5. Higher or lower agricultural yields. further glacial retreat. and intensity of other extreme weather events. heat waves. It was proposed by Joseph Fourier in 1824 and was first investigated quantitatively by Svante Arrhenius in 1896. The total annual power of hurricanes has already increased markedly since 1975 because their average intensity and average duration have increased. True False . CO2 emissions are continuing to rise due to the burning of fossil fuels and land-use change. True b. Global warming is caused by industrialization. GDP (Gross Domestic Product) per capita and population growth were the main drivers of increases in greenhouse gas emissions. such as floods. These levels are much higher than at any time during the last 650. Naturally occurring greenhouse gases have a mean warming effect of about 33 °C (59 °F). leading to increased radiative forcing from CO2. a. Amounts and patterns of precipitation are changing. a. Diseases like malaria are returning into areas where they have been extinguished earlier. But Human activity since the Industrial Revolution has increased the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. a.

Greenhouse effects have no impacts on our health.4. b. a. True False .

but you will also contribute to a good cause. 2. Comprehension: 1. 5. Read the following text about how to protect the environment and do the comprehension questions Seven ways to protect the environment We all want to protect our planet. Not only will you protect the environment. If they are still usable. Turn off your devices: When you do not use a house device. turn it off. An average of 120 liters of water can be wasted due to a dripping faucet. Donate: You have tons of clothes or things you want to get rid of. 7. You may also choose to give them to associations.) It's an easy habit to take up which will help you save a lot of money. This list is far from being exhaustive but in addition to saving the environment. all these tips will help you save money. These are 7 simple habits to implement in your everyday life which will make a difference. 1. turn it off. leaky faucets: Watch leaky faucets. Rainwater: Think of recovering rainwater. b. These associations may sell them and collect a little money.Reading Comprehension . ask yourself the following question: do I really need my car? Walk or use your bike if the journey is a short one. 6. If you want to use your car. 4.7 ways to protect the environment Develop your reading skills. but we're mostly too busy or too lazy to put up big change that would improve our lifestyle and save the environment. 3. give them to someone who needs them. There is nothing new here but if you follow at least some of these tips. Use compact fluorescent light bulbs: It is true that these bulbs are more expensive. Detergent: Follow the recommended dose of detergent to wash your clothes or dishes. True False . if you don't watch TV. which can cause a significant increase in the the water bill. Turn off the light when you leave a room (even if you intend to return. For example. you can be proud of yourself participating in the protection of the environment. but they last much longer and they can save energy and in the long term your electricity bill would be reduced. Walk or cycle: Driving is one of the biggest causes of pollution. This water can be used for different purposes. Fluorescent light bulbs waste more energy a.

3. to save money. b. b. give. to save money and protect the environment. take. Donate means: a. c.2. . protect the environment. The 7 tips suggested a.

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