6/20/13

Diego de Landa - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Diego de Landa
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Diego de landa) Diego de Landa Calderón (12 November 1524 – 1579) was a Spanish Bishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Yucatán. He left future generations with a mixed legacy in his writings, which contain much valuable information on pre-Columbian Maya civilization, and his actions which destroyed much of that civilization's history, literature, and traditions.

Contents
1 Life 2 Inquisition 2.1 Suppression of the Maya 2.2 Landa’s justifications 3 Legacy 3.1 Epigraphic legacy 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links
Diego de Landa, Bishop of Yucatán

Life
Born in Cifuentes, Guadalajara, Spain, he became a Franciscan monk in 1541, and was sent as one of the first Franciscans to the Yucatán, arriving in 1549. Landa was in charge of bringing the Roman Catholic faith to the Maya peoples after the Spanish conquest of Yucatán. He presided over a spiritual monopoly granted to the Catholic order of Franciscans by the Spanish crown, and worked diligently to buttress the order's power while converting the indigenous Maya. His initial appointment was to the mission of San Antonio in Izamal, which served also as his primary residence while in Yucatán. In 1562 he conducted the infamous auto-da-fé of Maní, which attracted negative attention from many other authorities, both secular and ecclesiastical. Bishop Toral saw this action as impinging on the authority of the Bishop and in Landa had to return to Spain to defend himself against accusations of excessive violence in the conversion of the Maya and of overstepping his authority. His actions were strongly condemned before the Council of the Indies. This resulted in a "committee of doctors" being commissioned to investigate Landa's alleged crimes. In 1569 the committee absolved Landa of his crimes and when Bishop de Toral died in 1571 Landa was appointed Bishop in his place and he took the seat in 1573. Landa's period as Bishop was marked by continued campaigns of extirpation of idolatry among the Maya and he continued attracting opposition from secular authorities who found his methods excessive. This caused long conflict between the ecclesiastical judiciary system of de Landa and the Governors of Yucatán. At his death he was succeeded as Bishop by Gregorio de Montalvo, who ended the Franciscan orders monopoly on the catechization of the Maya, which had been supported wholeheartedly by De Landa, by handing it over to secular clergy.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diego_de_landa 1/6

culture and writing system. were en.000 Maya cult images were burned. When Landa received direct orders from the Viceroy through the Governor of Yucatán Francisco Velázquez de Gijón he retaliated by accusing the governor of abusing the Indians himself. he ordered an Inquisition in Mani ending with a ceremony called auto-da-fé. The account is known to us only as an abridgement.[1] These actions earned Landa a controversial place in the history of the Christianization of the Americas. Landa's Inquisition showered a level of physical abuse upon the indigenous Maya that was viewed as excessive even by other members of the church such as his predecessor as Bishop. The extant version was produced around 1660. which in turn had undergone several iterations by various copyists. Maya language. Brasseur de Bourbourg published the manuscript two years later in a bilingual French-Spanish edition. however was “monomaniacal in his fervor”[8] against it.org/wiki/Diego_de_landa 2/6 .[3] The violent methods of Landa's inquisition made many Maya flee into the forests to avoid further abuse.wikipedia. During the ceremony on July 12.[5] This sparked a conflict between the ecclesiastical and secular authorities of Yucatán which resulted in the Governor being ex-communicated by Landa. of being an immoral man and a bad Christian and having had an extramarital affair with another man's woman. the original copies have long since been lost.Wikipedia. Crown fiat had earlier exempted indigenous peoples from the images and codices.[7] and that witchcraft was treated more as a religious problem capable of being resolved through confession and absolution.6/20/13 Diego de Landa .[9] led by displaced indigenous priests. however. on the grounds that their understanding of Fernando Castro Pacheco Christianity was "too childish"[citation needed ] to be held culpable for heresies. and was discovered by the 19th-century French cleric Charles Etienne Brasseur de Bourbourg in 1862. entitled Relation des choses de Yucatán de Diego de Landa. the free encyclopedia He is the author of the Relación de las cosas de Yucatán in which he catalogues the Maya religion. Diego de Landa. Francisco de Toral. Landa believed a huge underground network of apostasies. and being replaced in 1577.[2] Scores of Maya nobles were jailed pending interrogation. This manuscript was written around 1566 on his return to Spain. Landa dispensed with much of the extensive formal procedure and documentation that accompanied Spanish torture and interrogation. Mural by authority of the Inquisition. and large numbers of Maya nobles and commoners were subjected to examination under cruel and excessive forms of torture. 1562.[6] Landa’s justifications Scholars have argued that most instances of the Mexican inquisition showed little concern to eradicate magic or convict individuals for heterodox beliefs. Additionally.[4] Some contemporary observers were troubled by this widespread use of Diego de Landa burning Maya cult torture. Inquisition Suppression of the Maya After hearing of Roman Catholic Maya who continued to practice idol worship. at least forty Maya codices and approximately 20.

Mani Encomendero Dasbatés.[12] Landa formulated an intimate contact with natives. Armed with nothing but the conviction to learn as much of native culture as he could. the very existence of these Mayan codices was proof of diabolical practices. Natives placed him in such an esteemed position they were willing to show him some of their sacred writings that had been transcribed on deerskin books. like most Franciscans of the time. there can be little doubt Landa was “possessed” by fantasies of demonic power in a new land. Landa has said: We found a large number of books in these characters and.Wikipedia.org/wiki/Diego_de_landa 3/6 . which they (the Maya) regretted to an amazing degree.wikipedia. These apostates. and which caused them much affliction. Eliminating evil and pagan practices. wrote of Landa’s first hand experiences with human sacrifices.6/20/13 Diego de Landa .[14] Landa himself was never in doubt of the necessity of his inquisition. Whether magic and idolatry were being practiced or not.[11] While passing through Cupules. Landa’s chief Franciscan biographer.[citation needed ] Landa was remarkable in that he was willing to go where no others would. Enraged. we burned them all. released the boy. Although one of the alleged victims of said sacrifices. smashed the idols and began preaching with such zeal and sincerity that they begged him to remain in the land and teach them more.[15] Landa.[16] which demanded the mass conversion of as many souls as possible before the turn of the century. Landa claims he had discovered evidence of human sacrifice and other idolatrous practices while rooting out native idolatry. Landa believed.[10] Landa insisted the Papal Bull Exponi nobis justified his actions. When Landa first came to the Yucatán. the free encyclopedia jealous of the power the Church enjoyed and sought to reclaim it for themselves. was later found to be alive and Landa’s enemies contested his right to run an inquisition.[13] To Landa and the other Franciscan friars. would usher the Second Coming of Christ that much sooner. Landa stormed through the crowd. In references to these books. he made it his mission to walk the breadth of the peninsula and preach to the most remote villages. Landa surmised. He entered lands only recently conquered where native resentment of Spaniards was still very intense. so that it would be easier for him to destroy it in the future. subscribed to millenarian ideas.[9] Lopez de Cogolludo. Legacy A controversial figure in the history of the Christianization of Central America Diego de Landa is at once reviled for his cruelty and for his destruction of invaluable historic materials about Maya culture and valued for his personal contributions to the study of the same. as they contained nothing in which were not to be seen as superstition and lies of the devil. he came upon a group numbering 300 that was about to sacrifice a young boy. en. had launched a counteroffensive against the Church and he believed it was his duty to expose the evil before it could revert the population to their old heathen ways.

[17] without which our collective knowledge of Mayan ethnology would be devastatingly small. The results were faithfully reproduced by Landa in his later account. Kintz have written that Landa‘s account of Maya social organization and towns before conquest is a “gem. 4. when it was realised and then confirmed that it was not a transcription of an alphabet . few scholars would debate the general accuracy of his recordings. Notes 1. in the mid-20th century. Laraine A. Landa asked his informants (his primary sources were two Maya individuals descended from a ruling Maya dynasty. but was rather a syllabary.[21] Epigraphic legacy Landa's Relación de las cosas de Yucatán also created a valuable record of the Mayan writing system.[20] While Landa might have exaggerated some claims to justify his actions to his accusers. historian John F Chuchiak IV has suggested that the result of Landa's fervor to exterminate the traditional Maya religion in fact had the opposite effect and is partially the reason why Maya religion is still alive today in the Yucatán.[19]” Landa’s writings are our main contemporary source for Mayan history. his intimate contact with natives and all around accuracy in other fields heavily implies his version of events has at least some truth in it. 2. although he recognised that the set contained apparent inconsistencies and duplicates. and many subsequent attempts to use this transcription remained unconvincing.[17] While controversy surrounds Landa’s use of force in the conversion process. which he was unable to explain. in the belief that there ought to be a one-to-one correspondence between them. Image of the page from Relación de las Cosas de Yucatán. Allen Wells calls his work an “ethnographic masterpiece”.6/20/13 Diego de Landa .org/wiki/Diego_de_landa 4/6 . Chuchiak suggests that the revocation of the Franciscans' "rights" to administer punishments to idolaters was an important factor in the survival of Maya religion to this day. Later researchers reviewing this material also formed the view that the "de Landa alphabet" was inaccurate or fanciful. Confirmation of this was only to be established by the work of Russian linguist Yuri Knorozov in the 1950s. He argues that Landa's excesses caused the secular authorities to remove the Franciscans' right to take disciplinary measures against idolaters while still leaving the Maya under the care of the Franciscans' cathechization. which despite its inaccuracies was later to prove instrumental in the later decipherment of the writing system. which was to prove instrumental in the mid-20th-century breakthrough in Maya hieroglyphics decipherment. Ironically. in which de Landa describes the Maya alphabet. ^ Chuchiak 2005:615 ^ Chuchiak 2005:616 ^ Chuchiak 2005:627 ^ Chuchiak 2005:628 en. as Landa and others had originally supposed. literate in the script) to write down the glyphic symbols corresponding to each of the letters of the (Spanish) alphabet. It was not until much later. 3. the free encyclopedia Landa’s Relación De Las Cosas De Yucatán is about as complete a treatment of Mayan religion as we are likely to ever have.wikipedia.Wikipedia.[18] while William J. Fletcher and Ellen R. Folan. and the succeeding generation of Mayanists.

Yucatán Before and After the Conquest . Fray Diego (1568).jstor.) 1937. 201]. American Anthropologist 95 (1): 139–152 [p. de Landa. "Introduction: Franciscans in Colonial Latin America".204.4394. 14.edu/chuchiak/template/61%204chuchiak. 18. Fletcher. 1573-1579 (http://clio. Ruth (1987). Clendinnen.204.6/20/13 4. Science 204 (4394): 697–701. Review of Don Diego Quijada. 5.Wikipedia. 12. Review of Landa's Relacion De Las Cosas De Yucatan: A Translation by Alfred M. ISBN 978-84-613-4411-6. Church History: 477–483. 11. 8. "Providence and Perdition: Fray Diego de Landa Justifies His Inquisition against the Yucatecan Maya". Adams. Inga. Documentos sacados de los archivos de Espana.).M. 21. Alcalde Mayor de Yucatan. Witchcraft and the Devil in Late-Colonial Mexico". 1938): 309310.697) ^ Thompson. The Conquest of Yucatan.wikipedia. 133 ^ Wells. by Alred M. & Kintz. and the Return of the Extirpation of Idolatry in the Calonial Diocese of Yucatán. doi:10. ^ Clendinnen. Tozzer. ^ Blom. by France V. 16. ISBN 0-521-82031-6.. and Resin: Social Organization of a Maya Urban Center". (1997).697 (http://dx.doi. ^ Chuchiak 2005:628 ^ Chuchiak 2005:629 ^ Chuchiak 2005:630-35 ^ Behar. Gates. Víctor (2009). A.org/wiki/Diego_de_landa 5/6 . In Servitio Dei: Fray Diego de Landa. Fiber. The Americas 61(4):611–646. 2002. tr. ^ a b Timmer.pdf). 20. 70 ^ Tedlock. 17. (English translation of Landa's Relación. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. JSTOR 681183 (http://www. 1939): 520 ^ Clendinnen. John F. 2003. Ambivalent Conquests: Maya and Spaniard in Yucatan. the free encyclopedia References Martínez Viana. Cambridge: The Riverside Press. ^ Roys.1126%2Fscience. 7. ^ Tozzer. John Frederick (2005). Eric. Marshall E. Laraine A. 13. by William Gates. 15. Monclem Ediciones 2000. 69–70 ^ Clendinnen. Frans. the Franciscan Order.org/stable/1051844). Tozzer. 6.org/10. Mexican Studies / Estudios Mexicanos 12 (2): 195–229 [p. "An Interpretation of Bishop Diego De Landa's Maya Alphabet. David E. "Forgotten Chapters of Yucatán's Past: Nineteenth-Century Politics in Historiographical Perspective". New York: Cambridge University Press. Chuchiak. 1517-1570 (2nd ed). 19.jstor. ^ Schwaller. de Landa Calderón. 10. The American Historical Review (October." Philological and Documentary Studies 2/4.4394. "Torture in the Archives: Mayans Meet Europeans". 1936: 481 ^ a b Roys. 1517–1570 (2nd ed. 147]. Inga (2003). (1979). Diego. 1551–1565. 1943): 133. "Fruit. Allen (1996). ISBN 970-9019-04-X. 67. ^ Folan. 2005. The Americas 61: 565– 570. Dennis (1993). Durbin. The Hispanic American Historical Review (November. Ellen R. Ambivalent Conquests: Maya and Spaniard in Yucatán.org/stable/681183). JSTOR 1051844 (http://www. "Sex and Sin. Bark. Breve historia de fray Diego de Landa. Ralph L. Scholes and Eleanor B. 9. William J. Review of Yucatan Before and After the Conquest by Friar Diego de Landa: with Other Related Documents. ^ Chuchiak 2005:644-645 Diego de Landa .missouristate. Relacion de las cosas de Yucatán/The relationship of the things of the Yucatán (in series Cronicas De America) en. p. American Ethnologist 14: 34–54. 1969. American Anthropologist (April–June.1126/science.) —. (William E. Maps and Illustrations. Relación de las cosas de Yucatán.

(Alfred M. Tozze. Center for Maya Research Retrieved from "http://en.mesoweb.Wikipedia.. a non-profit organization.6/20/13 Diego de Landa .org/wiki/Diego_de_landa 6/6 .be/fa039055/lifedeat. External links A biography (http://users. Harvard University 18).php?title=Diego_de_Landa&oldid=557758486" Categories: 1524 births 1579 deaths 16th-century Roman Catholic bishops Colonial Mexico Mayanists Franciscans 16th-century Mesoamericanists Novohispanic Mesoamericanists Historians of Mesoamerica 16th-century historians This page was last modified on 1 June 2013 at 00:04.html) Glyph Drawings from Landa's Relación: A Caveat to the Investigator by George Stuart. (Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology.wikipedia.com/bearc/cmr/19. Inc. By using this site. you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. tr. en. the free encyclopedia —. additional terms may apply.skynet.org/w/index. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation.htm) Research Reports on Ancient Maya Writing (http://www.) 1941. "Relación de las cosas de Yucatán: A translation".wikipedia.

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