cutter rotation. With small cutters under 1/2 in.

in diameter, climb feed can be used to advantage for certain types of work, but only with the power feed and never with hand feed. The disadvantage of climb feed is that since cutter thrust and feed are in the same direction, the feed is often at an irregular rate because of play in the feed screw. As a rule, it's best to use only standard feed. A secondary consideration is concerned with the thrust of the cutter. The lower details in Fig. 1 show the various possibilities. When practical, the cutter thrust should be down since this presses the work against the milling-machine table or other holding device. Nearly all types of work can be set up to satisfy both conditions, that is, standard feed against r o t a t i o n which provides a down thrust. The matter of thrust is not too important when the work is solidly mounted, but it should be kept in mind as a possible cause of chatter and rough work. Methods of working: Certain c o m m o n devices are used for mounting the work, most popular and practical being the milling vise, Figs. 2 and 10. Additional DECEMBER 1951

DRILL PRESS AND LATHE are good substitutes for a milling machine on light work. Rotary type of milling table is used on drill press to permit circular cuts. Wide variety of milling can be done in a lathe

the thickness of chip which each tooth in the cutter is required to lift. The table gives the average feed-per-tooth range for various materials. It also converts feedper-tooth to feed-per-revolution, and to feed in inches, which is the most common expression of milling feeds. Feeds from 1 in. to 6 in. per minute are most practical for bench-miller work because they satisfy the operator's sense of timing. On new work or work of an experimental nature, the simplest approach to the whole subject of what the feed should be is to use the lowest feed available, usually .003 in. per revolution. Then, the feed can be gradually stepped up to full capacity. It is a mistake to feed too slowly as a slow feed produces fine chips that tend to wedge into the flutes of the cutter and cause heating and scoring of the work. The chip should always lift clean and readily clear from the cutter. Depth of cut: The maximum cut with any kind of cutter when using a bench miller is about 1/8 in. More practical values are Mo in. for soft metals and 1/32 in. for steel. A lot depends on how much of the cutter is engaged. For example, a 2-in. shell mill working on a 3/8-in. edge, as in the left-hand photo above Fig. 8, can take a deeper cut than when the cutter engages a wider area, utilizing the full cutting width of the flutes. In milling cast iron, a fair average speed is 200 r.p.m., using a feed of .025 in. per revolution (5 in. per min.) with the depth of

cut about 1/32 in. In all cases, a general technique which balances maximum cutter speeds with medium feeds and fine cuts will give best results. In a slotting job, Fig. 5, or milling a keyway, Fig. 6, you don't remove all the waste in one pass, but rather make the cut in several passes, maintaining as high a speed as possible. When using very small cutters, often it is best to use a high cutter speed with the hand feed rather than a lower speed with the power feed. Drill press and lathe: Due to its vertical spindle, the drill press offers an ideal work setup for certain types of light milling. The job is commonly mounted on some type of milling table, most useful being the rotary type which has a circular feed as well as longitudinal and cross feeds, Fig. 7. Neither the spindle nor table of the average drill press is rigid enough for heavy milling cuts. Use only small cutters at maximum speed with fine feed and shallow cuts. A lathe fitted with a milling attachment does excellent work and is similar in all mechanical characteristics to the bench miller. The considerable overhang of the milling attachment prohibits extremely heavy cuts, but in all cases the setup is more rigid than any on a drill press. Both solid and shell end mills can be used. Cutter speeds should be maintained with feeds reduced about one half from rates suggested for the bench miller. For smooth work with a milling attachment, use power feeds when possible. POPULAR MECHANICS

mounting methods are illustrated by the various photographs. Where a choice of m o u n t i n g s is possible, the mounting which supports the work closest to the table is generally the most rigid. On jobs requiring centering of the cutter with the work, such as the slotting job shown in the upper detail in Fig. 3, a test center is useful. If this is chucked and the work centered to it as shown, the cutter which takes its place will also be centered. The six steps pictured and detailed in Fig. 4 are typical setup procedure, the job being to square a shaft. The work is mounted in the vise and the four sides are worked in order as detailed at the upper right in Fig. 4 without c h a n g i n g the vise mounting. Cutting is started with a roughing cut on No. 1 side, after which the work is miked as shown. The simple calculation shows the amount of feed needed—.052 in. The vertical feed is zeroed and the table is then raised .052 in. to set the work for the finish cut as shown in the lower photo. On certain types of work, the technique of making the end of the end mill do most of the cutting, as shown in the detail, is preferable to making a wide, shallow cut e m p l o y i n g the

INTERNAL CUTS such as slots, should be made with a twolip end mill. These small cutters can be used with either the standard or climb feed without regard to the cutter thrust

Speeds and feeds: Suitable speeds for milling are given in the table of speeds and feeds, the general values being about the same as for lathe work. In many i n s t a n c e s , when using small end mills, Figs. 5, 6 and 9, the permissible speed will exceed the maximum speed of the machine spindle. In this case, the highest practical speed should be used, usually about 500 r.p.m., if power feed is used, or 900 r.p.m. for hand feed. Otherwise, the speeds listed should be followed closely. The feed of the work is a more difficult problem to solve because of the many variables in the work, the depth of cut, and the setup. The fundamental basis for feed is feedper-tooth or, in other words, DECEMBER 1951

CUTTING A KEYWAY with an end mill often is a necessary operation. Use the test center to locate the work. Set the table stop to stop the feed at the desired position



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