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Educational Research Vol. 1(6) pp.

178-185 July 2010

Available online
Copyright 2010 International Research Journals

Full length Research Paper

Teachers leadership style, classroom variables and
students academic performance in Calabar metropolis,

*Agba, A. M. Ogaboh
, Ikoh IM
, Noah I. Ashibi

Lecturer, Department of Sociology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
Lecturer, Department of Vocational and Business Studies College of Education, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
Student, Department of Educational Foundations, Guidance and Counselling University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria.

Accepted 05 June, 2010

This study examined the influence of teachers leadership style and classroom variables on students
performance in secondary schools in Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria. Three hypotheses
were formulated to guide the study. The sample size was 880 students offering accounting. Students
performance test and questionnaire were used for date collection. The data were analyzed using
Pearson Product Moment Correlation. Findings revealed that, teachers leadership role, teacher-
students relationship, and student-student relationship significantly influence student academic
performance. Based on these findings, improved teacher-student relationship among others was

Key words: Teachers Leadership Style, Classroom Variables, Students Academic Performance


As Nigeria entered the 21st century, considerable
attention is being paid to education as a key to
sustainable development, peace and stability. Such
recognition makes education an indispensable means for
effective participation not only in the socio-economic
development of Nigeria but also in the on-going rapid
globalization (Ikoh, 2007; Agba et al., 2007). The
Nigerian National Policy on Education (NPE, 2004:4)
refers to education as instrument par excellence for
effective national development. It follows therefore that
the realization of national development lies on the
effective implementation of the countrys educational
policies, and the performance of both teachers and
students at all levels of the system.
Despite this truth, records have shown that students
performance in Senior Secondary Certificate of
Examination (SSCE) is quite below average (Ikoh, 2007).

* Corresponding author,
phone: +234 8072727272
This performance is blamed on teachers (Ashibi 2005),
and government inability to effectively sponsor education
and motivate teachers to enhance their productivity
(Agba et al., 2009). It could also be attributed to
classroom variables such as chronic absenteeism, peer
group influence and other environmental problems (Ikoh,
2007). The mixed feelings about the causes of poor
academic performance of our students in primary,
secondary and tertiary institutions make this research
even more imperative. To address this negative trend,
the researchers considered it necessary to explore the
roles that teachers leadership style, classroom variables
such as teacher- learners
interaction and student-student interactive behaviour
could play in that direction. These include:
(i) Teachers leadership role has no significant
relationship with academic performance in account
among senior secondary school students;
(ii) Student-student relationship has no significant
relationship with academic performance in Principle of

(iii) There is no significant relationship between teacher-
students relationship and students academic
performance in Accounting.
It is the researchers opinion that when this done, it will
provide veritable solution to the impending doom facing
the educational sector, thus, leading to the attainment of
sustainable development in our economy.

Study Area

This study was conducted in Calabar Metropolis,
consisting of Calabar South Local Government Area and
Calabar Municipality. Calabar lies between latitude 040
58 North and Longitude 8012 East. Calabar is the capital
of Cross River State. Indigenously, Calabar is called
Obio Efik meaning the land of the Efik people (Charles
and Charles, 2004). Calabar people speak Efik and
Abakpa as the native language and English as a common
language. The major occupations of the people are
fishing; farming, trading, craft work, while a few are civil
and public servants (Ushie et al., 2010).
Calabar has a population of 371,022 with an annual
growth rate of 2.5 per cent (National Population Census,
2006). The city which grows from an ancient slave port to
become the first Nigerias capital between 1901 and 1906
is today the centre of tourism, and other commercial
activities in the country. She is also the home of many
schools including 3 tertiary institutions, and over 24
governments owned post primary schools among which
are the famous University of Calabar and Hope Waddell
Training Institute. The drive for tourism development
attracts thousands of immigrants yearly, thus accelerating
the development of private primary and secondary
schools to cater for the sky- rocketing population of
students in the metropolis. However, the achievement
level of students in these schools like in other parts of the
country is questionable and needs to be explored with the
view for improvement.

Literature Review

Leadership Style of Teachers and Students

The position of teachers in the classroom has been
beautifully captured. Obviously, the teaching-learning
process revolves among the teachers, with him taking the
lead in process (Ashibi 2005). Teachers leadership style
can be classified into autocratic, democratic and laissez
faire. The autocratic leader uses commands on the
students and expects compliance from them. He or she
is dogmatic and positive and uses rewards and
punishment to exact compliance. On the other hand, the
democratic leader employs participatory leadership style.
He or she consults with his or her students and
Agba et al. 179

encourages participation from them. The laissez faire
teacher gives the students high degree of independence
and economizes with the power in his/hers possession
(Koontz, 1983).
The teachers leadership style has wide implications on
classroom management and a great deal of influence on
the student. This is because leadership involves
interpersonal influence exercised on others through
communication process towards the attainment of certain
goal. Leadership entails social influence which effect on
other results in the achievement of common goals (Porter
and Applewhite, 1968; Davis, 1969; Byar and Rue, 1970).
The classroom is compared to industrial organization;
teacher wields some authority over the students just as
the factory manager does on his workers (Jenkins and
Lipitt, 1951). Authority is not without power (Walberg and
Anderson, 1968). The teacher therefore has the power to
take decisions, which influences the students. The
attitude of children could be altered when a change in the
adult leadership of their group was accompanied by a
change in psychological climate. When Walbberg and
Anderson (1968) administered achievement tests on
physics to more than two thousand high school students,
they discovered that students who grew the most in
physics understanding were from physic classes that
were democratically organized with little friction among
the students.
In Cogans (1954:96) study, teachers who exhibited
good rapport with students in the classroom impacted
positively on students' school performances than
teachers who were authoritative and arrogant. According
to him when students undertook self-initiated work, they
are in effect adopting the teachers values as their own.
The self-initiated works performed by the students serve
as an index to the degree of similarly between students
values and those of the teachers. Battle (1958) observed
that, students with high achievement and attitude have
values that resemble those of their teachers.
An authoritative teacher is task-oriented, directive and
distant in his relationships with students. Such a teacher
is the only one who determines what goes on in the
class, makes major plans, and dictates the activities of
the students and their patterns of interactions (Krech and
Crutchfield, 1962; Edem 1979). In such circumstances,
tension and anxiety are often noticed among the
students. Frustrations, argument, outbreaks of
aggression that may result in fighting have been
observed (Ekpe, 1982).
In his analysis of teachers leadership role, Clarizario
(1976) warned against shouting and yelling at students in
the name of maintaining discipline; arguing that, many
students attend class with varying attitude; some
negative and some positive toward specific goals and
purposes. According to Hart, (1969), the teachers role is
to genuinely understand the students in order to
engender positive and favourable attitude change toward
learning. Flander (1965), Fraser and Walberg (1981)
180 Educ. Res.

observed that, teachers who are have been found to be
dominative, have no consideration for individual feelings
of their students.

Teacher-Students Relationship and Students
Academic Performance

Schools exist to prepare students to take their place
socially and vocationally in the society. Achieving this
purpose depends to a great extent on the quality of
interaction between teachers and students. Researches
on teacher-students relationship is quite revealing,
scholars like Anderson and Walberg and Welch (1969),
Ann (1974), Hofstein et al. (1979), observed that,
classroom-learning environment can be made or marred
by the interrelationship among students and their
teachers. The school has the duty to equip the students
with the necessary knowledge and skills for a life in the
adult world. The fulfillment of that duty is a function of
teacher students relationship; this relationship
influence attitude and achievement in any given subject.
The teacher is more influential than anyone else in the
setting of the classroom variables. The teachers
behaviour is the central determinant of students outcome
(Ann, 1974, Bergan and Dunn, 1976).
Classrooms that are characterized by high-pitched
tension where the teacher behave as ringmasters, putting
the students together through their acts with military
precision often result in students needs in the class
being at odds with the group norms as determined by the
teacher (Lindgren 1976). Physical setting, rules,
classroom routine, interpersonal judgment and mode of
communication both verbal and non-verbal are all
deliberate policies and factors which influences the
nature of interaction between students and teachers
(Donaldson and Elias, 1976). Facial expression, gesture
and bodily postures are all important tools that help to
carry meaning implicitly to others and could have either
positive or negative effect on students academic
performance (Allport 1972). Since the instructional
process involves teachers and students, meaningful
learning is therefore achieved when teachers and
students interactions are in harmony (Gronund 1985).
In his longitude-affective analysis, Flander (1965)
maintained that the teacher is paramount in the
instructional process, and thus control the hidden and
manifest curriculum. It is therefore the teachers function
to use all available resources to cause the students to
have proper learning experience. Students regard their
teachers as sources of knowledge and models of
aspirations; thus a healthy teacher-students relationship
is imperative (Porter & Applewhite, 1968).
Elsewhere, Aspy and Roebuck (1972) observed a
significant relationship between teachers positive regard
for students and the students cognitive functioning. As
Meryman (1962) argues, the class is the most powerful

unit of social interaction in the school. Although the
teacher may be subordinate to the school authority
outside the classroom, within the class, the teacher is
super ordinates. The teacher is free to teach as he or
she wishes and to deal with the students in his or her
own ways. They way the teacher conducts himself or
herself influences interaction with the students.
Other illuminating studies on student teacher
relationship are provided by Brophy and Good (1970) and
Rist (1970). Students judged by the teachers to be
potential Fast learners always receive majority of
available teaching time and the bulk of the teachers
supportive behaviour. Based on these findings,
Feshback (1969) argued that teachers treat students
differently, and that students neither get equal classroom
opportunities or the same amount of praise from the
Student Student Relationship and their Academic
Performance Classroom interaction among students has
received considerable attention in the work of Blair et al
(1975). In what they called "misery and maladjustment"
among students, the researchers argued that interactions
among students involve insanity, crime and inefficiency.
This is because peer group in school as elsewhere
comprises same age with short range and temporary
interest. The role members play may be well defined but
changed frequently. If a child moves with a group that is
considerable high in achievements he or she tries to
achieve the height of his or her group and this goes a
long way to influence his or her academic performance
(Bushwell 1963).
The students' attitude could be influenced by positive or
negative attitude of his and her peers. Negative attitudes
often constitute catastrophes that affect the failure of
students to achieve satisfaction in schools group work
(Bushwell 1963). Most students therefore needed the
acceptance of their classmates to be able to become part
of the group. Through such interactions and acceptance,
the students' world views are broadened, he or she
turned from a family view of things to a social view. This
sense of belonging creates affections.
In an earlier work by Walberg and Anderson (1968),
students who excelled in the study of physics reported
that they had close friendly relations with their fellow
students and were not strictly controlled by their teachers.
Lorber (1966) argues that students who are not socially
accepted by co-students tends to display such
undesirable characteristics as showing off, attention
seeking, nervousness, emotional instability and
restlessness. Student-student relationships are therefore
necessary for good school performance, socialization and
health development in terms of values formations,
attitude and students' worldview.
As the child moved away from the parents toward
independence, peer relationship becomes important.
From peers, he or she learns many of the hinges he or
she needs to know to become adult (Bandura 1977).

Although students change their peer-group membership
as they go through different ages of development, poor
student-student relationship is found to be a predictor of
psychological disturbance. Such disturbances are often
associated with high anxiety, low self-esteem and
emotional fears Lorber, 1966). Therefore, Johnson (1981)
maintains that good student-student relationship is a sin-
quo-non-for future psychological health as it provides the
students avenue for inter-dependence and cooperative
Improved social relationships have several advantages.
In Gonlund (1985) argument, it helps to free the student
from emotional tension, enables him or her to
concentrate on assigned tasks, increases the students'
motivation to learn and clarifies and reinforces
classroom-learning experiences. Satisfaction with fellow
classmate engenders high student affiliation in the class.
Classrooms with positive interpersonal relationship are
therefore satisfying (Trickett and Moos, 1973).
Achievement differences among students have been
found to be associated with differences in their social
class (Cronbach 1975).
In the school every student is seen as a member of a
group: How he interacts with his group members
influence his performance. Groups that are considered
high in achievement consist of achieving-students as
their interactions are bound to influence their academic
achievement (Inyang-Abia 2001). Students who succeed
in social relationship with their co-students have been
found to be successful in their schools work (Brembeeks,

Theoretical Consideration

Cognitive development theory

A French-Swiss named Jean Piaget first propounded the
cognitive development theory in 1929 (Oladele 1984).
'This theory deals with age related transition in pattern of
thinking, including reasoning, remembering and problem
solving. It holds the view that the learner has to progress
through different stages of development which is
characterized by distinctive way of thinking. They have to
progress from a state of not knowing to knowing, so as to
develop their mental process by which knowledge is
acquired and utilized.
Piaget views cognitive development as continuous
process of unfolding which passes through a series of
motivational stages or levels: sensorimotor stage,
preoperational stage, concrete operation stage and
formal operation stage. Each stage is characterized by
distinctive way of thinking. Whereas the sensorimotor
stage is characterized by coordination of sensory input
and motor responses as well as development of object
permanence with little or no capacity for symbolic
representation, the preoperational stage signals the
Agba et al. 181

development of symbolic thought, heavy reliance on
initiation with no understanding of conservation or
reversibility. At the concrete operations stage mental
operations applied to concrete objects and events as well
as development of conservations and mastery of
concepts of reversibility concepts of reversibility evolved.
As children move into adolescence, they gradually begin
to apply logical and systematic thinking. This signals the
emergence of formal operation stage.
In a Nigerian school setting, a child in the senior
secondary class is assumed to be within the formal
operational stage in terms of age that is 13-18 years of
age. In this stage a child has moved into adolescence.
He/she gradually begin to apply logical and systematic
thinking. The ability to go beyond physical reality into the
realm of the hypothetical possibility is the hallmark of this
stage of development. They seem to be free from the
bonds of concrete reality and can apply logical skills to
abstract concepts. This means that the learner has to
develop logical skill to every learning situation.
Based on this theory therefore, a teacher of accounting
should be aware of the developmental stage of which
each child is functioning and each child should be taught
only when the child is ready to learn at the present stage
of development. The instructional method employed
should take into consideration the ability and skills
already acquired. The curriculum should be planned in
such a way that it favours the level of cognitive
operations and structures that children have successfully
attained in mind. Teachers should act as guides, working
with the child as he interacts with the environment,
ensuring that the experiences are appropriate for the
developmental stage at which the child is functioning.
Teachers should adopt an authoritarian manner of
discussion with children however bizarre or senseless the
children's argument. That is, the teacher should not
provoke outright hostility through direct confrontation with
children, but should listen patiently, suggest alternative
approaches and points of view.

Gestalt theory of learning

The Gestalt theory was propounded in 1912 by a German
psychologist named Max Wertheimer. This theory argues
that the significance of a situation or pattern of stimuli is
in the total pattern, not in its separate elements. The
theory states that, for learning to take place, the following
must be done:

1. The teacher should start the teaching from known to
2. The Teaching should start from simple to complex.
3. The teaching must be divergent and convergent.
4. The learner should be encouraged to set out goals for
5. The learner's mental capacity must be considered.
182 Educ. Res.

1ab|e 1: Codlng of varlables

kesponse Cpt|on os|t|ve Negat|ve
vSA 6 1
SA 3 2
A 4 3
u 3 4
Su 2 3
vSu 1 6

1ab|e 2: earson's producL momenL correlaLlon beLween 1eachers'
Leadershlp SLyle (x) and Academlc erformance of SLudenLs ln prlnclples
of AccounLlng (?)


xy n df

leadershlp SLyle(x)
941 3443 1832 880 878 0.908*
erformance ln
379 1137

*p<0.03, crlLlcal r=0.088, df=878

6. Time should be allowed for fumbling and unaided
search until the goal is realized.

From the above theory, it could be deduced that Account
teachers should adopt the discovery method. The
learners should be allowed the opportunity to solve their
accounting problems through an intelligent restructuring
of the total situation. The students should be allowed a
chance to perceive the solution to their problem in a
flash. Also a chance for the students to be well organized
in their brain should be created. The student should be
instructed on how to build up meaning or understanding
from their perception of relationship in the entire field and
in handling of complex situation. For this to be achieved,
the instructor must be well qualified and experienced to
be able to adopt an appropriate teaching and leadership
style in the class for an improved performance in the


The research design adopted for this study was survey design. The
researchers selected this design because it allowed for drawing of
inferences (Hart, 1969). Also, this design was opted for because it
involved the collection of data to accurately and objectively describe
existing phenomena. The design also allowed the researchers to
obtain a true picture of the present condition of the particular
phenomena (Denga & Ali, 1998). A sample of 880 Account
Students was selected using stratified random sampling technique
from the 24 public secondary schools in the study area. The
stratification was on the bases of class of study, schools location
and sex of respondents (students).

The instrument used for the study was questionnaire and a simple
accounting achievement test (SAAT). A thirty-nine (39) item
questionnaire constructed by the researcher, collected data from
students on their perception of teachers, leadership styles, teacher-
students relationship and student interactive behaviour. The Simple
Accounting Achievement Test (SAAT) on the other hand assessed
students performance in the school subject. Thus, the four
important variables identified for the instrument are teacher
leadership style, student-student relationship, teachers-student
relationship and academic performance. The Instrument has the
following components:

a) Student-teacher relationship questionnaire (STRQ)
b) Student-student relationship questionnaire (SSRQ)
c) Teacher leadership style questionnaire (TLSQ).

The performance test is a simple objective test question of ten
items in Accounting, based on the syllabus requirement for the
senior secondary school certificate examination. A six-point Likert-
type questionnaire modified from Anderson's (1973) Learning
Environment Inventory (LEI) Trickert and Moos' (1973) Classroom
Environment Scale (CES) and Finalysons' (1970) School Climate
Index (SCI) was used to construct questions for STRQ, SSRQ and
TLSQ. The classroom, conceptualized as the human environment
consists of the relationship dimension, personal development
dimension and the system charge dimension (Moos, 1974). The
learning environment inventory (LEI) is already a popular
measuring tool for classroom climate (Anderson, Walberg & Welch,
1969). The data derived from the questionnaire were coded for the
various response options as shown Table 1.


VSA = Very Strongly Agree
SA = Strongly Agree
A = Agree
D = Disagree
SD = Strongly Disagree
VSD = Very Strongly Disagree.

A positive response to a positive question received a highest score
of 6 for very strongly agree (VSA), while a negative response to a
negative question received a highest mark of 6 for very strongly
disagree (VSD). Other scores followed this arrangement.


Three null propositions guided the study. The results of
the analysis are hereby presented on a hypothesis basis.

Hypothesis One

Teacher Leadership role (TLS) has no significant
relationship with academic performance of students in
accounting among senior secondary school students. To
test this hypothesis, Pearson product moment correlation
was used.
The result is presented in Table 2. From Table 2, it is
observed that academic performance of students in
accounting among secondary schools student in Calabar
Metropolis has a significant positive relationship with
teachers' leadership style (r-cal = 0.908;df. =878, P< .05).

1ab|e 3: earson's producL momenL correlaLlon beLween SLudenL-sLudenL
relaLlonshlp (x) and Academlc erformance of SLudenLs ln AccounLlng (?)


xy n df r-ca|
880 878 0.988*
erformance ln

*p<0.03, crlLlcal r=0,988, df=878

1ab|e 4: earson's producL momenL correlaLlon beLween 1eacher-sLudenL
relaLlonshlp (x) and Academlc performance of sLudenLs ln AccounLlng (?)


xy n df r-ca|
relaLlonshlp (x)
361 1809 1676 880 878 0.988*
erformance ln
accounLlng (?)
331 1389

*p<0.03, crlLlcal r=0.088, df=878

Since 0.908 is greater than the table value of .195, P<05,
the relationship is positive at .05. The finding suggests
that students' performance in the principle of accounting
course will be associated with the leadership style
exhibited by the teachers.

Hypothesis Two

Student-student relationship has no significant
relationship with academic performance in principles of
accounting. This hypothesis was tested with Product
moment correlation techniques. The result is presented in
table 3. Table 3 reveals a positive significant relationship
between academic performance of students in
accounting and student- student relationship (r-cal = .988;
df. = 878, P< .05). Since 0.988 is greater than the table
value of .0.088, the relationship is positive at .05.

Hypothesis Three

There is no significant relationship between teacher-
student relationship (TSR) and students' academic
performance in Accounting. Pearson-product moment
correlation was employed to test this hypothesis. The
result is presented in table 4. With the Pearson r* as a
test of significant, the correlation coefficient was
positively significant at 0.05 alpha level and 878 degree
Agba et al. 183

of freedom. The correlation was highly significant from
the standpoint of statistical sampling. This significant
relationship implies that teacher - student relationship
influences to a large extent, the performance of students
in accounting.

Discussion of Findings

The findings of this study are that there are the significant
relationship between teachers' leadership style; student-
student and teacher-student relationships and academic
performance in accounting. These findings agree with
earlier works carried out by Good and Brophy (1989) and
Abang (2006). But it conflicts with that ofTirozzi's (2001)
on Student-teacher relationship.
Students performance is shaped mostly by student-
student relationship, student-teacher relationship and the
teachers, leadership style. In Good and Brophy's (1989)
analysis, the teacher through his various actions exerts
influence that determines the social climate of the
classroom. Through the teachers, action and the choice
of means of communication including, verbal and non-
verbal, the classroom is stimulated. A teacher who is
friendly and warm towards the students is more likely to
stimulate learning than the one who is withdrawn and
autocratic in his dealing with the students.
Abang (2006) reported that teachers provide the
stimulus that produces the various forms or types of
relationship that exist within the classroom. These
relationships influence the attitude developed by the
students as well as their performances in the subject
taught. A warm, friendly, sympathetic and caring teacher
evokes a positive classroom perception.
When the student's interactions in the classroom result in
a cloudy and negative perception, it influences students'
performance in examination (Donaldson and Elias, 1976;
Abang 2006). Positive classroom interactions and the
belief system generated are often expressed in position,
attitude and students' performance. This is because when
classroom interactions engenders positive attitude, it
enhances the willingness and the capacity of the student
to benefit substantially in the teaching-learning process
(Tirozzi 2001). It is understandable that students may
experience a consensus in their perception of the level of
relationship that exists among themselves and this can
have positive impact on school work; but if individual
motives, ability and aspiration predispose them toward
inferential level of commitment of time and effort, it may
influence their performance in school assignments and
examination in different dimension (Nyugab 1988).
Similarly different perception of teacher-student
relationship exerts influence on students' performance. A
teacher who sees himself as a change agent
accomplishes his task of teaching and learning largely
through persuasion (Tiriozzi 2001) and by so doing
enhances student performance. But where the reverse is
184 Educ. Res.

the order, both negative attitude toward the subject
taught and poor performance are expected.
This finding is consistent with Cooper and Harris
(1994), and Umoinyang (1988). Attitude of students
towards accounting could influence their performance. As
Ikoh (2007) observed, attitude consists of likes and
dislikes or satisfactions and dissatisfactions, objects,
groups, situations and intangible ideas. They are mental
readiness or implicit predisposition that exerts some
general and consistent influence on a fairly large class of
evaluative responses (Allport 1972). Given this
understanding it follows that students with positive
attitude toward accounting are generally those who like
accounting and derive satisfaction from studying the
If a student has a healthy attitude to work, he will perform
well. If on the other hand, he has an unhealthy altitude
toward work his work will be affected negatively
(Donaldson and Elias, 1976; Ikoh 2007). It is therefore
not surprising that students with positive attitude towards
accounting performed highly on the subject irrespective
of sex.

Conclusion and Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, it was established
that there exists a linear relationship between students
student relationship, teachers-students relationship and
teachers leadership style and academic performance in
accounting. The contributions of student-student
relationship and teacherleadership style were found to
be significant in accounting performance. The study
demonstrated the importance of classroom on the
interaction among students and teachers. It showed the
associated learning gains and the critic areas that
teachers must be exposed to. Relationship between
students and teachers appeared to have been more
official (impersonal) than personal. Such relationship has
the consequences of making students evasive which
could equally affect their performance in accounting. The
need to discourage this is imperative and urgent.
Based on these findings the following recommendations
were made:

i) Accounting teachers should endeavour to make their
classroom a home where every learner is made to feel
accepted and an important component of the classroom
learning process. They can do this by ensuring a positive
relationship between them and their learners. When this
done, it will enable the student to develop positive
attitude and consequently the associated high
performance in accounting.
ii) Teachers should appreciate individual differences and
treat each student as a learner that deserves help. The
use of derogatory words to castigate students for their
poor performance in the class should be discouraged.

iii) Since student-student relationship enhances academic
performance, teachers involved in the teaching of
principles of accounting should relate cordially with
students and encourage student-student relationship.
iv) Teachers must learn to focus on the need of students
and the goal of teaching. As a good leader, the teacher
should seek to accomplish group goals and also meet
individual and group needs of his students, by being as
democratic as possible.


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