Cooling rates of mechanical draft towers depend upon various parameters; such as fan diameter and speed of operation

, fills for system resistance, etc.There are two different classes of mechanical draft cooling towers: a. Forced draft It has one or more fans located at the tower bottom to push air into the tower. During operation, the fan forces air at a low velocity horizontally through the packing and then vertically against the downward flow of the water that occurs on either side of the fan. The drift eliminators located at the top of the tower remove water entrained in the air. Vibration and noise are minimal since the rotating equipment is built on a solid foundation. The fans handle mostly dry air, greatly reducing erosion and water condensation problems.

Forced draft cooling tower b. Induced draft A mechanical draft tower with a fan at the discharge which pulls air through tower. The fan induces hot moist air out the discharge. This produces low entering and high exiting air velocities, reducing the possibility of recirculation in which discharged air flows back into the air intake.

Induced draft cooling tower

their inability to handle large volumes of air. KNOWLEDGE-BASED EXPERT SYSTEM: A knowledge-based expert system can be defined as “an interactive computer program that can solve problems. and can develop high overall efficiencies. The basic structure of the knowledge-based expert system as shown in Figure 1 consists of the following components [3]: • user interface: the mechanism by which the user and the system communicate.The static pressure varies as the square of the capacity ratio. like an expert. design. their capability to operate against relatively high static pressures makes them particularly suitable for that type of application. which represents truth as a state or as algorithms and can therefore be flow-charted [2]. by drawing upon the factual and heuristic information that can be stored in their knowledge bases in relation to these domains” [1]. diagnose and interpret. b. All propeller type fans operate in accordance with common laws: . but must also be capable of withstanding the corrosive effects of the environment in which the fans are required to operate. .Fans Aluminum. The materials of manufacture must not only be compatible with their design. the fan horsepower and static pressure vary directly with air density.The fan horsepower varies as the cube of the capacity ratio. . c. make decisions.The capacity varies directly as the speed ratio. but their application naturally tends to be limited by the number of projects of sufficient size to warrant their consideration. Centrifugal fans are often fabricated from galvanized steel. Automatic variable-pitch fans: They are able to vary airflow through the tower in response to a changing load or ambient condition. aluminum.At constant capacity. a. and their characteristically high input horsepower requirement limits their use to relatively small applications. The expertise can be encoded within a program as declarative knowledge. or molded glass fiber reinforced plastic. analyze. It is also defined as a program that includes expertise or knowledge that enables an individual or group to perform an intellectual task better than that task can be performed without that expertise. may be used on any size tower. glass fiber and hot-dipped galvanized steel are commonly used as fan materials. Centrifugal fans: They are usually used on cooling towers designed for indoor installations. Propeller fans: They have ability to move vast quantities of air at the relatively low static pressure encountered. . Propeller fans are made from galvanized steel. within the context of specifically defined domains. . They are comparatively inexpensive. and with minimum vibration. and directly as the pitch angle of the blades relative to the plane of rotation. Cooling tower fans must move large volumes of air efficiently. However.

. LEONARDO is a complete system with all the tools necessary for designing. The control of the explanations facility allows direct inquiries from users (WHY question is being asked) and (HOW conclusion is drown).• • • inference engine: makes inferences by deciding which rules are satisfied by facts. Knowledge acquisition facility: and automatic way for the user to enter knowledge in the system rather than by having the knowledge engineer explicitly code the knowledge Knowledge base: contain the domain knowledge in terms of rules. testing. It consists of the following: . and delivering the fan blades selection.The LEONARDO editor gives the necessary facility to create rules as well as editing information into object frames. . Architecture of computerized implementation: Expert system tools are useful in implementing expert systems.LEONARDO as an expert system is quite different from conventional programs. The LEONARDO application will continue to work with rules missing. change the input and back again to the same screen. The user is free with LEONARDO to go back one step or more. . . An expert can add new rules as he/she learns about a subject. It simply becomes less smart.LEONARDO has the check and executes function that converts the raw knowledge base to a format. developing. . The tool that chosen to be employed in UTeM Blade is the LEONARDO expert system shell. . which can be used by the computer. the developer can control the explanation as he/she likes. the knowledge base should be formalized as a set of rules. and the majority of them were developed to support rapid prototyping. As well as simple objects. It should represent a full description of the available fan blades designs and specification. and their construction is close to a normal English sentence. Overall implementation In this stage.LEONARDO has a built in explanation facility. the knowledge base stores objects with frames that hold additional information such as screen designs and procedures. There are LEONARDO graphics package available that can present the knowledge (fan blades selection) more attractive.Rules that would work in the context of LEONARDO are easy to understand. The user can review the previous stages at ant time during the consultation session.The knowledge base that comprises the rules and objects that LEONARDO uses to represent the domain. alternatively. A conventional program will not work if a single line is removed from the source code.

1: Creating the object type_of_fan to display the required information about it. followed by a screen that should be fired in line three in Figure 1. the object type_of_fans will be fired once the inference engine of LEONARDO reaches line two in Figure 1. then number_of_blade is done Figure 1. But it is required to fill the object frame of type_of_fans by another rules that make the necessary control as shown in Figure 1. the user enters the requirement of their fan blade and the system will provide available selection. This rule will be fired when user asks information about number of blades. The following diagrams 1. The three kinds of fans are displayed to the user. which displays its type.1 – 1. and contains different fields. include types of fans. the creation of the object type_of_fans.2.3 shows some examples from the knowledge base to illustrate the number of blades.1 displays a real rule written in LEONARDO.1.1. The following are some examples of presenting knowledge using IF THEN rules using LEONARDO. each field filled by its name in the field name as shown in the following Figure 1.3. Name: type_of_fans AllowedValue: number of blade QueryPrompt: Which type of the fan you like to display? AVExpansion: 6 blade 8 blade Customized number of blade (>8blades) Figure 1. If number_of_blade is done and fan_diameter is done then use screen_type_of_fan.The displaying of the UTeM Fan Blades database contents should first introduce. Accordingly. Figure 1. is accomplished.2: The object frame of type_of_fans. the screen contains a question that asking user to choose one .

and a brief description will appear while the student moves between one to another.of them to display. Which type of the fountain you like to display? TYPES OF FANS 6 BLADES BLADES 8 BLADES >8 MATERIALS MATERIALS FRP ALUMINUM ALLOY GALVANISED STEEL PP ABS PLASTIC MATERIALS FRP ALUMINUM ALLOY GALVANISED STEEL PP ABS PLASTIC FRP ALUMINUM ALLOY GALVANISED STEEL PP ABS PLASTIC Figure 1.3: Screen type_of_fans as it appears in LEONARDO. .

Expert Systems: Strategic Implications. [2] Ibrahim. School of Architecture and Building Engineering. [3] Ibrahim.Noise 98. G. PhD Theses. Halsted Press. Inter. A. A. . New York. New Zealand.DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This paper has described a knowledge-based expert system approach to a cooling tower fan selection system. D. Christchurch. J. An Expert System For Acoustics and Noise Control. (1987). REFERENCES: [1] Beerel. G. (2000). & Oldham. The Development of Environmental Noise Decision Support System. University of Liverpool. H. H. (1998). A. C.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful