SACRED BOOKS OF THE BUDDHISTS Vol.

XLI

THE DISPELLER OF DELUSION

PART II

THE DISPELLER OF DELUSION (SAMMOHAVINODANI) PART II
Translated from the Pali by

BHIKKHU NÄNAMOLI

Revised for publication by

L.S. Cousins, Nyanaponika Mahäthera and C.M.M. Shaw

Published by THE PALI TEXT SOCIETY OXFORD 1996

First published in 1991 Reprinted 1996

© Pali Text Society 1991

ISBN — 0 86013 2 9 1 9

The Council of the Pali Text Society wish to express their gratitude to the Subha Group of Penang, West Malaysia, and to other well-wishers who desire to remain anonymous, whose generous donations have helped to defray the costs of publishing this book.

Distributed by Lavis Marketing 73 Lime Walk, Oxford OX3 7AD

All Rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means analogue, digital, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise or stored in any retrieval system of any nature without the written permission of the Pali Text Society Limited of 73 Lime Walk, Headington, Oxford, OX3 7AD, UK.

Printed in Great Britain by Antony Rowe Ltd, Chippenham, Wiltshire

CONTENTS
PARAGRAPH PAGE

CHAPTER EIGHT CLASSIFICATION OF THE RIGHT EFFORTS A. Suttanta Division 1392-1467 (a) Commentary on the Pali 1392-1405 (b) Definition 1406-1467 B. Abhidhamma Division C. Questionnaire 1468-1470 1471-1472

1392-1472

1 1

14 15

CHAPTER NINE CLASSIFICATION OF THE BASES OF SUCCESS A. Suttanta Division 1473-1503 B. Abhidhamma Division C. Questionnaire 1504-1506 1507-1508

1473-1508

17 17 23 23

CHAPTER TEN CLASSIFICATION OF THE AWAKENING FACTORS A. Suttanta Division 1509-1550 (a) Preamble 1509-1516 (b) First Method 1517-1529 (c) Second Method 1530-1542 (d) Third Method 1543-1550 B. Abhidhamma Division C Questionnaire 1551-1554 1555-1557

1509-1557

26 26

34 35

11

Contents

CHAPTER ELEVEN CLASSIFICATION OF THE PATH A. Suttanta Division 1558-1560 B. Abhidhamma Division C. Questionnaire 1561-1581 1582-1584

1558-1584

38 38 38 42

CHAPTER TWELVE CLASSIFICATION OF THE JHANAS A. Suttanta Division 1585-1837 (a) Schedule 1585-1592 (b) Description 1593-1837 B. Abhidhamma Division C. Questionnaire 1838 1839-1879

1585-1880

44 44

100 100

CHAPTER THIRTEEN CLASSIFICATION OF THE BOUNDLESS STATES 1881-1904 A. Suttanta Division 1881-1901 (a) Schedule 1881-1886 (b) Classification of Words 1887-1901 B. Abhidhamma Division C. Questionnaire 1902 1903-1904

113 113

116 117

CHAPTER FOURTEEN CLASSIFICATION OF THE TRAINING PRECEPTS 1905-1937 A. Abhidhamma Division 1905-1934 (a) Schedule 1905-1907 (b) Classification of Words 1908-1909 (c) Definition 1910-1933 (d) Section on Training 1934 B. Questionnaire 1935-1937

118 118

123

Contents

111

CHAPTER FIFTEEN CLASSIFICATION OF THE DISCRIMINATIONS 1938-1968 A. Suttanta Division (a) Summary 1938-1961 (b) Categories 1962-1968 B. Abhidhamma Division C. Questionnaire 1969-1979 1980-1987

1938-1987

126 126

132 135

!ATION OF CHAPTER SIXTEEN CLASSIFICATION KNOWLEDGE 1988-2020 A. Schedule B. Description (a) Monads, etc. (b) Decads (Ten Tathagata Powers) 2021-2311 2021-2137 2138-2311

1988-2311

140 140 147

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN CLASSIFICATION OF THE MINOR BASES 2312-2565 A. Schedule 2312-2314 B. Description 2315-2565

220 220 220

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN CLASSIFICATION OF THE HEART OF THE LAW EPILOGUE POSTSCRIPT INDEX OF WORDS AND SUBJECTS INDEX OF PROPER NAMES PALI—ENGLISH GLOSSARY CORRIGENDA TO PART ONE 2566-2600 2601 2602-2603 288 297 298 301 354 360 381

CHAPTER EIGHT CLASSIFICATION OF THE RIGHT EFFORTS (Sammappadhänavibhangä)
A. SUTTANTA DIVISION 1392. [289] Now in the Classification of the Right Efforts next to that, cattäro <208.1> ("four") is the division by number. Thereby he shows the division of the Right Efforts to be neither below nor above that. Sammappadhäna ("right efforts") [means] efforts which are a reason, efforts which are a means, efforts which are wise. 1393. Idha bhikkhu ("here a bhikkhu"): a bhikkhu practising in this dispensation. Anuppannänam ("unarisen"): of unproduced. Päpakänam <208.2> ("evil"): bad. Akusalänam dhammänam ("unprofitable states"): states which have become unprofitable. Anuppädäya ("for the non-arising"): for the purpose of not arising. Chandam janeti ("he arouses zeal"): he arouses, makes to arise, profitable zeal called desire to act. Väyamati <208.3> ("he strives"): he makes a vigorous endeavour.1 Viriyam ärabhati ("exerts his energy"): he employs bodily and mental energy. Cittam pagganhäti ("strains his mind"): he bestirs his mind with that same conascent energy. Padahati ("struggles"): he employs the energy of struggling. But successively these four efforts should also be construed with cultivation, development, frequent practice and perseverance. 1394. Uppannänam päpakänam <208.4> ("of arisen eviF): of evil states which have entered upon the state which cannot be called unarisen.2 Pahänäya <208.5> ("for the abandoning"): for the purpose of abandonment. 1395. Anuppannänam kusalänam <208.6> ("of unarisen profitable"): of unproduced states which have become profitable. Uppädäya <208.7> ("for the arising"): for the purpose of the arousing. 1396. Uppannänam <208.8> ("arisen"): produced. Jhitiyä <208.9> ("for the maintenance"): for the purpose of the maintaining. Asammosäya ("non-disappearance"): for the purpose of not losing. Bhiyyo-bhäväya ("strengthening"): for the repeatedness. [290] Vepulläya ("increase"): for the abundance. Bhävanäya <208.10>

2

The Dispeller of Delusion

("development"): for the growth. Päripüriyä ("perfection"): for the puipose of perfecting. 1397. This in the first place is the tracing out of the meaning of individual words of the four right efforts as regards the section of the synopsis. Now in order to show these words successively by classifying them, the section of the description is begun with the words Kathafi ca bhikkhu anuppannänam <208.12> ("How does a bhikkhu... of unarisen"). 1398. Herein, the commentary on what is similar to what has been handed down in the Dhammasangaha (= Dhammasangani) should be understood in the same way; but as regards what has not been handed down therein, firstly in the explanation of "desire" yo chando <208.25> ("that which is desire") is that which is desire by way of the desirable. Chandikatä 3 ("zealousness"): the zealous state or the quality of effecting zeal. Kattukamyatä ("desire to act") = kattu + kämatä; kusalo ("profitable") is skilful. 1399. Dhammacchando ("zeal for the Law") is zeal of nature (sabhavacchanda). For this zeal is of many kinds and various aspects as zeal of craving (tanhächanda), zeal of [wrong] view (ditthichanda), zeal of energy (viriyachanda), zeal for the Law (dhammacchanda). In this instance, "profitable zeal for the Law which is desire to act" is intended as "zeal for the Law" from among these. 1400. Imam chandam janeti <208.26> ("he induces this zeal"): one who effects zeal induces zeal. Safljaneti ^produces"): the word is augmented by a prefix. Ut(hipeti <208.27> ("rouses"): one who effects zeal rouses it. Samu^häpeti ("arouses"): the word is augmented by a prefix. Nibbatteti ("brings about"): one who effects zeal brings it about. Abhinibbatteti ("brings into being"): the word is augmented with a prefix. 1401. Furthermore, one who effects zeal "induces zeal"; one effecting it continuously "produces [zeal]". One who rouses it again when it has fallen due to some obstacle "rouses" it; one who keeps it continually on foot "arouses" it. One who makes it evident "brings it about"; one who brings it about with unhesitancy, with unreluctance and with unreservedness "brings it into being". 1402. In the description of energy, one who effects energy viriyam irabhati <209.6> ("initiates energy"). [291] The second word is augmented with a prefix. One who effects energy äsevati bhäveti <209.7> ("cultivates, develops it"). One who effects it repeatedly

8. Classification of the Right Efforts

3

bahullkaroti {"repeatedly practises it"). One who effects it from the beginning ärabhati <209.6> {"initiates it"). One who effects it repeatedly samärabhati {"sets it afoot"). One who frequents it by developing it äsevati <209.7> {"cultivates it"). One who makes it grow bhäveti {"develops it"). One who practises it in all activities bahullkaroti {"repeatedly practises it"). 1403. In the explanation of straining of the mind, one who harnesses it to the straining of energy cittam pagganhäti <209.10> {"strains the mind"); "rouses" is the meaning. One who strains it repeatedly sampagganhäti <209.11> {"constrains it"). One who sustains with the sustaining of energy what is thus constrained so that it does not fall back upatthambheti {"sustains"). One who sustains repeatedly for the purpose of the consolidation of what is sustained paccupatthambheti {"retains"). 1404. In the explanation of the word "maintenance" {thiti\ yä thiti so asammoso <210.28> {"that which is maintenance is nondisappearance") and so on is said in order to show that all the words beginning with "non-disappearance" (asammosa) are synonyms for maintenance {thiti). For here each subsequent word has the meaning of the preceding. It may also be said that each preceding word has the meaning of the subsequent. The rest is clear diroughout. 1405. This in the first place is the commentary on the Pali. But the following is the discussion of the definition. For this discussion of the Right Efforts is twofold as mundane and supramundane. Mundane Right Effort 1406. Herein, the mundane is in the prior stage of all [paths];4 it should be understood as at the moment of the mundane path according to the method of the Kassapa Samyutta; for there it is said: 'Four, friends, are these right efforts. Which four ? Here, friends, a bhikkhu shows ardour thus: "These evil, unprofitable states which are unarisen would lead to harm if they arose"; he shows ardour thus: "These evil, unprofitable states which have arisen would lead to harm if they were not abandoned"; he shows ardour thus: "These profitable states which are unarisen would lead to harm if they did not arise"; he shows ardour thus: "These profitable states which have arisen would lead to harm if they ceased"' (cf. S ii 197).

4

The Dispeller of Delusion

1407. And here anuppannä kusalä dhammä ("unarisen profitable states'") are both tranquillity and insight and also the path. [292] Uppannä kusalä dhammä ("arisen profitable states") are tranquillity and insight only. But there is no path which, having once arisen, leads to harm by its ceasing; for it ceases only by furnishing the condition for fruition. Or alternatively, "only tranquillity and insight are to be taken in regard to the first" is said.5 But that is incorrect. 1408. Herein, this is the story [told] for the purpose of making it plain that arisen tranquillity and insight, by their ceasing, lead to harm. 1409. An Elder who had destroyed the cankers, it seems, thought to pay homage at the Great Shrine and the Great Wisdom Tree.6 Accompanied by a novice who was possessed of attainments as carrier [of his things], he came from the country to the Great Monastery and entered the Piyanga cell.7 When the Order of Bhikkhus was paying homage to the shrine in the evening, he did not go out to pay homage. Why ? Those who have destroyed the cankers hold the Three Jewels in great veneration. Therefore when the Order of Bhikkhus had returned from paying homage, at the hour when people eat their evening meal, he went out alone without informing the novice, intending to pay homage to the shrine. 1410. The novice thought: 'Why does the Elder go out alone at an unusual hour ? I will find out.' And he went out following in his preceptor's footsteps. Unaware of his presence due to non-adverting, the Elder went up into the enclosure of the Great Shrine by the south gate. The novice, following in his footsteps, went up too. As the Elder gazed up at the Great Shrine, he entered upon rapture with the Enlightened One as object and, concentrating his whole mind, he paid homage to the Great Shrine with great joy and delight. Seeing the way he paid homage, the novice thought: 'My preceptor pays homage with great gladness in his heart. What if he were to get flowers and make an offering (püjä) V 1411. After paying homage, the Elder arose and stood with his hands held together above his head looking up at the Great Shrine. The novice made his presence known by coughing. The Elder turned and, looking at him, asked: 'When did you come ?' 'When you were paying homage to the shrine, venerable sir. You have paid homage to the shrine with great gladness. What if you were to get flowers to offer worship ?'

8. Classification of the Right Efforts
4

5

Yes, novice. Elsewhere there is no such collection of relics as in this shrine. Who would not offer worship at such an unrivalled great monument (thüpa) as this after getting flowers ?' 1412. He said: 'Wait, venerable sir. I shall return.' And thereupon he entered into jhäna and, going by miraculous power to the Himalayas, he filled his water strainer with brightly-coloured scented flowers. [293] And before the Elder had reached the west entrance of the shrine from the south entrance, he placed the water strainer full of flowers in his hand and said: 'Offer worship, venerable sir.' The Elder said: 'These flowers are much too few, are they not ?' 'Go, venerable sir, and offer them reflecting on the qualities of the Enlightened One.' 1413. The Elder ascended by the stairway of the west entrance and began to make the offering (püjä) of flowers on the terrace of the inner railing (kucchivedikä-bhümi). The railing terrace was filled. The flowers fell down and filled the second terrace knee-deep. Descending from there, he offered worship at the foot-rail (päda-pitthikapanti). That he filled. Finding it full, he came down scattering them on the ground below. He filled the whole shrine enclosure. When that was full he said: 'Novice, the flowers are not yet finished.' 'Turn the water strainer upside down, venerable sir.' 1414. Turning it upside down, he shook it and the flowers were finished. He gave the water strainer back to the novice and, three times circumambulating to the right the shrine together with8 the Elephant Wall, he paid homage at the four gates.9 As he was returning to the cell, he thought: 'How gifted with miraculous powers is this novice! Will he be able to preserve his miraculous potency ?' And, seeing that he would not, he said to the novice: 'Novice, now you are mighty with the miraculous powers. But later on, after such powers have disappeared, you will drink rice gruel kneaded by the hand of a blind weaver girl' 1415. It was through the fault of youth that he was not stirred by his preceptor's words to ask him: 'Expound a meditation subject to me, venerable sir.' And he came away as though he had not heard, thinking: 'What on earth is my preceptor saying ?' 1416. After paying homage at the Great Shrine and the Great Wisdom Tree, the Elder had the novice take his bowl and outer robe, and they came in the course of time to the Great Monastery of Kutelitissa.

6

The Dispeller of Delusion

1417. The novice did not set out on the almsround following in his preceptor's footsteps; but after asking: 'Which village are you going to, venerable sir ?' when he knew that his preceptor would have arrived at the village gate, he took his own and his preceptor's bowls and robes and, going through the air, he gave the Elder his bowl and outer robe [294] and went into [the village] for alms. Each time the Elder warned him: 'Novice, do not act thus. The miraculous powers of the ordinary man are inconstant and unstable; by getting an unsuitable visible datum as object [of consciousness] they are at once broken. And after the loss of a peaceful attainment one cannot continue firm in the life of purity.' 10 But the novice thought: 'What on earth is my preceptor saying ?' and did not wish to hear. He went on doing as before. 1418. Paying homage at shrines, the Elder went in course of time to the Kupavena monastery.11 While the Elder dwelt there too, the novice went on doing as before. Then one day a beautiful weaver's daughter in the flush of youth went out from the village of Kupavena, and she went down into a lotus pool and gathered flowers, singing [as she did so]. But just then the novice was going [through the air] above the lotus pool and, like the blind fisherman in theriddle,12he was caught in the sound of her song. At once his miraculous powers vanished and he was [left] like a crow with clipped wings. But in virtue of the peaceful attainment he did not fall straight into the water, but like a slowly sinking cotton seed he drifted to rest on the bank of the lotus pool. 1419. He went swiftly to give his preceptor his bowl and robe and turned back. [Thinking:] 'It is just as I foresaw; [even] if he is obstructed he will not come back,' the Elder said nothing and went into [the village] for alms. 1420. The novice went and stood on the bank of the lotus pool waiting for her to come up from the water. She had seen the novice going through the air and [now] that he had returned and was waiting she knew it was surely on her account that he had become dissatisfied. 'Step back, novice,' she said. He did so. She came out of the water and, after putting on her clothes, she went to him. 'What is it, venerable sir ?' she asked. 1421. He related his story. With many arguments she pointed out the dangers of the house life and the benefits of the life of purity [but] for all her cajoling she was unable to dispel his dissatisfaction. [Thinking:] 'It is through me that he has lost such miraculous powers; it is not right to abandon him now,' she told him to wait there. She went home

8. Classification of the Right Efforts

7

and recounted to her parents what had happened. They too came and, although they warned him in many ways, since he would not heed their words they said: 4Do not consider us to be of a superior family.13 We are weavers. Will you be able to do weavers' work ?' The novice said: 'Lay disciple, if I become a layman I would do either weavers' work or basket work. What of that ? Do not begrudge me a mere cloth [to clothe me as a layman].' 1422. [295] After giving him a cloth to wrap round his loins, the weaver took him home and gave him his daughter. After learning to do weavers' work, he worked in the hall together with the weavers. The wives of the others prepared food early in the morning and brought it [to the hall]. His wife did not come straightaway. While the others left their work and were eating, he sat fiddling with the shuttle. Later on she came. He scolded her: 'You have been very long coming!' 1423. And when they know that [a man's] mind is bound up in themselves, women treat him as a slave, even if he is a Wheel Turning Monarch. So she answered thus: 'In other people's houses, wood and leaves and salt and things are kept and there are helpers and servants14 who come in from outside. But I am alone. You do not know what there is or what there is not in your house. If you want to, eat; if you don't want to, don't eat.' 1424. He said: 'Not only do you bring the food when it is afternoon but you wound me with words!' And falling into a rage and seeing nothing else to strike her with, he pulled the shuttle stick out of the shuttle and threw [it at her]. Seeing it coming, she turned half round. Now the end of the shuttle stick was sharp and as she was turning round it entered the corner of her eye and stuck there. She at once raised both hands to her eye. Blood flowed from the wound. 1425. At that moment he remembered his preceptor's words. He began to cry out loud, saying: 'It was on account of this that my preceptor said: "In the time to come you will drink rice gruel kneaded by a blind servant girl." Now what was foreseen by the Elder will come true. Ah, how far-seeing he was! Alas!' So some said: 'Enough, friend, do not cry. A broken eye cannot be mended by crying.' He said: 'I was not crying for that reason. But rather on account of this thing [that my preceptor said].' And he told them all that had happened. Thus it is that tranquillity and insight, by ceasing, lead to harm.

8

The Dispeller of Delusion

1426. There is another story. Some thirty bhikkhus had paid homage at the Great Shrine at Kalyänl and, as they were coming down from a forest track onto the main road, they saw a man coming who had been working in a charcoal burner's field beside the road. His body was smeared with ashes, and smeared with ashes too was the single yellow loin-cloth he wore all hitched up, so that to one who looked at him he seemed like a charcoal stump. [296] After doing his day's work, he had picked up a bundle of half-burnt wood and was coming by a by-path with his hair hanging down his back; and he stood facing the bhikkhus. 1427. The novices, when they saw him, looked at each other and said: 'Friend, your father, your grandfather, your uncle!' and laughed as they went. 'What is your name, lay follower ?' they asked. On being asked his name he was remorseful and, putting down his bundle of wood and arranging and putting on clothing, he paid homage, saying: 'Wait a moment, venerable sirs.' 1428. The senior elders waited. The novices came up and laughed even before the senior elders. The lay follower said: 'Look at what a pass I am come to that on seeing me you laugh. Yet formerly I, too, was a recluse like you. But you have not acquired so much as mental onepointedness. I was mighty with the miraculous powers and powerful in this dispensation. I treated the air like the earth and the earth like the air, I treated the far like the near and the near like the far. I penetrated in a moment the one hundred thousand15 world spheres. You see my hands ? Now they are like a monkey's hands. Sitting here I touched with these very hands the moon and sun. I sat making the moon and sun the ground for these very feet [to rest on]. Such were my miraculous powers that vanished through negligence. Do not be negligent. Through negligence [people] reach such ruin [as this]. Those who live strenuously make an end of birth, old age and death. Therefore do you, by taking me as an object [lesson], be strenuous, venerable sirs!' 1429. Thus he admonished and warned them. Impelled by the urgency of his words, the thirty persons exerted insight and attained to Arahatship. 1430. Thus also should it be understood that tranquillity and insight, on ceasing, lead to harm. 1431. This in the first place is the definition of the discussion of mundane right effort. But at the moment of the supramundane path this is one single kind of energy that gets four names by accomplishing four functions.

8. Classification of the Right Efforts

9

1432. Herein, 16 "of unarisen" [means] unarisen owing to nonfrequenting (asamudäcära) or owing to a non-experienced object. For there are no evil unprofitable states that have not arisen elsewhere in the beginningless round of rebirths. And it is those same unarisen [states] that arise when they arise [297] and which are abandoned when they are abandoned. 1433. Herein, one person is not frequented by defilements owing to [being occupied with] duties; another owing to [being occupied with] one among such things as books (gantha), ascetic practices, concentration, insight or building. How ? 1434. One person undertakes the duties. The defilements get no opportunity in one performing the 82 minor duties, the fourteen major duties and the duties concerned with the shrine terrace, the Wisdom Tree terrace, drinking water, drinking vessels, the uposatha house, and those arriving and departing. But at another time, when he has left his duties and is going about unoccupied with duties, they arise in him due to unwise bringing to mind and to relinquishment of mindfulness. Thus do they arise after being unarisen through non-frequenting. 1435. Another is devoted to books. He learns one collection (nikaya) or two or three or four or five. As he learns the Buddha word of the Tipitaka by way of meaning, by way of Pali, by way of sequence of subject matter (anusandhi), by way of order of succession (pubbäpara) and recites, considers, repeats, teaches and explains it, the defilements get no opportunity. But at another time, when he has left his book work and goes about carelessly, they arise in him due to unwise bringing to mind and to relinquishment of mindfulness. Thus also do they arise after being unarisen through non-frequenting. 1436. But another observes the ascetic practices. He takes upon himself the virtues of the thirteen ascetic practices. As he attends to the virtues of the ascetic practices, the defilements get no opportunity. But at another time, when he has given up his ascetic practices and goes about after reverting to abundance, they arise in him owing to unwise bringing to mind and to relinquishment of mindfulness. Thus do they arise after being unarisen through non-frequenting. 1437. But another is expert in the eight attainments. As he dwells in mastery of advertence, etc. in the first jhäna, etc., the defilements get no opportunity. But at another time, when he has fallen away from jhäna or has relinquished jhäna and has become devoted to talk, etc., they arise in him owing to unwise bringing to mind and relinquishment

10

The Dispeller of Delusion

of mindfulness. Thus also do they arise after being unarisen through non-frequenting. 1438. But another is one who practises insight. He dwells working on the seven contemplations [298] or on the eighteen principal insights. As he dwells thus, the defilements get no opportunity. But at another time, when he has given up work on insight and dwells engaged in bodily athletics, they arise in him owing to unwise bringing to mind and to relinquishment of mindfulness. Thus also do they arise after being unarisen through non-frequenting. 1439. Another is occupied in building; he makes an uposatha house, a refectory and so on. As he thinks about these matters, the defilements get no opportunity. But at another time, when the building is finished or suspended, they arise in him owing to unwise bringing to mind or to relinquishment of mindfulness. Thus also do they arise after being unarisen through non-frequenting. 1440. But another has come from the Brahma world and is a pure being. Because there is no cultivation in him, the defilements get no opportunity. But at another time, when he acquires cultivation of them, they arise in him owing to unwise bringing to mind and to relinquishment of mindfulness. Thus also do they arise after being unarisen through non-frequenting. 1441. Thus in the first place should the state of being unarisen through non-frequenting be understood. 1442. How through a non-experienced object ? Here someone obtains a previously unexperienced pleasure-producing, etc. object. The defilements of greed and so on arise in him owing to unwise bringing to mind and to relinquishment of mindfulness. Thus do they arise after being unarisen through the object not being experienced. 1443. But at the moment of the supramundane path it is one single energy that accomplishes both the function of causing the non-arising of those which are unarisen and might arise thus, and also the function of abandoning those which are arisen. 1444. That is why "of arisen evil" [is said]. But here "arisen" is fourfold:17 (1) arisen as actually occurring, (2) arisen as experienced and gone, (3) arisen having got an opportunity, (4) arisen having obtained a plane. 1445. Herein, (1) those defilements which are existent, being possessed of arising and so on, are "arisen as actually occurring".

8. Classification of the Right Efforts

11

1446. (2) When kamma has been accumulated by impulsion, the [kamma-] result which has ceased after experiencing the essential nature of the object is "gone away having experienced", and kamma which has arisen and ceased is "gone away having been"; both are counted as "arisen as experienced and gone".18 1447. (3) Profitable or unprofitable kamma inhibits the result of other kamma and makes the opportunity for its own result. [299] When such an opportunity is thus made, the result which arises, from the [time of the] making of the opportunity, is counted as arisen; this is called "arisen having got an opportunity". 1448. (4) But the five aggregates are called the plane of insight. These are divided into past, etc. But the defilements inhering in these are not to be said to be past, future or present; inhering in the past aggregates, they are unabandoned. Inhering in the future aggregates and in the present aggregates, they are also unabandoned. This is called "arisen having obtained a plane". Hence the Ancients said: 'The defilements which are unabolished in this or that plane19 are counted as "arisen having obtained a plane".' 1449. "Arisen" is again fourfold thus: (5) arisen as behaviour, (6) arisen because an object has been taken up, (7) arisen through nonsuppression, (8) arisen through non-abolition. 1450. Herein, (5) that existing now is what is called "arisen as behaviour". 1451. (6) After the eyes have been opened once, when an object has been grasped as a sign, it cannot be said that the defilements will not rise at any moment whenever [the object is] remembered (anussaritänussaritakkhane). Why ? Because the object has been taken up. Like what ? Just as it cannot be said that milk will not issue from a place on a milk tree which has been repeatedly struck by a hatchet. Thus this is called "arisen because an object has been taken up". 1452. (7) But when the defilements are not suppressed by an attainment, it is not to be said that they will not arise in that situation. Why ? Because of non-suppression. Like what ? Like it cannot be said that if one were to strike a milk tree with a hatchet, milk would not issue from that very spot. Thus this is called "arisen through nonsuppression". 1453. (8) But the idea that it is not to be said that defilements which are not abolished by the path will not arise in one even if reborn in the

12

The Dispeller of Delusion

summit of existence, should be elaborated in the same way. This is called "arisen through non-abolition". 1454. Among these [varieties of] "arisen", the four kinds of "arisen", that is to say, (1) "arisen as actually occurring", (2) "arisen as experienced and gone", (3) "arisen having got an opportunity" and (5) "arisen as behaviour", are not to be annihilated by the path; but the four kinds of "arisen" that is to say, (4) "arisen having obtained a plane", (6) "arisen because an object has been taken up", (7) "arisen through nonsuppression" and (8) "arisen through non-abolition", are to be annihilated by the path. For the path, on arising, abandons these defilements. The defilements which it abandons are not to be said to be past, future or present. 1455. And this, too, is said: "If he abandons past defilements, he therefore destroys what is destroyed, [300] causes to cease what has ceased, causes to go away what has gone away, causes to subside what has subsided; the past, which is non-existent, he abandons ... 1456. "If he abandons future defilements, he therefore abandons what is not born, he abandons what is not produced, he abandons what is not arisen; he abandons what has not appeared. The future, which is nonexistent, he abandons ... 1457. "If he abandons present defilements, one therefore who is greedy abandons greed, one who is hateful abandons hate, one who is deluded abandons delusion, one who is bound abandons pride, one who is held abandons views, one who is distracted abandons agitation, one who has not found his aim abandons uncertainty, one who is obdurate abandons inherent tendency; dark and bright states occur simultaneously, and there is a defiled development of the path ... 1458. "Therefore is there no development of the path, is there no realisation of fruition, is there no abandoning of the defilements, is there no comprehension of the Law ? ... [on the contrary,] there is development of the path, there is realisation of fruition, there is abandoning of the defilements, there is comprehension of the Law. Like what ? Just as a young tree ... [etc.]" (Pts ii 217 f.). 1459. In the Pali the [simile of] the tree with unborn fruit is given. But it should be illustrated by the tree with born fruit. For just as though there were a young mango tree with fruit, and men were to eat some of its fruit and, knocking the rest down, were to fill baskets [with them], and then another man cut it down with an axe; in that case, neither its past fruits are destroyed by him nor the future and the present ones. For

8. Classification of the Right Efforts

13

the past ones are not destroyed since they were eaten by the men, and those in the future, being as yet unproduced, he cannot destroy; but when [the tree] is cut down, since there are no fruits at that time, the present ones too are not destroyed. But it is those which would appear on the tree due to essence of earth and water if the tree had not been cut down that are destroyed then. For those which are unborn do not come to be bom, those which are unproduced do not come to be produced, those which have not become manifest do not become manifest. 1460. So indeed the path does not abandon the past, etc. kinds of defilements nor does it not abandon them. Those defilements whose arising would have taken place if the aggregates had not been fully understood by means of the path, because the aggregates have been fully understood by means of the path which has arisen — those defilements which are unborn do not come to be born, which are unproduced do not come to be produced, which have not become manifest do not become manifest. 1461. Again this meaning should be explained by way of the medicines drunk by a newly-pregnant woman for the purpose of not giving birth, [301] or for the purpose of allaying the illnesses of the sick. 1462. Thus those defilements which the path abandons are not to be called past, future or present, nor does the path fail to abandon the defilements. But it is with reference to those defilements which the path abandons that "of arisen evil" and so on is said. And not only does the path abandon the defilements but it abandons also the clung-to aggregates which would arise because of the non-abandonment of the defilements. 1463. And this is said in detail: "Through the cessation of [kamma-] formation consciousness due to the knowledge of the Stream Entry path, the mentality and materiality that would arise in the endless round of rebirths cease here, except for [the duration of] seven existences" (cf. Asl 236). 1464. Thus the path emerges from the clung to and the not clung to; but by way of the [three] existences, the Stream Entry path emerges from the state of woe, the Once Return path from part of the happydestiny existence, the Non-Return path from the happy destinies of the sense-desire existence, the Arahat path from fine-material and immaterial existence. "It emerges from all kinds of existence" also they say.

14

The Dispeller of Delusion

1465. Then how, at the moment of the path, is there development for the arising of the unarisen ? Or how for the maintenance of those that are arisen ? Through the occurrence of the path itself. For the path is called unarisen when it is occurring because it has not occurred previously. Those who have gone to a place not previously gone to, having experienced an object not previously experienced, give utterance thus: * We have come to a place not previously come to, we experience an object not previously experienced.' And what is called occurrence is also called maintenance, thus it is correct to say that he develops for maintenance. 1466. Thus that bhikkhu's energy at the moment of the supramundane path has the four names beginning with "for the non-arising of unarisen evil, unprofitable states". 1467. This is the discourse on the Right Efforts at the moment of the supramundane path. Thus the Right Efforts have been explained here as mixed mundane and supramundane. End ofSuttanta Division B. ABHIDHAMMA DIVISION 1468. In the Abhidhamma Division, all therightefforts are described by showing only the heading of the method of teaching analysed in the Dhammasangani. 1469. Herein, the division of the methods should be understood. How ? [302] Firstly in respect of the first right effort, in the laying to heart of jhäna in the Stream Entry path, the five instances, namely, (1) Simple Way, (2) Simple Void, (3) Void Way, (4) Simple Desireless, (5) Desireless Way, being each counted twice on account of the [jhäna] tetrad and [jhäna] pentad methods, there are ten methods. So also in the case of the rest; thus in the twenty layings to heart there are two hundred methods. These being multiplied fourfold by the four predominances are eight [hundred]. And the two [hundred] simple plus the eight [hundred] with the predominances make one thousand methods. Likewise with the second right effort and so on and with the simple right effort (see Vbh 214), thus in the Stream Entry path there are five thousand methods. As in the Stream Entry path, so in the remaining paths; thus by way of the profitable there are twenty

8. Classification of the Right Efforts

15

thousand methods. But since there is no function to be performed by right efforts in result, the result section is not taken. 1470. But here the Right Efforts should be understood to be expounded as belonging only to the supramundane which has been produced. End of Abhidhamma Division C. QUESTIONNAIRE 1471. In the Questionnaire the profitable, etc. state of the right efforts should be understood according to the Pali. But as regards the object triads, all these, because of their occurrence with reference to the measureless nibbäna, have a measureless object only. They do not have the path as object. But owing to conascence and root-cause, they have the path as root-cause. By putting investigation (vlmamsa) foremost they have the path as predominance at the time of developing the path. In the development of the path with zeal (chanda) or consciousness (citta) foremost they are not to be said to have path as predominance. With energy (viriya) foremost, however, owing to the absence of other energy they are not to be said to have path as predominance, nor to not have path as predominance; also as regards the past, etc., owing to the state of single object, they are not to be said to be so. But because nibbäna is an external state they have an external object. 1472. Thus in this Questionnaire the Right Efforts should be understood to be expounded as belonging only to the supramundane which has been produced. For by the Fully Enlightened One the Right Efforts have been expounded in the Suttanta Division as mixed mundane and supramundane. But in the Abhidhamma Division and in the Questionnaire [they are expounded] as supramundane only. Thus this Classification of Right Effort is also taught classifying it by showing three cycles. End of the Explanation of the Classification of Right Effort

16

The Dispeller of Delusion FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER EIGHT

1. Mtreadspayoga-parakkamo [LSC]. 2. Reading anuppannan ti with O* and mt [LSC]. 3. C* reads chandikatä [LSC]. 4. Mt explains: sabbapubbabhäge ti sabbamaggänam pubbabhäge [LSC]*. 5. In the atthakathä (mt) = Poränatthakathä (anut). Note that Buddhaghosa rejects this view [LSC]. 6. At Anuradhapura. 7. Piyahgaparivena. MA iii 244 reads vihäraparivena amongst other readings; so also VbhA (O5). 8. Reading saddhim with Ee and MA. Be has satthihatthapakarena. 9. Reading catudväresu with MA. Ee and B e have catusu thänesu. 10. Mt: for when a great rope is cut, strings cannot hold [LSC]. 11. So MA, with various otherreadings;B e has kammupendavihära; O Kampupelanda- (vll. Kampupenda-; Kabbupenda-); Ee Kapulelanda(vll.). 12. Reading silesikäya känamacchikä with MA. B e and Cc have sakkalasikäya. 13. Reading mä sallakkhesi with O [LSC]. 14. Reading pesanakärakä with MA. 15. Reading -satasahassam; Ee and O5 have -sahassam [LSC]. 16. For the passage from here onwards, see AA i 35 ff. These various instances are further illustrated there by stories. 17. For different kinds of uppanna, see MA iii 251 f.; AA ii 45 f.; Vis 687 f.; Asl 66f.; SnA 4; PsA 170; Moh 87,158 [LSC]. 18. Mt points out that the two kinds of "experienced and gone" are here explained as: (i) tadärammana which experiences the result and (ii) kamma as simply "gone after having been" because when itsresulthas not come to fruition it is not in every respect "gone". This differs from the Atthasälini (Asl 66 f.), where the two kinds are explained (using a slightly different terminology) as: (i) javana which has gone after experiencing by way of attachment, [aversion], etc. and (ii) remaining unconditioned which is reckoned as "gone after having been" with reference to its cessation after arising. Therefore "arisen having got an opportunity" is here spoken of as just result, not as there (in Asl) as being also kamma [LSC]. 19. Reading täsu täsu bhümisu with O5 [LSC].

CHAPTER NINE CLASSIFICATION OF THE BASES OF SUCCESS (Iddhipädavibhangä)
A. SUTTANTA DIVISION 1473. [303] Now in the Classification of the Bases of Success next to that, cattäro <216.1> Cf our") is the division by number. Iddhipädä Chases of success"): here "it succeeds" (ijjhati) is "success" (iddhi); "it completely succeeds, is accomplished" is the meaning. Or alternatively, "beings succeed by its means, are made to succeed, increased, made supreme" is "success". In the first sense, "success itself is the base" is "base of success"; "it is a portion of success" is the meaning. In the second sense, "the base for success" is "base of success". "Base" (päda) is [thus] foundation; "means of attaining" is the meaning. For thereby they arrive at, reach the success called progressively higher distinction, therefore it is called "base". Thus in the first place should the meaning of "four bases of success" be understood here. 1474. Now in order to show them by classifying them, there begins the passage starting with the words idha bhikkhu ("here a bhikkhu"). Herein, idha bhikkhu ("here a bhikkhu") [means] a bhikkhu in this dispensation. Chandasamädhi-padhänasaAkhära-samannägatam ("possessed of the [volitional] formation of effort and concentration through zeal"):1 here chandasamädhi ("concentration through zeal") is concentration which has zeal as its cause or which has zeal in preponderance. This is a term for concentration obtained by making zeal as desire-to-act (kattukamyatä-chanda) predominant. PadhinasaAkhärä <216.2> ("the [volitional] formations which are the effort") [means] [volitional] formations which have become the effort. This is a term for the energy of Right Effort which accomplishes the four functions. Samannägatam ("possessed of): endowed with concentration through zeal and with [volitional] formations which are the effort. 1475. Iddhipädam ("basis for success"): either in the sense of success (ijjhanatthena) through the manner of production (nibbattipariyäyena): the meaning is "beings succeed (ijjhanti) by means of that, are

18

The Dispeller of Delusion

successful (iddha), increased, exalted"; or it is that which has become the base (päda) in the sense of the directing (adhitthänatthena) of the "[volitional] formations which are the effort and concentration through zeal" and which are associated with the profitable consciousness of access, jhäna, etc. and are called "success" (iddhi) in this manner; the meaning is "the total of the remaining consciousness and conscious concomitants". Since below it is called "the feeling aggregate ... the consciousness aggregate of such a one", "base of success" is appropriate in this sense. 1476. As regards the rest, the meaning should also be understood in this way. For just as chandasamädhi <216.1> (? concentration through zeal*9) is what the concentration obtained by making zeal predominant is called, [304] so viriyasamädhi <216.3> ("concentration through energy9') ... cittasamädhi <216.4> ("concentration through consciousness") ... vlmamsäsamädhi <216.5> ("concentration through investigation") is what the concentration obtained by making investigation predominant is called. 1477. Now the passage beginning with Kathafl ca bhikkhu <216.7> ("And how does a bhikkhu") is begun in order to show the expressions "concentration through zeal", etc. by classifying them. Herein, with regard to chandafi ce bhikkhu adhipatim karitvä <216.9> ("if a bhikkhu by making zeal predominant") the meaning is: if a bhikkhu, by making zeal predominant, zeal the highest, zeal the responsibility, zeal the forerunner, obtains, produces concentration, this concentration produced thus is called by the name of "concentration through zeal". As regards viriyafl ce <217.24> ("if a bhikkhu by making energy") and so on, the method is the same. 1478. Ime vuccanti padhänasankhärä <216.21> ("these are called '[volitional] formations which are effort'"): up to this point what has been expounded is the energy which accomplishes the four functions and is called "the [volitional] formations which are the effort" in the bhikkhu who is developing the basis of success consisting of zeal (chandiddhipäda). 1479. Tad ekajjham abhisamyühitvä <216.23> ("by summing that up together"): by making all that together into a total, is the meaning. Sankhyam gacchati <216.24> ("is known as"): it should be understood that it goes by a single appellation, is the meaning. 1480. Now in order to show, by classifying them, the states beginning with zeal in this group of expressions, namely, "the [volitional]

9. Classification of the Bases of Success

19

formation which is effort and the concentration through zeal", the passage beginning Tattha katamo chando ? <216.25> ("Herein, which is zeal ?") is begun. That is plain as to meaning. 1481. Upeto hoti <217.12> ("is endowed with"): is endowed with the total of states called "basis for success". Tesam dhammänam <217.15> {"of those states"): of those associated states beginning with zeal. 1482. Iddhi samiddhi ("success, full success"), etc. are all merely synonyms for production. This being so, iddhi ("success") is in the sense of succeeding (ijjhanakatthena); samiddhi ("full success") is success that is completed; or the word is augmented by a prefix. A mode of succeeding is ijjhanä ("succeeding"). Samijjhanä <217.16> ("full succeeding") is augmented with a prefix. Obtaining by manifestation in one's own continuity is läbho ("gain"). Obtaining again by strenuousness what was lost is patiläbho ("regaining"); or the word is augmented by a prefix. Patti ("reaching") is arrival. Attaining rightly by way of not losing is sampatti ("achieving"). Phusanä <217.17> ("touching") is touching by regaining. [305] Sacchikiriyä ("realization") is realization by regaining. Upasampadä ("acquisition") is acquisition byregaining,it should be understood. 1483. Tathäbhütassa <217.18> ("of one so become"): of one become in that way; the meaning is, "of one remaining after obtaining those states beginning with zeal". Having included zeal, etc. by means of vedanäkkhandho ("feeling aggregate") and so on, the four aggregates are expounded. 1484. Te dhamme <217.20> ("those states"): those four immaterial aggregates; the states beginning with zeal are also referred to. Asevati ("cultivates"): has the meaning aforesaid. And in the case of the remaining descriptions (niddesa) of the bases for success, the meaning should be understood in the same way as in this case. 1485. What has been expounded up to this point ? The meditation subject brought to its conclusion of four kinds of bhikkhus has been expounded. For one kind of bhikkhu relies on zeal; [he thinks:] 'Since the goal can be produced by profitable zeal for the Law which is desireto-act, I shall produce a supramundane state; there is no trouble for me in the production of that,' and making zeal the highest, zeal the responsibility, zeal the forerunner, he produces supramundane states. Another relies on energy, another on consciousness (citta), another on understanding (pahM). [He thinks:] 'Since the goal can be produced by

20

The Dispeller of Delusion

understanding, I shall produce a supramundane state; there is no trouble for me in the production of that,' and making understanding the highest, understanding the responsibility, understanding the forerunner, he produces supramundane states. 1486. How ? Like four royal counsellors' sons who are aspiring to a post, and among these one relies2 on service, one on valour, one on birth and one on counsel. How ? Of these, the first, [thinking:] 'Since the goal can be produced by means of the exercise of diligence in service, I shall obtain this post,' relied2 on service. The second, [thinking:] 'Even someone who is diligent in service cannot bring about a settlement when fighting has broken out. But there will inevitably be fighting on the frontiers of the kingdom. When there is fighting, by soldiering as a charioteer and pleasing the king, I shall secure this post,' relied2 on valour. The third, [thinking:] 'Someone who is valiant may be of low birth; [but when] the post is given after examining people's birth, it will be given to me,' relied on birth. The fourth, [thinking:] 'One may be well-born but unable to give counsel. When there arises a situation to be dealt with by means of counsel, I shall secure the post,' [306] relied2 on counsel. Each of these, in virtue of the power of his reliance, obtained a post. 1487. Herein, the one who produces a supramundane state by relying on zeal, [thinking:] 'Since the benefit can be produced by profitable zeal for the Law which is desire to act, I shall produce a supramundane state; there is no trouble for me in the production of that;' and making zeal the highest, zeal the responsibility, zeal the forerunner, he produces supramundane states, like the Elder Ratthapäla, should beregardedlike the one who got the post by being diligent in service. For that venerable one produced the supramundane state by making zeal the responsibility. 1488. The one who produces the supramundane state by making energy the highest, energy the responsibility, energy the forerunner, like the Elder Sona, should be regarded like the one who got the post by pleasing the king by means of valour. For that venerable one produced the supramundane state by making energy the responsibility. 1489. The one who produces the supramundane state by making consciousness the highest, consciousness the responsibility, consciousness the forerunner, like the Elder Sambhüta, should be regarded like the one who got the post through excellence of birth. For that venerable one produced the supramundane state by making consciousness the responsibility.

9. Classification of the Bases of Success

21

1490. The one who produces the supramundane state by making investigation the highest, investigation the responsibility, investigation the forerunner, like the Elder Mogharäja, should beregardedlike the one who got the post through relying on counsel. For that venerable one produced the supramundane state by making investigation the responsibility.3 1491. And here the three states called "the volitional formations of effort and concentration and zeal" are both success (iddhi) and basis for success (iddhipäda); but the remaining four associated aggregates are basis for success only. And the three states called the "volitional formations of effort and concentration through energy ... consciousness ... investigation are both success and basis for success; but the remaining four associated aggregates are basis for success only. This firstly is the exposition without subdivision. 1492. But with subdivision zeal is called success; the four aggregates developed with zeal as the responsibility are called the basis for success through zeal. The two states, the volitional formation of effort and concentration, enter by way of the formations aggregate into the basis for success through zeal. It is right to say, too, that they have entered into the basis. 1493. Here, too, concentration is called the success; the four aggregates developed with concentration as responsibility are called the basis for success through concentration. [307] The two states, the zeal and the volitional formation of effort, enter by way of the formations aggregate into concentration as basis for success. It is right to say, too, that they have entered into the basis. 1494. Here, too, the volitional formation of effort is called the success. The four aggregates developed with the volitional formation of effort are called the basis for success through the volitional formation of effort. The two states, zeal and concentration, enter by way of the formations aggregate into the basis for success through the volitional formation of effort. It is right to say, too, that they have entered into the basis. 1495. Here, too, energy is called the success ... consciousness is called the success ... investigation is called the success ... It is right to say, too, that they have entered into the basis. This is called the exposition with subdivision. 1496. But here there is nothing fresh. What is included is simply made clear as to its nature. How ? The three states, zeal, concentration and

22

The Dispeller of Delusion

volitional formation of effort, arc both success and basis for success; the remaining four associated aggregates are basis for success only. For when these three states succeed they do so together with the associated four aggregates, not without them. But the associated four aggregates are called "success" in the sense of being successful (ijjhanakatthena), and "basis" in the sense of foundation (patitthänatthena). "Success", or "basis for success", is not a term for anything else; it is a term for the associated four aggregates only. 1497. The three states, energy, etc. ... consciousness, etc. ... investigation, concentration and volitional formation of effort ... is a term for the associated four aggregates only [in each case]. 1498. Moreover it should be understood that the prior stage is called the basis for success, and the attainment (patiläbha) is called the success. This meaning should be illustrated by access or by insight. For the preliminary work for the first jhäna is called the basis for success, and thefirstjhäna is called the success. The preliminary work for the second ... third ... fourth ... sphere of boundless space ... sphere of boundless consciousness ... sphere of nothingness ... sphere of neitherperception-nor-non-perception is called the basis for success; the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception is called success. 1499. Insight for the path of Stream Entry is called basis for success; the Stream Entry path is called success. Insight for the path of Once Return ... the path of Non-Return ... the path of Arahatship is called basis for success; the Arahat path is called success. 1500. It is allowable also to be illustrated by what is gained. For the first jhäna is called basis for success; the second jhäna is called success. The second jhäna is called the basis for success; the third jhäna is called success ... the Non-Return path is called basis for success; the Arahat path is called success. 1501. [308] In what sense is it success and in what sense basis ? It is success only in the sense of succeeding; it is basis only in the sense of foundation. Thus here "success" or "basis" is not a term for anything else; it is a term for the associated four aggregates only. 1502. But when it was stated thus they said this: it would be a term for the four aggregates only, if the Master had not brought in afterwards the Subsequent Lesser Division (Uttaracülabhäjaniya). But in the Subsequent Lesser Division zeal itself is expounded as "zeal as the basis for success" <223.26>; energy itself ... consciousness itself ... investigation itself is expounded as "investigation as the basis for

9. Classification of the Bases of Success

23

success" <224.15>. But some4 said: "Success is unaccomplished (anipphanna); basis for success is accomplished.' Having refuted their assertion, the settlement expounded was that success and basis for success were accomplished and afflicted by the three characteristics. 1503. Thus in this Suttanta Division the Bases for Success are expounded as mixed mundane and supramundane. End of Suttanta Division B. ABHIDHAMMA DIVISION 1504. The Abhidhamma Division is clear. But here the methods should be counted. For in the place where c h a n d a - s a m ä d h i padhänasaAkhära-samannägatam iddhipidam <220.12> ("the basis for success possessed of concentration through zeal and volitional formations of effort"} is said, four thousand supramundane methods are detailed.5 So also in the case of concentration through energy and so on. 1505. Likewise in the Subsequent Lesser Division four thousand methods are detailed in respect of zeal as basis for success, and in respect of energy, consciousness and investigation as bases for success, four each; thus in all there are thirty-two thousand methods detailed by way of eight tetrads. 1506. Thus this Abhidhamma Division should be understood to be expounded adorned with thirty-two thousand methods by way of the bases for success belonging to the supramundane which is produced only. End of Abhidhamma Division C. QUESTIONNAIRE 1507. In the Questionnaire the profitableness, etc. of the bases for success should be understood in accordance with the Pali itself. But as regards the object triads, all these, because of occurring with reference to the measureless nibbäna, have a measureless object only, not path as object. But owing to conascent cause they have the path as cause, not path as predominance. For the four predominances do not give precedence one to another. Why ? Because of [each one's] own state of

24

The Dispeller of Delusion

being highest. For just as four princes of equal birth, equal age, equal stamina and equal skill, owing to each one's highness, do not pay respect to each other, [309] so also these four predominances, because of the particular highness of each one's nature, do not give precedence one to another, thus they never have the path as predominance. They are not to be said to be past and so on due to having only a single object. But because of nibbäna being an external state, they have an external object. 1S08. Thus in this Questionnaire only bases for success which are produced supramundane are expounded. For it is only in the Suttanta Division that the bases for success are expounded by the Fully Enlightened One as mixed mundane and supramundane. But in the Abhidhamma Division and in the Questionnaire, they are supramundane only; thus this Classification of the Bases for Success is also taught classifying6 it by showing three cycles. End of the Explanation of the Classification of the Bases for Success

9. Classification of the Bases of Success FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER NINE

25

1. Or more freely, "possessed of deliberate emphasis of concentration through zeal". 2. C e has avassay i throughout [LSC]. 3. According to mt, zeal is compared to diligence in service because the arousing of zeal again and again is like trying to please; energy is like valour because of its firmness (thäma~bhäva)\ consciousness is like excellence of birth because it acts as forerunner in accordance with the saying that [it is] "king and overlord of the six doors" (cf. S iv 194-5) [LSC]. 4. Mt: some means the Elders dwelling in the Uttaravihära, they say [LSC]. 5. See §§574 and 1469 above for the arithmetic. Mt points out that this enumeration gives the sections with adhipatis in full; however, since there are no adhipatis of adhipatis, the more exact enumeration is sixteen hundred methods for each basis of success [LSC]. 6. Read bhäjetvä omitted in E e [LSC].

CHAPTER TEN CLASSIFICATION OF THE AWAKENING FACTORS (Bojjhangavibhanga)
A. SUTTANTA DIVISION (a) Preamble 1509. [310] Now in the Classification of the Awakening (Enlightenment) Factors next to that, satta <227.1> ("seven") is the division by number. Bojjhangä ("awakening factors"): factors either (a) of awakening or (b) of one awakened, are factors of awakening. This is what is said. 1510. (a) Awakening (bodhi) is said with reference to the concurrence of states by means of which the noble disciple is awakened (bujjhati) when at the path moment there arises this concurrence of states called "mindfulness - investigation of states - energy - rapture - tranquillity concentration - equanimity" that is opposed to the various dangers consisting of sluggishness and agitation, staticity and endeavour, devotion to pleasure and self-mortification, adherence to annihilation and eternity and so on. "Is awakened" [means] arises from the sleep of the continuity of the defilements, or penetrates the four noble truths, or realises nibbäna itself. The factors (ahga) of that awakening (bodhi), i.e. the concurrence of states, are called awakening factors in the same way as jhäna factors, path factors and so on. 1511. (b) But the noble disciple is called "one awakened" (bodhin) with reference to one who awakens by means of the concurrence of states of the kind stated; the factors of that one who awakens are factors of [one] awakening like the factors of an army, the factors of a chariot and so on. Hence the Teachers of the Commentary1 said: "The factors of the person who is being awakened (bujjhanaka) are the awakening factors". 1512. Furthermore: "Awakening factors — in what sense awakening factors ? 'They conduce to awakening' [hence] awakening factors. 'They awaken' (bujjhanti) [hence] awakening factors; 'they keep awake' (anubujjhanti) [hence] awakening factors; 'they reawaken' (patibujjhanti) [hence] awakening factors; 'they fully awaken'

10. Classification of the A wakening Factors

27

(sambujjhanti) [hence] awakening factors" (Ps ii 115); thus also should the meaning of awakening factors be understood according to this Patisambhidä method. 1513. As regards satisambojjhango ("mindfulness awakening factor") and so on, an extolled, excellent bojjhanga is a sambojjhanga. Mindfulness itself as an awakening factor is the "mindfulness awakening factor". Herein, the mindfulness awakening factor has the characteristic of establishing. The investigation-of-states awakening factor has the characteristic of investigation.2 The energy awakening factor has the characteristic of exertion. The rapture awakening factor has the characteristic of pervasion. The tranquillity awakening factor has the characteristic of calming. The concentration awakening factor has the characteristic of non-wavering. The equanimity awakening factor has the characteristic of reflection. 1514. [311] As regards these, because of the words: 'Mindfulness, bhikkhus, is all-helpful, I say' (S v 115), the mindfulness awakening factor is stated first because of its helpfulness to all the [remaining]3 awakening factors. Besides that, according to the method beginning: "Dwelling thus mindful, he investigates that state with understanding" (M iii 85; S v 68, etc.), their linking by setting them forth in series thus has been handed down in the Pali, too. 1515. But why are they stated as just seven, neither less nor more ? Because of their opposition to [the extremes of] sluggishness and agitation, and because of all-helpfulness. For here, three awakening factors are opposed to sluggishness, according as it is said: 'And when, bhikkkhus, the mind is sluggish, then is the time for the development of the investigation-of-states awakening factor, the time for the development of the energy awakening factor, the time for the development of the rapture awakening factor' (S v 113). And three are opposed to agitation, according as it is said: 'And when, bhikkhus, the mind is agitated, then is the time for the development of the tranquillity awakening factor, the time for the development of the concentration awakening factor, the time for the development of the equanimity awakening factor' (S v 114). 1516. One, however, is all-helpful here because it is desirable with regard to all the awakening factors like the seasoning of salt in all curries, like the minister of all woric in the king's duties, according as it is said: 'Mindfulness, bhikkhus, is all-helpful (sabbatthika)y I say' (S v 115). The Pali is also: "useful everywhere" (sabbatthaka).4 It is

28

The Dispeller of Delusion

desirable for each of the two, is the meaning. So it should be understood that because of their being opposed to sluggishness and agitation and because of all-helpfulness, the seven awakening factors are stated as just seven, neither less nor more. (b) First Method 1517. Now in order to point out their differing action through each having its own function in respect of the single object only, the passage beginning Tattha katamo satisambojjhango ? <227.5> {"Herein, which is the mindfulness awakening factor ?") is started. 1518. Herein, idha bhikkhu <227.6> {"here a bhikkhu") [means] a bhikkhu in this dispensation. Satimä hoti {"is possessed of mindfulness'9): he is possessed of mindfulness through mindfulness, as one is possessed of understanding through understanding, is possessed of fame through fame, is possessed of wealth through wealth; endowed with mindfulness is the meaning. 1519. Paramena {"with the highest"): with the utmost. For that, because of conformity with both nibbäna as truth in the highest sense and with the path, is called highest, utmost, foremost. Satinepakkena {"with mindfulness and prudence"): understanding is called prudence; with both mindfulness [312] and prudence is the meaning. 1520. But why is understanding included in this division dealing with mindfulness ? In order to indicate a strong state of mindfulness. For mindfulness arises both with and without understanding. When it arises with understanding, it is strong; when it arises without it, it is weak. That is why understanding is included in order to indicate a strong state. For just as two king's ministers might wait in two directions, and one of them might wait with a prince and the other relying on his own nature {dhammata), then of these, he who waits with the prince has both his own and the prince's strength; [but] he who waits alone is not equal in strength; so indeed, like the king's minister who waits with the prince is mindfulness arisen with understanding; like he who waits relying on his own nature is that arisen without understanding. Herein, just as the king's minister who waits with the prince has both his own and the prince's strength, so mindfulness arisen with understanding is strong. Just as he who waits alone is not equal in strength, so that which is arisen without understanding is weak. Thus understanding is included in order to indicate strength.

10. Classification of the A wakening Factors

29

1521. Cirakatam pi <227.7> ("what was long done"): what was done for long with his own or another's body, whether duties, or a kasina disk, or kasina preliminary work. Cirabhäsitam pi ("what was long spoken of"): talk on the Law or definition of meditation subjects coming under the heading of duties, or also talk on the Law coming under the heading of the sphere of deliverance, which is spoken of long and much with one's own or another's words. Saritä hoti5 ("he is one who recalls"): he is one who recalls that portion of immaterial states that occurred, originating bodily intimation and verbal intimation as "having arisen thus, it ceased thus". Anussaritä ("one who remembers"): one who recalls again and again. 1522. Ayam vuccati satisambojjhaögo <227.8> ("this is called the mindfulness awakening factor"): this mindfulness associated with insight which is arisen thus, and originates the remaining awakening factors, is called the mindfulness awakening factor. 1523. So tathä sato viharanto <227.9> ("he dwelling thus mindful"): that bhikkhu dwelling by being mindful with mindfulness arisen in that way. Tarn dhammam ("that state"): that state long done, long spoken of, of the kind stated above. Pafifiäya pavicinati6 ("investigates with understanding"): he investigates with understanding as impermanent, painful, no self. [313] Pavicarati6 <227.10> ("examines"): he examines by making understanding by way of Impermanence, pain and no self explore there. Parivimamsam äpajjati ("embarks upon a scrutiny"): enters upon a survey, a search. Ayam vuccati ("this is called"): this insight knowledge which originates awakening factors of the kind aforesaid, is called the investigation-of-states awakening factor. 1524. Tassa tarn dhammam <227.12> ("in him [who investigates ... ] that state"): for that bhikkhu [who investigates ... ] that state of the kind aforesaid. Araddham hoti <227.13> ("is initiated*9): is fulfilled, is exerted. Asallinam ("tireless"): tireless because of being initiated. Ayam vuccati ("this is called"): this energy which is associated with insight and originates awakening factors is called the energy awakening factor. 1525. Nirämisä <227.15> ("unworldly"): unworldly, purified due to the absence of the ämisä of sense desire, the ämisä of the world and the ämisä of the round of becoming. Ayam vuccati ("Ms is called"9): this rapture which is associated with insight and originates awakening factors is called the rapture awakening factor.

30

The Dispeller of Delusion

1526. Pitimanassa <227.17> ("of one whose mind is held in rapture"): of one whose consciousness is associated with rapture. Kayo pi passambhati ("the body ... becomes tranquillised"): the mental body called the trio of aggregates7 becomes tranquillised through the tranquillisation of the distress due to defilements. Cittam pi ("and the mind*'): also the consciousness aggregate becomes likewise tranquillised. Ayam vuccati <227.18> ("this is called"): this tranquillity which is associated with insight and originates awakening factors is called the tranquillity awakening factor. 1527. Passaddakiyassa sukhino <227.19> ("of one who is tranquillised in body and happy"): of one who has become happy through the happiness arisen due to the tranquillised state of the body. Samädhiyati ("becoming concentrated"): is rightly centred (sammaadhlyati), is placed immovably upon the object, becomes as though attained to absorption. Ayam vuccati ("this is called"): this onepointedness of mind which is associated with insight and originates awakening factors is called the concentration awakening factor. 1528. Tathäsamähitam <227.21> ("thus concentrated"): concentrated by that concentration which is as though attained to absorption. Sädhukam ajjhupekkhitä hoti ("he becomes one who looks on with complete equanimity"): he becomes one who looks on with thorough equanimity; without becoming involved,8 he looks with equanimity on the attainment and increase of those states. [314] Ayam vuccati <227.22> ("this is called"): this quality of a middle state which accomplishes the state of non-lagging and non-overrunning on the part of the six awakening factors, is called the equanimity awakening factor. 1529. What has been expounded up to this point ? It is insight which, neither previously nor subsequently but in a single conscious moment, is multiple in nature and characteristics and does not belong to the prior stage that is expounded as awakening factors. (c) Second Method 1530. Now he said satta bojjhaögä <227.23> ("seven awakening factors")^ etc. again, pointing out a second method for the purpose of showing the way of presentation (pariyäya) by which the seven awakening factors become fourteen.

10. Classification of the A wakening Factors

31

1531. Herein, this is the commentary on the new words. Ajj hat tarn dhammesu sati <228.2> ("mindfulness regarding internal states9*): mindfulness arisen in one laying hold of the internal (his own) formations. Bahiddhä dhammesu sati ("mindfulness regarding external states"): mindfulness arisen in one laying hold of the external formations. Yad api <228.3> ("vvAar") = yäpi; tad api ("that") = sä pi. Abhififiäya <228.4> ("to direct knowledge"): for the purpose of direct knowing as regards states to be directly known. Sambodhäya ("to full awakening"): it is the path which is called full awakening; for the purpose of the path, is the meaning. Nibbänäya ("to nibbäna"): it is craving which is called väna9 (= "lust"). "There is none out there" is nibbäna (= nir + väna). It conduces for the purpose of that; for the purpose of realisation of the unformed, deathless element, is the meaning. 1532. As regards the investigation-of-states awakening factor <228.7>, too, the method is the same. 1533. Käyikam <228.15> ("bodily"): the energy arisen in one who is resolved upon walking up and down. Cetasikam ("mental"): energy arisen without stirring the body thus: *I shall not interrupt this session as long as my mind is not liberated from the cankers through not clinging.' 1534. Käyapassaddhi <228.27> ("bodily tranquillity"): tranquillisation of distress in the three [mental] aggregates. Cittapassaddhi ("mental tranquillity"): tranquillisation of distress in the consciousness aggregate. 1535. As regards the equanimity awakening factor <228.39>, the definition is similar to that of the mindfulness awakening factor. 1536. In this method the seven awakening factors are expounded as mundane and supramundane mixed. 1537. But the Ancient Elders pointed out by going into detail that up to this point it was not clear. For among these, mindfulness, investigation and equanimity in respect of internal states, since they have one's own aggregates as object, are mundane only; likewise bodily energy which has not attained the path. On the other hand, rapture and concentration without applied and sustained thought [315] are supramundane. The rest are mundane and supramundane mixed. Herein, mindfulness, investigation and equanimity in respect of internal states have an internal object; but the supramundane [awakening factors] have an external object, thus the supramundane state must not be applied to

32

The Dispeller of Delusion

them. Also, one who says that the energy produced by occupation with walking up and down is mundane, does not run into trouble. 1538. When are rapture and concentration which are without applied and sustained thought supramundane ? Firstly, in the sense sphere the rapture awakening factor is found, but rapture without applied and sustained thought is not found. In the fine-material sphere, rapture without applied and sustained thought is found but the rapture awakening factor is not found. In the immaterial sphere it is not found in any form. But here even what is found is rejected on account of what is not found. Thus this rapture awakening factor which is without applied and sustained thought is excluded from the sense sphere and from the fine-material sphere and from the immaterial sphere; thus it is expounded as only that which belongs to the supramundane which has been produced. 1539. Likewise in the sense sphere the concentration awakening factor is found, but concentration without applied and sustained thought is not found. In the fine-material and immaterial spheres concentration without applied and sustained thought is found; but the concentration awakening factor is not found. But here even what is found is rejected on account of what is not found. Thus this concentration awakening factor which is without applied and sustained thought is excluded from the sense sphere and from the fine-material sphere and from the immaterial sphere; thus it is expounded as only that which belongs to the supramundane which has been produced. 1540. Furthermore, the supramundane is to be made by taking the mundane; and the mundane is to be made by taking the supramundane. For there is a time for the developing of the supramundane for mindfulness, investigation and equanimity regarding internal states. Herein, there is this sutta: * Internal liberation, friend, is the destruction of clinging, I say; thus these cankers do not inhere in him* (cf. S ii 54; Spk ii 63-4); according to this sutta they are supramundane. 1541. But when insight joins with the path while the bodily energy produced by the occupation of walking is still not quieted, then the energy is supramundane. 1542. But [with regard to] those Elders who say that the awakening factor being assumed10 in kasina jhäna, respiration jhäna and jhäna of the Divine Abodes is not to be excluded, according to their assertion the rapture and concentration awakening factors which are without applied and sustained thought are mundane.

10. Classification of the A wakening Factors

33

(d) Third Method 1543. [316] Now he said satta bojjhangä <229.1> ("seven awakening factors"), etc. again, showing the third method which occurs by way of the development of the awakening factors. 1544. Herein, this is the commentary on new words. Bhäveti <229.4> Che develops"): he increases; he again and again creates and produces in his own continuity. Vivekanissitam ("dependent on seclusion") = viveke nissitam. Seclusion is secludedness; it is fivefold, namely seclusion through substitution of opposites (tadangaviveka), through suppression (vikkhambhana), cutting off (samuccheda), tranquillisation (patipassaddhi) and renunciation (nissarana). 1545. Herein, seclusion through substitution of opposites is insight; seclusion through suppression is the eight attainments; seclusion through cutting off is the path; seclusion through tranquillisation is fruition; seclusion through renunciation is nibbäna, which has renounced all signs. Thus "dependent on seclusion" is dependent on this fivefold seclusion; "he develops the mindfulness awakening factor which is dependent on seclusion through substitution of opposites, dependent on seclusion through cutting off and dependent on seclusion through renunciation". This is the meaning to be understood. 1546. For this yogin who is devoted to the practice of development of the mindfulness awakening factor thus develops the mindfulness awakening factor at the moment of insight dependent on seclusion through substitution of opposites as to function, and dependent on seclusion through renunciation as to inclination; but at the time of the path [he develops it] dependent on seclusion through cutting off as to function, and dependent on seclusion through renunciation as to object. 1547. Some [say:] 'It is also dependent on the fivefold seclusion.' For they assume 10 the awakening factor not only at the moment of strong insight, path and fruition, but they also assume [it] in kasina jhäna, respiration, "foul" and Divine Abode jhäna which is the basis for insight; and they are not contradicted by the teachers of the commentaries. Therefore, according to their opinion, at the moment of occurrence of these jhänas it is also dependent on seclusion through suppression as to function, too. And it is said that at the moment of insight it depends upon the seclusion of renunciation as to inclination,

34

The Dispeller of Delusion

so it is correct to say that "he develops it dependent also on the seclusion of tranquillisation". 1548. So also with viräganissitam ("dependent on fading away"), etc. For fading away and so on have the same meaning11 as seclusion, only that here relinquishment (vossagga) is twofold, namely relinquishment as giving up and relinquishment as entering into. Herein, "relinquishment as giving up" is the abandoning of the defilements by substitution of opposites at the moment of insight, and by cutting off at the moment of the path. "Relinquishment as entering into" is the entering into nibbäna by inclination thereto at the moment of insight, and by making it the object at the moment of the path. Both of these alternatives are permissible in this method of commenting which is mixed mundane and supramundane. [317] For this mindfulness awakening factor thus gives up the defilements and enters into nibbäna in the aforesaid way. 1549. Vossaggaparinämim ("resulting in relinquishment"): by this whole phrase [which means] "changing12 and changed13, ripening and ripened for the purpose of relinquishment" what is said is this: "For this bhikkhu who is practising the development of the awakening factors develops the mindfulness awakening factor according as it is ripening for the purpose of relinquishment as the giving up of the defilements, and for the purpose of relinquishment as entering into nibbäna, and according as it has ripened already." So with the remaining awakening factors. 1550. In this method, too, the awakening factors are expounded as mixed mundane and supramundane. End ofSuttanta Division B. ABHIDHAMMA DIVISION 1551. In the Abhidhamma Division, with the answer after asking about the seven awakening factors together and with the answer after asking about them individually, there are two methods. The commentary to these should be understood according to the way stated above. 1552. But in the description of the equanimity (lit. "onlooking") awakening factor, upekkhä <230.12> ("equanimity"; lit. "onlooking") is through looking on (upekkhanä); upekkhanä ("looking on") is a mode of looking on. "It looks at, it does not stir up, states which are

10. Classification of the A wakening Factors

35

occurring evenly and are fit to be looked on [with equanimity] (upekkhitabbayutta)" is upekkhi ("equanimity" = "onlooking"); "it makes a person look on [with equanimity] (upekkhäpeti)" is upekkhanä Choking on"). Looking on which surpasses mundane looking on because of having reached the state of an awakening factor is ajjhupekkhanä ("looking on with complete equanimity"). Majjhattatä ("middleness") is a middle state (majjhattabhäva) through not engaging in any work;14 but in order to show that that is "of the mind" (cittassa), not of a being (sattassa), [he said] majjhattatä cittassa ("middleness of the mindy). This is the commentary on new words here. 1553. But here the methods must be counted. For in the answer after asking about the seven awakening factors together, <229.14> there are one thousand methods for each path; thus four thousand methods are distinguished. In the answer after asking about them individually <230.19>, there are four in respect of each awakening factor; thus the seven fours make 28. These together with the previous four make 32; thus in all thirty-two thousand methods are distinguished in the Abhidhamma Division, i.e. profitable only. 1554. But because also in the moment of fruition there are found the awakening factors <231.25>, and the fruitions of recluseship which have profitable root-causes, therefore in order to show the awakening factors in these, the method dealing with result (vipäka) is begun in the part of the text which is preceded by the description of the profitable. [318] This also is twofold with the answer after asking about them together and with the answer after asking about them individually. The rest here should be understood according to the aforesaid method. But as regards result, three times as many methods must be made as for the profitable. End of Abhidhamma Division C. QUESTIONNAIRE 1555. As regards the Questionnaire, the profitable, etc. state of the awakening factors should be understood in accordance with the Pali. 1556. But as regards the object triads, all these have a measureless object only, not path as object, because of occurring with reference to the measureless nibbäna. But here, by way of conascent cause, the

36

The Dispeller of Delusion

profitable have the path as cause. By making energy or investigation foremost at the time of developing the path, they have path as predominance. In the case of path development which has zeal or consciousness foremost, they are not to be spoken of as having path as predominance and at the time of fruition they are not to be so spoken of, too. 1557. As regards the past and so on also, they are not to be so spoken of, owing to the state of single object. But because of nibbäna being an external mental object, they have an external object. Thus in this Questionnaire also, awakening factors which belong only to the produced supramundane are expounded. For only in the first method of the Suttanta Division are the awakening factors expounded by the Blessed One as mundane; in the second and third they are [expounded as] mixed mundane and supramundane. But in the four methods in the Abhidhamma Division and in this Questionnaire they are supramundane only. Thus this Classification of the Awakening Factors is also taught, classifying it by showing three cycles. End of the Explanation of the Classification of the Awakening Factors

10. Classification of the A wakening Factors FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER TEN

37

LMAi83:Poränä. 2. Ee omits two expressions here [LSC]. 3. MA has sesabojjhangäni. 4. Nänamoli preferred to adopt the reading pätho from MA i 84 but the word "Pali" here probably represents an older usage. A Pali is simply a portion of the [sacred or canonical] text. Pali as the name of a language does not appear to be known earlier than the seventeenth century. The two alternative readings are (1) sabbatthika> taken as from sabba + atthika and interpreted as meaning "helpful to [the development of] all awakening factors" and (2) sabbatthaka, taken as from sabbattha ("everywhere" or "in each case") with a -ka suffix and interpreted as "belonging in each case" i.e. to be taught both when the mind is sluggish and when it is agitated. See DAT ii 372; DA iii 758; MA i 84; SA iii 171; Miln 38. Probably the atthakathä tradition originally followed reading two, but the MS tradition of the canonical text had reading one. Subsequent corrections have confused the readings in many cases [LSC]. 5. VbhA and Vbh (Ne; Ce 1952) read saritä hoti but PTS Vbh reads saritä [CMMS], 6. Vbh (Ee) has vicinati and pavicinati but Be and VbhA as here; so also M iii 85, Sv 68, etc. [CMMS]. 7. But cf. MA iv 143: Passambhatl ti käyika-cetasika-darathapatipassaddhiyä käyo pi cittam pi passambhatL 8. Ee has avyävata, Be has avävata; not in PED. 9. Mt: Vänan ti vinandhanam bhavädinam, gamanam vä piyarüpasätarüpesu. Väna means "tying to the existences, etc." or "going among attractive and pleasant things". The first explanation takes väna as meaning "weaving" as a metaphor for "craving". Nibbäna is then understood as "without weaving" i.e. "free from craving" [LSC]. 10. Uddharanti; not in this sense in PED. 11. Read vivekatthä. 12. Mt: at the moment of insight [LSC]. 13. Mt: at the moment of the path [LSC]. 14. Read abyäpäräpajjanena with Be and O; Ee reads vyäpädänä-.

CHAPTER ELEVEN CLASSIFICATION OF THE PATH (Maggavibhanga)
A. SUTTANTA DIVISION 1558. [319] Now in the classification of the path factors next to that, all beginning with [the words] ariyo atthangiko maggo <235.11> ("the Noble Eightfold Path'') should be understood according to the method stated in respect of the description of the path leading to the cessation of suffering in the Classification of the Truths (Saccavibhahga) (see above, §537 ff.). 1559. As regards the second method shown separately with reference to development, all beginning with [the words] sammäditthim bhäveti vivekanissitam <236.25> ("he develops right view dependent on seclusion") should be understood according to the method stated in respect of the Classification of the Awakening Factors (Bojjhangavibhahga) (see above, §1544). 1560. Thus this Suttanta Division with its two methods is expounded as mixed mundane and supramundane. End of Suttanta Division B. ABHIDHAMMA DIVISION 1561. In the Abhidhamma Division, atthangiko maggo <236.33> ("eightfoldpath9') is said without saying "noble" (ariyo). Although it is not so stated, it is nevertheless noble. For just as the child conceived in the womb of the anointed queen of an anointed king, although it is not called a prince, is nevertheless a prince; so, although this is not called "noble", it should nevertheless be understood as noble. Here, too, the rest should be understood according to the method stated in respect of the Classification of the Truths. 1562. Also as regards the fivefold section <237.41>, although "eightfold" is not said, it should nevertheless be understood as eightfold, for there is no supramundane path called fivefold. This is the agreed commentary of the teachers here.

11. Classification of the Path

39

1563. But a disputatious speaker (yitandavädiri) said: 'There is no supramundane eightfold path; it is fivefold only.' He, being told: 'Quote a sutta,' surely, seeing no other, will quote this passage from the Mahäsaläyatana Sutta: "The view of such a one is right view; the thinking of such a one is right thinking; the effort of such a one is right effort; the mindfulness of such a one is right mindfulness; the concentration of such a one is right concentration; but his bodily action, his verbal action and his livelihood have already been fully purified earlier" (M iii 289). 1564. Thereupon he should be told: 'Quote the passage next to that.' If he does so, it is good. If he does not quote it, having quoted it oneself thus: 'Thus does this Noble Eightfold Path come to perfection through development for him' (M iii 289), [320] he should be told: 'Your assertion is confuted by this teaching1 of the Master, and there is no supramundane path called fivefold; it is eightfold only. 1565. 'But these three factors occur previously purified, and at the moment of the supramundane path they become more purified. Then by this fivefold path, what purpose is taken up ? The purpose of showing functions more clearly. 1566. 'For at the time when he abandons wrong speech and perfects right speech, at that time there are not right action and right livelihood; it is only these five action-causing factors which abandon wrong speech. Also right speech does not perfect through abstention itself.2 1567. 'At the time when he abandons wrong action and perfects right action, at that time there are not right speech and right livelihood. It is only these five action-causing factors which abandon wrong action. But right action does not perfect through abstention itself. 1568. 'At the time when he abandons wrong livelihood and perfects right livelihood, at that time there are not right speech and right action. It is only these five action-causing factors which abandon wrong livelihood. But right livelihood does not perfect through abstention itself. This is taken as the "fivefold path" in order to show the extra function of these factors that cause action. But the supramundane path is eightfold only; there is no fivefold [path].' 1569. 'But if you say it is eightfold with right speech and so on, there are four kinds of volition for right speech, three kinds of volition for right action and seven kinds of volition for right livelihood; thus how will you escape from this plurality of volition ? Therefore the supramundane path is fivefold.'

40

The Dispeller of Delusion

1570. ' We shall escape from plurality of volition; and we shall say that the supramundane path is eightfold only.' He should be asked: 'Are you a preacher of the Mahä-cattälisaka (M iii 73) or not ?' If he says: 'I am not,' he should be told: 'You do not know because you do not preach it.' If he says: 'I am a preacher of it,' he should be told to quote it. If he quotes the sutta, it is good. 1571. If he does not quote it, it should be quoted by oneself from the Last Fifty [of the Majjhima Nikäya:] 'And which, bhikkhus, is right speech ? Right speech is twofold, I say. There is right speech that is subject to cankers, brings merit and has worldly results. There is right speech that is noble, free from cankers, supramundane and a factor of the path. And which, bhikkhus, is right speech that is [321] subject to cankers, brings merit and has worldly results ? Abstaining from false speech, abstaining from malicious speech, abstaining from harsh speech, abstaining from idle chatter — this, bhikkhus, is right speech that is subject to cankers, brings merit and has worldly results. 1572. 'And which, bhikkhus, is right speech that is noble, free from cankers, supramundane and a factor of the path ? Whatever is the shunning, refraining from, eschewing, abstaining from the four kinds of bad verbal conduct of one whose mind is noble, whose mind is freed from cankers, who is endowed with the path, who is developing the path — this, bhikkhus, is called right speech that is noble, free from cankers, supramundane and a factor of the path. 1573. 'And which, bhikkhus, is right action ? Right action is twofold, I say ... and has worldly results. And which, bhikkhus, is right action that is noble, free from cankers, supramundane and a factor of the path ? ... And which, bhikkhus, is right livelihood ? Right livelihood is twofold, I say ... and has worldly results. 1574. 'And which, bhikkhus, is right livelihood that is noble, free from cankers, supramundane and a factor of the path ? Whatever is shunning, refraining from, eschewing, abstaining from wrong livelihood of one whose mind is noble, whose mind is free from cankers, who is endowed with the path — this, bhikkhus, is right livelihood that is noble, free from cankers, supramundane and a factor of the path' (M iii 74 f.). 1575. So here it is simply abstention from the four kinds of bad verbal conduct, from the three kinds of bad bodily conduct and from wrong livelihood that is called 'noble, free from cankers, supramundane and a path factor'. Whence is there plurality of volition, whence a fivefold

11. Classification of the Path

41

path here ? This sutta shows you, who do not want it [so], that the supramundane path is eightfold.' If he agrees with this much, it is good. 1576. If he does not agree, he must be made to perceive by quoting other reasons. For this is said by the Blessed One: 'In that law and discipline, Subhadda, in which the Noble Eightfold Path is not found, there a recluse also is not found ... In this law and discipline, Subhadda, the Noble Eightfold Path is found, only here, Subhadda, is a recluse found ... Devoid of recluses are other dispensations' (D ii 151-2). And in several hundred other suttas also the path has been handed down as eightfold. 1577. Also it is said in the Kathävatthu: "'Of paths the eightfold is the best, • the four phrases the best of truths, Fading the best of mental states and of bipeds, he who sees' (Dh 273). [322] 'Is it affirmed that there is such a sutta ?' 'Yes.' 'Therefore the path is eightfold'." (Kvu XX 5). 1578. If, however, he does not accept the notion3 even with this much, he should be dismissed, [saying:] 'Go, enter the monastery and drink gruel!' But it is impossible that he will give any further reason. 1579. The rest is clear as to meaning. 1580. But here the methods must be counted. For as regards the eightfold path, after asking about [the eight factors] together <236.35>, in the answer [taking them] together four thousand methods are classified in respect to the four paths. As regards the fivefold path, after asking about [the five factors] together <238.1>, in the answer about them together, there are four thousand; and after asking about them separately <238.32>, in the answer about them separately, there are four thousand; thus in respect of the five factors there are twenty thousand. Thus with the first eight thousand and these twenty thousand, there are in all twenty-eight thousand methods classified in the Classification of the Path. And these are the profitable ones belonging to the produced supramundane only. 1581. But as regards the resultant kind, three times as many methods are to be counted as in the case of the profitable. End of Abhidhamma Division

42

The Dispeller of Delusion

C. QUESTIONNAIRE 1582. As regards the Questionnaire, the profitable, etc. state of the path factors should be understood in accordance with the Pali. 1583. But as regards the object triads, all these have a measureless object only, not path as object, because of occurring with reference to the measureless nibbäna. For neither the path nor fruition makes the path its object. But here, by way of conascent cause, the profitable have the path as cause. By making energy or investigation foremost at the time of developing the path, they have path as predominance. In the case of path development which has zeal or consciousness foremost, they are not to be spoken of as "having path as predominance", and at the time of fruition they are not so to be spoken of, too. 1584. As regards the past and so on also they are not to be so spoken of, owing to the state of having a single object. But because of nibbäna being an external mental object, they have an external object; thus in this Questionnaire also, path factors are expounded as only belonging to the produced supramundane. For only in the Suttanta Division are the path factors expounded by the Blessed One as mundane and supramundane. But in the Abhidhamma Division and in the Questionnaire they are supramundane only. Thus this Classification of the Path is also taught classifying it by showing three cycles. End of the Explanation of the Classification of the Path

11. Classification of the Path FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER ELEVEN

43

1. Reading satthusäsanena with C e [LSCJ. 2. The Translator seemingly follows a reading given in a note to Ee: Sammäväcä pi na say am virativasena pürati. But E c , C e and B e read Sammäväcä pana say am ... , which would have to be translated as follows: "But right speech perfects itself through abstinence". The same applies to the two parallel sentences in the following [Ny]. However, mt: na käräpakabhävena kattubhävena ca ti attho (cf. anut) supports the reading with na [LSC]. 3. O5 reads saftilattim na gacchati ("is not convinced") [LSC].

CHAPTER TWELVE CLASSIFICATION OF THE JHÄNAS (Jhänavibhanga)
A. SUTTANTA DIVISION (a) Schedule (Mätikä) 1585. [323] Now in the Classification of the Jhänas next to that, this Schedule is set forth immediately before the whole of the Suttanta classification. Herein, the word idha <244.1> ("here") is in order to indicate the dispensation which is the support of the person who has succeeded in what is to be done in the preliminary stage and has produced jhäna in all its aspects, and in order to deny such a state in any other dispensation. For this is said: 'Only here, bhikkhus, is there a recluse, here a second recluse, here a third recluse, here a fourth recluse. Devoid ofreclusesare other dispensations'1 (D ii 151; M i 63; A ii 238). 1586. Bhikkhu ("a bhikkhu") indicates the person who produces those jhänas. Pätimokkhasamvarasamvuto ("restrained in the Pätimokkha restraint"): this is to indicate his establishment in the Pätimokkha restraint. Viharati ("dwells"): this is to indicate his possession of [the quality of] dwelling in accordance therewith. Äcäragocarasampanno <244.2> ("with proper conduct as his resort"): this indicates states helpful to his above-mentioned Pätimokkha restraint and to his below-mentioned devotion to jhäna. Anumattesu vajjesu bhayadassävi ("seeing fear in the smallest fault77): this indicates the absence of a tendency to fall from the Pätimokkha restraint. Samädäya <244.3> ("by undertaking"): this indicates his undertaking of the precepts of training without reservation. Sikkhati ("he trains himself): this indicates his possession of the precepts of training. Sikkhäpadesu ("the precepts of training"): this indicates the things for him to train in. 1587. Indriyesu ("of the faculties"): this indicates the plane of his guarding the [sense-] doors; they say it indicates the location to be protected, too. Guttadvaro ("keeps the doors ... guarded"): this indicates his state of being provided with protection at the [sense-] doors. Bhojane mattaflfiü <244.4> ("knows the right amount in eating"): this indicates his contentment and other qualities.

12. Classification of the Jhänas

45

Pubbarattäpararattam jägariyänuyogam anuyutto ("devoted to the practice of wakefulness before the night and after the night"): this indicates that he is a doer.2 [324] Sätaccam nepakkam ("with perseverance, prudently"): this indicates his state of perseverance by means of energy laid hold of with understanding. Bodhipakkhikänam3 dhammänam bhävanänuyogam anuyutto <244.5> ("devoted to the practice of the development of the states partaking of enlightenment"): this indicates that his practice shares in penetration (nibbedhabhägiya). 1588. So abhikkante ... pe ... tunhlbhäve sampajänakäri hoti <244.6> ("he practises clear comprehension in moving forward ... keeping silent"): this indicates that he is endowed with omnipresent mindfulness and clear comprehension. So vivittam senäsanam bhajati <244.12> ("he frequents a secluded abode"): this indicates his getting a suitable abode.4 Arafifiam ... pe ... patisallänasäruppam ("theforest... suitable to retreat"): this indicates the benefit to him of freedom from danger in the different kinds of abode. 1589. So arafiflagato vä <244.16> ("he, having gone to the forest"): this indicates that he is provided with an abode of the aforesaid kind. Nisidati ("sits down"): this indicates that his posture is suitable for the task (yoga). Parimukham satim upatthapetvä <244.18> (^having established mindfulness in front of him"): this indicates the commencement of his task. 1590. So abhijjham loke pahäya <244.19> ("he, having abandoned covetousness regarding the world"9): this indicates his abandoning of the hindrances by practice of the meditation subject. When he has abandoned the hindrances, [the words] vivicc* eva kämehi ("aloof from sense desire"), etc., indicate his successive arousing of the jhänas. 1591. Furthermore, "here a bhikkhu" means a bhikkhu who arouses jhäna in this dispensation. Now, because the four kinds of virtuous conduct must be purified by a bhikkhu who arouses jhäna, therefore by the words "restrained by the Pätimokkha restraint" he points out the purity of the virtuous conduct of the Pätimokkha restraint. By "with proper conduct as his resort", etc., he points out the virtuous conduct of purity of livelihood. By "he trains himself by undertaking the precepts of training", etc., he points out the assumption without reserve of these two kinds of virtuous conduct. By "keeps the doors of the faculties guarded" he points out the virtuous conduct of restraint in

46

The Dispeller of Delusion

the faculties. By "knows the right amount in eating", he points out the virtuous conduct which is based on the requisites. 1592. By "in the first and last parts of the night", etc., he points out states which help the development of jhäna in one who is established in virtuous conduct. By "in moving forward", etc., he points out the practice of mindfulness and clear comprehension for the non-diminution of those states and for the non-confusion of the meditation subject. By "a secluded abode", etc., he points out the taking up of an abode suitable to development. [325] By "gone to the forest", etc., he points out both the posture suitable for jhäna for one who has gone to that abode and the beginning of his development of jhäna. By "having abandoned covetousness", etc., he points out the abandoning of states opposed to jhäna through the beginning of the development of jhäna. By "having abandoned these five hindrances", etc., he points out the order of arousing of all jhänas in him who has thus abandoned the states opposed to each jhäna. (b) Section of the Description (Niddesavara) 1593. Now idhä ti imissä ditthiyä <245.27> ("'here', in this view"), and so on, is begun in order to show the schedule as it has been set forth by classifying it successively. 1594. Herein, by the ten expressions beginning with imissä ditthiyä ("w this view"), etc, it is the Omnicient Buddha's Dispensation itself, called the three trainings, which is expounded. For that, due to being seen (dittha) by the Blessed One, the Buddha, is called view (ditthi); owing to his tolerating (khamana) it is tolerance (khanti), owing to choosing (ruccana) it is choice (ruci)\ owing to taking (gahana) it is creed (ädäya); it is Law (dhamma) in the sense of nature (sabhäva);5 Discipline (yinaya) in the sense of something to be trained in, Law and Discipline owing to both of those; it is word (pävacana) in the sense of being announced (pavutta); it is the Life of Purity (brahmacariya) in the sense of the best conduct (setthacariya); it is the Master's Dispensation (Satthusäsana) owing to the giving of instruction (qnusitthidäna). 1595. Therefore as regards the expressions beginning with imissä ditthiyä ("in this view") the meaning should be understood thus: "In this Buddha View, in this Buddha Tolerance, in this Buddha Choice, in this Buddha Creed, in this Buddha Law, in [this] Buddha Discipline, in this Buddha Law and Discipline, referred to thus: 'And those things,

12. Classification of the Jhanas

47

Gotami, of which you may know: "These things lead to lust, not to the fading away of lust; they lead to fettering, not to unfettering; they lead to amassing, not to dispersal; they lead to clinging, not to relinquishment;6 they lead to greatness of wishes, not to fewness of wishes; they lead to discontent, not to contentment; they lead to company, not to seclusion; they lead to idleness, not to energy; they lead to one's being difficult to support, not to one's being easy to support," you may remember, Gotami, without reserve, that this is not the Law, this is not the Discipline, this is not the Master's Dispensation. And those things, Gotami, of which you may know: "These things lead to the fading of lust, not to lust ... they lead to one's being easy to support, not to one's being difficult to support," you may remember, Gotami, without reserve, that this is the Law, this is the Discipline, this is the Master's Dispensation' (A iv 280-1; Vin ii 258-9; cf. A iv 143), in this Buddha Word, [326] in this Buddha Life of Purity, in this Buddha Master's Dispensation. 1596. Furthermore, this whole Dispensation called the three trainings, owing to being viewed by the Blessed One, owing to having Right View as its condition, owing to having Right View as its precursor, is "view"; through the Blessed One's tolerating, it is "tolerance"; through his choosing, it is "choice"; through his taking, it is "creed". It keeps (dhäreti) the doer of it from falling into the states of woe, thus it is Law (dhamma)\ it also puts away (vineti) what partakes of the defiled, thus it is Discipline (vinaya); it is Law and that is Discipline, thus it is Law and Discipline. 1597. This is the putting away (vinaya) of unprofitable states (dham ma) by means of profitable states (dhamma), thus it is LawDiscipline (dhamma-vinaya); hence it was said: 'And those things (dhamma), Gotami, of which you may know: "These things lead to the fading away of lust, not to lust . . . " you may remember, Gotami, without reserve, that this is the Law (dhamma), this is the Discipline (vinaya), this is the Master's Dispensation (satthusäsana).' Or the Discipline (vinaya) is by means of the Law (dhamma)> not by means of the rod, etc., thus it is Law-Discipline (dhamma-vinaya). 1598. And this is said: "Some do their training with the rod and with goads and whips as well;

48

The Dispeller of Delusion The näga with no rod or weapon has been tamed by the Greatest Sage" (Vin ii 196; cf. M ii 105 = Thag 878);

likewise: "In those led (niyamäna) by the Law (dhamma), what envy do they know ?" (S i 127; Vin i 43). 1599. Or Discipline (vinaya) for the Law (dhamma) is Law-Discipline; for this Discipline (vinaya) is for the purpose of the blameless state (dhamma), not for the advantage7 of enjoying existence. Hence in detail the Blessed One said: 'This life of purity, bhikkhus, is not lived for the purpose of deceiving people' (A ii 26; It 28; 29). Also the Elder Punna said: 'It is for the purpose of complete extinction through not clinging, friend, that one lives the Life of Purity under the Blessed One* (M i 148; 150; S iv 48). 1600. Or it leads away (nayati) to the distinguished (visittha)* [state], thus it is discipline (vinaya); the leading away (vinaya) from the state (dhamma) is Law-Discipline (dhammavinaya); for it leads away from the state of the round of rebirths or from the state of sorrow, etc., to the distinguished [state of] nibbäna.9 1601. Or it is the discipline (vinaya) of the Law (dhamma), not that of the ford-makers,10 thus it is Law-Discipline (dhammavinaya); for the Blessed One is the Law (dhammabhüta) and it is his discipline (vinaya), 1602. Or because it is only states (dhammä) that must be directly known, fully understood, abandoned, developed and realised, this is therefore Discipline (vinaya) in respect of states (dhammesu), not in respect of beings or souls, thus it is Law-Discipline (dhamma-vinaya). 1603. Owing to speaking (vacana) to others with the meaning and the letter, etc., it is the basic (padhäna)11 word (vacana); thus it is the word (pavacana); pavacana is the same as pavacana. Owing to the state of being the most distinguished of all ways of life, it is the Life of Purity (brahmacariya). [327] It is the dispensation of the Blessed One who is the master of deities and men, thus it is the Master's Dispensation (satthusäsana); or the dispensation that has become the master is the Master's Dispensation; for [according to the passage:] 'The Law, Ananda, and the Discipline taught and explained to you by me will be your master in my stead' (D ii 154), it is the Law and Discipline itself

12. Classification of the Jhänas

49

that is called Master. Thus should the meaning of these words be understood. But because it is only in this dispensation that a bhikkhu who produced jhäna in all aspects is to be found, not elsewhere, therefore it should be understood that here and there this qualification is made with the words "by this" (imissä) and "in this" (imasmim). This is the meaning of the description of the word "here" (idha) in the schedule.12 1604. In the description of bhikkhu <245.32> ("a bhikkhu"), samaflMya ("by designation") means by a concept, by appellation; for it is by the designation only that someone is made known as a bhikkhu. Likewise when in an invitation and the like bhikkhus are being counted, including the novices they say "a hundred bhikkhus" or "a thousand bhikkhus". 1605. Pattflfläya ("by claim"): by their own claiming; for it is by claim that someone is made known as a bhikkhu. Its origin is to be seen in such passages as: '"Who is there V 'It is I, a bhikkhu, friend'" ( ); but because this was said by the Elder Änanda, it is arightfulclaim. But at night, and in the case of those of bad conduct, when it is asked of those coming in the opposite direction: 'Who is there ?' it is with an unrightful claim and untruthfully that they answer: 'We are bhikkhus.' 1606. Bhikkhati <245.33> ("he begs"): he asks for (yäcati); whoever seeks and looks for alms (bhikkhä), whether he gets it or not, still he is a bhikkhu because he begs (bhikkhati). 1607. Bhikkhako13 ("a beggar"): the word is augmented by a suffix; the meaning is that he is a bhikkhu through having the nature of begging (bhikkhana). 1608. Bhikkhäcariyam ajjhupagato <245.34> ("he has consented to the almsround"): he is called one who has consented to the almsround because of having consented to the almsround consented to by the Enlightened Ones, and so on. For anyone who has abandoned a small or a large fortune and gone forth from the home life into homelessness, leaving behind the livelihood of a farmer or cowherd by accepting the mark (linga; i.e. of a homeless one), is one who has consented to the almsround and is thus a bhikkhu; or one who eats food carried (käjabhatta) to the monastery because of his livelihood being dependent on others, is one who has consented to the almsround and is thus a bhikkhu. Or depending on food consisting of the dropping of lumps into the bowl (pindiyälopa) because of its originating from the

50

The Dispeller of Delusion

force of going forth, he is one who has consented to the almsround and is thus a bhikkhu. 1609. He wears cloth which is spoilt (bhinna) in value, touch and colour, thus he is a bhinnapatadhäro Ca wearer of spoilt cloth"). Herein, the spoiling of the value should be understood as done by cutting with a knife. For a cloth worth a thousand [coins] which is cut in bits and pieces with a knife [328] is spoilt in value; it is not worth half its former value. The spoiling of the touch should be understood as [done] by sewing with thread. For a cloth which is pleasant to touch, on being sewn with thread is spoilt in touch and acquires a rough touch. The spoiling of the colour should be understood as done by stains of needlework, etc. For a perfectly clean cloth is spoilt in colour by needlestain starting with the needlework, and with spots and drops of sweat from the hands and in the end with dyeing and making the obligatory mark; it loses its original colour. Because of wearing cloth spoilt in these three ways, he is a wearer of spoilt cloth, thus he is a bhikkhu. Or simply by the wearing of discoloured (käsäva) [clothes] dissimilar to the clothes of the layman he is a wearer of spoilt cloth, thus he is a bhikkhu. 1610. Bhindati päpake akusale dhamme ti bhikkhu <245.35> Che breaks evil unprofitable things, thus he is a bhikkhu"): with the Path of Stream Entry he breaks five defilements, thus he is a bhikkhu. With the Path of Once Return, four; with the Path of Non-Return, four; with the Arahat Path he breaks eight defilements, thus he is a bhikkhu. Up to this point the four established in the paths (maggattha) are pointed out. 1611. Bhinnattä <245.36> Cowing to the brokenness"): by this the four established in the fruitions (phalattha) [are indicated]. For the Stream Enterer is established [as such] after he has broken the five defilements with the Path of Stream Entry; the Once Returner [after breaking] four with the Path of Once Return; the Non-Returner [after breaking] four with the Path of Non-Return. The Arahat is established as such after breaking eight defilements with the Arahat Path. Thus the four established in the fruitions are called a bhikkhu owing to the brokenness of evil, unprofitable things. 1612. Odhiso kilesänam pahänä <246.1> ("vv/fA the abandoning of the defilements according to limitation"): here there are two kinds of limitation (odhi), path limitation (maggodhi) and defilement limitation (kilesodhi) (cf. MA i 172 f.); limitation (odhi) is a boundary (simä) or a

12. Classification of the Jhänas

51

confine (mariyädä). Herein, the Stream Enterer is a bhikkhu with the abandoning of defilements by limitation according to path limitation. For the defilements are abandoned in him according to limitation by means of one out of the four paths, not by the whole set of four paths. So also with the Once Returner and Non-Returner. And the Stream Enterer is a bhikkhu with the abandoning of the defilements by limitation according to defilement limitation. For the defilements are abandoned in him only according to the limitation of the defilements to be abandoned, not all entirely. 1613. But the Arahat is anodhiso kilesänam pahänä bhikkhu Ca bhikkhu with the abandoning of the defilements without limitation"). For in him the defilements are abandoned without limitation by the four paths, not with limitation to a single path, and they are abandoned without limitation among the defilements to be abandoned. For there is not a single boundary consisting of a defilement remaining. Thus he is a bhikkhu with the abandonment of the defilements without limitation in both ways. 1614. Sekkho <246.2> ("a trainer"): together with the worthy ordinary man the seven kinds of noble who train in the three kinds of training are trainers; any trainer among these should be understood as a bhikkhu. [329] One who does not train is asekkho ("a non-trainer"); he is established in the highest fruition, having passed beyond the things to be trained in. Because of the absence of what is to be trained in beyond that, one whose cankers are destroyed is called a non-trainer. The remaining kind of ordinary bhikkhu neither trains in the three trainings, nor stands after having trained in them; thus he is nevasekkha-näsekkho ("neither a trainer nor a non-trainer"). 1615. Owing to having reached and established the acme of virtuous conduct, the acme of concentration, the acme of understanding, the acme of liberation, he is aggo bhikkhu <246.3> Cone who has reached the acme is a bhikkhu"). Bhadro Cthe auspicious one"): one who is not evil. For the worthy ordinary man and so on are reckoned as bhadro bhikkhu Cthe auspicious one is a bhikkhu"), owing to being possessed of virtuous conduct, concentration, understanding, liberation and knowledge and vision concerning liberation, until they are Arahats. 1616. Mando bhikkhu <246.4> Cone with the cream is a bhikkhu"): a pure (pasanna) bhikkhu; the meaning is, like cream of ghee which is unturpid and quite pure (yippasanna). Säro Cone with essence"): owing to being possessed of the same essences of virtuous conduct, etc. as a

52

The Dispeller of Delusion

cloth is blue through the possession of blue, he should be understood as säro bhikkhu Cone with the essence is a bhikkhu")\ or, owing to the state of being free from the sap-wood of the defilements, only one whose cankers are destroyed should be understood as säro ("heart wood"). 1617. And herein, in the three instances, namely, "he breaks evil, unprofitable things, thus he is a bhikkhu",14 "with the abandoning of the defilements according to limitation he is a bhikkhu" and "a trainer is a bhikkhu", the seven kinds of trainers are expounded. In the five instances, namely, "owing to the brokenness of evil unprofitable things he is a bhikkhu",14 "with the abandoning of the defilements without limitation he is a bhikkhu", "the non-trainer is a bhikkhu", "one who hasreachedthe acme is a bhikkhu", "one with [the purity of) cream is a bhikkhu", only one whose cankers are destroyed is expounded. In the case of "neither a trainer nor a non-trainer", only the ordinary man is expounded. In theremaininginstances, all, namely the worthy ordinary man, the seven trainers and the non-trainer, are expounded. 1618. Having thus pointed out a bhikkhu by means of designation (samafifiä), etc., he now said samaggena saäghena <246.4> ("by the Order in agreement") and so on in order to show him by means of the admission [to the Order] (up as amp ado). Herein, samaggena sanghena ("by the Order in agreement") means [the Order] which has come to agreement about a single act because of the arrival of as many bhikkhus as are concerned with the act, in an act to be done by a group of five as the smallest division of all, because of the votes of those fit to vote having been brought, and because of there being no objection among those present,ftatti-catutthena<246.5> ("which becomes an enactment at the fourth time of asking"): to be done by three trials and one enactment. Kammena ("by an act"): by a lawful act of the Vinaya. [330] Akuppena ("incontrovertible"): having acquired unshakability and unexceptionability owing to being possessed of success in the basis, enactment, trials, boundary and assembly. Jhänärahena ("worthy of the reason"): worthy of the cause (karana), worthy of the Master's Dispensation. 1619. Upasampanno ("admitted'): entered on (samdpanno) the higher state (uparibhäva); arrived is the meaning. For the bhikkhu state is the higher state and upasampanno ("admitted") is said owing to having entered upon it by means of the aforesaid act. Of the eight kinds of admission, namely, "come-bhikkhu" admission, admission by going for

12. Classification of the Jhänas

53

refuge, admission by receiving instruction, admission by answering questions, admission by acceptance of weighty things, admission by an emissary, admission by eight reciters and admission by an act which has enactment as fourth, only the three, namely, admission by an act which has enactment as fourth, admission by an emissary and admission by eight reciters, are extant; the others were only at the time when the Enlightened One was present. Among those kinds of admission in this instance it is only the admission by an act which has enactment as fourth that is intended. 1620. In the description of Pätimokkha restraint, Pätimokkham <246.7> is the virtue of the training precepts; for it frees (mokkheti) him who protects ipäti) it, who guards it, it sets him free (mocayati) from the pains of the states of woe, etc. That is why it is called Pätimokkha. Silam patitthä ("virtuous conduct, establishment") and so on are synonyms for it. 1621. Herein, as to silam ("virtuous conduct"), certainly this is a synonym for the Pätimokkha which succeeds together with the end of the announcement of the act (kammaväca). This being so, as to its nature, this virtuous conduct should be understood as the states consisting of volition and so on in one who abstains from killing living things, etc., or who fulfils the practice of the [bhikkhu's] duties. For this is said in the Patisambhidä: "What is virtuous conduct ? There is virtuous conduct as volition, virtuous conduct as conscious concomitant, virtuous conduct as restraint, virtuous conduct as nontransgression" (Ps i 44). 1622. Herein, virtuous conduct as volition is the volition of one who abstains from killing living things, etc., or who fulfils the practice of the duties. Virtuous conduct as consciousness concomitant is the abstention (virati) of one abstaining from killing living things, etc. Furthermore, virtuous conduct as volition is the seven volitions [that accompany the first seven] of the [ten] courses of action (kammapatha) of one who abandons killing of living things, etc.; virtuous conduct as conscious concomitant is the [three remaining] states consisting of non-covetousness, non-ill will andrightview, stated in the Mahä Vagga of the Samyutta, in the way beginning with: "By abandoning covetousness he dwells with mind free from covetousness" (see also M i 181). 1623. Virtuous conduct as restraint: here restraint should be understood in five ways, namely, Pätimokkha restraint, restraint by mindfulness,

54

The Dispeller of Delusion

[331] restraint by knowledge, restraint by patience and restraint by energy. Its various aspects are given in the Visuddhimagga (Vis Trsl. 18; see also MA i 62). Virtuous conduct as non-transgression is the non-transgression by body or speech of one who has undertaken virtuous conduct. 1624. And here it should be understood that virtuous conduct as restraint and virtuous conduct as non-transgression are virtuous conduct literally (nippariyäyato); virtuous conduct as volition and virtuous conduct as conscious concomitant are virtuous conduct figuratively (party ayato)}5 1625. But because one is established (patitthäti) in the bhikkhus' dispensation by means of the Pätimokkha restraint, therefore it is called patitthä ("establishment"). Or the bhikkhu finds support (patitthahati) here; or as only profitable things find support here, it is establishment. This is the meaning to be understood according to the suttas: "By being established in virtuous conduct a man has understanding. When a bhikkhu, ardent and prudent, Develops his mind and understanding, He disentangles this tangle" (S i 13; 165; Miln 34). Also: 'Virtuous conduct, Majesty, is the foundation of all profitable things' (cf. Miln 33) and: 'In one who is established in virtuous conduct, Majesty, all profitable things escape diminution' (Miln 33) and soon. 1626. It is the idi ("beginning") in the sense of first arising. This also is said: 'Therefore, Uttiya, purify the beginning as regards profitable things. What is the beginning of profitable things ? Virtuous conduct well purified16 and straight view' (S v 166). For just as the builder of cities17 who wants to mark out a city first cleans up the site of the city, and after that, later on, he marks out the city by dividing it up into the divisions of streets, crossroads, squares, etc., so indeed the meditator at the beginning cleans up virtuous conduct; after that, later on he realises tranquillity, insight, path, fruition and nibbäna. 1627. Or just as a dyer first washes the cloth in the three kinds of dye, and when the cloth is clean he dips it in any kind of dye he likes. Or just as a clever painter who wishes to paint a picture, at the beginning does the preliminary work on the wall and after that, later on, he creates the

12. Classification of the Jhänas

55

picture — so indeed the meditator at the beginning cleans up his virtuous conduct and after that, later on, he realises the states beginning with tranquillity and insight. Therefore virtuous conduct is called the beginning. 1628. This, because of its resemblance to feet, is called carana ("foot"): for the feet (päda) are called carana. And just as for a man whose feet are cut off there does not come to be any planning to go in any direction, though there does for one who has his feet, so indeed when one's virtuous conduct is broken, interrupted, unfulfilled, [332] one's going to knowledge does not bring about the going to nibbäna; but when it is unbroken, uninterrupted and fulfilled, one's going to knowledge does bring about the going to nibbäna. Therefore virtuous conduct is called foot. 1629. This, owing to curbing (yamana), is samyamo <246.8> ("cwö"); owing to restraining (samvarana) it is samvaro ("restraint"); and by both of them virtuous conduct as curb and virtuous conduct as restraint are expounded. The word-meaning here is this: it curbs the going astray of transgression,18 or it curbs a person and does not allow his going astray by transgression, thus it is samyamo ("curb"). It restrains, bars the door of entry of trangression, thus it is samvaro ("restraint"). 1630. Mukham ("the foremost"): the supreme (uttama); or become a mouth (mukha). For just as the four kinds of nutriment enter by beings' mouths and become diffused throughout their limbs, so the yogin's profitable [states] of the four planes enter by the mouth of virtuous conduct and bring about the success of the purpose. Hence it is called mokkham. Admirable in the forefront is pämokkham 19 C"principal"); foremost, best, basic factor, is the meaning. 1631. Kusalänam dhammänam samäpattiyä ("for the attainment of profitable states"): it should be understood as the foremost, best, basic factor and is principal for the purpose of obtaining profitable [results] of the four planes. 1632. Käyiko avitikkamo <246.10> ("bodily non-transgression") is the threefold good conduct of body. Vicasiko ("verbaT') is the fourfold good conduct of speech. Käyikaväcasiko <246.11> ("bodily and verbal") is both of these. By this he points out the full inclusion of virtuous conduct with livelihood as eighth. 1633. Samvuto <246.12> ("restrained"): shut; with faculties restrained means with faculties shut. For just as a house with doors

56

The Dispeller of Delusion

closed (samvuta) is called a closed house (samvutam geham)y so here one who has his faculties restrained (samvuta) is called restrained (samvuta). Pätimokkhasamvarena ("by the Patimokkha restraint"): by the Patimokkha and by the restraint, or by the restraint called Patimokkha. Upeto ("furnished with") and so on have the meaning aforesaid»20 1634. By the seven words beginning with iriyati <246.15> ("bears himself), there is expounded the dwelling in a posture of a bhikkhu who stands in the virtuous conduct of Patimokkha restraint.21 1635. In the description of äcäragocara ("proper conduct and resort"), although the Blessed One is desirous of explaining the good conduct of the recluse and the resort of the recluse, with the words äcäragocarasampanno ti atthi äcäro atthi anäcäro <246.17> ("possessed of proper conduct and resort, there is what is proper conduct and there is what is improper conduct") he extracts the terms. 1636. But just as a man skilled in roads, when describing a road, says: * Leave the left, take the right,' and he first describes the dangerous, wrong road to be left [333] and afterwards describes the safe, straight road to be taken, so indeed the King of the Law, like the man skilled in roads, having first described the improper conduct loathed by the Buddhas and to be abandoned, and being desirous of describing proper conduct afterwards, said Tattha katamo anäcäro ? <246.19> ("Herein, which is improper conduct ?") and so on. For the road described by the man may berightor it may not; but the road described by the Tathagata is certain and, as unerring as a thunderbolt loosed by Indra, goes only to the city of nibbäna. Hence it was said: 'The man skilled in roads, Tissa, is a term for the Tathagata, the Accomplished, Fully Enlightened One' (S iii 108). 1637. Or because the undertaking of good things isrightin one who has abandoned bad things, like decorating and arranging with such things as garlands and scents and unguents in one who has got rid of sweat stains and dust by bathing his head, therefore having first described improper conduct to be abandoned, like the sweat stains and dust, and being desirous of describing proper conduct afterwards, like the decorating, etc. with garlands, scents, unguents, etc. in one who has got rid of sweat stains and dust, he said Tattha katamo anäcäro ? ("Herein, which is improper conduct ?") and so on. 1638. Herein, käyiko vitikkamo < 246.20> ("bodily transgression") is the threefold bad conduct of body; väcasiko vitikkamo ("verbal

12. Classification of the Jhänas

57

transgression") is the fourfold bad conduct of speech; käyikaväcasiko vitikkamo ("bodily and verbal transgression") is both of these. Thus he points out the transgression of [the whole of] virtuous conduct with livelihood as eighth. But because one does not only conduct oneself improperly by body and speech but also mentally, therefore he said: Sabbam pi dussllyam anäcäro <246.21> ("also all misconduct is improper conduct") in order to point that out. 1639. Herein, he said: Idh* ekacco veludänena <246.22> ("here someone by gift of bamboos") and so on in order to show improper conduct by classifying it in specific cases. 22 Herein, veludänena ("by gifts of bamboo") means by gift of bamboo as cause of getting requisites. For it is not allowed to give to supporters bamboo grown or brought from the forest and kept and guarded in a monastery [thinking:] 'Thus they will give me the requisites,' since one who makes a living thus lives improperly by wrong livelihood. He acquires blame here and now, and in the existence to come he comes to states of woe. One who gives his own personal bamboo for the sake of favouring families commits the [offence of] wrong-doing of corrupting families. He who gives another's with consciousness of stealing should be judged according to the value of the goods. So also with what belongs to the Order. 1640. But if he gives it owing to arrogance,23 [334] he commits the offence of disposing of heavy goods. 24 But what sort of bamboo is heavy goods and which is not ? Firstly, of that which is not planted and growing wild, only that which is in a place delimited by the Order is heavy goods, apart from that it is not. In a place which is planted it is all heavy goods. But that is delimited by size. That the size of an oil tube is heavy goods, below that it is not. But a bhikkhu who needs an oil tube or a walking stick should take one, performing compensation work (phätikamma). And compensation work is permissible if it is of the same value or in excess; if less it is not permissible. Manual work consisting either of mere water-carrying or of mere weeding is not permitted. It is permitted if [such work is] substantial. Therefore it is permitted to take it by getting mud out of a pool or spreading it on steps or levelling an uneven place. 1641. When taken without compensation work, it can only be used by one who dwells there. When one goes away, one should hand it over to the Order, put it down and go. One who takes it out of absentmindedness, and goes and remembers [in the place] where he has gone

58

The Dispeller of Delusion

to, should take it back from there. If there is danger in between, he should put it down in the monastery he has arrived at and go. 1642. People go to a monastery and ask for bamboos; the bhikkhus do not venture to give [any, saying:] 4It belongs to the Order.' People ask again and again, or threaten; then it is permitted to the bhikkhus to say: Take it and do some work as a penalty,' and there is then no gift of bamboo. If as a penalty they give a knife or a hatchet, etc., or food to chew and eat, it is not permissible to accept it. But in the Vinaya commentary it is said: "People who take it and go when their house has been burnt down are not to be prevented". 1643. If [a plant pest that] spoils the bamboo25 appears in a bamboo grove belonging to the Order, then, if they are not cut, the bamboo will be destroyed. What is to be done ? It should be told to people on the almsround. If they do not want to cut them, they should be told: 'You shall get half.' If they still do not want, they should be told: 'You shall get two parts.' When they still do not want, they should be told: 'There is no use in what is destroyed, you will do the penalty work when you have time; knock them down and take them.' Then there is no gift of bamboo. And when fine has broken out in a bamboo grove or bamboos are carried away by water, the same applies. 1644. And as regards trees, this same procedure is the way. But a tree the size of a wooden bar [for a door] is [considered to be] heavy goods. It is allowed to cut down trees belonging to the Order without asking the Order in order to make a dwelling belonging to the Order, [335] but for the purpose of forestalling argument, it ought to be done only after asking. 1645. Is it allowed to do so to make a personal dwelling or not ? It is not allowed. But under the heading of manual work, as much as a bedplace in one house is allowed. One house in three is allowed. If the framework is personal and the ground belongs to the Order, an equal portion is allowed by making one house. One house in two is allowed. 1646. Is it permitted to remove, without asking the Order, trees belonging to the Order which are damaging a dwelling belonging to the Order ? It is permitted, but for the purpose of forestalling argument it ought to be removed only after asking. If there is great gain to the Order which is dependent on the tree, it should not be removed. 1647. When a personally-owned tree is damaging a dwelling belonging to the Order, the tree's owner should be informed. If he does not want to remove it, it should be caused to be cut down and removed. To one

12. Classification of the fliänas

59

who objects: 'Give me the tree/ the price should be given after having the tree valued. When a tree belonging to the Order is damaging a personally-owned dwelling and a personally-owned tree is damaging a personally-owned dwelling, the method is the same. 1648. And as regards a creeper, this same procedure is the way. But a creeper is [considered to be] heavy goods where it is hard to get in the place where it is sold if it starts from half the size of the arm. A piece of creeper below that is not heavy goods. 1649. As regards gifts of leaves, etc., all should be understood according to the method stated in respect of gifts of bamboos, beginning with: "pattadänena <246.22> ("fry gifts of leaves") means by gifts of leaves as cause of getting requisites". But here this is the definition as regards being heavy goods; for a leaf too in a place where the leaf is sold, [and where] they take the stalks, etc. for dressings of sores, etc., is only heavy goods in such places where they are hard to get. This too is the definition in such cases as kimsuka leaves, palmleaf (tälapatta) ear ornaments and the like. The palm leaf (tälapanna) also is to be expounded in this place. A palm leaf in a palm wood growing wild is only heavy goods in a place delimited by the Order, not beyond that. As regards planted palms, all is heavy goods. Its size at the lower end is an empty clay mould26 measuring eightfingerbreadths. 1650. And grass should be expounded by inserting it here. But where there is no grass, they thatch with muHja straw and with coconut leaves; therefore these are also included under "grass". So as regards muüja grass, etc., any grass measuring a fist,27 and as regards coconut leaves, one [336] leaf which is given to the Order or which grows there, or grass which grows on the Order's grassland outside the monastery and which is guarded and protected, is heavy goods. But it is permissible to give that when work for the Order and work on a shrine is done, and exceptionally in the case of personal work. This is the same as in the aforesaid case of bamboos. 1651. As regards pupphadäna <246.23> ("gifts of flowers"), flowers are heavy goods only in such definite instances as: "By giving away the flowers on so many trees, let them bring offerings of rice gruel and cooked rice; [by giving away those] on so many trees, let them bring [material for] the repair of dwellings". On the other shore,28 novices pick the flowers and make a heap. A bhikkhu29 possessed of the five factors as distributor of flowers counts up the Order and apportions them. He is allowed to give them to the assembly when it has arrived

60

The Dispeller of Delusion

without asking the Order. By one who is not authorised to do so, however, they should be given only after asking. 1652. But to whom is a bhikkhu allowed to give flowers and to whom not ? He is allowed to give them to his mother and father, bringing them to the house or when sent for from the house, [asking them:] 4 Make an offering in kind.'31 He is not allowed to give them for the purpose of adornment. He should not give them to other relatives by bringing them [to their house]; but he may give them when sent for, saying: 'Make an offering.' He should give them to other people when they have arrived at the place of offering, expecting nothing [from them]. [In that case it does] not [constitute a] "giving of flowers" (pupphadana). 1653. There are many flowers in bloom in a monastery; then it can be said by a bhikkhu on almsround when he sees people: 'There are many flowers in bloom in the monastery, make an offering!' There is no fault in the mere words; but it must not be said with the thought: 'People will come with hard and soft food.' If he says it, he must not eat the hard and soft food. 1654. People of their own accord, having asked: 'Are there flowers at the monastery ?', say: 'On such and such a day we will come to the monastery. Do not let the novices pick the flowers.' The bhikkhus have forgotten to speak to the novices. The flowers have been picked and stacked by the novices. The people come to the bhikkhu, and having done so, they say: 'Venerable sir, we told you we were coming on a certain day and [asked you] not to let the novices pick theflowers.Why did you not stop them ?' They should be told: 'I forgot. Theflowersare merely picked as yet and have not yet been offered.' They should not be told: 'Take [them] and offer.' But if he says it, he must not use the material [offerings brought by the people]. 1655. Another bhikkhu tells the novices: 'The inhabitants of such and such a village said: "Do not pick the flowers.'" [337] People after bringing material and making a gift say: 'Our people are not many. Tell the novices to pick the flowers together with us.' They should be told: 'Alms have been received by the novices. Those who do not go on almsround will themselves know, lay followers.' Having obtained so much indication, [the lay followers] made the novices their sons or brothers. Then there is no fault in having the flowers picked; it is not called "a gift offlowers"{pupphadana).

12. Classification of the Jhänas

61

1656. As regards phaladäna ("gifts of fruit"), a fruit is determined as heavy goods in the same way as a flower. In a monastery there are many fruits of various kinds. Unpleasant people come and ask for them. Bhikkhus endeavour not to give them, saying: 'They belong to the Order.' The people are annoyed and abuse and curse. What is to be done in that case ? An agreement should be made by delimitation according to the fruits or according to the trees, and those taking a specified number of fruits from this tree and that tree32 or those taking all the fruits from a specified number of trees should not be prevented. But robbers or a lord taking them by force should not be prevented. For if they were angered they would wreck the whole monastery. But the danger should be expounded. 1657. As regards sinänadäna ("gifts of bathing powder"): pounded bath powder is not heavy goods; only unpounded tree bark is heavy goods. But powder as dye infusion is permitted to one who is not sick; to one who is sick any kind of powder is permitted. And clay too should be expounded by adding it here. And clay is only heavy goods where it is hard to get. And that at the lower limit only of the size of a lump of molasses of thirty palas [in weight]; below that it is not heavy goods. 1658. As regards dantakatthadäna ("gifts of tooth sticks"), the tooth stick is only heavy goods when not cut up. The novices to whom the tooth-stick turn33 arrives from the Order are not allowed to give [them] individually to their own teachers and preceptors; but those to whom their duty has been limited thus: "So many tooth sticks are to be brought", they are allowed to give the excess to their teachers and preceptors. Many tooth sticks are not to be taken from the tooth-stick repository by one bhikkhu. One is to be taken singly each day. One living separately should, after counting the Order of Bhikkhus, take only as many as are due to him and go. If visitors have come in the meantime, or [338] if one [bhikkhu] goes away, the [tooth sticks] should be brought [back] and put in the place they were taken from. 1659. As regards cätukamyatäya <246.24> ("flattery"), etc., speech by which one places oneself in a low place like a slave, exerts oneself solicitously and appeases another's censorious talk, is called "flattery". 1660. Muggasüpyatäya ("by 'bean-soupery'"): this is a term for gaining livelihood by distortion of truth, owing to resemblance to bean soup. For just as when bean soup is cooking, many beans get cooked and a few do not, so indeed in a person who gains a livelihood by distortion of truth, much becomes distorted and little is true. Or just as

62

The Dispeller of Delusion

there is no place where bean soup does not penetrate, so indeed there is no speech of a person who lives by distortion of truth which is not penetrated [by it]; just as a square acts as a foundation to support whatever is desired (sihghätaka). Hence that false speech of his is called "bean-soupery". 1661. Päribhattyatä <246.25> ("fondling") is the state of the act of fondling. For the fondler's act is the act of fondling; the state of that is "fondling". This is a term for amusing children by decorating, etc. 1662. JaAghapesanika ("going on errands on foot") is the carrying and returning of messages for various laymen, between villages or between districts. For this going on errands on foot is permitted by way of going anywhere with a message for one's own parents or for those who support one's parents. It is permitted to carry a message to builders who are building a shrine or doing work for the Order or for oneself. People say: 'We shall give a gift, we shall make an offering; tell the Order of Bhikkhus'; or they give almsfood or medicine or the three robes, saying: 'Give it to such and such an elder,' or they hand over garlands, perfumes, unguents, etc. or flags and banners, saying: 'Make an offering (püjä) in the monastery'; it is permitted to cany all this and it is not called "going on errands on foot". For one who goes with a message for others, there is a fault for each step. 1663. Afifiatarafifiatarena ("by any"): by any one of these gifts of bamboos and so on, or by any kind of wrong livelihood of such kinds of activities to make a living as practice of medicine, storekeeper's work [for laymen], reciprocatory begging. [339] or service for raising an Order or raising a shrine. Buddhapatiku^hena <246.26> ("condemned by the Buddhas"): censured, prohibited34 by the Buddhas. 1664. Ayam vuccati <246.27> ("this is called'): all this is expounded as improper conduct. 1665. The description of acira <246.28> ("proper conduct") should be understood in the opposite way to that stated above. 1666. As regards the description of gocara ^proper resort"), the reason for the term "improper resort" (agocara) coming first should be understood in the same way as that stated above.35 And here, gocaro ("proper resort") is a place fit to be approached for the purpose of almsfood, etc.; a place which is unfit is agocaro <246.38> ("improper resort"). 1667. "A prostitute is his resort" is vesiyägocaro <247.1> ("has a prostitute as his resort"); a place to be approached36 for friendly

12. Classification of the Jhänas

63

intimacy, is the meaning. Herein, prostitutes are those who make a living by their looks.37 One who approaches them because sexual intercourse, friendly intimacy and affection are easily obtained by anyone at all [from them] is called one who "has a prostitute as a resort". Therefore to approach [them] in this way is not permissible. For what reason ? Because of failure in guarding. For by such a [wrong] approach the recluse's state that has long been guarded and protected is lost in a few days. And even if it is not lost, he receives blame. But if he approaches [such a resort] for an offering [made to benefit departed ones],38 he should do so after establishing mindfulness. 1668. One whose husband is dead or whose husband is away (pavuttha) is a vidhavä {"widow"). Thullakumäriyo <247.2> Cold maids"): grown up unmarried maids. Pandakä ("eunuchs") are the sexless (napumsaka)y much given to talk based on worldly advantage, whose defilements are prominent, whose passion is unabated. The danger in approaching all these should be understood in the way aforesaid. 1669. So also as regards bhikkhunis. Furthermore, bhikkhus give prominence to the life of purity; likewise bhikkhunis. Through intimacy with each other, in a few days they destroy the recluse's state which has been guarded and protected. But it is permitted for one who enquires after the sick to go. It is permitted, too, to go for the purpose of making an offering of flowers received and for the purpose of giving instruction. 1670. Pänägäram <247.3> ("tavern") is a house for drinking liquor. That is not secluded from those addicted to liquor who cause obstruction to the life of purity. [340] It is not permitted to approach it together with these, as [if one were] a co-addict; it is an obstruction to the life of purity. 1671. As regards samsattho viharati rijfihi ("he dwells in company with kings, etc"): kings anointed or unanointed are those who govern a kingdom. Räjamahämattä ("king's ministers") are those possessed of great authority similar to that of kings. Titthiyä ("sectarians") are wandering ascetics outside [the dispensation] with mistaken views. Titthiyasävaka <247.4> ("sectarians' disciples") are those who give them requisites out of devotion. "He becomes one who keeps company with those" is the meaning. 1672. Ananulomikena samsaggena ("in company which is not in conformity"): company which is not in conformity with, is opposed to, the three kinds of trainings (sikkhä)39 is called "company not in

64

The Dispeller of Delusion

conformity", whereby one comes to obstruction to the life of purity, transgression of the observances40 and decline of effacement.41 That is to say, he is one who sorrows and rejoices together with kings and kings' ministers; sharing their joys and sorrows and concerning himself with affairs and tasks which crop up; he comes to have the same intentions, opinions and behaviour as the sectarians and their disciples, [treating them with] affection, respect and intimacy. 1673. Herein, company with kings and kings' ministers causes obstruction to the life of purity; with the others [it is] the acquisition of their beliefs. But it is permitted for one to approach them who is capable of confuting their assertions and bringing about the acceptance of his own belief. 1674. Now in order to point out an improper resort in another way, there follows the passage beginning yäni vä pana tani <247.5> ("or those [families] which"). Herein, assaddhäni (''without faith") is devoid of faith in the Buddha, etc.; they have no faith that the Buddha is omniscient, that the Law leads forth, that the Order is well conducted. Appasannäni <247.6> ("without trust"), they are not able to make their minds trustful and untroubled. Akkosakaparibhäsakäni (''abusive and railing") = akkosakäni ce va paribhäsakäni ca; the meaning is: they abuse with the ten examples of abuse thus: 'You are a robber, you are a fool, you are an idiot, you are a buffalo, you are an ox, you are an ass, you belong to the states of woe, you belong to hell, you belong to the animal world, there is no happy destiny for you, only a wretched destiny is to be expected!' and they rail by threatening thus: 'Let it be, now, we will beat you, [341] tie you up, throw you out'. 1675. Anatthakämäni <247.7> ("wishing harm"), they do not wish good, they wish only harm. Ahitakämäni ("wishing misfortune"): they wish only misfortune, they do not wish welfare. Aphäsukämäni ("wishing unhappiness"): they do not wish happiness, they wish only unhappiness. Ayogakkhemakämäni ("wishing what is not surcease of bondage"): they do not wish freedom from fear and safety from the four bonds, they wish only what is fearful. 1676. Bhikkhünam <247.8> ("for bhikkhus"): here novices are also included. Bhikkhumnam ("for bhikkhunis"): here female probationers and novices are included; for they wish harm to all the four assemblies, both those who have gone forth under the Blessed One and those who have gone for refuge. Tathärüpäni kuläni <247.9> ("such families"): such families i.e. Khattiya families and those of the other castes.

12. Classification of the Jhänas

65

1677. Sevati ("cultivates"): lives dependent upon. Bhajati ("frequents"): approaches. Payirupäsati ("attends upon"): approaches again and again. Ayam vuccati <247.10> ("this is called"): this should be understood as the unfit resort of three kinds thus, namely, those beginning with the prostitute in one who has a prostitute, etc. as his resort, those beginning with the king in one who keeps company with kings, etc. and those beginning with the family without faith in one who cultivates a family without faith, etc. 1678. By this method the impropriety of his resort should be understood: firstly that beginning with the prostitute should be understood as an improper resort owing to dependence on the five cords of sense desire, according as it is said: 'And what, bhikkhus, is not a bhikkhu's resort [but] the domain of others ? It is the five cords of sense desire' (S v 147; Nd i 474). That beginning with the king, owing to its not being a decisive support (upanissaya) for one practising jhäna, owing to its producing the thunderclaps of gain and renown,42 and owing to the leading astray in views. That beginning with the family without faith is an improper resort owing to diminution of faith and loss of mental contentment. 1679. In the description of gocara <247.11> ("proper resort"), na vesiyä-gocaro <247.12> ("has not a prostitute as his resort") and so on should be understood in the opposite way to that stated above. 1680. But as regards the expressions beginning with opänabhfitäni <247.17> ("who are a solace"), opänabhütäni means those who are a well, easy for the Order of Bhikkhus to approach and leave like a pond dug at a crossroads — like the house of the minister Citta. It seems that a time pillar (kälatthamba) [342] was attached to his house. There was never any lack of requisites for bhikkhus who came to the door of his house. The medicine for a single day cost sixty kahapanas. 1681. Käsävapajjotäni ("glowing with the yellow cloth"): shining solely with the radiance of the yellow cloth worn43 by bhikkhus and bhikkhunls, like the family of the millionaire Bhütapäla. 1682. Isivätaparivätäni ("fanned with the breeze of sages"): fanned, wafted, or shaken free of wickedness by the breeze of the robes of the sages called bhikkhus and bhikkhunls entering and coming out of the house and with the breeze produced by the bending and stretching of their bodies, etc.

66

The Dispeller of Delusion

1683. In the description of the state of seeing fear in the smallest fault, anumattä <247.25> ("the slightest") means the size of an atom (anuppamäna). Vajjä ("faults"): blemishes (dosa). 1684. Yäni yäni vajjäni <247.27> ("those faults which are"): those faults, in the sense of being reprehensible, which are. Appamattakäni ("little"): minute, of small size. Oramattakani ("minimal"): owing to minuteness, owing to minimum size, they are minimal. Lahusäni ("light") = lahukäni. Lahusammatäni <247.28> ("reckoned as light") = lahü ti sammatäniM 1685. Samyamakaraniyäni ("that may be committed while curbing"): those which should be corrected, which may be committed while curbing. Samvarakaranlyäni45 ("they may be committed while restraining"): those which may be committed by one who is restraining; those which should be corrected, which may be committed while restraining. Cittuppädakaraniyäni <247.28> ("that may be committed in the arousing of a thought"): those which should be corrected which may be committed in the mere arousing of a thought. 1686. Manasikärapatibaddhä ("bound up with the bringing to mind"): those which should be corrected which may be committed through what is merely adverted to by the mind. But when asked: 'Which are these ?* the Elder Summa, the dweller in the Dibba Monastery46 (Dibbavihäraväsi-Summatthera) said: "Those which do not lead to an offence, which consist in the mere arousing of a thought and which are purified by mere adverting by the mind thus: "I shall not do so again." It is the manifestation of resolution (adhitthäna) which is spoken of.' But his pupil, the Elder Tipitaka Cüla Näga, said: 'This is the classification of virtuous conduct of Pätimokkha restraint; therefore it should be understood that the very lightest [offence of] wrong-doing and wrong speech is to be avoided here. It is the manifestation of emergence which is spoken of.' 1687. Iti imesu <247.30> ("thus in these"): in these of such kinds. Vajjadassävi <247.31> ("seeing a fault"): has the habit of seeing as a fault, as a blemish. [343] Bhayadassävi ("seeing fear"): has the habit of seeing as fear because of the reason for the four kinds of fear.47 Ädlnavadassävi ("seeing danger"): has the habit of seeing danger of various kinds, namely, as bringingreproachhere, as resulting in future suffering, as a cause of obstruction to higher qualities and as producing remorse.

12. Classification of the Jhänas

67

1688. Nissaranadassävi <247.32> ("seeing escape"): has the habit of seeing what is the escape herefrom. But what is the escape here ? According firstly to the Elder's assertion of the teacher, since there is [here] no leading to an offence, it is the manifestation of resolution that is spoken of as the "escape". According to the Elder's assertion of the pupil, since there is leading to an offence it is the manifestation of emergence that is spoken of as the "escape". 1689. Herein, such a bhikkhu sees the slightest faults as faults and as fear. To show this, a method [by way of measures of length] is stated: paramänUy anu> tajjärl, ratharenu, likkhä, ükä, dhahilamäsa, ahgula, vidatthi, ratana, yatthi, usabha, gävuta, yojana. Herein, a paramänu ("fundamental particle") as a portion of space does not come into the focus of the physical eye; it only comes into that of the divine eye. An anu ("atom") appears circling round and round in the sun's rays coming in through cracks in walls and palmyra leaves. A tajjärl, being broken in cattle tracks, human tracks and wheel tracks, remains heaped up on both sides. A ratharenu adheres here and there. Likkhä and so on are clear. 1690. But as regards these, 36 paramänus are the size of one anu; 36 anus are the size of one tajjärl; 36 tajjärls are one ratharenu; 36 ratharenus are one likkhä; seven likkhäs are one ükä; seven ükäs are one dhahflamäsa; seven dhahhamäsas are the size of one ahgula ("finger breadth"); a vidatthi ("span") is twelve breadths of that ahgula; two vidatthis are a ratana; seven ratanas are a yatthi; twenty of that yatthi are one usabha; eighty usabhas are a gävuta; four gävutas are a yojana ("league"); sixty-eight thousand48 yojanas according to that [measurement of a] yojana is the height of Mount Sineru, king of mountains. 1691. The bhikkhu who is able to see a fault the size of an anu to be as big as Mount Sineru, king of mountains, being sixty-eight thousand yojanas high, is called one who sees the slightest faults as fear. And the bhikkhu [344] who is able to see the very lightest wrong-doing (dukkata) and mere wrong speech (dubbhäsita) as like the first defeat (päräjika) is called one who sees the slightest faults as faults and as fear; it should be understood in this way. 1692. In the word explanation of samädäya sikkhati sikkhäpadesu <248.1> ("he trains himself by undertaking the precepts of training"), bhikkhusikkhä <248.3> ("bhikkhus' training") is the training to be trained in by bhikkhus; that which is common to bhikkhunis and that

68

The Dispeller of Delusion

which is not common to bhikkhunis are alike called bhikkhu training. Bhikkhunisikkhä <248.4> ("bhikkhunis' training") is the training to be trained in by bhikkhunis; that which is common to bhikkhus and that which is not common to bhikkhus are alike called bhikkhuni training. The training of novices, female probationers and female novices is included here too. 1693. Upäsakasikkhä Clay devotees' training") is the training to be trained in by lay devotees. That may be taken as the five precepts and the ten precepts. Upäsikäsikkhä <248.5> ("woman devotees' training") is the training to be trained in by woman devotees. That too may be taken as the five precepts and the ten precepts. 1694. Herein, the bhikkhus' and the bhikkhunis' training may be taken as extending up to the Arahat path. The training of the lay devotees and woman devotees [may be taken as extending] up to the Non-Return path. Herein, this bhikkhu trains only in the training precepts to be trained in by himself. The remaining kinds of training, however, are stated so as to show the purpose of the remaining training precepts49 by tracing out the meaning. 1695. Iti imäsu sikkhäsu ("thus as regards these trainings"): as regards these trainings of such kind. Sabbena sabbam <248.6> ("altogether" — lit. "all by all"): all training is to be trained in by all those undertaking the training. Sabbathä sabbam ("entirely" — lit. "in all ways"): all training in every aspect of training. Asesam nissesam ("without remainder, with no remainder"): without remainder owing to the absence of remainder, with no remainder owing to the restoring to its original state again when a training precept has been broken by a lapse of mindfulness. Samädäya vattati <248.7> ("proceeds after undertaking"): proceeds having taken up, having grasped. 1696. Tena vuccati ("hence it is said"): it is on account of the reason whereby, by taking up every training precept, he trains in and fulfils it in every aspect to be trained in, that it was said: "He trains himself by undertaking the precepts of training". 1697. In the description of the two phrases indriyesu guttadväro <248.9> ("keeps the doors of the faculties guarded") and bhojane mattafifiu <249.4> ("knows the right amount in eating"), the purpose of announcing the dark side first should be understood in the same way as stated above in the case of proper conduct.

12. Classification of the Jhänas

69

1698. Herein, as regards Katamä indriyesu aguttadväratä <248.11> {"What is not keeping the doors of the faculties guarded ?") and so on, what should be said has all been said in the commentary to the Description Section (Nikkhepakanda) [of the Dhammasahgani] (Dhs §§1345-8; Asl 399-405). 1699. [345] In the description of jägariyänuyoga <248.22> ("practice of wakefulness") here, as to pubbarattäpararattam ("before the night and after the night"), the period before the part of the night called midnight is "before the night"; by this both the first watch and the period after the meal are included. The period after that part of the night is "after the night"; by this both the last watch and the period before the meal are included. But the middle watch is not included as being the time for the dispelling of the bhikkhus' sleep and weariness. 1700. Jägariyam ("practice of wakefulness") is practice of wakefulness as being the state of not sleeping. Anuyutto (^devoted to"): he is devoted to, joined to, that cultivation, development called practice. 1701. But in its description by the words idha bhikkhu divasam <249.24> ("here a bhikkhu by day") the three parts of the day are included, namely, morning, noon and evening. Cankamena nisajjäya awhile walking and sitting"): one who dwells the whole day in only this pair of postures, purifies the mind from mental obstruction, from states productive of obstruction and from thefivehindrances orfromall unprofitable states, he cleanses it, liberates it from those states. But here standing is not included; but it should be included too by making it connected with walking and sitting. 1702. Pathamayämam <249.25> ("in the first watch"): in the whole first watch. Majjhimayämam <249.27> ("in the middle watch"): in the middle watch called a sixth portion of the night and day. 1703. Sihaseyyam <249.28> ("in the lion's sleeping position"): here there are four sleeping positions, the sleeping position of one who enjoys the sense desires, the ghosts' sleeping position, the lion's sleeping position and the Tathagata's sleeping position. 1704. Herein, the sleeping position of one who enjoys the sense desires is this: * Mostly, bhikkhus, beings who enjoy the sense desires sleep on the left side' (A ii 244); for among these there is mostly no lying down on therightside. 1705. The ghosts' sleeping position is this: 'Mostly, bhikkhus, ghosts sleep face upwards' (A ii 244); for ghosts are beings with little flesh

70

The Dispeller of Delusion

and blood and, consisting of skeleton, are unable to lie down on one side; they sleep face upwards only. 1706. The lion's sleeping position is this: 'Mostly, bhikkhus, the lion, king of beasts, puts his tail between his legs and sleeps on his right side ... is glad' (A ii 245);50 for owing to prominence of the fire [element] the lion, king of beasts, places his two fore feet in one place and places his hind feet in one place, he puts his tail between his legs, [346] he observes the position of his fore feet, hind feet and tail, he places his head on the top of his two fore feet and sleeps. And on waking up after sleeping in the day he does not wake in fright. But he discerns the position of his fore feet, etc. If anything is out of place he is downcast, thinking: 'This is not becoming to your birth nor to your bravery,' and he remains lying there, he does not go out to his resort. But if nothing is out of place he is happy and contented, thinking: 'This is becoming to your birth and to your bravery,' and getting up he stretches with the lion's stretch, shakes his mane and after roaring the lion's roar three times, he goes to his resort (cf. AA iii 218). 1707. But it is the sleeping position of the fourth jhäna that is called the Tathagata's sleeping position. Among these [four sleeping positions] it is the lion's sleeping position which has been handed down at this point; for this is called the supreme sleeping position because of being the posture which has prominence of the fire element. 1708. Pädc pädam {"with one foot overlapping the other"): the left foot on the right foot. Accädhäya51 ("overlapping") = ati-ädhäya, placed one a little beyond the other. For when the ankle presses on the ankle and the knee on the knee, [painful] feeling continually arises, the mind is not one-pointed and the sleeping position is uncomfortable. But since he does not make them press, when they are thus placed a little beyond, [painful] feeling does not arise, the mind is one-pointed and the sleeping position is comfortable. Hence it is said "with one foot overlapping the other". 1709. Sato sampajäno ("mindful and clearly comprehending"): being possessed of both mindfulness and the understanding of clear comprehension. By this is expounded mindfulness and clear comprehension that lays well hold52 [of its object]. Utthänasafifiam manasikäritvä <249.29> ("bringing to mind the perception of [the time for] arising"): having established in his mind perception of arising which has decided the hour of arising thus: 'I shall arise at such and

12. Classification of the Jhänas

71

such an hour,' since one who has lain down after so doing is bound to arise at the time decided on. 1710. Sätaccam <249.33> nepakkam <249.35> ("with perseverance and prudently"): the meaning is that while joined to, devoted to, producing, both the energy called perseverance (sätacca) because it should perpetually (satatam) be maintained and the understanding called prudence (nepakka) because of its having got quite matured (paripäkagata)f he dwells devoted to the practice of wakefulness. And here energy is expounded as mixed mundane and supramundane. And the kind of understanding goes with the kind of energy; for when energy is mundane it is mundane and when energy is supramundane it is supramundane, is the meaning. 1711. Bodhipakkhikänam53 dhammänam <249.33> ("of the states that partake of enlightenment"): [347] of states which are on the side of path knowledge called enlightenment regarding the four truths. At this point he said satta bojjhangä <249.40> ("the seven enlightenment factors") including all the 37 states partaking of enlightenment together in one lump and showing the enlightenment factors in particular as capable of occurrence together with a single object even in mundane development.54 These should be understood to be expounded as mixed mundane and supramundane only. The rest here is plain in meaning since the method was explained above.55 1712. In the description of abhikkante <250.5> ("in moving forward") and so on, [as regards] abhikkante pa^ikkante ("in moving forward and moving backward') here firstly going frontwards is called "moving forward" and retreating is called "moving backwards". Both are to be found in all the four postures. Firstly, in walking, one who carries the body forward "moves forward", one who turns backward "moves backward"; in standing, one who bends the body forwards as he stands also "moves forward", and one who bends the body backwards "moves backwards"; in sitting, one who, while sitting, moves towards the front part of the seat "moves forward", and one who moves backwards to the rear part "moves backwards". So, too, in lying down. 1713. Sampajänakäri hoti <250.6> ("practises clear comprehension"): he is one who performs every function with clear comprehension; or he is one who is a doer of clear comprehension only. For in moving forward and so on, he does only clear comprehension; he is nowhere lacking in clear comprehension.

72

The Dispeller of Delusion

1714. But because that clear comprehension only exists in association with mindfulness, hence in its description sato sampajino abhikkamati, sato sampajino patikkamati <250.12> ("mindful and clearly comprehending he moves forward, mindful and clearly comprehending he moves backward') is said. For this one when moving forward or moving backward is not lacking in mindfulness and not without clear comprehension; but being possessed of mindfulness and clearly comprehending only with understanding he both moves forward and moves backward. 1715. He causes the four kinds of clear comprehension to enter into all [the functions] beginning with moving forward. For clear comprehension is of four kinds, namely, (1) clear comprehension of benefit (sätthaka-sampajafMa), (2) clear comprehension of suitability (sappäya-sampajaMa), (3) clear comprehension of resort (gocarasampajaflfla) and (4) clear comprehension through non-delusion (asammoha-sampajaflfla). 1716. Herein, (1) "clear comprehension of benefit" is the choosing of the beneficial as soon as the thought of moving forward arises, that is, by choosing between the beneficial and the non-beneficial thus: 'What will come of my going ? Is there any benefit or not V and not going as the immediate consequence of the thought itself. 1717. And herein, benefit is increase from the standpoint of the dhamma through seeing a shrine, seeing a Wisdom Tree, [348] seeing the Order, seeing Elders, seeing the foul, etc.; for by arousing rapture with the Buddha as object on seeing a shrine or Wisdom Tree ... or with the Order as object on seeing the Order, one who comprehends that rapture by contemplating it in regard to [its nature of] disappearing, reaches Arahatship. On seeing Elders and basing oneself on their advice, by seeing the foul and arousing the first jhäna therein, one who comprehends that jhäna by contemplating it in regard to [its nature of] disappearing, reaches Arahatship. That is why seeing these is beneficial. But some56 say: 'Material increase is beneficial too, because it is helpful in furthering the Life of Purity.' 1718. (2) "Clear comprehension of suitability" is the choosing of the suitable by choosing between the suitable and the unsuitable in the course of going; for example, the seeing of a shrine is, in the first place, beneficial. But if a large assembly from within a radius of ten or twelve leagues gathers for the purpose of a great offering (puja) and women and men go about adorned and made up according to their means, like

12. Classification of the ßtänas

73

painted images, and there greed in respect of desirable objects or annoyance in respect of undesirable objects, or delusion through want of consideration arises in him, either he commits the offence of bodily contact, or there comes to be an obstacle to the life of purity, thus that place is unsuitable. In the absence of any obstacle of the kind stated it is suitable. So, too, in the case of seeing a Wisdom Tree. 1719. Seeing the Order is beneficial. But if people are attending an allnight hearing of the Dhamma having had a large pavilion put up inside the village [for that purpose], and there are both a large crowd and an obstacle of the kind stated, thus that place is unsuitable. In the absence of an obstacle it is suitable. So, too, in the case of seeing Elders who are surrounded by a large assembly. 1720. Seeing the foul is beneficial. And this story illustrates that meaning. A young bhikkhu, it seems, went with a novice to get toothsticks. The novice went down from the path and as he went forward he saw a foul [corpse]; he produced the first jhäna and, making that the basis [for insight], he realised the three [lower] fruitions by comprehending the formations, and he stood laying hold of the meditation subject for the highest path. The young bhikkhu, not seeing him, called out: 'Novice!' Thinking: 'Since the day I went forth I have never been called twice when with a bhikkhu; so I will produce the higher distinction on another day,' the novice called back: 'What, Venerable Sir ?' 'Come,' he was told; he did so at once and said: 'Venerable Sir, go first by the way I went [349] and stand a while facing north in the place I stood in and look.' He did so and he reached the distinction reached by that [novice]. Thus one foul [corpse] came to be of benefit to two people. 1721. But although this was thus beneficial, nevertheless a female foul [corpse] is unsuitable for a man and a male foul [corpse] is unsuitable for a woman. It is only suitable when of the same [sex]. Thus the choosing of the suitable is called "clear comprehension of the suitable". 1722. (3) But "clear comprehension of resort" is the going of one who has chosen thus what is beneficial and suitable and who, out of the 38 meditation subjects, takes up the resort called the meditation subject which is agreeable to his own mind, and takes this with him on the resort which is his alms-round. 1723. For the purpose of making this clear, the following tetrad should be understood: here, (a) one bhikkhu carries (harati) [his meditation subject] forth [on the alms round but] does not carry it back (na

74

The Dispeller of Delusion

paccäharati), (b) another does not cany it forth but carries it back, (c) another neither carries it forth nor back, (d) another carries it both forth and back. 1724. Herein, (a) there is the bhikkhu who by day purifies his mind while walking and sitting of things productive of obstruction (see M i 273 f.) and likewise in the first watch of the night.57 In the middle watch he sleeps; after spending the time in the last watch of the night walking and sitting, as early as possible after performing the duties on the shrine terrace and Wisdom Tree terrace and sprinkling the Wisdom Tree with water and placing [water] for drinking and washing, he sees to the accomplishing of all the duties that are prescribed in the Khandhakas [of the Vinaya] as duties to teacher and preceptor, etc. After seeing to the care of the body, he enters his resting place and by warming up in two or three sittings (dve tayo pallahke usumam gähäpetvä) he yokes himself to his meditation subject. Then he gets up when it is time to go for alms and with his meditation subject uppermost in his mind he takes his bowl and robes and comes out of his resting place and goes to the shrine terrace, keeping his meditation subject in mind. 1725. If his meditation subject is the recollection of the Buddha, then he enters the shrine terrace without laying it aside. If his meditation subject is another, he stops at the foot of the staircase and, placing it there as though it were goods carried in the hand, he acquires rapture with the Buddha as object and ascends to the shrine terrace. If the shrine is large he should circumambulate it three times, keeping it on his right, and pay homage in four places. If it is small, circumambulating it likewise, keeping it on his right, he should pay homage in eight places. After paying homage to the shrine, when he reaches the Wisdom Tree, he should pay homage to the Wisdom Tree showing humility as though he were in the presence of the Enlightened One, the Blessed One. And after thus paying homage at the shrine and the Wisdom Tree, he goes to the place where he left [his meditation subject] and, as though taking up the goods left there, [350] he takes up the meditation subject he had deposited; and on nearing the village, with his meditation subject uppermost in his mind, he puts on his robe and enters the village for alms. 1726. Then people on seeing him say: 'Our noble one has come,' and they go to meet him and, taking his bowl, they seat him in the sitting hall or in a house and give him rice-gruel. And after they have washed

12. Classification of the Jhänas

75

his feet and annointed them, they sit in front of him until the rice is finished and ask questions or want to hear the Dhamma. The Teachers of the Commentary say: 'Even if they do not get him to preach, a sermon on the Dhamma should still be preached for the purpose of helping the people;' for there is no sermon on the Dhamma which is apart from a meditation subject. Therefore, after preaching Dhamma with the meditation subject uppermost in his mind, he makes use of the nutriment and gives the benediction, and he leaves the village followed by the people in spite of his telling them, and there [at the village gate] he sends them back and sets out on his path. Then the novices and young bhikkhus who had left before him and had had their meal outside the village, on seeing him, go to meet him and take his bowl and robe. 1727. The bhikkhus in ancient times, it seems, performed the duty without looking in the [Elder's] face to see whether he was their preceptor or teacher; they did it in order of arrival. They asked him: * Venerable Sir, what are these people to you ? Are they maternal relatives or paternal relatives ?' 'What did you see that you ask this ?' 'Their affection and respect for you.' 'Friends, what is difficult for parents to do, these people do for us. Even our bowls and robes come from them. Thanks to them we know no fear in time of fear, nor hunger in time of hunger. There are no people so helpful as these.' And as he goes along he talks of their qualities. This one is said to "carry it forth but not to carry it back". 1728. (b) But when in one who performs as early as possible the aforesaid various kinds of duties there flares up58 [in his body] kammaborn fire [element] which, leaving the not grasped-at materiality (anupädinnaka), seizes upon the grasped-at (upädinnaka), and sweat pours from his body and the meditation subject will not mount its track, then as early as possible he takes his bowl and robes and after hurriedly paying homage at the shrine he enters the village to get an offering of rice-gruel at the time when the cattle are setting out and, on getting the rice-gruel, he goes to the sitting hall and drinks it. Then by his swallowing just two or three times only the kamma-produced fire element lets go the grasped-at materiality [351] and seizes upon the not grasped-at. 1729. Having achieved the quenching {nibbana) of the fever due to the fire element, like one bathed with a hundred water pots, he makes use of the [remaining] rice-gruel with the meditation subject uppermost [in his mind]; he washes the bowl and his mouth and, bringing his

76

The Dispeller of Delusion

meditation subject to mind between meals, he wanders for alms in the remaining places, and he makes use of the nutriment with the meditation subject uppermost in his mind. After that he comes [back] with the meditation subject uninterruptedly established. This one is said "not to carry it forth but to carry it back". And such bhikkhus who, after drinking rice-gruel, have set insight afoot and have reached Arahatship in the Enlightened One's dispensation are past counting. In the Island of the Sinhalese itself there is not a seat in the sitting halls of the various villages where a bhikkhu has not reached Arahatship after drinking rice-gruel. 1730. (c) But one who dwells in negligence, who has laid aside the burden, who has broken [the observance of] the duties and who lives with his mind bound by the five Bonds of the Mind (see M i 101 f.), enters the village for alms without showing a sign of a meditation subject and he wanders in contact with unbecoming lay company and after eating he leaves as one devoid [of virtue]. This one is said "neither to carry it forth nor back". 1731. (d) But he who is said "to carry it both forth and back" should be understood according to the "duty of going forth and back" (gatapaccägatavatta). For clansmen desirous of welfare, who have gone forth in the dispensation and live ten, twenty or fifty together, come to an agreement thus: 'Friends, you have not gone forth because of debts or because of fear or from want of a livelihood but you have gone forth out of desire for deliverance from suffering. Therefore restrain while walking the defilement that arises while walking, restrain while standing .. while sitting ... restrain while lying down the defilements that arise while lying down' (cf. M i 21). When they go wandering for alms after making such an agreement, where there are stones at intervals of half an usdbha, an usabha, half a gävuta or a gävuta, while aware of these they go keeping the meditation subject in mind. 1732. If a defilement arises in anyone while going he restrains it on the spot. If he cannot he stops; then the one coming behind him stops also. He [in front] reproves himself thus: 'This bhikkhu knows the thought that has arisen in you, this is unbecoming to you,' and by increasing insight alights upon the Noble Plane. Likewise if he is unable to do so he sits down. Then the one coming behind him sits down also; and so on in this way. [352] Also, if he is unable to alight upon the Noble Plane, he suppresses that defilement and goes on keeping his meditation subject in mind. Nor does he lift a foot with his mind disassociated from

12. Classification of the Jhänas

11

his meditation subject. If he does so lift it, he turns back and goes to the previous place. 1733. Like Terrace-Dweller, the Elder Mahäphussa (Alindakaväsl Mahäphussadevatthera). He, it seems, dwelt for nineteen years fulfilling the duty of going back and forth. And people sowing or threshing or doing their work beside the road, on seeing the Elder going in this manner, asked each other: 'This Elder keeps going on and turning back. What is it ? Has he lost his way ? Or has he forgotten something V Not heeding that, with his mind yoked to the meditation subject only and performing the recluse's duties he reached Arahatship in the twentieth year. 1734. On the same day on which he attained Arahatship, a deity that lived at the end of his ambulatory stood emitting light from the finger tips. Also the four kings and Sakka, Lord of the Gods, and Brahma Sahampati came to wait upon him. The forest dweller, the Elder Mahätissa (Vanaväsi Mahätissatthera) saw the radiance and asked the next day: 'There was a radiance near the Venerable One last night. What was that radiance ?' The Elder hedged, saying: 'What is called radiance is the radiance of lamps and the radiance of gems,' and so on; but when pressed thus: 'Are you hiding something V he agreed, saying: 'Yes,' and related [what had happened]. 1735. And like the Elder Mahänäga who dwelt in the Black Creeper Pavilion (Kälavalli-mandapa-väsl Mahänägatthera). He, it seems, fulfilling the "duty of going and stopping", firstly resolved on walking and standing only for seven years thus: 'I shall do it as an offering to the Great Struggle of the Blessed One.' Again by fulfilling the "duty of going and stopping" for sixteen years he reached Arahatship. Being one who lifts his foot only with his mind yoked to the meditation subject and who turns back if he lifts it with mind disassociated from it, when he approached the village he stopped in a place [far enough off for one standing in the village] to wonder whether he were a cow or one gone forth, and he put on his outer robe and washed his bowl with water from his water bottle; and he took a mouthful of water. For what reason ? 'Lest there be distraction from the meditation subject even by the uttering of the words: "Long life to you," when people come to give alms and pay homage.' But when asked a question about the day: 'Venerable Sir, which day is it V or about the number of bhikkhus, he swallowed the water and replied. If there were no one to question him

78

The Dispeller of Delusion

about the day and so on, when it was time to leave, he spat it out at the village gate [353] as he went away. 1736. Like the fifty bhikkhus who took up residence for the rains at the Galambatittha monastery. They, it seems, made an agreement on the full moon of Asalhl thus: 'Let us not speak to each other unless we attain Arahatship.' And when they went into the village they did so taking a mouthful of water. When asked about the day and so on, they behaved as aforesaid. People seeing [the marks of] the spitting there knew: 'Today one has come, today two.' And so they thought: 'How is it they neither talk to us nor to each other ?' and thinking: 'If they do not talk to each other, surely they must have quarrelled. Come, let us make them forgive each other,' on going to the monastery none of them saw two bhikkhus in one place. Thereupon, a man with eyes among them said: 'A place where people have fallen out is not like this. The shrine terrace and the Wisdom Tree terrace are well swept. The brooms are well arranged and the water for drinking and washing well placed.' Thus they turned back from there. And those bhikkhus, having reached Arahatship within the three months, celebrated the Paväranä ceremony in purity. 1737. Thus, raising his foot only with his mind yoked to the meditation subject like the Elder Mahänäga, the dweller in the Black Creeper Pavilion and like the bhikkhus who dwelt in the Galambatittha monastery for the rains, he fills his mouth with water before reaching the village, and after discerning the streets he enters a street where there are neither trouble-makers such as drunks, rogues, etc. nor fierce elephants and so on. And while wandering for alms there he does not walk quickly like one in a hurry. For there is no ascetic practice of rapid alms-food eating. But he walks steadying himself like a water-cart that has reached a patch of uneven ground. When he comes to each house, he takes the alms after waiting sufficient time for him to discern whether there is the desire to give or not. 1738. Then inside the village or outside the village or after coming back to the monastery, he sits down in an agreeable and befitting place. Bringing his meditation subject to mind, he establishes the perception of repulsiveness in respect of nutriment and, reviewing in accordance with the similes (cf. Ndi 368-9, 484; Miln 367) of "greasing the axle" (S iv 177), "anointing the sore" (S iv 177) and the "child's flesh" (S ii 98) he eats the nutriment as being possessed of eight qualities, "neither for amusement nor for intoxication nor for charm nor for

12. Classification of the Jhänas

79

embellishment" (see M i 10; Ndi 369).59 And having eaten and made use of water, [354] for a while he rests the fatigue due to the meal and, as before the meal so after the meal, as in the first watch so in the last watch, he brings only the meditation subject to mind. This one is said to "carry it both forth and back". 1739. But one who fulfils this "duty of going and stopping" called "carrying forth and back" {hctranapaccäharariä), if he has the potentiality (upanissaya) reaches Arahatship in the first stage of life. If he does not reach it in the first stage, then in the middle stage. If he does not reach it in the middle stage, then in the last stage. If he does not reach it in the last stage, then at the time of death. If he does not reach it at the time of death, then when he has become a deity. If he does not reach it when he has become a deity, then being reborn [in a period] when no Enlightened One has appeared, he realizes Pacceka-Buddhahood. If he does not realize Pacceka-Buddhahood, then face to face with the Enlightened Ones, either he is one of swift direct knowledge like the Elder Bähiya Däruciriya60 or he is of great understanding like the Elder Säriputta. Or he is possessed of great miraculous powers like the Elder Mahämoggalläna, or he is an observer of ascetic practices like the Elder Mahäkassapa. Or he is possessed of the Divine Eye like the Elder Anuruddha or he is one who knows the Vinaya by heart like the Elder Upäli. Or he is a preacher of the Dhamma like the Elder Punna Mantäniputta. Or he is a forest dweller like the Elder Revata. Or he is learned like the Elder Ananda. Or he is desirous of training like the Enlightened One's son , the Elder Rähula. 1740. And as regards this tetrad, he who carries [the meditation subject] forth and back has brought his "clear comprehension of resort" to its culmination. 1741. (4) But "clear comprehension through non-delusion" is not being deluded as regards moving forward and so on. That should be understood thus: here a bhikkhu, when moving forward or moving backward, unlike the blind ordinary man who deludes himself as regards moving forward, etc. [by imagining:] 'A self moves forward, the moving forward is produced by a self' or: *I move forward, the moving forward is produced by me,' is one who is not so deluded; when the consciousness 'I [will] move forward' arises, together with that same consciousness there arises the consciousness-originated air element, which produces [bodily] intimation (viftflatti). Thus this framework of

80

The Dispeller of Delusion

bones called the body moves forward by means of the diffusion of the air element due to the action of consciousness. 1742. When one moves forward thus, in each (i) lifting (uddharana) of his foot the two elements, earth and water, are subordinate61 and sluggish, the other two [elements] [355] being dominant and strong. Likewise in the case of (ii) shifting it forwards (atiharana) and (iii) shifting it sideways (vitiharana). In (iv) lowering it down (vossajjana) the fire and air elements are subordinate and sluggish, the other two [elements] being dominant and strong. Likewise in the case of (v) placing down (sannikkhepana) and (vi) pressing it down (sannirumbhana).62 1743. Herein, the material and immaterial states that occur in the lifting up do not last over into the shifting forwards. Likewise those occurring in the shifting forwards [do not last over] into the shifting sideways; nor those occurring in the shifting sideways into the lowering down; nor those occurring in the lowering down into the placing; nor do those occurring in the placing last over into the pressing down. Coming into existence section by section, piece by piece, bit by bit, they each break up just there [where they came into existence], crackling like sesamum seeds in a hot pan. 1744. Herein, what single person moves forward ? Or to what single person does the moving forward belong ? For in the highest sense there is only a going of elements, a standing of elements, a sitting of elements, a lying down of elements. For in each portion, together with the materiality, "Tis another consciousness that rises, another consciousness that ceases; Like to a river's [flowing] stream that occurs in unbroken succession" (DA i 193; MA i 261; SA iii 190). Thus this "clear comprehension through non-delusion" is the not being deluded about moving forward and so on. 1745. The exposition of the meaning of the phrase "in moving forward and moving backward he practises clear comprehension" is ended. 1746. Alokite vilokite <250.6> ("in looking towards and looking away"): here, however, "looking towards" is the act ofregardingto the front; "looking away" is the act of regarding obliquely. The other kinds

12. Classification of the Jhänas

81

are called "looking down", "looking up", "looking back", by the act of regarding downwards, upwards and behind; they are not included here, but only these two are included as suitable. Alternatively, all these are included too under this heading. 1747. Here, (1) "clear comprehension of benefit" is the choosing of the beneficial as soon as the thought "I shall look towards" arises, and not looking towards as the immediate consequence of the thought itself. This should be understood by making the Venerable Nanda a personal example (käya-sakkhi); for this is said by the Blessed One: 'If, bhikkhus, Nanda needs to look towards the east, Nanda looks towards the east employing his whole mind thus: "As I look thus towards the east, may evil unprofitable states of covetousness and grief not invade me," he is thus [356] clearly comprehending therein. If, bhikkhus, Nanda needs to look towards the west... towards the north ... towards the south ... upwards ... downwards ... towards an intermediate point, Nanda looks towards an intermediate point employing his whole mind thus: "As I look thus towards an intermediate point, may evil unprofitable states of consciousness and grief not overcome me." He is thus clearly comprehending therein' (A iv 167). 1748. Furthermore, here also "beneficiality" and (2) "suitability" should be understood as the aforementioned seeing of shrines and so on. 1749. (3) But "clear comprehension of resort" is the non-abandonment of the meditation subject. Consequently those who have the aggregates, the elements or the bases as their meditation subject should perform the acts of looking towards and looking away as a part of their own respective meditation subjects, while those who have the kasinas, etc. as their meditation subjects should perform these acts keeping their meditation subjects uppermost in the mind. 1750. (4) There is no self inside which looks towards or looks away; but when the consciousness "I [will] look towards" arises, together with that same consciousness there arises the consciousness-originated air element which produces intimation. Thus the lower eyelid drops down and the upper eyelid jumps up by means of the diffusion of the air element due to the action of consciousness. There is no-one who opens with a contrivance. After that, eye-consciousness arises accomplishing the function of seeing. But here clear comprehension in this way is called "clear comprehension through non-delusion". 1751. Furthermore, "clear comprehension through non-delusion" should here be understood also by way of (a) "full understanding of the root"

82

The Dispeller of Delusion

(mülaparififia), (b) of "visiting" (ägantukabhäva) and (c) of "temporariness" (tävakälikabhäva). 1752. Firstly (a) by way of "full understanding of the root": Life continuum and adverting, seeing follows, then receiving, Investigation, determining, and then impulsion comes as seventh (DA i 194; MA i 262; SA in 191). 1753. Herein, the life-continuum (bhavanga) occurs accomplishing the function of a factor (anga) of rebirth-process-existence (uppatti-bhava). By interrupting (ävattetvä) that, the functional mind element (kriyämanodhätu) occurs accomplishing the function of adverting (ävajjana). Upon the ceasing of that, eye-consciousness (cakkhuviMäna) occurs accomplishing the function of seeing (dassana). Upon the ceasing of that, [kamma-] resultant mind element (vipäka-manodhätu) occurs accomplishing the function of accepting (sampaticchana). Upon the cessation of that, [kamma-] resultant mind-consciousness element (vipäka-manovififlänadhätu) occurs accomplishing the function of investigation (santirand). Upon the cessation of that, functional mindconsciousness element (kriyä-mcmoviHMnadhätu) occurs accomplishing the function of determining (votthapana). Upon the cessation of that, impulsion (javana) impels (javati) seven times. 1754. Herein, in the first impulsion (by itself) there is no looking towards and looking away by way of lusting, hating or being deluded, [thinking:] 'This is a woman, this is a man.'63 The same is the case with the nest of the seven impulsions [singly]. Nevertheless it is when these [impulsions], [357] after breaking up, fall one on top of another, like soldiers on the battlefield, that there comes to be looking towards and looking away by way of lusting, etc., [thinking:] 'This is a woman, this is a man.' Thus should "clear comprehension through nondelusion" here be understood by way of "full understanding of the root". 1755. (b) But when a visible datum comes into focus in the eye door, impulsion arises at the end when, following the disturbance in the life continuum, adverting, etc. have arisen and ceased with the accomplishment of their respective functions. That [impulsion] is like a visitor in the eye door which is the home of the previously arisen adverting and so on. And as it is improper for a visitor who has entered

12. Classification of the Jhänas

83

another's house to ask for something, to give orders, when the owners of the home sit in silence, so lusting or hating or becoming deluded in the eye door which is the home of adverting, etc. is improper when adverting, etc. do not lust or hate or become deluded. Thus should "clear understanding through non-delusion" be understood by way of "visiting". 1756. (c) But those consciousnesses ending with determining which arise in the eye door break up together with their associated states just there [where they arose], they do not see each other and they are brief and temporary. Herein, in a house where all the human [occupants except one] are dead and the remaining one is due to die that very moment, it is improper for him to delight in dancing, singing, etc.; so indeed, when adverting and so on with their associated states are dead in that same eye door and also the impulsion thatremainsis due to die that very moment, it is improper for it to delight by way of lusting, hating and becoming deluded. Thus should "clear comprehension through nondelusion" be understood by way of "temporariness". 1757. Furthermore, this should be understood by way of reviewing the aggregates, the bases, the elements and conditions. 1758. And here, both the eye and the visible datum belong to the materiality aggregate. Seeing belongs to the consciousness aggregate. The feeling associated therewith is the feeling aggregate. The perception belongs to the perception aggregate. The things beginning with impression (phassa) belong to the formations aggregate. In this way "looking towards and looking away" is stated in terms of these five aggregates. Herein, what single person looks towards, what person looks away ? 1759. Likewise the eye is the eye base; the visible datum is the visibledatum base; the seeing is the mind base; the associated states beginning with feeling are mental-datum base. In this way "looking towards and looking away" is stated in terms of these four bases. Herein, what single person looks towards, what person looks away ? 1760. Likewise the eye is the eye element; the visible datum is the visible-datum element; the seeing is the eye-consciousness element; the states associated therewith beginning with feeling are the mental-datum element. In this way [358] "looking towards and looking away" is stated in terms of these four elements. Herein, what single person looks towards, what person looks away ?

84

The Dispeller of Delusion

1761. Likewise the eye is support condition; the visible datum is object condition; adverting is proximity, contiguity, decisive-support, absence and disappearance conditions; light is decisive-support condition; feeling, etc. are conascence and other conditions. Thus is "looking towards and looking away" stated in terms of these conditions. Herein, what single person looks towards, what person looks away ? 1762. Thus should "clear comprehension through non-delusion" be understood here as reviewing the aggregates, the bases, the elements and the conditions. 1763. Sammifljitc pasärite <250.7> ("I/I bending and stretching"): in the bending and stretching of the limbs. 1764. Herein, (1) "clear comprehension of benefit" is the choosing of the beneficial, by choosing between the beneficial and the nonbeneficial that would be caused by the bending or stretching of the hand or foot, and without doing the bending or stretching as the immediate consequence of the thought itself. Herein, in one who remains too long with hand or foot bent only or stretched only, feelings arise from moment to moment. He does not get one-pointedness of mind, his meditation subject collapses, and he does not achieve distinction. But in one who now bends, now stretches, those feelings do not arise, his mind becomes one-pointed, the meditation subject comes to growth, and he achieves distinction. Thus should the choosing between the beneficial and the non-beneficial be understood. 1765. (2) And "clear comprehension of suitability" is the choosing of the suitable by choosing between the suitable and unsuitable when there is benefit. Here this is the method: the young bhikkhus, it seems, held a recital on the terrace of the Great Shrine (Mahäcetiyd).64 Behind them the young bhikkhunis were listening to the dhamma. While there, a young bhikkhu, stretching out his hand,65 came into bodily contact [with a bhikkhuni] and for that very reason became a layman. Another bhikkhu, on stretching out his foot, stretched it out into a fire and burnt his foot to the bone. Another stretched it out into an ant-hole and was bitten by a poisonous snake. Another stretched out [his hand and touched] the pole of a robe tent and was bitten by a gem snake.66 [359] Therefore one should stretch [the limbs] without stretching in such unsuitable places. This is "clear comprehension of suitability" here. 1766. (3) But "clear comprehension of resort" should be illustrated by the story of the senior elder. The senior elder, it seems, was sitting in his daytime quarters talking with his pupils when, after bending his

12. Classification of the Jhänas

85

hand quickly, he put it back in its former place and bent it again slowly. His pupils asked him: 'Why, Venerable Sir, after bending your hand quickly, did you put it back in its former place and bend67 it again slowly V 'From the time, friends, when I began to bring my meditation subject to mind, I have never before bent my hand [with my mind] separated from the meditation subject. But now, while talking with you, I bent68 it [with my mind] separated from the meditation subject. That is why, after putting it in its former place, I bent it again.' 'Good, good, Venerable Sir, such should a bhikkhu be.' Thus here also "clear comprehension of resort" should be understood as the non-abandonment of the meditation subject. 1767. (4) And inside there is no self of any kind that bends or stretches. But it should be known that "clear comprehension through nondelusion" here is the understanding that bending and stretching occurs by means of the diffusion of the air element through the action of consciousness as aforesaid, like the jerking of the hands and feet of a marionette caused by pulling of the strings. 1768. Sanghätipattacivaradhärane <250.7> ("w wearing the outer cloak, bowl and robes"): here the use of the outer cloak (sanghäti) and robes by dressing in (niväsana)69 and putting on (pärupana)10 and of the bowl by receiving alms, etc. in it is called "wearing". 1769. Herein, firstly as regards "wearing the outer cloak and robes", (1) benefit is the material advantage [they provided] for one who dresses in them and puts them on when he wanders for alms; and the benefit of the kind stated by the Blessed One in the passage beginning "for protection from cold" (M i 10; D iii 130; A iii 388); "clear comprehension of benefit" should be understood as that. 1770. (2) A fine robe is suitable to one who is naturally hot or is feeble; and for one who is susceptible to cold, one which is stout, of double thickness. Their opposites are unsuitable. A worn out robe is unsuitable for anyone; for it is the cause of obstruction to him through his having to patch it, etc. Likewise a robe made of rare cloth, silk, etc., which produces greed in thieves. For such a robe causes an obstacle to dwelling and danger to life for one living alone in the forest. But without any question {nippariyäyena), that which is acquired by wrong livelihood such as giving hints and so on, and that which increases unprofitable states and decreases profitable states in him who uses it (see M iii 58-60; A iv 367-8; A v 100), [360] is unsuitable. The

86

The Dispeller of Delusion

opposite kind is suitable. "Clear comprehension of suitability" should be understood here as that. 1771. (3) And "clear comprehension of resort" should be understood here as non-abandonment of the meditation subject. 1772. (4) Inside there is no self of any kind which puts on the robe. But the putting on of the robe comes about by means of the diffusion of the air element through the action of consciousness as aforesaid. Herein, the robe has no volition. The body has no volition. The robe does not know: "The body has put me on,' and the body does not know: 'The robe is put on me.' Only elements cover up a collection of elements like the covering up of a moulded image by a bit of cloth. Therefore joy should not be indulged in on getting a beautiful robe, nor grief on getting an ugly one. For some honour ant-hills [as abodes] of snakes (näga)> shrine trees, etc. with flowers, scents, incense, cloth, etc. while others defile them with excrement, urine and mud and hit them with sticks, knives and so on. But the ant-hill or the tree do not indulge in joy or grief on that account. Therefore neither should joy be indulged in on getting a beautiful robe nor grief on obtaining an ugly one. "Clear comprehension through non-delusion" should here be understood as the reflection that occurs in this way. 1773. As regards the "wearing of the bowl" also, (1) "clear comprehension of benefit" should be understood as the benefit to be obtained by taking the bowl thus: 'By taking this and wandering for alms I shall obtain alms,' without taking the bowl hurriedly. 1774. (2) For one with a lean, weak body, however, a heavy bowl is unsuitable. A bowl which is stopped with plugs in four or five places and so is hard to clean is unsuitable for anyone. For a badly washed bowl is unfitting and it is an obstruction, too, for him who washes it. But a bowl that looks like a jewel and produces greed is unsuitable as in the case of the robe. But one obtained by hinting, etc. and one which increases unprofitable states and decreases profitable states is quite unsuitable. The opposite kind is suitable. "Clear comprehension of suitability" should be understood here as that. 1775. (3) And "clear comprehension of resort" should be understood here as non-abandonment of the meditation subject. 1776. (4) Inside there is no self of any kind which takes the bowl. But the taking of the bowl comes about merely by means of the diffusion of the air element through the action of consciousness as aforesaid. Herein, the bowl has no volition and the hands have no volition. The

12. Classification of the Jhänas

87

bowl does not know: 'I am taken by the hands' and the hands do not know: 'The bowl [361] is taken by us.' Only elements take a collection of elements, as in the taking of a red hot bowl with a pair of tongs. "Clear comprehension through non-delusion" should here be understood as the reflection that occurs in this way. 1777. Furthermore, just as compassionate men, when they see in a refuge for the helpless, helpless people with hands and feet cut off and pus and blood and the various kinds of maggots oozing from the mouths of their wounds and covered with blue flies, they send them both cloths to cover their wounds and medicine in jars. And herein, the cloths that come to some are fine and to some, coarse, and the medicine jars that come to some are shapely and to others, unshapely, nor do they rejoice or grieve on that account. For the benefit these provide is through just the covering of the wounds in the case of the cloth and through just the containing of the medicine in the case of the jars. So, indeed, the bhikkhu who discerns the robe as a covering for a wound and the bowl as a medicine jar and the alms obtained in the bowl as medicine in the jar, this one should be understood as one who practises the highest clear comprehension by means of "clear comprehension through nondelusion" in respect of the wearing of the outer cloak, bowl and robes. 1778. As regards asitc <250.8> ("m eating") and so on, asite means in the devouring of the almsfood; pite ("m drinking99) means in the drinking of rice gruel, etc.; khäyite ("j'/i chewing99) means in the chewing of chewable [food made] of ground [flour, etc.]; säyite <250.9> ("m tasting99) means in the tasting of honey, molasses, etc. 1779. Herein, (1) benefit is the eightfold benefit stated in the passage beginning "neither for amusement" (M i 10; etc.). "Clear comprehension of benefit" should be understood as that. 1780. (2) But among crude and refined, sour and sweet, etc., the food which produces discomfort in one is unsuitable. But that which is received by hinting, etc. and that which increases unprofitable states and decreases profitable states is quite unsuitable. The opposite kind is suitable. "Clear comprehension of suitability" should be understood here as that. 1781. (3) And "clear comprehension of resort" should be understood here as non-abandonment of the meditation subject. 1782. (4) Inside there is no self of any kind which devours. But the taking of the bowl comes about merely by means of the diffusion of the air element through the action of consciousness as aforesaid. The

88

The Dispeller of Delusion

lowering of the hand into the bowl comes about by means of the diffusion of the air element, through the action of consciousness as aforesaid. The making up of the ball of food, the lifting of the ball and the opening of the mouth come about merely by means of the diffusion of the air element through the action of consciousness. No-one opens the jaw-bones with a key or with a contrivance. 1783. [362] The putting of the ball into the mouth, the accomplishing of the pestle-like function by the upper teeth, the accomplishing of the mortar-like function by the lower teeth, the accomplishing of the handlike function by the tongue, come about merely by means of the diffusion of the air element through the action of consciousness. Thus that ball of food becomes smeared with the thin saliva at the tip of the tongue and with the thick saliva at the root of the tongue. When, in the mortar of the lower teeth, it has been turned over by the hand of the tongue, moistened with the water of the saliva and ground up by the pestle of the upper teeth, no-one puts it into the inside with a spoon or a ladle. It enters merely by means of the air element. There is no-one who supports it, when it has entered, by means of a straw mat. It stays there merely by means of the air element. While it stays there, there is no-one who cooks it by making an oven and lighting a fire. It is cooked merely by means of the fire element. As it gets cooked, there is no-one who pushes it out with a stick or a pole. It gets pushed out merely by means of the air element. So it is the air element that carries it forward, carries it to the side, supports it, turns it over, grinds it up, removes its moisture and pushes it out. 1784. It is the earth element that supports it, turns it over, grinds it up, removes its moisture and pushes it out. It is the water element that causes its cohesion and preserves its moisture. It is the fire element that cooks it as it enters inside. It is the space element that is the passage way. It is the consciousness element, resulting from the right conjunction [of conditions] in this or that place, which is the ideation. Here, "clear comprehension through non-delusion" should be understood as the reflection that occurs in this way. 1785. Furthermore, "clear comprehension through non-delusion" should here be understood as the tenfold reviewing of the repulsive, namely, the going, the seeking, the using, the secretion, the receptacle, the undigested, the digested, the consequence, the outflow, the smearing. But here the detailed exposition should be taken from the section in the

12. Classification of the Jhänas

89

Visuddhimagga on the contemplation of the repulsiveness of nutriment (Vis 342-6). 1786. Uccärapassävakamme <250.9> ("w the action of evacuating the bowels and making water") = ucccbrassa capassävassa ca komme. 1787. Herein, (1) if he does not evacuate the bowels or make water when the time comes, his whole body sweats, his eyes roll, his mind is not one-pointed and other ills arise; but if he does, none of that happens — this is the meaning here. "Clear comprehension of benefit" should be understood as that. 1788. (2) But one who evacuates the bowels or makes water in the wrong place commits an offence, ill repute increases and there is danger to life. But if he does it in the proper place, none of that happens. This is suitability here. "Clear comprehension of suitability" should be understood as that. 1789. (3) And "clear comprehension of resort" should be understood as non-abandonment of the meditation subject. [363] 1790. (4) Inside there is no self of any kind which evacuates the bowels and makes water. But the evacuation of the bowels and the making of water comes about merely by means of the diffusion of the air element through the action of consciousness. Just as when a boil is ripe and pus and blood come out through the bursting of the boil without any desiring, and just as water comes out of an overfilled water pot without any desiring, so the evacuable matter and the water accumulated in the receptacle for digested food and the bladder come out on being pressed by the force of the air without any desiring of it. But this evacuable matter and this water which come out in this way are neither that bhikkhu's own nor are they another's. They are simply an excretion of the body. Like what ? Like when someone throws away old water from a water vessel,71 that old water is neither his own nor another's. It is simply a question of maintenance. Here, "clear comprehension through non-delusion" should be understood as reflection that occurs in this way. 1791. As regards gate <250.10> ("w walking") and so on, gate means in the act of walking; thitc ("m standing") means in the act of standing; nisinne ("m sitting") means in the act of sitting; suttc ("m sleeping") means in the act of sleeping.72 1792. Herein, the practising of clear comprehension should be understood in the way stated in respect of "moving forward". But this is another method here. One bhikkhu as he walks does so brooding and

90

The Dispeller of Delusion

thinking of something else. Another does so without letting his meditation subject go. Likewise one standing, sitting, sleeping does so brooding and thinking of something else. Another does so without letting his meditation subject go. But because by this much it will not become clear, they (the teachers) illustrated it by walking up and down. For the bhikkhu goes onto an ambulatory, and standing at the end of it, lays hold thus: 'The material and immaterial states which occurred at the east end of the ambulatory ceased there without reaching the west end of it, and those which occurred at the west end of the ambulatory ceased there without reaching the east end of it; those which occurred in the middle of the ambulatory ceased there without reaching either end. The material and immaterial states which occurred in the walking area ceased there without reaching the standing place; and those in the standing place without reaching the sitting place; those occurring in the sitting place ceased without reaching the sleeping place,' and, continuing to lay hold in this way, he causes his mind73 to enter the life continuum. When rising, [364] he does so only with the meditation subject [in mind]. This bhikkhu is one who practises clear comprehension in walking and so on. 1793. But in this way the meditation subject is unexplained inregardto sleeping, and the meditation subject should not be left unexplained. Therefore after walking, standing and sitting as long as he can, the bhikkhu, when going to sleep,74 does so after laying hold thus: 'The body has no volition; the bed has no volition. The body does not know: "I sleep on the bed"; and the bed does not know: "The body sleeps on me.'" Continually laying hold thus: 'The body without volition sleeps on the bed without volition,' he causes his mind to enter the life continuum. When he wakes up he does so only with the subject of meditation. This is one who practises clear comprehension in sleeping. 1794. Jagarite ("m waking"'): in the act of being awake. Herein, when there is no occurrence of the course which is produced by the functional75 (kriyä-maya) there is no waking. When a continued line (yalaflja) of processes which are produced by the functional occurs, it is called "waking", and the bhikkhu who lays hold in this way is one who practises clear comprehension in waking. Furthermore, by dividing the night and day into six parts and keeping awake during the five parts he is one who practises clear comprehension in waking. 1795. Bhäsite ("w talking"): in the act of speaking. Herein, when there is no occurrence of the derived materiality of the sound base, there

12. Classification of the Jhänas

91

is no talking; when it occurs there is, and the bhikkhu who lays hold in this way is one who practises clear comprehension in talking. And teaching the dhamma keeping the sphere of deliverance uppermost in mind, one who abandons the 32 kinds of low (lit. "animal") talk and speaks what is based on the ten bases for discourse (see M iii 113; A iv 352, 357; v 67, 128-30; Ndi 220-1, 472) is one who practises clear comprehension in talking. 1796. Tunhibhäve <250.11> ("in keeping silent^): in the act of not talking. Herein, when there is the occurrence of the derived materiality of the sound base, there is no silence; when there is no occurrence of it there is silence. The bhikkhu who lays hold in this way is one who practises clear comprehension in keeping silent. And one who, having taken a meditation subject that suits his mind from among the 38 objects [of contemplation], is sitting and has entered the second jhäna, is one who practises clear comprehension in keeping silent too. 1797. And here one posture [i.e. walking] has been handed down in two places. Above, as "moving forward and moving backward" (abhikkante patikkante), it has been expounded as the act of going a distance by one going to the alms-round village and coming back. As "in walking (gate), in standing, in sitting" in this case it should be understood to be expounded as postures of fragmentary lifting of the foot in the monastery. 1798. [365] Tattha katami sati ? <250.20> ("Herein, which is mindfulness ?") and so on is all clear. 1799. What does he show by vivittam <251.4> ("secluded") ? He shows a suitable abode as a place of training for a course of practice (yoga) for that bhikkhu. For a forest dwelling is appropriate for one who has within him a certain number of qualities. But for one in whom they are not, it is inappropriate, since for such a one dwelling in the forest is like the jungle dwelling of black monkeys, bears, hyenas, leopards, deer and so on. Why ? Because of having entered it on account of a need (cf. M i 19). For there is no benefit based on a forest dwelling at all for him. He fouls both forest dwelling and the forest dwellers and he creates distrust in the dispensation. But it is appropriate only for one in whom there are a certain number of qualities. For in a forest dwelling he establishes insight, reaches Arahatship and attains complete extinction; he glorifies all forest dwelling, he washes the head76 of forest dwellers and he extends the whole dispensation. That is why the Master said: 'He frequents a secluded abode' and so on, showing a

92

The Dispeller of Delusion

suitable abode as a place of training for a course of practice for such a bhikkhu. 1800. Herein, vivittam ("secluded") means void, with little sound, with few voices. For he said tafl ca anäkinnam ("and that is not •• •> beset") in order to show that very benefit. Herein, anäkinnam <251.5> ("not beset") = asankinnam, which means "uncrowded". Herein, the abode which, though within a gävuta or a half league, has all around it a mountain thicket or a woodland thicket or a river thicket and cannot be approached at an untimely hour is called "not beset" though nearby. But one which is beyond a half league or a league is called "not beset" owing to distance. 1801. "He both lies down (or sleeps — seti) and sits (äsati) here" is senäsanam <251.8> ("abode"). But in order to show its kinds, mafico ("bed") and pitham ("chair") and so on is said. Herein, as to mafico ("bed") there arc four kinds of bed: a long chair (masäraka), one bound with straps (bundikabaddha), a crab-footed bed (kulirapädaka) and one withremovablelegs (ähaccapädakd). Likewise pitham ("chair"). 1802. Bhisi <251.9> ("cushion"): the five kinds of cushion are wool cushion (unndbhisi), cloth cushion (colabhisi), bark cushion (väkabhisi), grass cushion (tinabhisi) and leaf cushion (pannabhisi). A rest for the head is called a bimbohana ("pillow"); it is permitted to be a span (yidatthi) and four finger-breadths in width and in length the width of the bed. 1803. Vihäro <251.10> ("dwelling" or "monastery") is an abode built by showing it as night and day quarters entirely within a surrounding pathway. [366] Addhayogo ("half yoke") is a house which is crooked like a supanna bird. Päsädo ("mansion") is a long mansion built with two gables. Atto <25L11> ("watch tower") is a special kind of refuge77 with thick walls and four or five floors constructed with bricks in order to ward off hostile kings and the like. Mälo ("hall") is a pavilion-hall, like a refectory. In the commentary to the Vinaya it is called a four-cornered mansion with a single gable. 1804. Lenam ("grotto") is an abode built by excavating a rock or by having a wall put up on part of a hillside which is not large enough. Guhä <251.12> ("cave") is a cavern in the ground where it is permitted to have a lamp night and day; it is either a rock cave or a cave in the ground. Rukkhamülam ("tree root") is underneath a tree, either surrounded by a fence or not. Vclugumbo <251.13> ("bamboo clump") is a bamboo bush. Yattha vä pana bhikkhü

12. Classification of the Jhänas

93

patikkamanti Cor wherever bhikkhus come back to"): wherever bhikkhus come back to, excepting those places beginning with "bed", the place which is fit for their foregathering — all that is an "abode". 1805. Bhajati <251.16> ("frequents"): goes to. Sambhajati ("keeps to"): by delighting in it; goes altogether to that place, not discontented, is the meaning. Scvati <251.16> ("cultivates"): cultivates by inhabiting. Nisevati ("occupies"): cultivates by being dependent on, without being discontented. Samsevati ("cultivates well"): rightly cultivates by undertaking the duties of the abode. 1806. Now araflflam <251.17> ("forest") and rukkhamülam <251.19> ("tree root"), etc. are begun in order to show the different kinds of what was stated as "secluded". Here, araflflam ("forest") according to the Vinaya method (pariyäya) has in the first place been handed down as: "Except for the village and the village precincts all is forest" (Vin iii 46). According to the Suttanta method withreferenceto a forest-dwelling bhikkhu, a forest abode has been handed down as "five hundred bow lengths distant" (Vin iv 183). But the Vinaya and the Suttantas are both figurative (pariyäya) teaching; but the Abhidhamma is literal (nippariyäyä) teaching. Thus in order to show it according to the Abhidhamma method, nikkhamitvä bahi indakhilä <251.17> ("having gone outside the boundary post") is said. The meaning is indakhllato bahi nikkhamitvä, 1807. And because of the easy recognizability of rukkhamüla ("tree root") and so on, owing to their nature, rukkhamülam ycva rukkhamülam ("tree root is just tree root") and so on is said. Furthermore, here any cool, shady, secluded tree root is rukkhamülam ("tree root"). Pabbatam <251.20> ("rock") is stone (seid). Since when, after he has done what needs to be done with water at the water holes there, [367] he sits in the cool shade of a tree and is fanned by a cool breeze, appearing in various directions, his mind becomes one-pointed. 1808. Kandaram ("torrent bed"): KAM is a name for water; cleft78 (DARita) by that, i.e. a rocky place broken by water, which is also called "a gully" or "ariverglen". For there the sands are like silver plate; the woodland grove above is like a jewelled canopy and the water flows as though it were a mass of jewels. When he has gone down to such a torrent bed and drunk the water and cooled his limbs and, having heaped up the sand and spread out his rag robe, sits doing recluse's work, his mind becomes one-pointed.

94

The Dispeller of Delusion

1809. Giriguham <251.21> ("mountain cave") is [a gap] between two rocks; or a large opening like a tunnel in one only. The characteristic of a susana ("charnel ground') is given in the Visuddhimagga (Vis 76). 1810. Vanapattham <251.23> ("jungle thicker) is a place beyond the end of the village and unfrequented by people, where they neither plough nor sow. Hence in its description vanapatthan ti düränam etam senäsanänam adhivacanam ("'jungle thicket' is a term for distant abodes") and so on is said. Or it should be understood that because this alone is itself shown by classifying it as tree root and so on, therefore instead of giving the description of it in the course of the setting forth, the description is given last of all. 181L Abbhokäsam ("in the open"): without a roof. But here, if one wishes one makes a robe tent and dwells in it. Palälapufijam <251.22> Cheap of straw"): a pile of straw. They make lairs like a grotto on a slope by pulling straw out of a large heap of straw. Also they put straw on top of bushes and bamboo clumps, and sitting underneath they do the recluse's duties. This is said with reference to that. 1812. In the description of vanapattham ("jungle thicket"), salomahamsänam <251.27> ("making the hair stand on end") means where hair raising happens to one who has entered. [It is a term for] such aweinspiring abodes. Pariyantänam <251.28> ("remote"): situated at the limit (pariyante thita), through being far off. Na manussüpacäränam <251.29> ("not the haunts of people"): which stand beyond the limit of the woods which are frequented by people for ploughing and sowing. Durabhisambhavänam <25L30> ("hard to endure"): that cannot be lived in by those by whom satisfaction in seclusion has not been obtained by overcoming [fear]. 1813. In the description of appasadda <251.32> ("with little noise"), appasaddam <251.33> ("with little noise") means with little verbal sound. Appanigghosam <251.36> ("with few voices"): with little sound of city voices. [368] But because both of these are one in the sense of sound, therefore in its description yad eva tarn appasaddam tad eva tarn appanigghosam ("that which has little sound also has few voices") is said. 1814. Vijanavitam <252.1> ("without the breeze of people"): not wafted by the wind of the bodies of people's movements. Vijanavädam (^without the talk of people") is another reading: the meaning is that it is devoid of talk among people. But because what has

12. Classification of the Jhänas

95

few voices is also devoid of people's movement and of people's voices, therefore yad eva tarn appanigghosam tad eva tarn vijanavätam <251.37> ("that which has few voices is without the breeze of people") is said in the description. 1815. Manussarähaseyyakam <252.2> ("lying concealed from people"): productive of concealment from people. But because that is devoid of the movement of people, hence yad eva tarn vijanavätam tad eva tarn manussarähaseyyakam ("that which is without the breeze of people also lies concealed from people") is said in its description. 1816. Patisallänasäruppam <252.3> ("suitable for retreat"): suitable for seclusion. But because that necessarily lies concealed from people, therefore yad eva tarn manussa-rähaseyyakam tad eva tarn patisallänasäruppam ("that which lies concealed from people is suitable for retreat") is said in the description. 1817. In the description of araflnagata <252.4> ("gone to the forest"), etc., "forest" has already been stated; likewise "tree root". But all the remaining kinds of abodes are included by sufifiägära ("an empty place"). 1818. Pallankam äbhujitvä <252.7> ("having folded his legs crosswise"): by fixing himself in the sitting position with the thighs fully locked. 1819. Ujum käyam panidhäya <252.9> ("setting his body erect"): by placing the upper body erect and setting the eighteen back bones end upon end; since the skin, flesh and sinews of one who sits thus do not bend. Then the feelings that would arise in him from moment to moment from their being bent do not arise. And when they do not arise the mind becomes one-pointed, the meditation subject does not collapse and comes to growth and increase. Ujuko hoti käyo {hito panihito ("the body remains, is disposed, erect"): this is said with reference to that same meaning. 1820. Parimukham satim upatthapetvä <252.11> ("having established mindfulness in front of him"): having placed mindfulness upon (abhimukham) the meditation subject. Alternatively, "having made it near the mouth (mukha)" is the meaning. Hence ayam sati upatthitä hoti supatthitä näsikagge vä mukhanimitte vä <252.14> ("this mindfulness is established, well-founded, on the tip of the nose or on the upper lip") is said. Mukhanimittam <252.15>

96

The Dispeller of Delusion

("upper lip" — lit. "sign of the mouth"): here it should be regarded as a place in the centre of the upper lip, where the wind of the nose strikes. 1821. [369] Or alternatively pari ("about") is in the sense of laying hold (pariggaha), mukham ("mouth") is in the sense of outlet (niyyäna), sati <252.16> ("mindfulness") is in the sense of establishing (upatthäna); hence parimukham satim ("mindfulness which lays hold of the outlet") is said. Thus should the meaning be regarded according to the method given in the Patisambhidä (Ps i 176). This is the meaning in brief: "By making the establishing the outlet which is laid hold o f (pariggahitaniyyänam satim),19 1822. The description of abhijjhä <252.17> ("covetousness") is clear in meaning. But this is the brief commentary here. Abhijjham lokc pahäya ("having abandoned covetousness regarding the world"): the five aggregates as objects of clinging are the world (loka) in the sense of crumbling and dissolving (lujjana-palujjana); therefore abandoning greed and suppressing lust regarding the five aggregates as objects of clinging — this is the meaning here. 1823. Vigatäbhijjhena <252.26> ("with mind rid of covetousness"): rid of covetousness by means of abandoning by suppression; "not like eye-consciousness" is the meaning. 1824. Abhijjhäya cittam parisodheti <252.33> ("he purifies the mind of covetousness") = abhijjhäto cittam parisodheti; the meaning is: "He acts so that covetousness leaves that mind and having left it does not seize it again." But in its description, one who cultivates sodheti <252.48> ("cleanses"), one who develops visodheti ^purifies") and one who repeatedly practises parisodheti ("completely purifies"), thus should the meaning be understood here. As regards moceti ("frees"), etc., the method is the same. 1825. The meaning of vyäpädapadosam pahäya <253.1> ("having abandoned ill will and hatred") and so on should also be understood by this means. "Consciousness perishes (vyäpajjati) through this; like rotten curds, etc., it abandons its normal state" is "ill will" (vyäpädo). "It is corrupted (padussati) by the attainment of distortion, or it corrupts (paduseti) and destroys another" is "hatred" (padosa). Both of these are terms for anger (kodha). Hence it is said yo vyäpädo so padoso, yo padoso so vyäpädo <253.11> ("what is ill will is hatred, what is hatred is ill will"). And since this is described ailinclusively, therefore instead of saying "compassionate for the welfare

12. Classification of the Jhänas

97

of all living things", only this much is said, namely, avyäpannacitto <:253.16> ("with mind free from ill will"). 1826. Stiffness (thina) is sickness of consciousness. Torpor (middha) is sickness of conscious concomitants. Thxnafi ca middhafi ca = thinamiddham <253.35> ("stiffness-and-torpor"). Santa honti <:254.4> ("are pacified"): and these two states are pacified by the peace of cessation. It is with reference to this that the division of the words [of the compound] is made here. Alokasaflfii <254.13> ("perception of light"): by night and by day he is possessed of perception which is capable of perceiving seen light, is free from hindrance and purified.80 Sato sampajäno <254.17> ("mindful and clearly comprehending"): he is possessed of mindfulness and knowledge. Both these are stated because of their helpfulness to perception of light. 1827. [370] But the terms cattattä <254.9> ("because of being given up") and so on, in the words of the description of alokasaflfii <254.13> ("perception of light"), because they are free from sloth and torpor, are each synonyms for the other. Herein, cattattä Cbecause of being given up") means "for reason of being given up". So with the other words. 1828. But here, cattattä ("because of being given up") is stated as the giving up of its own state. Vantattä <254.9> ("because of being vomited"): this is stated so as to show that it should not be taken up again. Muttattä ("because of being left"): this is stated as being left out of continuity. Pahlnattä ^'because of being abandoned'): this is stated as the absence of any place for what has been left. Patinissatthattä ("because of being relinquished?'): this is stated so as to show the relinquishment of what had formerly been taken up; or the meaning is "because of being relinquished from ties, and because of being relinquished by overcoming through the power of development". Pahinapatinissatthattä <254.10> ("because of being abandoned and relinquished'): as there is abandoning by suppression, similarly due to being relinquished it does not again and again invade the continuity. 1829. Alokä8* hoti <254.13> ("is shining"): has radiance. Vivajä <254.15> ("unveiled") is in the sense of non-obstruction.82 Parisuddhä ("purified") is in the sense of being free from imperfection. Pariyodätä ("limpid') is in the sense of being bright (pabhassara). 1830. Uddhaccakukkuccam <254.40> ("agitation and worry"): here a mode of being agitated is "agitation"; material transgression83

98

The Dispeller of Delusion

(vatthujjhäcärä) owing to indecision as to objects is "worry". Here also, as to santä honti <255.9> Care pacified") the word division should be understood in the way given above. 1831. Tinnavicikiccho <256.4> ("has passed beyond uncertainty"): remaining after passing beyond, getting past, uncertainty. In its description, tinno ("passed beyond') is stated so as to show the state of non-submergence in uncertainty; uttinno <256.5> ^passed over") is stated so as to show that it has been got past. Nitinno ("got beyond") is stated so as to show the state of danger being passed beyond by being overcome through the power of development. Päragato84 ("got to the other side ofy): gone to the other side of uncertainty known as a state of no uncertainty. Päram anuppatto ("arrived at the other side"): arrived at that same other side by the power of development. Thus he shows the fruitfulness of its practice. 1832. AkathaAkathI <256.9> ("without doubt"): devoid of doubt (kathamkatha) occurring thus: 'How is this, how is this ?' Kusalesu dhammesu ("as regards profitable states"): as regards blameless states. Na kafikhati <256.10> ("he does not doubt"): he does not arouse doubt as to whether these are profitable. Na vicikicchati ("he is not uncertain"): he does not get troubled (kicchati), get fatigued in defining those states as to their nature. Akathafikathi hod <256.11> ("he has no doubt"): [371] he is devoid of doubt (kathahkatha) in the manner: 'How are these states profitable ?' NikkathaAkatho ("he is free from doubt") and vigatakathankatho ("he is without doubt") are synonyms for that. But the word meaning here is this: "he has gone out from doubt" is nikkathankatho and "his doubt has gone away" is vigatakathafikatho. 1833. Upakkilese <256.18> ("imperfections"): what has become imperfections. For they approach (upagantva) the mind and defile (kilissanti) it, therefore they are called imperfections (upakkilesä). 1834. Paftfiäya dubbalikaranc <256.30> ("which weaken understanding"): because these hindrances when they arise do not allow unarisen mundane and supramundane understanding to arise, and throw down even the eight attainments which have arisen, or the five kinds of supernormal achievement (abhiMä) by interrupting them, therefore they are said to "weaken understanding". Anuppannä c'eva pafiflä na uppajjati uppannä ca pafiftä nirujjhati <z56.31> ("both unarisen understanding does not arise and arisen understanding ceases"): and this is said with reference to the same meaning. The rest is

12. Classification of the Jhänas

99

all clear in meaning because the meaning has been explained in various places above. 1835. As regards vivicc' eva kämehi <256.34> ("secluded from sense desires") and so on, what should be said in regard to the descriptions is stated above in regard to the description of the finematerial sphere in the Section on the Thought Arisings (Cittuppädakanda) [of the Dhammasarigani] and also here in various places. Only that in respect of the descriptions of the second, third and fourth jhänas, these jhänas are stated above thus: "there is threefactored (tivahgika) jhäna" (Dhs §161), "there is two-factored (divangika) jhäna" (Dhs §163). Instead of saying thus, because of such words as ajjhattam <258.7> sampasädanam <258.8> ("possessed of internal calm"), each jhäna is described in the way beginning jhänan ti sampasädo piti sukham cittassckaggatä <258.39> ("jhäna is calm, rapture, happiness and mental one-pointedness") taking those factors together with "calm" (sampasado), etc., figuratively (pariyäyena). Thus there is this difference here. 1836. But in the word description which begins yan tarn ariyä äcikkhanti <259.34> ("of which the noble ones say"), although äcikkhanti dcsenti <259.37> ("say, teach") and so on are all synonyms for each other, yet while this is so, as an indication (uddesa) they "say" (äcikkhanti) upekkhako satimä sukhavihäri <259.40> ("he who has equanimity and is mindful dwells happily"); as a description (niddesa) they "teach" (desenti); as a restatement (patiniddesa) they "make known" (paMäpenti); by laying down the meaning in this and that way they "establish" (patthapenti); when showing the reason for such and such meanings they "reveal" (vivaranti); when showing the classification of detail they "classify" (vibhajanti); in order to do away with what is upside down and profound, or when creating a basis for their hearers' knowledge, they "clarify" (uttänikaronti); and when abolishing their hearers' ignorance and blindness in all these ways, they "explain" (pakäsenti). The meaning should be regarded in this way.85 1837. In the description of samatikkamä <261.24> ("surmounting") also, because of emergence here and there from such and such states he is one who "exceeds" (atikkanto); [372] because of reaching the upper plane he is one who "surpasses" (vltikkanto); because of not falling

100

The Dispeller of Delusion

away from that he is one who "surmounts" (samatikkanto). The meaning should be regarded in this way.86 End ofSuttanta Division B. ABHIDHAMMA DIVISION 1838. In the Abhidhamma Division, the text is established in the same way as above in the Section on the Thought Arisings (Cittuppädakanda) [in the Dhammasahgani]. Therefore the meaning of all jhänas, described there as profitable, resultant and functional, should be understood in the same way as stated there. The divisions of Pure Ennead, etc. are all the same as stated there. End of Abhidhamma Division C. QUESTIONNAIRE 1839. In the Questionnaire, the profitableness, etc. of the jhänas should be understood in accordance with the Pali. 1840. But as regards the object triads <270.12>, because of three jhänas having the sign as object, it should be known that they are not to be said to have a limited object and so on, but those which are supramundane here at the time of path or at the time of fruition may have a measureless object. 1841. Catutthajjhänam siyä parittärammanam <270.1S> ("the fourth jhana may have a limited object"): here, as to the profitable there are thirteen kinds of fourth jhäna, namely, (1) fourth as the basis for all benefit, (2) fourth of the various kinds of miraculous power, (3) fourth of the knowledge of the Divine Ear, (4) fourth of the knowledge of the penetration of others' minds, (5) fourth of the knowledge of former lives, (6) fourth of the knowledge of the Divine Eye, (7) fourth of the knowledge of reappearance according to kamma, (8) fourth of the knowledge of the future, (9-12) fourth of the sphere of boundless space, etc., (13) fourth which is supramundane. 1842. Herein, (1) fourth as the basis for all benefit should not be said to have such an object. 1843. (2) Fourth of the various kinds of miraculous power, firstly in one who transforms the body by means of consciousness, because of

12. Classification of the Jhänas

101

having the body as object in the performing of miracles with a visible body, 8 7 has a limited object; secondly, in one who transforms consciousness by means of the body and who, after performing a miracle with a visible87 body, goes to the Brahma world, because of having the consciousness of the attainment as object, has an expanded object. 1844. (3) Fourth of the knowledge of the Divine Ear, because of having sound as object, has a limited object. 1845. (4) Fourth of the knowledge of the penetration of others' minds has a limited object at the time of knowing sense-sphere consciousness; it has an expanded object at the time of knowing fine-material-sphere and immaterial-sphere consciousness; it has a measureless object at the time of knowing supramundane consciousness. But one who is possessed of the knowledge of penetration of others' minds, when an ordinary man, knows only the consciousness of ordinary men, not that of the Noble Ones; the Stream Enterer knows both that of the Stream Enterer and that of the ordinary man; the Once Returner knows that of the Once Returner and [373] that of the two below; the Non- Returner knows that of the Non-Returner and that of the three below; one whose cankers are destroyed knows that of all. 1846. (5) Fourth of the knowledge of former lives has a limited object at the time of recollection of sense-sphere aggregates; it has an expanded object at the time of recollection of fine- material-sphere and immaterial-sphere aggregates; it has a measureless object at the time of recollecting that in the past Buddhas, Pacceka Buddhas and those with cankers destroyed developed the path and realized fruition; it should not be said to have such an object at the time of the recollection of name and clan. 1847. (6) Fourth of the Divine Eye because of having colour as object has a limited object. 1848. (7) Fourth of the knowledge of reappearance according to kamma has a limited object at the time of recollecting sense-sphere kamma; it has an expanded object at the time of recollecting fine-material-sphere and immaterial-sphere kamma. 1849. (8) Fourth of the knowledge of the future has a limited object at the time of knowing rebirth in the future sense-desire element; it has an expanded object at the time of knowing rebirth in the fine-material and immaterial existence; it has a measureless object at the time of knowing that in the future Buddhas, Pacceka Buddhas and those with cankers

102

The Dispeller of Delusion

destroyed will develop the path and realize fruition; it should not be said to have such an object at the time of recollection of name and clan in the way beginning: "In the future he will become a king called Sankha" (D in 76). 1850. (9) and (11) Fourth of the sphere of boundless space and the sphere of nothingness should not be said to have such an object. (10) and (12) Fourth of the sphere of boundless consciousness and the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception have an expanded object. 1851. (13) Supramundane fourth has a measureless object. 1852. Also there is the same disposition of the object of these twelve88 jhänas as to the functional (kiriyato). 1853. TLai jhänäni na maggärammanäni <270.20> {"three jhänas have not path as object"): knowledge of reviewing or knowledge of penetration of others' minds, etc. may make the path its object; the three jhänas, because of not occurring thus, have not the path as object. But they may have the path as cause by conascence as cause. They have path as predominance through path development which places energy foremost or investigation foremost. At the time of having zeal or consciousness foremost and at the time of fruition they should not be said to have such an object. 1854. Catutthajjhanam <270.22> ("the fourth jhäna"): here also, as to the profitable among the thirteen kinds of fourth jhäna, the fourth (1) as basis for all benefit, (2) of the kinds of miraculous power, (3) of the divine ear, (6) of the divine eye, (7) of knowledge of reappearance according to kamma and (9-12) fourth of the fourfold immaterial should not be said to have path as object, etc. The fourth as the knowledge of (4) penetration of others' minds, (5) of former lives and (8) of the future has [374] path as object; it should not be said to have path as cause or path as predominance; (13) the supramundane fourth does not have path as object; but at the time of the path it has path as cause by conascent cause; it has path as predominance in path development which places energy or investigation foremost; in path development which places zeal or consciousness foremost, or at the time of fruition, it should not be said to be so. 1855. As to the functional, the method is the same in the case of the twelve fourth jhänas.

12. Classification of the Jhänas

103

1856. Tini jhänäni na vattabbä <270.27> ("three jhänas should not be said"): because they do not occur instigated by one state among the past, etc., they should not be said [to be so]. 1857. Catutthajjhänam <270.29> ("the fourth jhana"): as to the profitable among the thirteen kinds of fourth jhäna, (1) the fourth as basis for all benefit should not be said to have such an object. 1858. (2) The fourth of the kinds of miraculous power firstly has, through transformation of consciousness by means of body, a past object because of having the attainment consciousness as object; it has a future object at the time of resolving thus: 'In the future let these flowers not wither, let the lamps not go out, let one mass of fire arise, let a mountain arise'; secondly, through transformation of body by means of consciousness, it has a present object because of having the body as object. 1859. (3) The fourth of the Divine Ear has a present object because of having sound as object. 1860. (4) The fourth of the penetration of others' minds has a past object at the time of knowing consciousness which has arisen and ceased in the past within seven days; it has a future object at the time of knowing consciousness due to arise in the future within seven days. For the occurrence of the knowledge of the penetration of others' minds is explained by this sutta thus: "According as this worthy one's mental formations are disposed, so next to this consciousness he will think such and such a thought; and if he foretells it often, it happens just so, not otherwise" (D iii 104; A i 171; Ps ii 227). At the time of occurrence instigated by what is present according to what is present in extent (addhänapaccuppanna) and present in continuity (santatipaccuppanna) (see Vis 472 f.) it has a present object. But here the detailed exposition should be understood according to the method stated above in the commentary to the Commentarial Section (Atthakathäkanda) [of the Dhammasangani] (Asl 420 ff.). 1861. (5) The fourth of the knowledge of former lives has a past object at the time of recollecting foimer aggregates; it should not be said to have such an object at the time of recollecting name and clan. 1862. (6) The fourth of the knowledge of the Divine Eye has a present object because of having colour as object. 1863. (7) The fourth of the knowledge of appearance according to kamma has a past object since it makes only past kamma its object.

104

The Dispeller of Delusion

1864. (8) The fourth of the knowledge of the future has a future object at the time of recollecting future aggregates; [375] it should not be said to have such an object at the time ofrecollectingname and clan. 1865. (9 and 11) The fourth of the sphere of boundless space and the sphere of nothingness should not be said to have such objects. (10 and 12) The fourth of the sphere of boundless consciousness and of the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception have only past objects. 1866. (13) The supramundane fourth should not be said to have such an object. 1867. And as to the functional, the method is the same as regards the twelve kinds of fourth jhäna. 1868. Tini jhänä bahiddhärammanä <270.33> ("three jhänas have an external object"): they have an external object because of occurring instigated by the sign89 which is outside the internal. 1869. Catutthajjhänam ("the fourth jhäna"): and here also as regards the thirteen kinds of fourth jhäna, as to the profitable: (1) the fourth as the basis for all benefit has only an external object. 1870. (2) The fourth of the various kinds of miraculous power has an internal object in both transforming the mind by means of the body and transforming the body by means of the mind, because it has only one's own body and mind as object; it has an external object at the time of occurring by making an external elephant, etc. appear. 1871. (3) The fourth of the knowledge of the Divine Ear has an internal object at the time of having as object a sound inside one's own interior, it has an external object at the time of hearing another's sound; with both it has an internal-external object. 1872. (4) The fourth of the knowledge of the penetration of others' minds has only an external object. 1873. (5) The fourth of the knowledge of former lives has an internal object at the time of recollecting one's own aggregates; it has an external object at the time of recollecting another's aggregates and name and clan. 1874. (6) The fourth of the knowledge of the Divine Eye has an internal object at the time of having one's own material form as object; it has an external object at the time of having another's material form as an object; it has an internal-external object at the time of having both as object. 1875. (7) The fourth of the knowledge of reappearance according to kamma has an internal object at the time of knowing one's own kamma;

12. Classification of the Jhänas

105

it has an external object at the time of knowing another's kamma; it has an internal-external object at the time of knowing both. 1876. (8) The fourth of the knowledge of the future has an internal object at the time of knowing one's own rebirth in the future; it has an external object at the time of recollecting another's aggregates and at the time of recollected name and clan; with both it has an internalexternal object. 1877. (9) The fourth of the sphere of boundless space has an external object. (11) The fourth of the sphere of nothingness should not be said to have such an object. (10 and 12) The fourth of the sphere of boundless consciousness and of the sphere of neither-perception-nornon- perception has an internal object. 1878. (13) The supramundane fourth jhäna has only an external object. 1879. And as to the functional, the method is the same as regards the twelve kinds of fourth jhäna. End of Questionnaire 1880. [376] But in this Classification of the Jhänas the jhänas are expounded by the Fully Enlightened One as mixed mundane and supramundane in the Suttanta Division; also in the Abhidhamma Division and in the Questionnaire. For these three methods have each only one division owing to being mixed with states of the three [lower] planes. Thus this Classification of the Jhänas is also taught classifying it in three cycles. End of the Classification of the Jhänas

106

The Dispeller of Delusion FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER TWELVE

1. This passage also occurs at MA i 247. See also above, §§1055 and 1576. 2. Ce and B e (cited Ee) read käranabhäva-, but Ee käraka-bhäva- is confirmed by mt: jhänabhävanäya kärako ti, "doer of jhäna practice" [LSC]. 3. Vbh (O); VbhA (Ee) have bodhipakkhiyänam. See §1711 below. 4. CP has yogänurüpa-, "suitable for the task (yoga)" [LSC]. 5. Mt: sabhävatthenä ti aviparltatthena. Anut: aviparltattho ekantaniyyanafthena veditabbo. Mt: "in the sense of nature" i.e. "in the sense of not being misleading". Anut: the sense of not being misleading should be understood in the sense of only departing [i.e. from samsära]. In other words, dhamma is a true description of the nature of things in the sense that it never misleads because it always directs one towards the way out [LSC]. 6. Both Vin ii and A iv omit this phrase [LSC]. 7. Reading änisamsa with PsA ii 506; Be, Ee and Ce read ämisa; an alternative reading is na hi vaftcanattham. 8. Reading, with Ee, C5 and Be, visittham vä nayatl ti; the Translator has here "to the purified", according to areadingvisuddhi (?) [Ny]. 9. Here, too, the reading visittham has been adopted, following the aforementioned three text editions [Ny], 10. "Ford-makers" (titthakara), i.e. non-Buddhist religious teachers [Ny]. 11. Reading padhänam vacanam with Ee and Ce; Nänamoli has patthänavacanam, but cf. note 38 to Chapter Six above [LSC]. 12. This passage on idha is reproduced with slight alterations in the commentary to the Patisambhidä Änäpänakathä (PsA 505 f.). 13. Mt knows both the reading bhikkhako and the reading bhikkhuko [LSC]! 14. As mt points out, the explanation of these two contradicts the explanations given above (§§1610-11). Mt explains that here the explanation is not literal (nippariyäya) [LSC]. 15. See also §1909 below (Sikkhäpadavibhahga). Mt comments that the meaning here is that they are literally virtuous conduct "because [they are] the restraint of undertaking and the restraint of non-transgression". Anut adds: the figurativeness even of virtuous conduct as volition is declared, thinking that only abstention (virati) is the basis with

12. Classification of the Jhänas

107

reference to virtuous conduct as avoiding (yärittaslla). The point here is that the Patisambhidämagga does not use strict abhidhamma terminology; its language is "figurative" (pariyäyato) i.e. intentional exposition to particular hearers. In this case its use of virati differs slightly from later usages [LSC]. 16. Reading suvisuddham with C e [LSC]. 17. Mt: "A teacher of the science of [determining lucky] sites (vatthuvijjä)" they say. Anut, however, says that the science of the builder is twofold: the science of sites and the science of buildings (päsädavijjä) [LSC]. 18. Reading vitikkama-vipphandanam with O [LSC]. 19. So Ee and O; Vbh (Ee) has pamukham and cites B e with pamokham. 20. See Chapter 7, Satipatthäna Vibhahga (§1208 above). 21. See §1209 above [LSC]. 22. Reading ekacciyam with O and vl to Ee [LSC], 23. Issaravatäya; not in PED but in CPD with the meaning given above, and with source references. The "arrogance" consists in assuming to be "Lord" (issara) and master of the Order's property [Ny]. 24. Garubhanda; "ponderable goods" i.e. those which are worth considering. The Vinaya offence would be a thullaccaya. 25. Veludüsikä; the Sammohavinodani-Yojanä explains: veludüsikä pänijätikä, "a species of vermin that spoils the bamboo" [Ny]. 26. Ritta-potthako; here not a book but something modelled or moulded [Ny]. 27. The length from the elbow to the knuckles of a closed fist. 28. I.e. on the Indian mainland. [Reading para-tire with C e for E c saratlre (LSC).] 29. So C* E e omits [LSC]. 30. See A iii 274-5 for factors in a bhikkhu who distributes "small things". 31. Vatthu-püjä; meaning uncertain. A rendering "offering of land" would not fit the context [Ny]. 32. Reading asuke ca asuke ca rukkhe with C c [LSC]. 33. That is, the duty to prepare the tooth sticks. 34. Patisiddha, not in PED; pp. of patisedheti. 35. See §§1636-7 above. 36. Reading upasahkamitabba- with O [LSC]. 37. Or by their bodies (rüpüpajlviniyo) [Ny].

108

The Dispeller of Delusion

38. Dakkhinävasena; the Sammohavinodani-Yojanä explains by dänaggahanavasena [Ny]. 39. I.e. the training in virtue, concentration and wisdom [Ny]. 40. PaMatti-vitikkamam; parlflatti refers here to the "laid down" disciplinary rules of the monk [Ny]. 41. Sallekhapariham; this refers to the effacement, i.e. radical removal, of mental impurities. See M sutta 8 [Ny]. 42. This simile is derived from S ii 229 (Läbhasakkära Samyutta sutta 6) [Ny]. 43. Nivatthapäruta\ nivattha refers to the monk's undergarment (antaravOsaka) and päruta to the other two robes. 44. A grammatical resolution of the compound — unrenderable in English. 45. Soreadwith O and Vbh [LSC]. 46. Mt: i.e. the dweller in the district of Divivihära [LSC]. 47. See Vbh 376; also A ii 121. 48. E e and C e both have the figure of 68 x 100,000 yojanas, here and below [LSC]. 49. C e and mt have sikkhäsaddassa in place of E e sikkhäpadassa— this would mean: to show the meaning of the word "training" [LSC]. 50. This is quoted differently MA ii 316 and Be. 51.NotinPED. 52. Mt: Suppapariggähakan ti suppapariggähakam noma idam itopubbe itoparah ca natthi; "ayam etassapaccayo" ti ädinäpariggähakam. Anut: Suppapariggähakan ti niddäpariggähakam. Idan ti idam abbokinnabhavahgottaranasahkhätam kiriyamayacittänam appavattanam suppam näma. Ito bhavahgottaranato pubbe. Ito kiriyamayacittappavattito parafi ca natthi. Ay am käyakilamatho, thinamiddhafl ca etassa suttassa paccayo. Both E e and C e read supariggähakam; however, both Sinhalese manuscripts used for Ee read simply pariggähaka-. So the reading is derived only from one or both of the old Burmese editions. Presumably the reading suppa- is at least as old as anut (and older than any extant Mss ?). No doubt this reading should be accepted and we should translate "protects sleep" in place of "lays well hold [of its object]". According to anut, mt's comment means: "Protecting sleep": that [non-occurrence of kiriya-maya minds known as entering bhavahga and called sleep] referred to as protecting sleep does not exist prior to this [entry into bhavahga] nor subsequently [due to the occurrence of kiriya-

12. Classification of the Jhänas

109

maya citta]; [it is] protecting in the way given in such passages as: "this [bodily tiredness and sloth and torpor] is the condition for that [sleep]". See note 75 below and Nett 79 [LSC]. 53. See note 3 above [LSC]. 54. Mt points out that in the development of insight the foundations of mindfulness and the next [two sets of the states partaking of enlightenment] do not occur together with a single object. The faculties and powers, which do occur together, are included in the enlightenment factors on the grounds that the missing factor of faith can be regarded as implied by the presence of the rapture (piti) enlightenment factor. However, only five path factors occur at the moment of insight. As anut indicates, the purpose is to account for the Vibhanga explanation of the states partaking of enlightenment in terms of only one set — the factors of enlightenment. According to mt and anut, this would be required because of the momentary nature of such an abhidhamma work [LSC]. 55. See Chapters 10 (§§1509-57) and 7 (§§1303-82), commentaries to the Bojjhahga Vibhanga and the Satipatthäna Vibhanga [Ny]. 56. Dt: "some" are the Abhayagiriväsins [LSC]. 57. Ee and C?readpathamamajjhimayäme [LSC]. 58. I.e. hunger arises [Ny]. 59. Cf. Vis 32 [LSC]. 60. A i 24. His story is told at Ud 6-9 and Ap ii 475-78; cf. UdA 7799; AA i 279-83; DhA ii 209-16; mt (and Dt) gives the Buddha's words to him and anut comments on them [LSC]. 61.0mtfto,notinPED. 62. Vis 622 reads sannirujjhana-; DA, MA and SA all read sannirumbhana- or sannirumhana- [LSC]. 63. The absence of an immediate affective reaction associated with the notions of male and female is, as mt and anut indicate, because only a pure sensory (five-door) process is referred to. At this stage greed for a wished-for female form (rüpa) (or male form) and aversion towards one not wished for arise because of the unwise (ayoniso) adverting and determining of the adverting and determining earlier in the fiveconsciousness process. There is no grasping with such concepts (vikappa) as "male" or "female" — this occurs only at the mind door where there is desire associated with the notions of male and female. The term "root", according to mt and Dt i 324, refers to the five-door impulsions or to the whole set of the seven stages beginning with

110

The Dispeller of Delusion

bhavanga and ending with impulsion because they are the root of that desire associated with such notions and hence the root of mind-door impulsion [LSC]. 64. At Anuradhapura. 65. This story occurs with more detail at MA ii 145. 66. Mt: "they say that this is one kind of snake found in the island of the Sinhalese"; cf. Dt i 325 [LSC]. 67. C e reads sammifljitthä; so also MA and SA; DA sammiüjayitthä [LSC]. 68. C e reads samminjesin; so also DA, MA and SA [LSC]. 69. Used of the waistcloth (antaraväsaka). 70. Used of the other two robes. 71. C e reads -tumbato; so also DA, but MA and SA read -kumbhato; mt reads twnbato velunäli-ädiudakabhäjanato = Dt i 327 [LSC]. 72. Or "lying down".' 73. Reading cittam bhavangam otäreti with O5 [LSC]. 74. Sayati - seti is used for both "lying down" and for "sleeping", which is further complicated by the use of supati, pp. suttay for both "sleeping" and "dreaming". 75. Mt : "Impulsion is called 'course produced by the functional' (kiriyämaya-pavatta) because it produces bodily and other activities (kiriyä) and because it is originated by adverting which is functional or the whole six-door course [is so-called]". Anut comments that these are examples of phalüpacära and käranüpacdrarespectivelyi.e. metaphorical usages of the result for its cause or vice-versa. In the former case one should translate: "course consisting of activity" [LSC]. 76. Reading slsam with C c and mt for Nanamoli's sllam. Mt comments: slsam dhovatl ti icchädäsabyä bhujissatam fiäpeti; micchäpatipannehi vä pakkhittam ayasarajam dhovati. "Washes the head" i.e. makes known [their] freedom from the slavery of wishes (need); or washes the dust of ill-fame cast [on their heads] by those who have practised wrongly [LSC]. 77. Patissayaviseso, not in PED. The Sammohavinodani-Yojanä explains it by upassayaviseso [Ny]. 78. Darita, not in PED. 79. Mt: pariggahita-niyyänan ti (either [mindfulness] "which takes hold of the way out" or "which comprehends the way out") i.e. "with its nature of being the way out taken hold o f ; this means "joined to its nature of being the way out because it occurs in the right way as

12. Classification of the Jhänas

111

regards the body and so on". Alternatively, "comprehension" (pariggaha) is knowledge which comprehends the body and so on; this means "having made the establishing [of mindfulness] which is the way out comprehended through being associated with that [comprehension]". See Vis Trsl. p. 291 and Ps Trsl. p. 206 n. 14 [LSC]. 80. Vbh here understands älokasaMl not as "perceiving light" but as "possessing perception which is light". Anut comments: "This means perception associated with skilful applied thought (yitakka) because it occurs in a manner which dispels sloth and torpor by way of substitution of opposites (tadahga) and so on. Alternatively the thought arising which is of this kind is referred to under the heading of perception" [LSC]. 81. As CPD suggests, älokä must here be an adjective. So read (for E e äloko) with O , mt and Vbh [LSC]. 82. Both mt and anut read nirävaranäbhogä (or something similar) — "due to apprehending without obstruction" [LSC]. 83. Mt points out that worry is in fact "regret based upon the performance of material transgression as a result of such indecision as: 'Is it the wrong time (vikälä) or not ?'" — a term for the cause of regret has been used here [LSC]. 84. So read with O and Vbh [LSC]. 85. Mt mentions a view (ti vadanti) that the description (niddesa) is the portion of Vbh text beginning with: "Therein, what is equanimity ?" <259.9> while the restatement (patiniddesa) is the portion beginning with: "He is endowed with this equanimity . . . " <259.11>. It puts forward two alternative views. Firstly it suggests that the person is described (niddittha) by the whole of the above and restated (patiniddittha) by the words following (i.e. samupeto, etc. — the synonyms for upeto ["endowed with"] referred to by the pe at Vbh 259.12). Or the restatement is simply the last three words: tena vuccati upekkhako <259.12> ("therefore he is called one with equanimity"). According to anut, the six words beginning with "they make known" (paftfläpenti) indicate the six "meaning terms" (atthapada) of the Nettipakarana, while the first two: "they say" and "they teach" indicate the (six) "phrasing terms" (yyaftjanapada). It refers to the Netti commentary for a further explanation. See Nett Trsl. p. 19 (Nett 9 and NettA on p. 210 of Nett) [LSC].

112

The Dispeller of Delusion

86. Mt adds comments on the Vbh account of the third formless jhäna [LSC]! 87. Reading dissamänena with O [LSC]. 88. Mt comments that "twelve" should have been said rather than "thirteen" as there is no kiriya-lokuttara-jhäna. Alternatively mt suggests that the fourth jhäna lokuttara of an arahat could be intended here as the thirteenth item. Anut knows only the reading "twelve": kiriyato dvädasannan ti ca pätho atthi. Probably the text had been normalized by the time of anut [LSC]. 89. Mt points out that it should say "instigated by the sign and nibbäna" [LSC]'.

CHAPTER THIRTEEN CLASSIFICATION OF THE BOUNDLESS STATES (Appamaflflav ibhanga)
A. SUTTANTA DIVISION (a) Schedule (mätikä) 1881. [377] Now in the Classification of the Boundless States next to that, catasso <272.1> ("four") is the division by number. 1882. Appamafifiäyo ("boundless states"): boundless states through boundlessness of pervasion. For these either pervade boundless beings as object or they pervade a single being with unreserved pervasion; thus they are called boundless states. 1883. Idha bhikkhu ("here a bhikkhu"): a bhikkhu in this dispensation. Mettäsahagatena ("accompanied by amity"): possessed of amity. Cctasä <272.2> ("with his heart"): with his mind. EkaA disaifa (''one quarter"): this is stated as the pervading of beings included in one quarter, relating to the first being laid hold of in one quarter. Pharitvä ("pervading"): touching, making the object. Viharati ("he dwells"): produces a dwelling in postures, which is resolved upon the Divine Abodes. Tathä dutiyam ("likewise the second'): just as he dwells pervading any one quarter among the quarters beginning with the eastern one, likewise he does with the second next to that and the third and the fourth, is the meaning. 1884. Iti uddham <272.3> ("so above"): in that same way in the upper quarter is what is said. Adho tiriyam ("below, around"): so too the lower quarter and the quarter all around. Herein, "below" is underneath and "around" is in the intermediate quarters. So he sends his heart full of amity back and forth to all quarters like a horse in a circus ring. Up to this point, pervasion with amity with limitation is shown by laying hold of each quarter separately. 1885. But sabbadhi ("everywhere") and so on is said for the purpose of showing pervasion without limitation. Herein, sabbadhi ("everywhere") means in all places. Sabbattatäya <272.4> ("equally"): to all classed as inferior, medium and superior, friendly, inimical, neutral, etc., just as to oneself (attatä); equality with oneself

114

The Dispeller of Delusion

(attasamatä) without making the distinction "this is another being" is what is said. Or alternatively, sabbattatäya: with the whole state of the mind, [378] not allowing oneself to be distracted outside even a little, is what is said. Sabbävantam ("entire"): possessing all beings, associated with all beings, is the meaning. Lokam ("world"): the world of beings. 1886. But mettäsahagatena cetasä ("with mind accompanied by amity") is said again here because of showing the methods beginning with "abundant"; or mettäsahagatena cetasä is said here again because the word tathä ("likewise") or the word iti ("so") is not said again here as it was in the case of the [preceding] pervasion with limitation. Or this is said as a conclusion. And vipulena <272.5> ("abundant") should be regarded here as abundance in pervading. But it is mahaggatam ("expanded") by way of plane, appamänam ("boundless") because of familiarity, and because of having boundless beings as its object, averam ("free from enmity") owing to the abandonment of ill will and hostility and abyäpajjam ("free from distress") because of abandonment of grief; without suffering is what is said. This in the first place is the meaning of the schedule (mätikä) set forth in the very beginning with the words mettäsahagatena cetasä <272.1>. (b) Classification of Words 1887. Now as to the classification of the words (padabhäjaniya) stated in the manner beginning thus: Kathafi ca bhikkhu mettäsahagatena cetasä <272.21> ("And how does a bhikkhu ... with his heart full of amity"), herein, because this meditation subject is suitable for one of hating temperament (dosacarita), therefore in order firstly to show as the basis for amity the kind of person in respect of whom amity reaches absorption, seyyathäpi näma ekam puggalam <272.23> ("as though [seeing] a person") and so on is said. 1888. Herein, seyyathäpi näma ("as though") is a particle meaning a simile; "as ... a person" is the meaning. Piyam ("dear"): lovable. Manäpam ("beloved"): one who makes the heart to swell. Herein, he is called "dear" owing to former co-residence or owing to present benefit; he is called "beloved" owing to his possession of such qualities as virtue. Or dearness should be understood as owing to impartiality in giving; and belovedness as owing to helpfulness and endearing speech.

13. Classification of the Boundless States

115

And because through clearness the abandoning of this ill will comes about and consequently he pervades the bliss of amity; and because through belovedness indifference (udäsinatä) does not continue but conscience and shame (hirottappa) are established, and consequently amity guarded by conscience and shame does not fall away; therefore "dear and beloved" is said using this simile. 1889. Mettäyeyya <272.24> ("would feel amity"): would pervade with amity; would produce amity and cause its occurrence in respect of that person, is the meaning. [379] Evam eva sabbe satte ("so indeed all beings"): and just as he would regard with amity this person, so indeed he gradually pervades with amity, which has reached absorption in that person and has attained a state of mastery, all beings even though they are counted as neutral or hostile, is the meaning. 1890. Metti mettäyanä <272.26> ("amiability, amicableness"), etc. have the meaning aforesaid. 1891. The words vidisam vä("or intermediate direction") are stated for the purpose of explaining the meaning of tiriyam vä ("or around"). 1892. Pharitvä <273.7> ("pervading"): touching by making it the object. Adhimuficitvä ("suffusing"): sent in a superior way (adhikabhävena muHcitvä); according as it is sent (mutta), quite sent (sumutta), quite extended, quite spread out, the meaning is "having sent" (muücitvä) in that way. 1893. In the description of sabbadhi <273.13> ("everywhere"), etc., because the three words are all-inclusive, therefore sabbena sabbam <273.14> ("in all ways"), etc. is said in order to show their meaning together. The meaning of that is the same as the meaning given above (§1695). 1894. In the description of vipulena <273.27> ("abundant") and so on, because what is abundant through pervasion of endless beings by attainment of absorption is assuredly expanded as to plane, and what is expanded is boundless owing to having a boundless resort, and what is boundless is free from enmity through abolishing hostility, and what is free from enmity is free from distress through distress being eliminated; therefore yam vipulam tarn mahaggatam ("what is abundant is expanded"), etc. is said. 1895. And here, avero abyäpajjo <273.29> ("free from enmity, free from distress") is said by way ofreversalof gender. Or the construction should be made with the [masculine word] "mind": consciousness which

116

The Dispeller of Delusion

is boundless is mind free from enmity, and that which is free from enmity is free from distress. Furthermore, each former word should be understood as the meaning of each latter one, or each latter one that of each former one. 1896. Seyyathä pi näma ekam puggalam duggatam durupetam <273.35> ("just as on seeing an unlucky, unfortunate person") is said in order to show this person as the object (vatthu) of compassion; for strong compassion arises in regard to such a person. 1897. Herein, duggatam ("unlucky") is gone to a state of being afflicted with pain. Durupetam ("unfortunate"): possessed of bodily misconduct, etc.; or a person who is fixed in darkness as regards destiny, family, wealth, etc. is "unfortunate". Also one who is destined to darkness owing to his being possessed (upeta) of bodily misconduct, etc. is "unfortunate". This is how it should be understood. 1898. Ekam puggalam piyam manäpam <274.37> ("a dear and beloved person") is said in order to show this person as the object of altruistic joy. 1899. [380] Herein, by way of destiny, family, wealth, etc., one who stands blessed thereby is "dear"; and one who stands in the prospect of being blessed thereby owing to being provided with good conduct of body, etc., is "beloved". This is how it should be regarded. 1900. Neva manäpam na amanäpam <275.38> ("neither beloved nor unbeloved") is said in order to show this person as the object of equanimity. Herein, because of not having arrived at the state of being a friend, he is "neither beloved"; and because of not having arrived at the state of being an enemy, he is "nor unbeloved". This is how it should be understood. 1901. All the rest that should be said here has all been said in the Section on Thought Arisings (Cittuppädakanda) [of the Dhammasangani]. The method of the development of these meditation subjects is explained in detail in the Visuddhimagga (Chapter Nine). End ofSuttanta Division B. ABHIDHAMMA DIVISION 1902. The Abhidhamma Division is classified according to the method of classification given above in the Section on Thought Arisings

13. Classification of the Boundless States

117

(Cittuppädakanda) into profitable, resultant and functional. Its meaning should be understood according to the method stated there. End of Abhidhamma Division C. QUESTIONNAIRE 1903. In the Questionnaire the profitable, etc. state of amity, etc. should be understood in accordance with the Pali. But as regards the object triads, in the case of three triads all should not be said to have such objects. In the case of the internal-object triad they have an external object. 1904. But in this Classification of the Boundless States, they are expounded by the Fully Enlightened One in the Suttanta Division as mundane only; likewise in the Abhidhamma Division and in the Questionnaire. For although these methods are three, because of mundaneness they are of one kind only. Thus this Classification of the Boundless States is also taught by classifying it in three cycles. End of the Classification of the Boundless States

CHAPTER FOURTEEN CLASSIFICATION OF THE TRAINING PRECEPTS (Sikkhäpadavibhanga)
A. ABHIDHAMMA DIVISION (a) Schedule 1905. [381] Now in the Classification of the Training Precepts next to that, pafica <285.1> ("five") is the division by number. Sikkhäpadäni ("training precepts"): precepts to be trained in; "portions of training" is the meaning. Furthermore, all the profitable states handed down above are trainings (sikkha) because they should be trained in. But any factor among the five factors of virtuous conduct is a basis (pada) for those trainings in the sense of foundation; thus because of being the bases for trainings (sikkhänam padattä), they are precepts (bases) of training. 1906. Pänätipätä ("from killing living things"): from attack (atipata) and destruction of a living thing (päna); "from killing" is the meaning. Veramani ("abstaining"): abstention (virati). Adinnädänä <285.2> ("from taking what is not given") = adinnassa ädänä: "from the carrying off of what is held by another" is the meaning. Kämesu ("in respect of the sense desires"): in respect of the sense desires as objective basis. Micchäcärä ("from misconduct"): from evil conduct through sense desires as defilement. Musävädä <285.3> ("from false speech"): from untrue speech. 1907. Surämerayamajjapamädatthänä <285.4> ("from causes for indulgence in the intoxicants of liquor and strong drink"): here surä ("liquor") is of five kinds: flour (pittha) liquor, cake (püva) liquor, boiled rice (odäna) liquor, that which has yeast put in it (kinnapakkhitta) and blended (sambhärasampayutta). Meraya ("strong drink") is the five kinds of fermented brews (äsava): flower brew (pupphasava), fruit brew (phalasava), treacle brew (guläsava), honey brew (madhäsava) and blended. Both of these are majja (? intoxicants") in the sense of producing intoxication. The volition whereby they drink is the pamädatthäna ("cause of negligence") because of being the

14. Classification of the Training Precepts

119

reason for the negligence. Therefore it is "from causes for negligence in respect of the intoxicants of liquor and strong drink" (surämerayamajjamhi pamädatthänä). This firstly is the meaning of the setting-out of the schedule. (b) Classification of Words 1908. But as regards the classification of words, yasmim samaye kämävacaram <285.6> ("on what occasion a sense-sphere [profitable consciousness]") and so on is all clear owing to the method stated above (see Asl 54 ff.). But because not only just abstention is a training precept but volition also is a training precept, therefore there is a second method for pointing it out. And because a training precept is not only these two things but also the fifty and more things associated with volition, because of being a "portion of what is to be trained", are training precepts too, therefore a third method is taught too. 1909. Herein, training precept is of two kinds, training precept in the figurative sense (pariyäya) and training precept in the literal sense (nippariyäya). Herein, abstention (yirati) is the training precept in its literal sense. That has come down in the Pali as [382] "abstaining from killing living things", not as volition. And one who abstains, abstains from this or that by that [abstaining] alone, not by volition. But he teaches by bringing in volition; likewise the remaining states associated with volition. For it is the hostile volition at the time of transgression that is called misconduct (dussilya), therefore that [volition] is stated by way of good conduct (susllya) even at the time of abstention. Impression, etc. are included because of being associated with it. (c) Definition 1910. Now for the purpose of inspiring knowledge about these training precepts, the definition beginning with "killing living things" should be understood (1) as to state (dhammatö)y (2) as to portion (kotthäsato), (3) as to object (ärammanato), (4) as to feeling (vedanäto), (5) as to root (mülato), (6) as to kamma (kammato)> (7) as to blame (sävajjato) and (8) as to means (payogato). 1911. Herein, (1) "as to states", these five beginning with "killing of living things" are volitional states only.

120

The Dispeller of Delusion

1912. (2) "As to portion", they are five courses of action {kammapatha). 1913. (3) "As to object", killing of living things has the life faculty as object; taking of what is not given has beings as object or formations as object; misconduct has woman or man as object;1 false speech has beings as object or formations as object; drinking of liquor has formations as object. 1914. (4) "As to feeling", killing of living things has painful feeling. Taking of what is not given has the three feelings; for it has pleasant feeling in one who takes what is not given, laughing and contented; at the time of being frightened it has painful feeling; in one taking with neutrality it has neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling. Misconduct has pleasant feeling or neither-painful-nor- pleasant feeling. False speech has the three feelings, like taking what is not given. Drinking of liquor has pleasant and neutral feeling. 1915. (5) "As to root", killing of living things has hate and delusion as root. Taking of what is not given sometimes has greed and delusion as root and sometimes has hate and delusion as root. Misconduct has greed and delusion as root. False speech sometimes has greed and delusion as root and sometimes has hate and delusion as root. Drinking of liquor has greed and delusion as root. 1916. (6) "As to kamma", false speech is here verbal kamma; the rest are bodily kamma only. 1917. (7) "As to blame", there is killing of living things which is more to blame. Likewise with taking what is not given and the rest. Their difference has been shown above (Asl 97 f.).2 But this is another method: for the slaughter of a small ant is less to blame; of one larger than that is more to blame. That also is less to blame, and [the slaughter] of a bird which is larger is more to blame; more than that, that of an iguana; more than that, that of a hare; more than that, that of a deer; more than that, that of an ox; more than that, that of a horse; the slaughter of an elephant is more to blame than that. More than that, [383] that of a human of bad conduct; more than that, that of a human of cattle-like virtue (gorüpasilaka);3 more than that, that of one who has gone for refuge; more than that, that of one who keeps the five training precepts; more than that, that of a novice; more than that, that of an ordinary bhikkhu; more than that, that of a Stream Enterer; more than that, that of a Once Returner; more than that, that of a Non-

14. Classification of the Training Precepts

121

Returner; the slaughter of one whose cankers are destroyed is far more to blame than that. 1918. Taking of what is not given, belonging to one of bad conduct, is less to blame; more than that, that belonging to one of cattle-like virtue; more than that, that belonging to one who has gone for refuge ... to one who keeps the five precepts of training ... to a novice ... to an ordinary bhikkhu ... to a Stream Enterer ... to a Once Returner ... to a Non-Retumer ... [taking what is not given] belonging to one whose cankers are destroyed is far more to blame than that. 1919. Misconduct is less to blame as transgression with a woman of bad conduct; more than that, that with one of cattle-like virtue; more than that, that with one who has gone for refuge; more than that, that with one who keeps the five precepts of training ... with a female novice ... with an ordinary bhikkhuni... with a female Stream Enterer ... with a female Once Returner ... with a female Non-Returner ... [misconduct as transgression] with a female who has destroyed the cankers is unreservedly more to blame than that. 1920. False speech in the telling of falsehood for the purpose of [obtaining] as much as a käkanika (farthing) is less to blame; more than that, that for the purpose of a half mäsaka ... of a mäsaka ... of five mäsakas ... of a half kahäpana ... of a kahäpana ... the telling of a falsehood for the purpose of obtaining goods which are invaluable is more to blame than that; unreservedly more to blame than that, however, is the telling of falsehood by a person causing schism in the Order. 1921. Drinking of liquor in the drinking of as much as a small measure (pasata) is less to blame; in the drinking of as much as the cupped hands full (afljali) it is more to blame; but that which causes the bodily unsteadiness in one who, after drinking much, does the work of destroying a village or destroying a town is unreservedly more to blame. 1922. As to the killing of living things, the slaughter of one whose cankers are destroyed is the more to blame; as to taking what is not given, it is the carrying off of what belongs to one whose cankers are destroyed; as to misconduct, it is the transgression with a bhikkhuni whose cankers are destroyed; as to false speech, it is causing schism in the Order by false speech; as to drinking liquor, it is that which causes bodily unsteadiness in one who, after drinking much, destroys a village or a town which is more to blame. But the most to blame of all these is

122

The Dispeller of Delusion

the causing of schism in the Order by false speech; for that is most frightful and causes roasting in hell for an aeon {kappa). 1923. (8) "As to means": killing of living things is by one's own hand and by command. Likewise taking what is not given. Misconduct, false speech and drinking liquor are by one's own hand only. 1924. [384] Having thus known the definition of "killing living things", etc. as to state, etc., the definition of "abstention from killing living things", etc. should be understood (1) as to state (dhammato), (2) as to portion (kotthasato), (3) as to object (ärammanatd), (4) as to feeling (vedanäto), (5) as to root (mülato), (6) as to kamma (kammato), (7) as to breaking (khandato), (8) as to undertaking (samädänato) and (9) as to means (payogato). 1925. Herein, (1) "as to state": the five volitions successively, in accordance with virtuous conduct in a figurative sense, are the states themselves.4 1926. (2) "As to portion": the five courses of action themselves. 1927. (3) "As to object": abstaining from killing living things, after making another's life faculty its object, abstains from one's own hostile volition. With the rest the method is the same. For all these, after making the basis for transgression the object, abstain from hostile volitions only. 1928. (4) "As to feeling": all are either pleasant feeling or neutral (majjhatta) feeling. 1929. (5) "As to root": in one abstaining by means of consciousness associated with knowledge they have non-greed, non-hate and nondelusion as roots; in one abstaining by means of consciousness dissociated from knowledge they have non-greed and non-hate as roots. 1930. (6) "As to kamma": here only abstaining from false speech is verbal kamma; therestare bodily kamma. 1931. (7) "As to breaking": for lay people only that which is transgressed is broken, spoilt; the rest are not spoilt. Why ? Because lay people have transitory virtuous conduct; they keep whatever precepts they can. But for novices, when one is transgressed all are spoilt; and not only these [five] but also the rest of the [ten] kinds of virtuous conduct are spoilt. But their transgression is grounds for making amends. When amends are made by saying: *I shall not act in such a manner again,' virtuous conduct is fulfilled. 1932. (8) "As to undertaking": they are undertaken both by one who resolves thus: *I resolve upon thefivekinds of virtuous conduct' and by

14. Classification of the Training Precepts

123

one who undertakes each one separately. And when sitting down before another, they are undertaken both by one who undertakes them saying: 'I undertake the five kinds of virtuous conduct* and by one who undertakes each one separately. 1933. (9) "As to means": it should be understood that all are effected directly by oneself as the means. (d) Section on Training 1934. Now in order to point out those kinds of training by means of the apportionment5 of which these five precepts of training were stated, this section on training begins with Katame dhammä sikkhä ? <290.36> ("Which states are trainings ?"). [385] Herein, since all profitable states of the four planes are trainings because they should be trained in, therefore yasmim samaye kämävacaram <290.33> Con what occasion a sense sphere") and so on is said in order to point these out. Herein, the meaning should be understood by elaborating the Pali in the way stated above in the Section on Thought Arisings (Cittuppädakanda) [of the Dhammasahgani]. Here, however, only the heading is shown. End of Abhidhamma Division B. QUESTIONNAIRE 1935. In the Questionnaire, the profitable, etc. state of the training precepts should be understood in accordance with the Pali. 1936. But as regards the object triads, those training precepts which are here stated as "having beings as object", because they make only formations reckoned as "beings" their object, and because all these are described only in terms of actually present restraining, they are therefore said to have a limited object and a present object. But because of the entire externality of the basis it refrains from, all should be understood to have an external object. 1937. But in this Classification of the Training Precepts, in both the Abhidhamma Division and the Questionnaire the Training Precepts are expounded by the Blessed One as mundane only. And both these methods, because of being mundane, are only one in number. Thus this

124

The Dispeller of Delusion

Classification of the Training Precepts is also taught by classifying it in two cycles. End of the Classification of the Precepts of Training

14. Classification of the Training Precepts

125

FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER FOURTEEN
1. Mt points out that since the five precepts of training can only have a limited object, those which are said to have beings, woman or man as their object must in reality have formations taken under the aspects of being, etc. as their object [LSC]. 2. Cf. MA i 198 ff. [and see commentary to M sutta 9 in "Right Understanding", TrsL Bhikkhu Soma, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy (Ny)]. 3. Mt: "naturally good" (pakatibhaddo) [Ny]. 4. Cf. §1909 above [LSC]. 5. Mt: kotthäsabhävenä ti vuttam;patitthänabhävenä tipana vattabbam — "'by apportionment' has been said, but 'by way of foundation* should be said". Anut does not comment [LSC].

CHAPTER FIFTEEN CLASSIFICATION OF THE DISCRIMINATIONS (Patisambhiddvibhahga)
A. SUTTANTA DIVISION (a) Summary Section 1938. [386] Now in the Classification of the Discriminations next to that, Catasso <293.1> Cf our'9) is the division by number. Patisambhidä ("discriminations") are the categories (pabheda). But because atthe fiänam attha-patisambhidä <293.3> ("knowledge concerned with meaning is the discrimination of meaning") is said later, therefore they should be understood as categories of knowledge only, not categories of anything else. So by means of the expression catasso patisambhidä ("four discriminations") this meaning is taken up, namely, "there are four categories of knowledge (Mnappabheda)". 1939. Atthapatisambhidä <293.1> ("Discrimination of Meaning") is the discrimination concerned with meaning (atthe patisambhidä); the meaning is "knowledge which falls into the category concerned with meaning", which [knowledge] is capable of effecting the discerning, the explaining, the definition of the meaning category. So also with the remaining expressions. 1940. For dhammapatisambhidä ("Discrimination of Law") is knowledge which falls into the category concerned with law (dhamma), which [knowledge] is capable of effecting the discerning, the explaining, the definition of the law category. 1941. Niruttipatisambhidä <293.2> ("Discrimination of Language") is knowledge which falls into the category concerned with utterance of language, which [knowledge] is capable of effecting the discerning, the explaining, the definition of the language category. 1942. Pajibhänapatisambhidä ("Discrimination of Intelligence") is knowledge which falls into the category concerned with intelligence, which [knowledge] is capable of effecting the discerning, the explaining, the definition of the intelligence category.

15. Classification of the Discriminations

127

1943. Now atthe flänam attha-pafisanibhidä <293.3> ^Discrimination of Meaning is knowledge concerned with meaning"), etc. is said, showing the discriminations by classifying them according as they have been set forth. 1944. Herein, attho ("meaning, purpose") in brief is the fruit of a cause (hetuphalam). For that is to be served (araniya),1 to be arrived at, to be reached by a cause; therefore it is called meaning (puipose). But in particular, the five things, namely, whatever is conditionally produced, nibbäna, the meaning of what is spoken, result (vipäka), the functional [consciousness] (kiriya), should be understood as meaning (attha). When one is reviewing that meaning, the knowledge which falls into the category concerned with meaning is the Discrimination of Meaning (atthapatisambhidä). 1945. Dhammo ("law") in brief is a condition (paccaya). For that is called "law" (dhamma) because it contrives (vidahati) whatever it may be, makes it occur and allows it to arrive. But in particular, the five things, namely, any fruit-producing cause (hetu)> the noble path, [387] what is spoken, what is profitable, what is unprofitable, should be understood as law (dhamma). When one is reviewing that law, the knowledge which falls into the category concerned with law is the Discrimination of Law (dhammapatisambhida). 1946. Tattha dhammaniruttäbhiläpe flänam ("knowledge concerning the utterance of dhamma language therein"): that which is the natural language (sabhävanirutti) concerning that meaning and that law; [knowledge] concerning the utterance of that. When one is reviewing that natural language by making the sound of it the object, the knowledge which falls into the category concerned with utterance of the natural language is the Discrimination of Language (niruttipatisambhida). Thus this Discrimination of Language comes to have sound (words) as its object, not a concept as its object. 1947. Why ? Because on hearing the sound, one knows that this is the natural language, this is not the natural language. For one who has attained this discrimination knows when phasso2 is said that this is the uttering of the natural language; and he knows when phassä or phassam3 is said that this is not the natural language. So also with vedanäy etc.4 But does he know besides that the word is a noun (närna), verb (äkhyäta), prefix (upasagga)y suffix (byanJana) or not ? From such time as, on hearing a word, he knows that "this is the natural language, this is not the natural language", from then on he knows that also.

128

The Dispeller of Delusion

1948. But the following story is told [in the commentary] 5 denying this, saying that it is not the function of this discrimination. It seems that the Elder Tissadatta took the golden ticket for preaching at the Wisdom Site and he offered: 'Which out of the eighteen tongues shall I speak?' But that was offered by him out of reliance on his own learning, not out of reliance on the discrimination. For with his great understanding he had learnt each tongue by getting it spoken. It was after that that he offered this out of reliance on his learning. 1949. But here, as to saying that beings learn a tongue, this is only when it is told them; for a mother and father, when their children are small, lay them on a bed or on a chair and, speaking such and such words, do such and such work. The children define such and such speech of theirs thus: 'By this that is mentioned, by this that is mentioned.' As time goes on, they get to know the whole tongue. The mother is Tamil, the father is Andhaka. The child born of them, if he hears the mother's speech first, will speak the Tamil tongue; if he hears the father's speech first, he will speak the Andhaka tongue. But not hearing either speech, he will speak the Mägadha tongue. And he who is reborn in a great forest without a village and where there is no-one else who speaks, he too, when he creates speech of his own accord, [388] will speak only the Mägadha tongue. And in hell, in the animal kind of generation, in the realm of ghosts, in the human world and in the world of deities, everywhere the Mägadha tongue is foremost. 1950. Herein, the rest of the eighteen tongues beginning with the Otta, the Kiräta, the Andhaka, the Greek and the Tamil, change; only this Mägadha tongue correctly called the perfect (brahma) usage, the noble usage, does not change. Also the Fully Enlightened One, in announcing the Buddha word of the Tipitaka, did so only in the Mägadha tongue. Why ? Because in this way it is easy to deduce the meaning; since the only delay for the Buddha word announced in the text in the Mägadha tongue is that occurring when coming to the ears of those who have attained the Discriminations; but when the ear is merely impinged upon, the meaning appears in a hundred ways, in a thousand ways. But a text announced in another tongue has to be learnt by repeated application. But there is no reaching the discrimination for an ordinary man, even if he has learnt much; and there is no noble disciple who has not reached the Discriminations.6 1951. ftänesu flänam <293.5> ("knowledge concerning the kinds of knowledge*'): when one reviews knowledge by making the knowledge

15. Classification of the Discriminations

129

which accomplishes all this the object, the knowledge which falls into this category is the Discrimination of Intelligence (patibhänapatisambhida). 1952. But it should also be understood that these four Discriminations are classifiable in two stages and become manifest for five reasons. 1953. Which are the two ? The plane of the trainer (sekkha-bhwni) and the plane of the non-trainer (asekkha-bhümi). Herein, the discriminations of the Elder Säriputta, the Elder Mahämoggalläna, the Elder Mahäkassapa, the Elder Mahäkaccäyana, the Elder Mahäkotthita and of the eighty senior elders fall into the category of the non-trainers' plane. The discriminations of the Elder Ananda, the householder Citta, the lay devotee Dhammika, the householder Upäli, the woman devotee Khujjuttarä and so on fall into the category of the trainers' plane. Thus they are classifiable in these two planes. 1954. For which five reasons do they become manifest ? (1) Through attainment (adhigama), (2) through competency [in scriptures] (pariyatti), (3) through hearing (savana), (4) through being questioned, (5) through previous work (yoga). 1955. Herein, (1) "attainment" is Arahatship; for the discriminations become manifest in one who has reached that. (2) "Competency [in scriptures]" is the Buddha's word; for the Discriminations become manifest as one is learning that. (3) "Hearing" is the hearing of the dhamma; for the Discriminations become manifest in one who listens to the dhamma attentively. (4) "Being questioned" is the explanation of meaning (atthakatha)\ [389] for the Discriminations become manifest in one who explains the meaning of the Pali he has learnt. (5) "Previous work" is formerly practised meditation, having laid hold of the meditation subject in a past existence by the method of "carrying it forth and carrying it back";7 for the Discriminations become manifest in one who was formerly a meditator. 1956. Herein, (1) the Discriminations became manifest in the Elder Tissa the son of the landowner Punabbasu (Punabbasukutumbikaputta) owing to attainment of Arahatship. It seems that after he had learnt the Buddha's word in Ceylon, he went to the other shore and learnt the Buddha's word under the Greek Elder Dhammarakkhita. As he was returning, doubt arose in him about a single phrase when he had already reached the port for boarding a ship. He turned back to retraverse the hundred league journey to his teacher. On the way, he explained a landowner's question, who, being confident

130

The Dispeller of Delusion

[in him], gave him a woollen cloth worth a hundred thousand [pieces of silver]. He brought it to the teacher and gave it to him. The Elder slashed it with a knife and had it made into a hanging for the back of his sitting place. For what purpose ? For the purpose of compassion on subsequent generations. It seems he thought thus: 'By thinking about the way we have gone, in the future companions in the life of purity will believe that the practice should be fulfilled.' And the Elder Tissa removed his doubt with the Teacher's help. On disembarking at the port of Jambukola, he went to the Välika monastery at the time the shrine terrace was being swept, and he too swept there.8 Seeing the place he had swept and thinking: 'This is a place swept by a bhikkhu who is free from greed,' they (the resident monks) put questions for the purpose of examining the Elder. Because of having attained the Discriminations, the Elder explained each question as it was asked. 1957. (2) But the Discriminations became manifested in the Elder Tissadatta and the Elder Nägasena owing to competency [in scriptures]. 1958. (3) The Discriminations became manifest in the novice Sudhamma through hearing the dhamma attentively. It seems he was the nephew of the Elder Dhammadinna the dweller at Välahgara9 and he attained Arahatship in the Razor Hall (Khuragga). Just by sitting and listening in the place where the Elder Mätula defined the dhamma, the three pitakas became familiar to him. 1959. (4) But the Discriminations of the Elder Tissadatta became manifest when he expounded the meaning of the Pali he had learned. 1960. (5) There is, however, [390] no end of the meditators who in the past have made the Discriminations reach the manifest state through the duty of "carrying forth and carrying back" while exerting themselves on a suitable meditation subject. 1961. But among these reasons, these three, namely competency [in the scriptures], hearing and being questioned, are powerful reasons for the category 10 itself; previous work is a powerful condition for attainment.11 But for the category, is it or is it not [a condition] ? It is, but not in this way.12 For whether there were or were not competency, hearing and being questioned in the past, there is no Discrimination through previous work without comprehension of formations both in the past and now. But these two together make the Discriminations become manifest by supporting them. End of Commentary on the Summary Section

15. Classification of the Discriminations

131

(b) Category Section 1962. Now in order to classify the Discriminations by the method of showing the [various] categories (pabheda) of the five meanings (attha) and laws (dhamma) which were taken together in the Summary Section (sangahavära), the Category Section (pabhedavära) is begun in the way beginning with the word catasso <293.6> Cf our'9) again. It is fivefold as the "truth" section (saccavära), "cause" section (hetuvära), "law" section (dhammavära), "structure of conditions" section {paccayäkäravära), and "competency [in scriptures]" section (pariyattivara). 1963. Herein, the "truth" section <293.8> is stated in order to show (a) the "state of meaning" (atthabhäva — i.e. "state of being a result") on the part of the conditionally arisen Truth of Suffering, and on the part of nibbäna which is to be reached by means of a condition, and (b) the "state of law " (dhammabhäva — i.e. "state of being a cause") on the part of the origination which produces fruit and of the Noble Path which reaches nibbäna. 1964. But the "cause" section <293.14> is stated in order to show (a) the "state of law" on the part of any cause whatever which produces the fruit of a cause, and (b) the "state of meaning" of any fruit of a cause whatever. And herein, owing to the succession "cause, fruit", the Discrimination of Law (Dhammapatisambhidä) is described first out of order.13 1965. But the "states" {dhamma) section <293.20> is stated in order to show (a) the "state of meaning" on the part of those states which are born from this or that cause classed as material or immaterial, and (b) the "state of law" on the part of this or that cause classed as material or immaterial.14 1966. But the "structure of conditions" section <294.1> is stated in order to show (a) the "state of meaning" on the part of ageing and death, etc., and (b) the "state of law" on the part of birth, etc., called the "origin of ageing and death, etc.".15 1967. After that the "competency [in scriptures]" section <294.19> is stated in order to show (a) the "state of law" on the part of whatever is spoken and is called "competency", and (b) the "state of meaning" on the part of the meaning of what is spoken which is to be attained by means of the condition called "what is spoken".

132

The Dispeller of Delusion

1968. And therein, because by knowing what is spoken its meaning is known, therefore owing to the succession "what-is-spoken, meaningof-what-is-spoken", the Discrimination of Law is described first, out of its order. And it is for the purpose of showing the kinds of competency (pariyatti) dhamma that the restatement section (patiniddesa) is stated preceded by the question Tattha katamä dhammapa{isambhidä ? <294.21> ("Therein, which is the Discrimination of Law ?"). [391] Herein, the texts are taken comprehensively16 by the nine factors beginning with sutta <294.22>. Ayam imassa bhäsitassa attho, ayam imassa bhäsitassa attho <294.25> CT his is the meaning of this which has been spoken, this is the meaning of this which has been spoken"): and in this instance, too, the texts are taken comprehensively by "what is spoken". End ofSuttanta Division B. ABHIDHAMMA DIVISION 1969. Herein, three kinds of Discriminations are mundane. The Discrimination of Meaning is mixed mundane and supramundane; for that is also supramundane by way of the path and fruition knowledges which have nibbäna as object. In the Abhidhamma Division, the explanation is done with four sections by way of profitable, unprofitable, resultant and functional. Herein, the Discriminations should be understood17 as four in the case of each description of consciousness in all of as many profitable consciousnesses as are classified above in the Section on Thought Arisings (Cittuppädakanda). So also in the case of the unprofitable consciousnesses. As regards the resultant and functional sections, only three Discriminations are classified in the case of each resultant consciousness and functional consciousness, leaving out the Discrimination of Law, owing to the inclusion of the resultant and functional sections in meaning. But the Pali is abbreviated by showing only the headings. It should be understood according to the detail handed down above. 1970. But why, as it was said in the case of the profitable and unprofitable sections tesam vipäke fiänam atthapatisambhidä <295.3> ("the knowledge of their result is Discrimination of Meaning"), is it not said accordingly here: "Knowledge of the laws of

15. Classification of the Discriminations

133

which these are the results is the Discrimination of Law" (yesam dhammänam ime vipäkä tesu Mnam dhammapatisambhida) ? Because it has been said above. If so, is it that because "the knowledge of their results is Discrimination of Meaning (tesam vipäkä Mnam atthapatisambhidä)" has been said above this Discrimination of Meaning also should not be said here ? It is not that it should not be said. Why ? It is because of its not being said above by way of resultant and functional arisings of consciousness. And in the case of the functional section, the phrase "of which states these are the functions iyesam dhammänam ime kriyäy\ too, is not appropriate. Thus in the case of both of these sections only three Discriminations each are classified. 1971. Herein, yäya niruttiyä tesam dhammänam pafifiatti hoti <295.4> ("the language whereby there comes to be the making known of these states9') means "the language (nirutti) by means of which there comes to be the making known thus: 'This is contact, this is feeling' of those states stated in the way beginning: 'Contact comes to be'". 1972. Tatra dhammaniruttäbhiläpe fiänam <295.5> ("knowledge concerning the utterance of dhamma language therein"): knowledge concerning the utterance of dhamma language which is the natural way of making things known (sabhävapafihatti)}% when that occurs concerning that meaning and law. Only the knowledge which is arisen by making the sound of utterance its object is expounded here. 1973. Yena fiänena <295.6> ("the knowledge by means of which"): by the knowledge of the Discrimination of Intelligence, by means of that. [392] Täni fiänäni jänäti ("he knows those kinds of knowledge"): he knows the other three kinds of Discrimination knowledge. 1974. Now in order to show the way in which the kind of knowledge which knows those kinds of knowledge occurs in regard to them, he said imäni fiänäni idam-atthajotakäni ("these kinds of knowledge illuminate this meaning"). Herein, idam-atthajotakäni <295.7> ("illuminate this meaning") means they are illuminative, clarificative of this meaning; the meaning is that they illuminate, clarify, delimit this specific meaning. Iti fiänesu fiänam ("knowledge concerning the kinds of knowledge thus"): the knowledge which occurs regarding the three kinds of knowledge in this way is pa{ibhänapa$isambhidä ("Discrimination of Intelligence"). Herein, although Discrimination of Intelligence knows the functions of the other Discriminations thus: "This is the function of this one, this is the function of this one," yet it

134

The Dispeller of Delusion

is unable to perform their functions itself, like a dhamma preacher who is much learned for a dhamma preacher who is little learned. 1975. It seems that there were two bhikkhus; one was much learned, the other was little learned. They learnt together a course of sermons on the dhamma (dhammakathämagga). Herein, the one who was little learned was possessed of a fine voice; the other had a poor voice. Of these two, at each place they went to the one who was little learned preached the dhamma and moved the whole audience through the excellence of his voice. Hearing the dhamma and with stimulated and delighted minds, they said: 'According to the way he preached the dhamma he will surely be one who knows the Tipitaka by heart.1 But the well taught bhikkhu said: 'It is through hearing the dhamma that you will know whether he is one who knows the Tipitaka by heart or not.' And although he spoke thus, yet he had no mastery of preaching such that he could preach the dhamma and move the whole audience. Herein, it should be understood that although the Discrimination of Intelligence knows the functions of the others just as the much learned bhikkhu [knows] that of the one who was little learned, yet it cannot perform that function itself. The rest is clear here. 1976. Having thus classified the Discriminations according to the profitable, etc. thought arisings, he now said catasso patisambhidä <303.5> (your Discriminations'') again in order to show the field which is the place of their arising. 1977. Herein, this [phrase] tisso patisambhidä kämävacarakusalato catüsu flänasampayutta-cittesu <303.7> ("three kinds of Discrimination [arise] as concerns the prof itable of the sense sphere, in the four consciousnesses associated with knowledge") is stated by way of trainers (sekkha). For the Discrimination of Law arises in their four profitable consciousnesses associated with knowledge, by making the law in its five aforesaid aspects the object at the time of reviewing dhamma. Likewise the Discrimination of Language arises by making sound its object at the time of reviewing language. The Discrimination of Intelligence [393] arises by making the knowledge which accomplishes all this its object at the time ofreviewingknowledge. 1978. Kiriyato catüsu <303.8> ("as concerns the functional, in the four [consciousnesses associated with knowledge]"): this, however, is stated by way of non-trainers (asekkha). For the Discrimination of Law arises in their four functional consciousnesses associated with knowledge by making the law in its five aspects aforesaid the object at

15. Classification of the Discriminations

135

the time of reviewing. Likewise Discrimination of Language arises by making sound its object at the time of reviewing language. Discrimination of Intelligence arises by making the knowledge which accomplishes all this its object at the time of reviewing knowledge. 1979. Atthapatisambhidä etesu c* eva uppajjati <303.9> ("the Discrimination of Meaning arises in respect of these''): this, however, is stated by way of trainers and non-trainers. For accordingly this arises in trainers' four profitable consciousnesses associated with knowledge, by making the meaning in its five aspects aforesaid the object at the time of reviewing; and in their paths and fruitions at the time of path and fruition. But it arises in non-trainers' four functional consciousnesses associated with knowledge by making the meaning of the kind aforesaid its object at the time of reviewing; and at the moment of fruition in the highest fruition of recluseship. Thus these, when they arise in trainers and non-trainers, do so in these planes. So this method is shown for the purpose of showing planes. C. QUESTIONNAIRE 1980. In the Questionnaire the profitableness, etc. of the Four Discriminations should be understood in accordance with the Pali. 1981. But as regards the object triads, since the Discrimination of Language makes only sound its object it has a limited object. The Discrimination of Meaning has a limited object in one who is reviewing meaning which is both called sense-sphere resultant and functional and is conditionally arisen; it has an expanded object in one who is reviewing meaning of the kind which is of the fine-material sphere and immaterial sphere; it has a measureless object in one who is reviewing supramundane resultant meaning and the highest meaning, nibbäna. 1982. The Discrimination of Law has a limited object in one who is reviewing sense-sphere profitable law and unprofitable law and law as condition; it has an expanded object in one who is reviewing profitable law of the fine-material sphere and the immaterial sphere; [394] it has a measureless object in one who is reviewing supramundane profitable law and law as condition. 1983. The Discrimination of Intelligence has a limited object in one who is reviewing sense-sphere profitable, resultant and functional kinds of knowledge; it has an expanded object in one who is reviewing finematerial sphere and immaterial sphere profitable, resultant and

136

The Dispeller of Delusion

functional kinds of knowledge and in one who is cognizing their objects; it has a measureless object in one who is reviewing supramundane profitable and resultant kinds of knowledge. 1984. The Discrimination of Meaning may have the path as cause through conascent cause. Through path development with energy foremost it may have path as predominance. With zeal or consciousness foremost it is not to be said to be so; and at the moment of fruition too it is not to be said to be so. The Discrimination of Law has the path as object at the time of reviewing the path. In one who is reviewing by giving weight to the path, it has path as predominance through object predominance. The Discrimination of Intelligence has the path as object at the time of reviewing path knowledge. In one who is reviewing by giving weight to the path, it has path as predominance. At the time of reviewing the remaining kinds of knowledge it should not be said to have such an object. 1985. The Discrimination of Language, since it makes only present sound its object, has a present object. The Discrimination of Meaning in one who is reviewing past resultant meaning and functional meaning, and that conditionally arisen, has a past object; in one who is reviewing that in the future it has a future object; in one who is reviewing that in the present it has a present object; in one who is reviewing the supramundane highest meaning it should not be said to have such an object. The Discrimination of Law, in one who is reviewing past profitable, unprofitable and law as condition, has a past object; in one who is reviewing that in the future it has a future object; in one who is reviewing that in the present it has a present object. The Discrimination of Intelligence in one who is reviewing past profitable knowledge, resultant knowledge and functional knowledge has a past object; in one reviewing that in the future it has a future object; in one reviewing that in the present it has a present object. 1986. The Discrimination of Language, because of having sound as its object, has an external object. As regards the other three, the Discrimination of Meaning in one who is reviewing internal resultant meaning, functional meaning and conditionally arisen meaning has an internal object; in one who is reviewing the external it has an external object; in one who is reviewing the internal and external it has an internal [395] and external object; in one who is reviewing the highest meaning it has an external object too. The Discrimination of Law, at the time of reviewing the internal profitable, unprofitable and law as

15. Classification of the Discriminations

137

condition has an internal object... external...; at the time of reviewing the internal and external profitable, unprofitable and law as condition it has an internal and external object. The Discrimination of Intelligence, at the time of reviewing the internal profitable, resultant and functional knowledge, has an internal object; ... external ... ; at the time of reviewing the internal and external profitable, resultant and functional knowledge has an internal and external object. 1987. And here three Discriminations are mundane. The Discrimination of Meaning is mundane and supramundane. For in this Classification of the Discriminations three methods are expounded by the Blessed One as divided up in the same way because of being mixed mundane and supramundane. For as regards these three, three Discriminations are mundane and the Discrimination of Meaning is mundane and supramundane. Thus this Classification of the Discriminations is also taught classifying it in three cycles. End of Classification of the Discriminations

138

The Dispeller of Delusion FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER FIFTEEN

1. Not in PED; see MA i 21, 173. 2. = "contact"; correct masculine nominative singular ending. 3. Incorrect feminine and neuter nominative singular endings. 4. Cf. Vis 442 where the examples vedanä, vedano are given. 5. According to mt. 6. The whole of this passage is summarised at Vis 441-2. 7. Haranapaccähararur, see above, Chapter Twelve (§§1723-40). 8. Cf. story given at Sp 1336. 9. Cf. AA to Ekakanipäta ii 6 where the name is given as Talahga. AA i 42 (Ee), Ee and 01932 read Talangara; vi to C? 1932readsVälankara. 10. Mt: For the category: for entering into the category of the Discriminations achieved by the Paths [Ny]. 11. Mt: Attainment : the obtaining (patiläbho) by them (i.e. by the paths). Therefore attainment is supramundane while the category belongs to the sense sphere (kämävacara). Anut: What is called obtaining is a cutting off of delusion which has as its object meaning, etc. through the perfection of previous practice; this, however, is the function of the path only. Therefore it is said that attainment is supramundane. But because the discerning, explaining and defining according to the categories of meaning, etc. (see above §1938 ff.) are performed by a limited wholesome consciousness (paritta-kusala) or by the great functional consciousnesses (maha-kiriya) respectively, it is said that the category belongs to the sense sphere [Ny]. 12. Mt: i.e. not as a powerful condition as in the case of attainment [Ny]. ' 13. Uppatipätiyä: the meaning given in PED for the Vis references is wrong and should be corrected. 14. According to mt, the difference between the hetuvära and the dhammavära is that the former refers to past, present and future alike while in the latter, since past and present are combined together for teaching purposes, only past and present dhammas are referred to as atthä. This is indicated by the absence of uppannä "arisen", etc. As anut points out, arisen dhammas are exclusively present; cf. Dhs §1040 [LSC]. 15. In the text this section is covered on p. 294 11. 1-18; 11. 11-13 (as indicated by the Ms cited in n. 1) should be expanded for each link of the paticcasamuppäda.

15. Classification of the Discriminations

139

16. Nippadesato — not in this sense in PED. (See n. 112 to Chapter 6 above [LSC].) 17. C c 1932 reads: vibhattä ti veditabbä [LSCJ. 18. Mt explains sabhävapaMatti as either "not making known beings, etc." or "a making known which is not contrary [to the real nature of things]" [LSCJ.

CHAPTER SIXTEEN CLASSIFICATION OF KNOWLEDGE (fJänavibhahgä)
A. M A T K A (Schedule) 1988. [396] Now in the Classification of Knowledge next to that, starting with the words ekavidhena flänavatthu <306.1> ("knowledge as basis of one kind'), the schedule (mätikä) is set out in ten divisions with "one of a kind", etc. to start with and ending with "of ten kinds", [after which] the description (niddesa) is given in the order of the terms listed. 1989. Herein, ekavidhena ("of one kind!') means in one aspect or in one part, ftänavatthu ("knowledge as basis9'): here, however, "knowledge as basis" (Mnavatthu) means that "it is knowledge and is the basis for the various kinds of success". Also "basis of knowledge in the sense of occasion" is "knowledge basis" (Mnavatthu). But here, basis should be understood in the first way only. Hence at the end of the "of one kind" division it is said yäthävakavatthu-vibhävanä paflflä evam ekavidhena flänavatthu <308.11> ("understanding which is the correct explanation of the basis — thus is knowledge as basis of one kind'). 1990. Paficavififiänä <306.2> ("the five consciousnesses") are the five beginning with eye-consciousness. 1991. Na hetu <306.3> ("not root-cause"), etc. should be understood according to the method stated in the commentary on the Dhammasahgaha (see Asl 47). But what has to be said here in brief will become clear in the section of the description (niddesavära). And as in this instance, so also what will be said in respect of the expressions in the schedule of duads (dukamätikä) and so on will become clear there also. 1992. But the mere divisions of the setting forth should here be understood as follows; for here the schedule of monads (ekakamätika) is set forth in brief by means of the two kinds, namely, firstly by means of the Dhammasahgaha schedule with the words hetu ahetukä Crootcause, not having a root-cause"), etc. and secondly by means of what is not in the Dhammasahgaha schedule, namely, aniccä jaräbhibhütä <307.11> ("impermanent, overwhelmed by old age"), etc.; and in detail it is set forth by means of 781 phrases.

16. Classification of Knowledge

141

1993. But the schedule of dyads is set forth <308.13> by means of 35 dyads which conform to the dyads [of the Dhammasarigani schedule2]. 1994. The schedule of triads is set forth <310.1> by means of 88 triads, namely, (a) by the four extra triads which conform to the triads [of the Dhammasangani schedule3] beginning with cintämayä pafifiä <310.2> ("understanding made by ratiocination"); (b) by the fourteen schedule triads stated by way of unspecified (aniyamita) understanding beginning with the words vipäkä pafifiä <310.14> ("resultant understanding"); and as regards the applied thought (vitakka) triad, (c) by the thirteen stated by way of understanding specified by the first term <311.13>; (d) by the seven stated by way of understanding specified by the second term <312.10>; (e) by the twelve stated by way of understanding specified by the third term <313.25>; and as regards the rapture (piti) triad, (f) by the thirteen states by way of understanding specified by the first term <313.25>; (g) likewise for the second term; (h) by the twelve stated by way of understanding specified by the third term <314.22>. 1995. [397] But the schedule of tetrads is set forth <315.17> by means of the 21 tetrads beginning with the words kammassakatafiänam <315.18> ("knowledge of ownership of kamma"). 1996. The schedule of pentads is set forth <316.26> by means of two pentads. The schedule of sestads is set forth <316.30> by means of one sestad. The schedule of septads is set forth <316.33> by means of eleven septads stated in brief thus: satta sattati fiänavatthüni <316.34> ("77 kinds of knowledge as basis"). The schedule of octads is set forth <317.1> by means of one octad. The schedule of enneads is set forth <317.4> by means of one ennead. 1997. The schedule of decads is set forth <317.7> by means of one decad only beginning with the words dasa tathägatassa tathigatabaläni <317.8> ("the ten Tathagata powers of the Tathagata"). Herein, dasa ("ten") is the division by number. Tathägatassa ("of the Tathagata") means of him who thus (tathä) came (ägatassa), as the former sages (isi) Vipassi and so on came; and of him who thus (tathä) went (gatassa) as they went (see MA i 45 f.). Tathägatabaläni ("Tathagata powers") means powers of the Tathagata only, not shared by others. Or the meaning is that as the powers came to the former Buddhas through the perfection of a mass of merit, they are "thus (tathä) come (ägata) powers (baläni)". 1998. Herein, the Tathagata's power is twofold: the Bodily Power and the Knowledge Power. Of these, the Bodily Power is to be understood in accordance with the families of elephants. For this is said by the Ancients:

142

The Dispeller of Delusion

"Kälavaka and Gangeyya, Pandara, Tamba, Pingala, Gandha, Marigala and Hema, Uposatha, Chaddanta — these ten."4 (MA ii 25; SA ü 43; AA V 10; UdA 403; NdA iii 55; PsA 625) These are the ten families of elephants. 1999. Herein, Kälavaka should be understood as the family of ordinary elephants. The bodily power of ten men equals that of one Kälavaka elephant. The bodily power of ten Kälavaka elephants equals that of one Gangeyya elephant. That of ten Gangeyya elephants equals that of one Pandara elephant. That of ten Pandara elephants equals that of one Tamba elephant. That of ten Tamba elephants equals that of one Pihgala elephant. That of ten Pingala elephants equals that of one Gandha elephant. That of ten Gandha elephants equals that of one Mangala elephant. That of ten Mangala elephants equals that of one Hema elephant. That of ten Hema elephants equals that of one Uposatha elephant. That of ten Uposatha elephants equals that of one Chaddanta elephant. That of ten Chaddanta elephants equals that of one Tathagata. 2000. "The power of the impact of a thunderbolt"5 is also said. That is the power of one thousand kotis of elephants reckoning by ordinary elephants, or of ten thousand kotis of men reckoning by men. This firstly is the Tathagata's Bodily Power. 2001. [398] But firstly the Knowledge Power has come down in the Pali here as the Knowledge of the Ten Powers. In the MahäsflianädaSutta (M 12) have come down the Knowledge of the Ten Powers, the Knowledge of the four kinds of Confidence (vesarajja), the Knowledge of unshakability in the eight Communities, the Knowledge of the four kinds of generation and the Knowledge of the five classes of destiny; in the Samyuttaka have come down the 73 kinds of knowledge and the 77 kinds of knowledge.6 In that way, all these kinds of knowledge and many thousands of other kinds have come down. This is called the Knowledge Power. 2002. Yehi balehi samannägato <317.8> {"possessed of which powers"): being furnished with, fully furnished with which Knowledge Powers. Asabham {hänaqi <317.9> ("the bulls stance"): the best stance, the highest stance. Alternatively, the bulls (äsabhä) are the former Buddhas; "their stance" is the meaning. Moreover, usabha is the chief of a hundred cattle, and vasabha is the chief of a thousand cattle. Alternatively, usabha is the chief of a hundred byres7 and vasabha is the chief of a thousand byres.7 The chief of all cattle, the conqueror of all

16. Classification of Knowledge

143

troubles, white, pleasing, the bearer of great burdens, not to be stirred by the sound of a thousand bolts of lightning, is a nisabha. Here, that is referred to as usabha because this is also a synonym for it; äsabha means "this is the usabha's".8Thanam {"stance") is a motionless stance as a result of pressing the ground with four feet. But here äsabham ("the bull's ) means "as though it were the bull's". For just as the usabha reckoned as a nisabha, being possessed of the powers of the usabha, stands in a motionless stance by pressing the ground with his four feet, thus the Tathagata also, being possessed of the ten Tathagata Powers, stands in a motionless stance unshakeable by any enemy or adversary in the world with its deities, by pressing with his four feet consisting of the kinds of perfect confidence on the ground consisting of the eight assemblies. And standing thus he claims that bull's stance, keeps to it, does not forsake it, takes it upon himself. Hence it is said äsabham thänam patijänäti ("he claims the bulls stance"), 2003. Parisäsu <317.10> ("in the communities"): in the eight communities. SIhanadam nadati ("roars his lion's roar"): he roars the chief's roar, the roar of the fearless; or he roars a roar similar to a lion's roar. This meaning should be illustrated by the Sihanäda Sutta.9 Alternatively, just as the lion (slha) is so called because of conquering (sahana) and because of striking down (hanana), so the Tathagata is called "lion" because of conquering the things of the world (lokadhamma) and because of striking down others' assertions. The roar of the lion so stated is the "lion's roar". 2004. [399] Herein, just as the lion, being possessed of the lion's powers, everywhere confident and fearless , roars his lion's roar, so also the Tathagata lion, confident and fearless in the eight kinds of community being possessed of the Tathagata's powers, roars his lion's roar which is endowed with manifold elegance in teaching such as: "Thus is materiality" (S iii 157), etc. Hence it is said: "He roars his lion's roar in the communities". 2005. Brahmacakkam pavatteti ("sets turning the Matchless Wheel"): here brahma (^matchless") is chief, highest, superlative.10 But this word cakka: As success and characteristic, part of a carriage and posture Gift, treasure, Law and razor wheel and so on may be seen; It is considered here as Wheel of Law and is to be explained in two ways. (MA ii 27; AA iii 9; cf. PsA 626)

144

The Dispeller of Delusion

For this word is seen in the sense of success in the passage which begins: "There are, bhikkhus, these four wheels, endowed with which ... " (A ii 32). In the passage: "On the soles of his feet wheels arise" (D iii 143; M ii 136), here it is in the sense of characteristic. In the passage: "As a wheel [follows] the foot" (Dh 1), here it is in the sense of part of a carriage. In the passage: "With four wheels and nine doors" (S i 16, 63), here it is in the sense of posture. In the passage: "Eat, enjoy, be not negligent, turn11 the wheel" (cf. J iii 412), here it is in the sense of a gift {dona). In the passage: "The divine Wheel treasure appeared" (D ii 172; iii 61), here it is in the sense of wheel treasure. In the passage: "The wheel was set in motion by me" (Sn 557), here it is in the sense of Wheel of the Law. In the passage: "The wheel falls upon the head of the man afflicted by wants" (J i 414) it is in the sense of a razor wheel. In the passage: "If with a razor-edged wheel" (D i 52) it is in the sense of a wheel for striking (i.e. a discus). In the passage: "A bunch of lightnings (asanivicakka)" (S ii 229) it is in the sense of a bolt of lightning. But in this context it is intended in the sense of Wheel of the Law. 2006. But the Wheel of the Law is of two kinds, penetration knowledge and teaching knowledge. Herein, penetration knowledge is produced by understanding and brings his own noble fruition; teaching knowledge is produced by compassion and brings disciples' noble fruition. 2007. Herein, penetration knowledge is twofold as "arising" and "arisen". For from the Coming Forth until the path of Arahatship it is arising; at the moment of fruition it is arisen. Or from the Tusita existence up to the path of Arahatship on the Great Wisdom seat it is arising; [400] at the moment of fruition it is arisen. Or, starting from the declaration to Dipankara up to the path of Arahatship it is arising; at the moment of fruition it is arisen. 2008. Teaching knowledge also is of two kinds, "occurring" and "occurred" (pavatta). For it is occurring up to the time of AnnäsiKondanrla's path of Stream Entry; at the moment of fruition it is known as occurred. As regards these, penetration knowledge is supramundane and teaching knowledge is mundane. But both of these are not shared by others; the knowledge is the Buddhas' own. 2009. Now in order to show in detail those ten powers possessed of which the Tathagata claims the bull's stance and which were set forth at the outset as tathägatassa tathägatabaläni ("Tathagata powers of the Tathagata"), he said Katamäni dasa ? Idha tathagato |hanafi ca thänato <317.12> ("Which ten ? Here the Tathagata [understands] the possible as possible') and so on.

16. Classification of Knowledge

145

2010. Herein, thänaft ca thänato <317.13> ("the possible as possible") means a reason (kärana) as a reason. For a reason is called a thäna (lit. "stance") because a fruit stands (titthati) thereon, arises and occurs through the state of dependence on that. Understanding that thus: * Any states that are causes and conditions for the arising of any states are their thäna; any states that are not causes and conditions for the arising of any states are their atthäna' <338.8>, the Blessed One understands correctly the possible as possible and the impossible as impossible* {thänaft ca thänato atthänaft ca atthänato yathabhütam pajänäti). 2011. Yam pi <317.14> ("wherein"): by means of which knowledge. Idam pi tathägatassa <317.16> ("Ms [is a power] of the Tathagata"). The meaning is that this knowledge of the possible and the impossible is called a Tathagata power of the Tathagata. The construction should be understood in this way in the case of each instance. 2012. Kammasamädänänam <317.20> ("of undertakings of kamma"): of profitable and unprofitable kammas done after undertaking. Or kamma itself is undertaking of kamma. Thänaso hetuso ("with its reason and cause"): as to condition and as to cause. Herein, the destiny (gati), substratum (upadhi), time (käla) and means are the reason (thäna) of the kamma-result (vipäka); the kamma is its cause (hetu). 2013. Sabbatthagäminim <317.27> ("wheresoever going"): which leads to a destiny and to no destiny [that is, nibbäna].12Pa{ipadam ("way"): path. Yathabhütam pajänäti <317.28> ("correctly knows"): he knows unerringly the nature of the kinds of practice called profitable and unprofitable volition in respect of even a single basis in this way, namely, that when many men kill a single living thing, this one's volition will lead to hell and this one's will lead to the animal world. 2014. [401] Anekadhätum <317.33> ("with its numerous elements"): with many elements owing to the elements such as the eye element, etc. or such as the sense-desire element, etc. Nänädhätum ("with its varying elements"): with various kinds of element owing to the difference of characteristic of those same elements. Lokam <317.34> ("world"): the world of the aggregates, bases and elements. 2015. Yathabhütam pajänäti ("understands correctly"): penetrates unerringly the nature of such and such elements. Nänädhimuttikatam <317.39> ("possession of different resolves"): the state of having different resolves due to low, etc. resolves. 2016. Paras attänam <318.5> ("in other beings"): of eminent beings.13 Parapuggalänam ("in other persons"): of beings lower than those. Or this pair of words has one meaning and is stated twice on

146

The Dispeller of Delusion

account of teachability [of the hearers]. Indriyaparopariyattam <318.6> ("the disposition offaculties"): the superior or inferior state of the faculties of faith, etc.; the increase and the diminution is the meaning. 2017. Jhäna-vimokkha-samädhi-samäpattlnam <318.12> ("in the jhänas, liberations, concentrations and attainments"): in the four jhänas beginning with the first, in the eight liberations beginning with "possessed of material form, he sees material form", in the three kinds of concentration beginning with that accompanied by applied and sustained thought, and in the nine successive attainments beginning with the attainment of the first jhäna. Saökilesam ("defilement"): state which partakes of diminution. Vodänam ("purification"): state which partakes of distinction. Vutthänam ("emergence"): the reason whereby people emerge from the jhänas, etc. 2018. Pubbeniväsänussatim <318.19> ("recollection of former lives"): the recollecting of aggregates formerly dwelt in. Cutüpapätam <318.25> ("death and reappearance") = cutifi ca upapätaH ca. Äsavänam khayam <318.31> ("destruction of the cankers"): nibbäna, the cessation of the cankers, called destruction of the cankers of sense desire and so on. Imäni <318.36> ("these"): he makes his conclusion14 by saying that these are those which he stated above as: Ten are these Tathagata Powers of the Tathagata.' 2019. The word-by-word commentary having been completed thus, these ten powers should now be understood to be set forth successively as follows because (1) in the first place the Tathagata sees with the knowledge of the possible and the impossible the absence of obstruction by defilement which is the possibility (reason) for the attaining or the impossibility (non-reason) for the non-attaining of the destruction of the cankers by teachable beings; this is owing to seeing the possibility (thäna) for mundane right view and owing to seeing the absence of possibility for assured wrong view. (2) Then with the knowledge of kamma result he sees the absence in them of obstruction by kamma result; [402] this is owing to seeing a rebirth-linking with three root-causes. (3) With the knowledge of ways wheresoever going, he sees the absence of obstruction by kamma; this is owing to seeing the absence of kamma with immediate effect. (4) With the knowledge of the numerous and varying elements, he sees the specific habit (temperament) of those who are thus free from obstructions for the purpose of teaching of the Law suitable [to their habit]; this is owing to seeing the diversity of the elements. (5) Then with the knowledge of different resolves, he sees their resolves; this is for the purpose of teaching the Law according to their disposition even if they have not

16. Classification of Knowledge

147

accepted the means. (6) Then, in order to teach the Law according to the ability and capacity of those whose resolves have been seen in this way, with the knowledge of the disposition of the faculties, he sees the disposition of the faculties; this is owing to seeing the keen and dull state of faith, etc. (7) But owing to disposition of the faculties being fully understood thus, if they are far off then owing to mastery of the first jhäna, etc., he quickly goes to them by means of his distinction in miraculous power; and having gone, seeing (8) the state of their former existences with the knowledge of the recollection of former lives, and (9) the present distinction of consciousness with the knowledge of the penetration of others* minds to be reached owing to the power of the Divine Eye; (10) with the power of the knowledge of destruction of the cankers, he teaches the Law for the destruction of the cankers owing to being rid of delusion about the way that leads to the destruction of the cankers. Therefore it should be understood that these ten powers were referred to in this sequence. 2020. This in the first place is the commentary on the meaning of the schedule. B. DESCRIPTIVE SECTION (Niddesavara) Monads 2021. Now when the Descriptive Section is begun with the words Paflca vififiänä na hetu-m-eva15 ("the five consciousnesses are only not-root-cause") in accordance with the schedule as set forth, the words na hetu-m-eva ("only not-root-cause") are the description of the rejection of the common cause. Herein, what should be said in the way beginning: "Cause is fourfold, namely, cause as cause (hetuhetu), cause as condition (paccayahetu), first cause (uttamahetu), common cause (sädhäranahetu), is all stated in the commentary on the passage in the Materiality Section beginning: 'All materiality is only not-rootcause' (sabbam rüpam na hetum eva) (see Dhs §595 and Asl 303) ?" 2022. As regards ahetuka-m-eva ("only without root-cause"), etc., the letter "m" should be understood as for the purpose of liaison (sandhi) of the letters; the meaning is "ahetukä eva". So with the remaining phrases. Furthermore, as regards the portions on states beginning with "states which are root-causes, states which are not root-causes" (hetü dhammä na hetü dhammä), the five consciousnesses are neither "states which are root-causes" nor "states which have rootcauses"', [403] but these are solely "not-root-causes" and "without

148

The Dispeller of Delusion

root-cause". The meaning should be understood here in this [second] way in respect of all phrases. 2023. The phrase abyäkatam eva <319.6> ("only indeterminate") is stated withreferencetoresultantindeterminate. 2024. Särammanam eva ("only accompanied by object") is by way of object leant upon. For object (ärammana) is twofold, namely, object as condition (paccayärammana) and object leant upon (olubbhärammana). But in this instance not only is the object leant upon relevant but also the object as condition is permissible too. 2025. The phrase acetasikam eva <319.7> ("only non-consciousconcomitants") is said with reference to consciousness only among the three non-conscious-concomitants, namely, consciousness, materiality and nibbäna. 2026. No apariyäpannam eva <319.15> ("only not unincluded'): owing to the state of being included in destinies, included in death, included in the existence of the process of the round ofrebirths;they are included only, not unincluded. 2027. Since they do not lead out from the world, from the process [of existence] they are aniyyänikä <319.16> (unot outleading"). 2028. Uppannam manovififiänavififieyyam eva ("only to be cognized with arisen mind-consciousness"): in the Materiality Section it is said that: "[All materiality is] arisen, to be cognized by the six consciousnesses" (Dhs §§584; 595), making mind-consciousness, which has past, etc. as its province, to be included in the stream of the five consciousnesses too [and] because of the occurrence of eye, etc. consciousness instigated by only present visible data, etc. But because the eye, etc. consciousnesses, even when present, are not the objects of the eye, etc. consciousnesses but are that of mind-consciousness only, therefore "only to be cognized with mind consciousness" is said. 2029. Aniccam eva <319.17> ("only impermanent"): they are impermanent only, in the sense of absence after having become. 2030. Jaräbhibhütam eva ("only overcome by old age"): jaräya abhibhütattä jaräbhibhütä eva.16 2031. Uppannavatthukä uppannärammana <319.18> ("[the five consciousnesses] have an arisen basis and an arisen object") is the rejection of the future; for these do not arise in respect of future bases and objects. 2032. Purejätavatthukä purejätärammanä <319.21> ("they have a prenascent basis and a prenascent object") is therejectionof co-arising; for they do not arise due to a co-arisen basis or object but themselves being postnascent, they arise inrespectof prenascent bases and objects.

16. Classification of Knowledge

149

2033. Ajjhattikavatthukä <319.24> ("they have an internal basis") is said by way of the internal, in the strict sense of the word (cf. Asl 46); for they arise in the five internal sensitivities (pasada), making them the basis. Bähirärammanä {"and an external object"): they have the external visible data, etc. as object. Herein, a tetrad should be understood, (a) For the five consciousnesses, since they have the sensitivities as their basis, are internal and have an internal basis; (b) mind-consciousness, which makes the materiality of the heart the basis at the time of arising, is internal and has an external basis; (c) the three aggregates associated with the five consciousnesses are external and have an internal basis; [404] (d) the three aggregates associated with mind-consciousness, which make the materiality of the heart the basis at the time of arising, are external and have an external basis. 2034. Asambhinnavatthukä <319.27> ("they have an unbroken-up basis"): they have a basis which has not ceased; for they do not arise due to a basis which is ceased and past. Asambhinnärammanä ("and an unbroken-up object"): the method is the same. 2035. As regards afiüam cakkhuviöflänassa vatthu ca ärammanafi ca <319.30> ("the basis and the object of eyeconsciousness are different"), etc., the basis of eye-consciousness is one; its object another; another, those of ear-consciousness, etc. Eyeconsciousness does not arise making any among ear sensitivity, etc. its basis nor any among sounds, etc. its object, even from aeon to aeon; it arises making only eye sensitivity its basis and visible data its object. Thus its basis, its door and its object are fixed; it does not transfer to another basis or door or object. It arises only with a fixed basis, a fixed door and a fixed object. So also with ear-consciousness, etc. 2036. Na afifiamafifiassa gocaravisayam paccanubhonti <319.36> ("nor do they inter-experience each others' domain and objective field'): here each others* i.e. the eye the ear's or the ear the eye's; the meaning is that they do not inter-experience one another's domain and objective field thus. For if one were to present to the ear faculty a visible datum as object of the kinds beginning with blue by bringing it into contact with it, [saying:] 'First define that, explain what that object is,' the eye-consciousness, without prompting and of its own accord, would say thus: *Here, you blind fool, even if you traverse a hundred years or a thousand years, where will you find anything that can know other than me ? Bring that and present it to eye sensitivity. I shall know whether that object is blue or yellow. That is no other's [objective] field; that is my field only.' So also with the other kinds of consciousness. Thus these do not inter-experience each others' domain and objective field.

150

The Dispeller of Delusion

2037. Samannäharantassa <320.18> ("in one bringing to bear"): in one bringing to bear by means of adverting. 2038. Manasikarontassa ("in one bringing to mind'): in one bringing to mind by means of adverting. For these consciousnesses only arise by means of adverting at the time of bringing to bear, at the time of bringing to mind. 2039. Na abbokinnä <320.20> ("not consecutive"): they do not arise consequent upon, next to, another consciousness. By this their proximity (anantarata) is rejected. 2040. Na apubbam acarimam <320.22> ("not neither before nor aftef): by this the co-arising of all is rejected. [405] 2041. Na afifiamafifiassa samanantarä <320.24> ("not next to each other"): by this their contiguity (samanantarata) is rejected. 2042. The four beginning with ävaftanä vä<321.6> ("or interruption") are just names for adverting (ävajjanä). For that is interruption (ävattanä) because of the interruption of the life continuum. Abhogo ("inclination") is because of the inclining (äbhujana) ofthat; samannähära ("bringing to bear") is because of the bringing to bear (samannäharana) of visible data, etc.; and manasikira <321.7> ("bringing to mind") is said because of the bringing to mind of these too. Thus here in brief, the ability of the five consciousnesses to stand in the place of adverting and perform the function of adverting is rejected. 2043. Na kiflci dhammam pa{ivijänäti <321.8> ("he does not recognize any state [with the five consciousnesses]"): he does not recognize even one profitable or unprofitable state described thus: "States are preceded by mind" (Dh 1). Afifiatra abhinipätamattä <321.10> ("except for mere impact"): leaving aside the mere impact of visible data, etc. This is what is said: even a very wise man, except a visible datum, etc. that has come into focus, does not recognize with the five consciousnesses even one other state among the profitable and unprofitable. But here eye-consciousness is mere seeing only; earconsciousness, etc. are mere hearing, smelling, tasting and touching only. But they have no other recognition of the profitable, etc. which is apart from the mere seeing, etc. 2044. Manodhätuyä pi <321.14> ("also with the mind element"): with the acceptance (sampaticchana) mind element. Here pi ("also") has the meaning of an abbreviation. Therefore the meaning here should be regarded thus: also with the mind element and likewise with the mindconsciousness elements that follow that i.e. with all the consciousnesses belonging to the five doors he does notrecognizeeven a single profitable or unprofitable state.

16. Classification of Knowledge

151

2045. As regards na kifici iriyäpatham kappcti <321.17> Che does not choose any posture"), the method is the same. For he does not choose any posture among those beginning with walking with the consciousnesses belonging to the five doors. 2046. Na kiyakammam na vacikammam patjhapeti <321.28> Che does not put forth any bodily action or verbal action"); na kusaläkusalam dhammam samädiyati <321.31> Che does not undertake any profitable or unprofitable state"); na samäpajjati <321.39> Che does not attain") concentration whether mundane or supramundane; na vutthäti Che does not emerge") from concentration whether mundane or supramundane; na cavati <322.3> Che does not pass away") from an existence; na uppajjati Che does not reappear") in a next existence; for all these functions beginning with the recognition of profitable and unprofitable states and ending with passing away come about through the consciousness belonging to the mind door only, not through that belonging to the five doors. Thus the consciousnesses of the cognitive series (ylthi) together with their impulsions are rejected as far as concerns the performance of all these functions. 2047. And [406] as they have not these functions, so also those of entry into certainty (niyämokkama), etc. For one does not enter into certainty of wrongness with impulsions belonging to the five doors, nor into certainty of lightness; nor does this impulsion impel on being instigated by a personal name or clan name, nor by a concept such as a kasina, nor does it occur through insight which has the characteristics as object, nor through the strong insight which leads to emergence, nor instigated by fine-material or immaterial states, nor nibbäna, nor does discrimination knowledge arise through it, nor knowledge of the supernormal achievements {abhififläfiäna), nor knowledge of the disciple's perfections, nor knowledge of pacceka-buddhahood, nor omniscient knowledge. But all this sort is found in mind-door impulsion only. 2048. Na supati na patibujjhati na supinam passati <322.12> Che does not dream or wake or see dreams") and with every kind of five-door consciousness he does not fall asleep, nor sleep, nor wake up, nor see any dreams; thus in these three instances the consciousness of the cognitive series together with impulsion is rejected. 2049. For while one is sleeping, when a lamp lit with a big wick is brought near his eye, eye-door advertence does not interrupt the life continuum first, but mind-door advertence only interrupts it; then impulsion having impelled, it falls back into the life continuum. In the second turn, eye-door advertence interrupts the life continuum. After

152

The Dispeller of Delusion

that, eye consciousness, etc. ending in impulsion occur. Next to that the life continuum occurs. In the third turn, when the life continuum is interrupted by mind-door advertence, mind-door impulsion impels. By means of that consciousness17 he knows: 'What is this light in this place ?' 2050. Likewise when music is played near the ear of one who is sleeping, when pleasant-smelling or bad-smelling flowers are brought near his nose, when ghee or molasses are put into his mouth, when a slap on the back is given with the hand, ear-door advertence, etc. do not interrupt the life continuum first but mind-door advertence only interrupts it. Then, impulsion having impelled, it falls back into the life continuum. In the second turn ear-door advertence, etc. interrupt the life continuum. After that, ear-, nose-, tongue- or body-consciousness occur ending in impulsion. Next to that the life continuum occurs. In the third turn, when the life continuum is interrupted by mind door advertence, mind-door impulsion impels. Knowing by means of that consciousness, he becomes one who says: 'What is this sound in this place ? Sound of conch or sound of a drum V or: 'What is this perfume in this place ? Root-perfume or heartwood perfume ?' [407] or: 'What is this taste put into my mouth ? Ghee or molasses V or: 'By whom have I been slapped on the back ? This slap was very hard.' Thus he wakes up with mind-door impulsion only, not with five-door; he sees a dream with that only, not with five-door. 2051. But one who sees a dream sees it owing to four reasons, namely: (1) owing to a disturbance of the elements (dhätukkhobha), or (2) owing to what was experienced previously (anubhütapubba), or (3) owing to provision by deities (devatopasamhära), or (4) owing to a portent ipubbanimittd). 2052. Herein, (1) one whose elements are disturbed through being joined with some condition which causes a disturbance of the bile, etc. sees a dream owing to a disturbance of the elements. And doing so he sees the dream in various forms; it is like falling from a mountain, like going through space, like being chased by wild beasts, deer, elephants, robbers, etc. (2) One who sees it owing to what was experienced previously sees an object previously experienced. (3) To one who sees it owing to provision by deities, deities wishing him well or wishing him ill, provide many kinds of objects for good or for ill. He sees those objects through the power of those deities. (4) One who sees it owing to a portent sees the dream as the portent of some good or ill seeking to arise due to merit or demerit, like the Bodhisatta's mother the omen of having a son (see MA iv 175), like the Bodhisatta the five great dreams

16. Classification of Knowledge

153

(see A iii 240 and commentary; VinA 520), like the King of Kosala the sixteen dreams (J i 334 ff.). 2053. Herein, any dream he sees owing to a disturbance of the elements and owing to what was experienced previously is not true. Any he sees owing to provision by deities may be either true or false. For angry deities wishing to destroy him by [some] means (upäyä) show it disguised. 2054. Herein, this is the story. In Rohana, it seems, in the Great Näga Monastery (Nägamahävihära), a senior elder had an ironwood tree felled without asking permission of the Order of Bhikkhus. The deity who lived in the tree was angry with the Elder, and having first allured him,18 afterwards announced in a dream that: 'In seven days hence the king who supports you will die.' The Elder accepted the statement and related it to the king's concubines. They set up a loud scream with one voice. The king asked: 'What is that ?' They told him: 'The Elder has said so and so.' The king had the days counted. When seven days had passed, he grew angry and had the Elder's hands and feet cut off. 2055. But any he sees owing to a portent is entirely true only. [408] The stopping of dreams comes about owing to the stopping of contact with these four root causes. But only trainers and ordinary men see these four kinds of dreams owing to non-abandonment of the perversions. Non-trainers do not see them owing to the abandonment of the perversions. 2056. But how, when he sees them, does he do so asleep or waking, or neither asleep nor waking ? And how [is this] here ? For if in the first place he sees it when asleep, there is conflict with the Abhidhamma. For he sleeps with the life continuum consciousness, and that does not have the sign of visible data, etc. as object nor does it become associated with greed, etc.; but such consciousnesses arise in one seeing a dream. Then, [on the one hand, if] he sees it waking, there is conflict with the Vinaya. For what he sees waking he sees with normal (samvohärika) consciousness; and when a transgression is committed with normal consciousness there is no absence of an offence. But when a transgression is committed by one seeing a dream, there is entire absence of an offence. Then he sees it while neither asleep nor waking. He does not see [properly].19 'This being so, absence of dream is implied.' 'But there is no [such] absence [here].' 'Why ?' 'Because he sees it when overcome by "ape's drowsing" (kapimiddha). For this is said: 'Overcome by ape's drowsing, Majesty, he sees a dream' (Mil 300). "Overcome by ape's drowsing" means sleeping20 with monkey sleep (makkataniddä)\ for just as a monkey's sleep is easily broken, one who is sleeping with sleep which is easily broken because of being

154

The Dispeller of Delusion

interspersed again and again with profitable, etc. consciousness, and in the occurrence of which there is dipping again and again into the life continuum, sees dreams. Hence this dream is either profitable or unprofitable or indeterminate.' 2057. Herein, in one doing in a dream [such things as] paying homage at shrines, listening to the Law, preaching the Law, etc., it is profitable; in one doing [such things as] killing of living things, it is unprofitable; when free from either extreme, at the moment of advertence and registration it is indeterminate. It should be understood in this way.21 At the time of saying: 'It was as though seen by me, heard by me in a dream,' it is indeterminate only.22 2058. But how, then does profitable and unprofitable kamma done in a dream have result or no result ? It has result. But owing to weakness it cannot bring about rebirth linking. But when rebirth linking has been given by other kamma, it may be experienced during the course [of an existence]. 2059. Evam yäthävakavatthuvibhävanä paflfiä <322.15> ("the exact explanation of the basis in this way is understanding'*): the meaning (attha) of not-root-cause in the five consciousnesses is the exact meaning; [409] it explains that exact meaning is the "exact explanation of the basis". Likewise the meaning of without root-cause ... , the meaning of being overcome-by-old-age ... , the meaning of not-seeing-a-dream ... , in the five consciousnesses is the exact meaning; it explains that exact meaning is the "exact explanation of the basis". So what was set down above in the schedule as "the exact explanation of the basis is understanding" should be understood as "the exact explanation of the basis in this way is understanding". By its means23 evam ekavidhena fiänavatthu <322.16> ("in this way is the basis of knowledge in one kind') [means:] in this way is the reckoning of knowledge by each part; or the dividing up of knowledge according to a single aspect. Dyads 2060. In the description of the basis of knowledge in two kinds, catüsu bhümisu kusale <324.26> ("in the profitable in the four planes") is trainers' and ordinary men's profitable understanding of the four planes. "Among the five kinds of meaning (attha) stated in [the commentary to] the Classification of the Discriminations (Patisambhidävibhanga) (see above, §1944) it causes the birth of, produces, makes to occur the meaning called result which in each case is included in its own plane" is atthajäpikä <324.27> ("meaning-

16. Classification of Knowledge

155

producing9'). Arahato abhififiam uppädentassa samäpattim uppädentassa kriyäbyäkatä <324.26> ("functional indeterminate [understanding] in the Arahat who is arousing direct knowledge1* and who is arousing attainment") is functional understanding belonging to the sense sphere on the occasion of preliminary work for both direct knowledge and attainment. For that is called "meaning-producing understanding" since it causes the birth of, produces, makes to occur the meaning called functional divided up into direct knowledge and attainment. 2061. But the following is another commentary method not in the Pali. For the previous sense-sphere functional which becomes a condition through proximity, etc. for the subsequent sense-sphere functional also causes that functional meaning to be born, thus it is called "meaningproducing understanding". So also in the case of the fine-material sphere and the immaterial sphere. 2062. In the description of the second phrase, catüsu bhümisu vipäke <324.28> ("in resultant in the four planes"), sense-sphere resultant understanding remains after causing the birth of sense-sphere resultant meaning through the condition of conascence, etc., thus it has jäpitatthä <324.29> ("produced meaning"). So also in the case of the fine-material [410] and immaterial spheres. Or all these are "produced meanings" since they are each caused to be born, produced, made to occur by means of their own actions and are themselves become meanings. 2063. So also in the case of functional understanding stated as arahato uppannäya abhififiäya samäpattiyä <324.28> ("w the Arahat direct knowledge which has arisen and attainment which has arisen"). 2064. But the following is another commentary method not in the Pali. For sense-sphere functional understanding remains after causing the birth of the meaning called sense-sphere functional by means of conascence, etc., thus it is "produced meaning". So also in the case of the fine-material and immaterial spheres. Or all these are "produced meanings" since they are each caused to be born, produced, made to occur by means of their own actions and are themselves become meanings. 2065. The rest here is all clear owing to its having been explained in the Dhammasangaha Commentary. Triads 2066. In the description of the basis of knowledge in three kinds as to yogavihitesu <324.33> ("[in the spheres of work] invented by

156

The Dispeller of Delusion

ingenuity"), it is understanding that is called "ingenuity" (yoga); "[in the spheres of work] invented by understanding, disposed by understanding" is the meaning. Kammäyatanesu ("in the spheres of work"): here it is the work itself which is the spheres of work. Or alternatively it is the work and the sphere (base or extent) of livelihood, etc. that is the sphere of work. So also in the case of sippäyatanesu ("m the spheres of craft"). 2067. Herein, work (kamma) is of two kinds, inferior and superior. Herein, "inferior" is what the work of carpentry or the work of a remover of [dead] flowers, etc. are called; "superior" is what farming or trade or cattle-herding, etc. are called. And crafts are of two kinds, inferior and superior. Herein, "inferior" is what the crafts of basketmakers, weavers, potters, leather-workers and laundering, etc. are called; "superior" is what the crafts of reckoning, counting and writing, etc. are called. 2068. Lore itself is vijjäthäna <324.34> ("sorts of science"); only that which isrightfulis included, like snake-circle protection (näga-mandalaparittä)25 or like spells [performed] by blowing "phu" (with the mouth) (phU'dhamanaka-manta).26 But the medical sciences like eye treatment, surgery, etc. are not included since they come within the sphere of craft thus: 'I wish to train in the teacher's craft.' 2069. Herein, one who is wise, for the purpose of people's comfort, invents of his own accord houses, mansions, vehicles, ships, etc. For, [thinking:] 'These people suffer without a place to dwell in,' and, deciding to do good, he invents houses of the long, four-cornered, etc. kinds; for the purpose of warding off cold and heat he builds mansions of one or two or more floors. When there are no vehicles, [thinking:] 'Travel is painful,' he invents carriages, carts, chariots, etc. When there are no ships, [thinking:] 'There is no traffic on the sea, etc.,' he invents various kinds of ships. And all this he has not seen being done by others, nor learnt from what is made, [411] nor listened to people talking; but he does it of his own accord by thinking it out. For what is done by the wise of their own accord is like what is done by others after learning. This firstly is the method for "inferior woik". 2070. And as regards "superior work", when there is no ploughing work, [thinking:] 'People's livelihood does not progress,' a wise man, for the purpose of people's comfort, invents ploughman's tools such as yoke, share and so on. Likewise he invents the various kinds of trading work and cattle-keeping. And all this he has not seen being done by others, nor learnt from what is made, nor listened to people talking; but he does it of his own accord by thinking it out. For what is done by the

16. Classification of Knowledge

157

wise of their own accord is like what is done by others after learning. This is the method for "superior work". 2071. And in the case of the twofold sphere of craft, a wise man, for the purpose of people's comfort, invents the inferior crafts beginning with basket-workers' craft, and the reckoning called counting on the hand, and the counting called unbroken (acchinnaka) and writing with its vowels and consonants.27 And all this he has not seen being done by others ... [as above] ... like what is done by others after learning. This is the method in the case of the sphere of craft. 2072. But some wise man invents rightful sorts of science such as the snake-circle spell, etc. for the purpose of protecting people from the attacks of non-humans, creeping things, etc. He has not seen these being made by others, nor learnt from what is made ... [as above] ... like what is done by others after learning. 2073. Kammassakatam vä <324.34> ("ownership of kamma"): the knowledge of understanding thus: "This kamma is owned by beings; that one is not owned". 2074. Saccänulomikam vä <324.35> ("or what is in conformity with truth"): insight knowledge. For that is called "in conformity with truth" owing to conformity with the Four Truths. Now in order to show the way it occurs, rüpam aniccan ti vä ("as 'materiality is impermanent'"), etc. is said. And here only the characteristic of impermanence has been handed down, not the characteristic of suffering and the characteristic of no-self; but as to meaning, they should be regarded as having been handed down too. For "what is impermanent is painful, what is painful is no-self (S iv 1). 2075. Yam cvarüpam <325.1> ("such"): the nature described above thus. Anulomikam khantim ("conformable acceptance") and so on are all synonyms for understanding. For that is in conformity since it conforms by showing non-opposition to the five reasons for the aforesaid sphere of work and so on. [412] Likewise, it is in conformity since it conforms with behaviour beneficial to beings, it conforms to the Truth of the Path and it conforms owing to conforming to the highest meaning, nibbäna. And it accepts (khamati), bears, is able to see all these reasons, thus it is acceptance (khanti). "It sees" is difthi <325.2> ("view"). "It chooses" is ruci ("choice"). "It perceives with the senses" is muti ("sensing").2* "It observes" is pekkho ("observance"). And all these things (dhamma) beginning with spheres of work incline to (khamanti) study (nijjhäna); and in particular, the things (dhamma) called the five aggregates on being studied (nijjhäyamänä) again and again in accordance with impermanence,

158

The Dispeller of Delusion

suffering and no-self, accept (khamanti) that study (nijjhäna); thus it is dhammanijjhänakhanti {"acceptance of study things"). 2076. Parato asutvä pa{ililabhati <325.3> {"he obtains without hearing from another"): he obtains by thinking out himself only, without hearing another's words of instruction. Ay am vuccati ("this is called") i.e. this is called understanding made byratiocination.But this [understanding] does not arise in just anyone; it arises only in very wellknown great beings. And herein, the knowledge in conformity with truth arises only in the two kinds of Bodhisatta.29 The remaining understanding arises in all those of great understanding who have fulfilled the perfections; it should be understood in this way. 2077. Parato sutvä pafilabhati <325.10> ("he obtains by hearing from another"): here all that has been obtained by seeing spheres of work being done by another or having been done, and by hearing anybody's words being spoken, and by learning under a teacher, should be understood as "obtained by hearing from another". 2078. Samäpannassa <325.12> ("of one who has attained"): the meaning is, the understanding which occurs during an attainment in one who is possessed of an attainment is bhävanämayä pafifiä ("understanding made by development"). 2079. Dänam ärabbha <325.14> ("instigated by giving"): due to giving; having the volition of giving as its condition is the meaning. Dänam adhigaccha30 ("owing to giving"): [the understanding of] one who is coming to (adhigacchantassa) [a gift]; of one who is arriving at (päpunantassa)y is the meaning. Yä uppajjati ("which arises"): that understanding which arises associated in this way with the volition of giving, this is called "understanding made by giving (dänamayäpahf\Sf\ But that has three forms, namely, prior volition, volition of relinquishing and subsequent volition [413] according as it arises in one who thinks: *I shall give a gift,' in one giving a gift or in one reviewing having given a gift. 2080. Silam ärabbha silädhigaccha <325.18> ("instigated by virtuous conduct, owing to virtuous conduct"): here also only that which is associated with the volition of virtuous conduct is intended by "understanding made by virtuous conduct (sllamayäpaMä)". That also has three forms, namely, prior volition, volition of relinquishing and subsequent volition according as it arises in one who thinks: "I shall fulfil virtuous conduct,' in one fulfilling [it] and in one reviewing having fulfilled virtuous conduct. Bhävanämayä <325.21> ("made by development") is as aforesaid. 2081. As regards adhisilapafifiä <325.22> ("understanding of the higher virtuous conduct") and so on, these should be understood to be

16. Classification of Knowledge

159

two kinds of virtuous conduct, etc., namely, virtuous conduct (slla) and higher virtue (adhisila), consciousness (citta) and higher consciousness (adhicitta), understanding (pahha) and higher understanding (adhipaflM). 2082. Herein, though being included in this text, "whether the Tathagatas arise or not, there remains that element of the relationship of states, of the certainty of states" (S ii 25), the five precepts of virtuous conduct and the ten precepts of virtuous conduct are called "virtuous conduct". For that comes to be both when Tathagatas have arisen and when they have not. When they have not arisen, who makes these [precepts] known ? Ascetics and wanderers, Omniscient Bodhisattas and Wheel-Turning Monarchs make them known. When a Fully Enlightened One has arisen, the Order of Bhikkhus, the Order of Bhikkhunis, lay devotees and women devotees make them known. But the virtuous conduct of Pätimokkha restraint exceeds all [other kinds of] virtuous conduct and arises only when a Tathagata has arisen, not when one has not arisen; and only the Omniscient Enlightened Ones make it known. For making it known thus: 'In respect of this basis, this is the transgression' is not the field of others, is the field of the Enlightened Ones only, the power of the Enlightened Ones. So because Pätimokkha restraint is the higher virtue, therefore pätimokkhasamvaram samvarantassa31 <325.23> ("w one who is restraining with the Pätimokkha restraint") and so on is said in order to show that understanding of the higher virtue. 2083. But through being included in the above-mentioned text too, the eight attainments which are based on the process [of existence] are called "consciousness" (citta). For these come to be both when Tathagatas have arisen and when they have not. When they have not, who makes these [attainments] known ? Ascetics and wanderers, Bodhisattas and Wheel-Turning Monarchs make them known. When a Blessed One has arisen, bhikkhus, etc. who seek distinction in existence produce them too. But the eight attainments when made the basis for insight exceed all [other kinds of] consciousness. They arise only when a Tathagata has arisen, not when one has not. And they are made known only by Omniscient Enlightened Ones. [414] So because the consciousness of the eight attainments is the higher consciousness, therefore rüpävacarärüpävacara-samäpattim samäpajjantassa <325.27> ("of one who enters upon the attainment of the fine-material sphere and the immaterial sphere") is said in order to show the understanding of die higher consciousness. 2084. But through being included in the above-mentioned text too, knowledge of ownership of kamma is called understanding (pafiüä). For

160

The Dispeller of Delusion

that comes to be both when Tathagatas have arisen and when they have not. When one has not arisen, it arises through the giving of Veläma, the giving of Vessantara and so on. When one has arisen, there is no measure of those who undertake great giving (mahädäna) by means of that knowledge. But the understanding of the paths and fruitions exceeds all [other kinds of] understanding. They occur widely only when a Tathagata has arisen, not when one has not. So because the understanding of the path is the higher understanding, therefore catusu maggesu <325.30> ("regarding the four paths") and so on is said in order to show understanding as extreme understanding.32 2085. Herein, upon which of these six portions, namely, "virtuous conduct, higher virtue, consciousness, higher consciousness, understanding and higher understanding", is insight understanding dependent ? It is dependent on higher understanding. Therefore just as, compared to an undersized umbrella or flag, an extra-sized one is called a super-umbrella (atichatta)y a super-flag (atidhaja), so, compared to the five kinds of virtuous conduct (precept) and the ten kinds of virtuous conduct, this Pätimokkha virtuous conduct is called higher virtue, and compared to the eight attainments based on the process [of existence], the eight attainments made the basis for insight are called the higher consciousness, and, compared to understanding of ownership of kamma, insight understanding and path understanding and fruition understanding are called the higher understanding. It should be understood in this way. 2086. In the description of ä y a k o s a l l a <325.32> ("skill in improvement") and so on, because äya ("improvement") is increase and is twofold as the diminution of harm and the arousing of benefit, and apäya (? detriment") is decrease and is twofold as the diminution of benefit and the arousing of harm, therefore ime dhamme manasikaroto <325.33> ("in one bringing these things to mind') and so on is said in order to show that. Idam vuccati <326.1.> ("this is called"): that which is understanding concerning the non-arising and abandoning of these unprofitable states and the arousing and maintaining of these profitable (kusala) states is called "skill in improvement"; but that which is understanding concerning the non-arising and cessation of profitable states and the arousing and maintenance of unprofitable states is called "skill in detriment". 2087. Let skill in improvement in the first place be understanding; how does skill in detriment come to be called understanding ? It is only one possessed of understanding who understands that: 'In me thus bringing to mind, unarisen profitable states do not arise and those which have arisen cease; unarisen unprofitable states arise and those which have

16. Classification of Knowledge

161

arisen increase.' Knowing thus, he does not allow unarisen unprofitable states to arise and he abandons those which have arisen; he arouses unarisen unprofitable states and he brings those that have arisen to perfection through development. In this way it should be understood that skill in detriment is understanding too. 2088. Sabbä pi tatr'upäyä pafifiä upäyakosallam <326.11> ("and all understanding of the means to that is skill in means"): but this should be understood as knowing the immediate action for the purpose of remedying a sudden need or a danger when it has arisen. 2089. The rest is clear in meaning throughout. Tetrads 2090. In the description of the basis of knowledge in four kinds as regards atthi dinnam <328.13> ("there is [use in] giving") and so on, the meaning should be understood in this way: "There is fruit from a requisite given". Idam vuccati <328.19> ("this is called"): the meaning is: that kind of knowledge which knows "this kamma is one's own, this is not one's own" is called "knowledge of ownership of kamma". 2091. Herein, the three kinds of bodily bad conduct, the four kinds of verbal bad conduct and the three kinds of mental bad conduct are not called one's kamma. The ten kinds of good conduct in the three doors is called one's own (saka) kamma. Whether it is of oneself (attana) or of another, all unprofitable is not called one's own (saka) kamma. Why not ? Because it destroys benefit (attha) and promotes harm. Whether it is of oneself or of another, all profitable is called one's own. Why ? Because it destroys harm and promotes good.33 2092. When there is this knowledge of ownership of kamma capable of knowing in this way, there is no limit to the number of those who, by knowing it, by giving many gifts, by fulfilling virtue and undertaking the uposatha, experience happiness after happiness, success after success and reach nibbäna. For just as a rich man who has loaded ghee, honey, molasses, etc. and salt, sesamum, rice, etc. onto five hundred carts and is travelling on a desert road does not [have to] think and worry when a need arises because he has taken all necessities and so he easily reaches the goal of safety — so indeed, when there is this knowledge of ownership of kamma capable of knowing in this way, there is no limit to the number of those who, by knowing it, by giving many gifts, by fulfilling virtue and undertaking the uposatha, experience happiness after happiness, success after success and reach nibbäna.

162

The Dispeller of Delusion

2093. Thapctvä saccänulomikam fiänam <328.20> {"excepting knowledge in conformity with Truth"): the meaning is: excepting the insight knowledge which has got the name "knowledge in conformity with Truth" because of conformity with the Truth of the Path and with the Truth of the highest meaning (paramattha), all other profitable understanding subject to cankers is "knowledge of ownership of kamma". 2094. Maggasamangissa fiänam dukkhe p'etam fiänam <328.30> ("the knowledge of one possessed of the path is knowledge of suffering"): here [416] path knowledge alone is taken in four instances owing to single penetration of the four truths. 2095. Dhamme fiänam <329.8> ("knowledge of the Law"): here firstly, while understanding of the path may be "knowledge of the Law" owing to single penetration of the four Truths, how is understanding of fruition called "knowledge of the Law" ? Through the Truth of Cessation. For this understanding is of two kinds: it should be understood as "knowledge of the Law" owing to [its] occurring as function (kiccato) and as object (ärammanato) in respect of non-reliance on another, of personal experience of benefit and of the Law of the Noble Truths. 2096. So iminä dhammena <329.10> ("he, by this Law"): here path knowledge is called "Law" by a common usage for its resort because its resort (gocara) is the Law. Or the instrumental case is [used] in the accusative sense and the meaning is "by what has known this Law". What is said is: "by the path knowledge existing after knowing the Law of the Four Truths". 2097. Ditthena ("seen"): the meaning is: "Existing after seeing the Law with vision". Pattena preached?'): which has reached the Law because of existing after reaching the four Truths. Viditena Ccomprehended"): the four Truths are comprehended, made clear by path knowledge, therefore that Law is called "comprehended"; by that Law which is comprehended. P a r i y o g ä l h e n a <329.11> ("penetrated"): existing after penetrating the Law of the four Truths. 2098. Nayam neti ("he draws a conclusion"; lit. "he leads a leading"): regarding the past and the future he leads, carries, sends a conclusion (leading). Therefore this is not the function of path knowledge; it is the function of reviewing knowledge. Therefore by the Master path knowledge itself is made as if drawing a conclusion regarding the past and the future. Why ? Because the path is the root [cause], since one who has developed the path has reviewing. Therefore the Master made path knowledge itself as if drawing a conclusion. Furthermore, the meaning of this should be regarded as the following: by the path

16. Classification of Knowledge

163

knowledge with the four Truths as its resort which has been attained by him, and which has become the reason he draws the conclusion called reviewing knowledge regarding the past and the future. 2099. Now in order to show the way in which he draws that conclusion he said ye hi keci atit[änägat]am addhänam ("for whatever [recluses or brahmans] in the past") and so on. Herein, abbhaflflamsu <329.12> {"knew directly") [means] knew, penetrated. Imam ycva ("this same"): that which they directly knew as suffering in the past, and that which they will directly know in the future. And this is not exactly that; but it is stated thus in the sense of resemblance. For in the past they penetrated only the aggregates of the three planes, excluding craving, as the Truth of Suffering; only craving [417] as the Origin of Suffering; only nibbäna as the Cessation of Suffering; and they penetrated only the Noble Path as the Truth of the Path. And in the future so also they will penetrate. And now also they penetrate. Thus imam yeva <329.15> ("this same") is said in the sense of resemblance. Idam vuccati anvaye fiänam <329.26> ("this is called inferential knowledge"): this is called consequential knowledge, concluding knowledge, knowledge of reasons (kärana). 2100. Paricchedaflänam <329.28> ("knowledge of delimitation") : knowledge of delimitation of consciousness. Parasattanam <329.29> ("of other beings"): of the remaining beings excluding oneself. The other is a synonym for that. Cetaso ceto paricca pajänäti ("having encompassed minds with his mind, he understands"): having with his own mind delimited their minds as accompanied by greed and so on, he understands [them] as of various kinds. What should be said about sarägam vä <329.30> ("the greedy") and so on has already been said above in [the commentary to] the Classification of the Foundations of Mindfulness (see §§1231-40). But there is this difference, namely, that anuttaram vä cittam <329.36> ("or the unsurpassed mind") and vimuttam vä cittam <329.38> ("or the liberated mind") are allowable here as supramundane also. And a mind that is not concerned with insight is also an object (visaya) of the knowledge. 2101. Avasesä pafifiä <330.4> ("the remaining kinds of understanding"): except for the three kinds of understanding beginning with knowledge of the Law (dhamme Mna\ all the remaining kinds of understanding, because they are agreed (sammatatta) as knowledge, are called sammutifiäna (conventional knowledge). But here the word meaning is that knowledge concerning convention (sammutimhi Mnam) is conventional knowledge. 2102. Kämävacarakusale pafifiä <330.6> ("understanding concerning the profitable of the sense sphere"): since this solely

164

The Dispeller of Delusion

accumulates death and rebirth-linking in the round [of rebirths], it is therefore called äcayäya no apacayäya {"for accumulation, not for dispersal"). But the supramundane understanding of the path, since it does not accumulate death and rebirth-linking, is therefore called apacayäya no äcayäya {'for dispersal, not for accumulation"). Understanding of the fine-material sphere and the immaterial sphere accumulates death and rebirth-linking, and by suppression disperses the defilements and states rooted in the defilements, therefore it is called äcayäya c'eva apacayäya ca <330.8> {"both for accumulation and for dispersal"). The rest neither accumulate nor disperse death and rebirth-linking, therefore they are called iTeva äcayäya no apacäya <330.9> {"neither for accumulation nor for dispersal!'). 2103. Na ca abhififiäyo pativijjhati <330.11> {"and does not penetrate the kinds of supernormal achievement"): this is said with reference to understanding of the first jhäna; for because it has to be reached by means of seclusion from sense desire, his understanding leads to revulsion from the defilements. And on account of that, he is without greed in respect of the sense desires. But owing to the state of its being the basis for the kinds of supernormal achievement not having been reached, it neither penetrates the five kinds of supernormal achievement nor, owing to its having the sign as its object, the Truths. Thus this understanding is for revulsion, not for penetration. 2104. [418] Sveva <330.14> {"that same"): he who remains after reaching the first jhäna. Kämesu vitarägo samäno {"being without greed for the sense desires"): he is without greed through sense desires which are likewise suppressed. Abhififiäyo pativijjhati {"penetrates the kinds of supernormal achievement"): penetrates the five kinds of supernormal achievement. This is said with reference to the understanding of the fourth jhäna. For understanding of the fourth jhäna penetrates the five kinds of supernormal achievement through the state of being the basis for the kinds of supernormal achievement; it also penetrates [them] because of reaching the state of the kinds of supernormal achievement; therefore it is for penetration. But it is not for revulsion owing to revulsion from the defilements [already having taken place] through the first jhäna. But to which part does the understanding of the second and third jhänas belong ? According to joy {somanassa) it belongs to the first jhäna; according to absence of applied thought it belongs to the fourth jhäna. Thus it should be made to depend on either the first jhäna or the fourth jhäna. 2105. Nibbidäya c'eva pativedhäya ca <330.17> {"both for revulsion and for penetration"): understanding of the path because of complete revulsion from the process [of existence] is for revulsion, and

16. Classification of Knowledge

165

because of penetrating the sixth kind of supernormal achievement it is for penetration. 2106. As regards pathamajhänassa läbhi ti <330.20> ("an obtainer of the first jhäna") and so on, perceptions and bringings to mind which are accompanied by sense desire34 are present in and stir and provoke this person who is an obtainer of unfamiliar first jhäna, when he has emerged from it. His understanding of the first jhäna diminishes, disappears through the perceptions and bringings to mind which have entered into the sense desire; that is why it is called hänabhägini <330.21> ("partaking of diminution''). 2107. Tadanudhammatä ("suitable thereto"): whose nature is in conformity therewith. Sati santitthati <330.22> ("mindfulness is stationary"): this is said with reference to wrong mindfulness,35 not right mindfulness. For when the sense of attraction (nikanti) of a kind whose nature is suitable to the first jhäna arises in someone, having seen the first jhäna as peaceful and sublime, it takes satisfaction and finds delight; owing to his sense of attraction the understanding of the first jhäna neither diminishes nor increases; it belongs to the stationary [type] (thitikotthäsika). Hence it is called thitibhägini pafifiä ^understanding partaking of stationariness"). 2108. Avitakkasahagatä {^accompanied by absence of applied thought"): [understanding] accompanied by absence of applied thought by way of object owing to bringing to mind the second jhäna which is without applied thought as peaceful and sublime. Samudäcaranti <330.23> ("are present in"): they provoke and stir for the purpose of attaining the second jhäna one who has emerged from familiar first jhäna. That understanding of the first jhäna through perception and bringing to mind which enter into the second jhäna which is above it is called visesabhägini ("partaking of distinction") because it is the reason for the arising of the second jhäna which is the distinction. 2109. Nibbidäsahagatä <330.24> ("accompanied by revulsion"): [419] accompanied by the insight knowledge called revulsion [they are present in] that same obtainer of first jhäna who has emerged from jhäna.36 For when the jhäna factors occur, insight knowledge feels revulsion and is dissatisfied; that is why it is called revulsion. 2110. Samudäcaranti ("are present in"): they stir and provoke for the purpose of realizing nibbäna. Virägüpasamhitä ("directed towards fading away"): directed towards nibbäna called fading away. For because of its occurring thus: "It is possible by this path to realize fading away, nibbäna", insight knowledge is called "directed towards fading away". And the perception and bringing to mind associated with that are also called "directed towards fading away". His understanding of the first

166

The Dispeller of Delusion

jhäna by means of the perception and bringing to mind is called nibbedhabhägini <330.25> ("partaking of penetration") being the footing for the penetration of the Noble Path. In this way the understanding of the first jhäna only is expounded in four instances. As regards the understanding of the second jhäna and so on, the meaning should be understood by this same method. 2111. Kicchena kasirena samädhim uppädentassa <332.1> Cf or one arousing concentration with trouble and with difficulty"): of one who is arousing supramundane concentration in the prior stage at the time of approach , who has come [to it] by suppressing the defilements with trouble, with difficulty, with prompting and with effort, being harrassed. 2112. Dandham tarn thänam abhijänantassa ("and directly knowing that instance slowly"): for one directly knowing, penetrating, slowly, gradually, that instance called supramundane concentration by dwelling long in the abiding in insight (vipassanäpariväsa) when the defilements have been suppressed; for one reaching is the meaning. Ayam vuccati <332.3> ("this is called'): this is so called. Because of the painfulness of the way in suppressing the defilements, and because of the slowness of understanding in the abiding in insight, the understanding arisen in a single conscious moment at the time of the path is, by way of approach, called dukkhapatipadä dandhäbhiüflä <332.4> ("of painful practice and slow direct knowledge"). And as regards the three expressions that follow, the meaning should be understood according to this same method. 2113. Samädhissa na nikämaläbhissa <332.25> ("of one who is not an obtainer at will of concentration"): one who is not an obtainer at will of concentration is called one who is not an obtainer of it at will, whose concentration is not a condition for endeavour for the purpose of higher and higher attainments. The meaning is: of the obtainer of unfamiliar37 jhäna. 2114. Ärammanam thokam pharantassa ("and who pervades a little object"): of one who, after doing the preliminary work on a small object the size of a cup or a saucer and reaching absorption in that, pervades that unincreased little object, is the meaning. So also with the remaining expressions. For as the opposite of one who is not an obtainer at will, an obtainer of familiar jhäna is here called an obtainer at will (nikämaläbhi)\ and as the opposite of an unincreased object, an increased object is called abundant (vipula). The rest is similar to that. 2115. [420] Jarämarane p'etam fiänam <333.4> ("this is knowledge about old age and death"): this is stated with reference to the single penetration of the four Truths after making nibbäna the object.

16. Classification of Knowledge

167

But jarämaranam ärabbha <333.9> {"instigated by old age and death") and so on are stated as the defining of the Truths in the prior stage at the time of occurrence instigated by each individual item (vatthu). 2116. The rest is clear throughout. Pentads. 2117. In the description of the basis of knowledge as of five kinds, as regards pitipharanatä <334.2> {"pervasion with rapture") and so on, since it arises pervading with rapture, the understanding in two jhänas is called pitipharanatä {"pervasion with rapture"). Since it arises pervading with happiness, the understanding in three jhänas is called sukhapharanatä {"pervasion with happiness"). Since it arises pervading others* minds, the understanding of penetration of others' minds is called cetopharanatä {"pervasion of minds"). Since it arises in pervasion with light, the understanding of the divine eye is called älokapharanatä {"pervasion with light"). Reviewing knowledge is called paccavekkhanänimittam <334.3> {"the sign of reviewing"). Hence it is said dvisu jhänesu paflfiä pitipharanatä <334.4> {"the understanding in two jhänas is pervasion of rapture") and so on. 2118. And herein, pervasion of rapture and pervasion of happiness are like the two feet,38 pervasion of minds and pervasion of light are like the two hands, the jhäna which is the basis for the kinds of direct knowledge is like the central body, the sign of reviewing is like the head. So the Blessed One has shown the five-limbed concentration by endowing it with the various limbs like a man. Ayam paflcangiko sammäsamädhi <334.8> ("this is the five-limbed [= fivefold] Right Concentration"): he has expounded basic jhäna concentration thus: 'This is Right Concentration joined to five limbs [= factors] resembling the hands, feet and head.' 2119. As regards ayam samädhi paccuppannasukho c'cva <334.10> {"this concentration is both present happiness") and so on, it is the concentration of the fruition of Arahatship that is intended. For because of its happiness every moment there is absorption, it is present happiness. Because each previous one is the condition for each subsequent happiness of concentration, it has a happy result in the future. It originates the peaceful, subtle fruition consciousness which is sweet and sublime. Due to the tangible datum which is a pleasant impression which extends throughout the body, there arises for one who has emerged from fruition attainment body consciousness accompanied by happiness. In this way it has a happy result in the

168

The Dispeller of Delusion

future. [421] It is ariya <334.12> ("Noble") because of being distant (ärakä) from the defilements. 2120. Because of the absence of worldly needs of sense desire (kämämisa), worldly needs of the process of existence (vattämisa) and worldly needs of the world (lokamisa), it is niramiso (? unworldly"). 2121. Because it is cultivated by the great men beginning with the Buddhas, it is mahäpurisasevito <334.13> (''cultivated by great men"). 2122. Because of the peacefulness of the factors, because of the peacefulness of the object and because of the pacification of all the distress due to the defilements, it is santo <334.14> ({'peaceful"). It is panito ("sublime") in the sense of not productive of mortification. Because it has been obtained through the tranquillisation of the defilements, or because the state of tranquillisation of the defilements has been obtained, it is patipassaddhaladdho39 ("is obtained through having been tranquillised"). For patipassaddham and patipassaddhi are one as to meaning. Or because of Arahatship being obtained by one whose defilements are tranquillised (patipassaddhakilesena), it is obtained by the tranquillised (patipassaddhaladdho). Because of being arrived at through singleness, or because of a state of singleness itself having been arrived at, it is ekodibhävädhigato <334.15> ("arrived at through singleness"). Because of not being arrived at by restraining opposing states and repressing the defilements by consciousness accompanied by prompting and effort as in the case of unfamiliar concentration subject to cankers, it is na sasankhäraniggayhavaritagato ("not arrived at through repression by prompted restraining"). 2123. And because of having achieved abundance of mindfulness, when attaining that concentration and emerging from it, mindful only he attains it and mindful only he emerges from it. Or mindful he attains it and mindful he emerges from it in accordance with the time as decided upon. 2124. Therefore the knowledge which arises here through his own experience only and not conditioned by another in one who is reviewing thus ayam samädhi paccuppannasukho c'eva äyatifl ca sukhavipäko <334.10> ("this concentration is happiness in the present and has a happy result in the future"), is one factor. So with the rest. Thus with these five kinds of reviewing knowledge this concentration is called paficafläniko sammäsamädhi <334.18> ("Right Concentration with five kinds of knowledge").

16. Classification of Knowledge Sestads

169

2125. In the description of the basis of knowledge as of six kinds, iddhividhe fiänam <334.22> {"knowledge about the kinds of miraculous power") is knowledge about the kinds of miraculous powers occurring in the way beginning: "Having been one, he becomes many". By this is expounded just the understanding of absorption which is without applied and sustained thought, is accompanied by equanimity, is of the fine-material sphere, accomplishes multiplication and the like and is of a single conscious moment. 2126. Sotadhätuvisuddiyä fiänam {"knowledge about the purity of the ear element") is the knowledge of the divine ear element which has as its object sounds classed as "far and near". By this is expounded just the understanding of absorption which is without applied and sustained thought, is accompanied by equanimity, is of thefine-materialsphere, has as its object past sounds of the field of the normal ear and is of a single conscious moment. 2127. [422] Paracitte fiänam {"knowledge about others' consciousness") is the knowledge about the delimitation of the consciousness of other beings. By this is expounded just the understanding of absorption of the kind already stated which has as its object others' consciousness accompanied by greed, etc. and is of a single conscious moment. 2128. Pubbeniväsänussatifiänam <334.23> {"knowledge about the recollection of former lives") is the knowledge that is connected with the recollection of former lives. By this is expounded just the understanding of absorption of the kind already stated, which is connected with the mindfulness of recollection of aggregates lived in the past, and is of a single conscious moment. 2129. Sattänam cutüpapäte fiänam {"knowledge about the death and reappearance of beings") = sattänam cutiyafi ca upapdte ca Hänam. By this is expounded just the understanding of absorption of the kind already stated which has as its object the colour element of beings that pass away and reappear and is of a single conscious moment. 2130. Asavänam khaye fiänam <334.24> {"knowledge about the destruction of the cankers") is the knowledge which is the knowing of the delimitation of the Truths. This is supramundane only. The rest are mundane.

170 Septads

The Dispeller of Delusion

2131. In the description of the bases of knowledge as of seven kinds, after stating in the way beginning thus, jätipaccayä jarämaranam <334.28> ("with birth as condition, old age and death"), reviewing knowledge in accordance with the triple division of time in respect of each of the eleven factors of Dependent Origination by way of occurrence (pavatti) and non-occurrence (nivatti); again that same knowledge is stated briefly in accordance with the aspects of its having the nature of destruction, etc. thus yam pi 'ssa tarn dhammatthitifiänam <334.32> ("and that which is knowledge of the relationship of states"). Herein, the two kinds of knowledge, namely, jätipaccayä jarämaranam, asati jätiyä natthi jarämaranam <334.28> ("with birth as condition, old age and death, when there is no birth there is no old age and death") are stated in accordance with the present. Atitam pi addhänam <334.29> ("the past") and anägatam pi addhänam <334.31> ("the future"): in this way there are two kinds of knowledge about the past and two kinds of knowledge about the future. So these six, together with knowledge about the relationship of states, make seven. 2132. Herein, dhammatthitiflänam <334.33> ("knowledge about the relationship of states") is knowledge about the structure of conditions (paccayäkära) for the structure of conditions is called "relationship of states" because of causing the relationship produced between states. Knowledge about that is knowledge about the relationship of states. This is a term for that same sixfold knowledge. 2133. By applying the seven to each factor, there are 77 with the eleven factors. 2134. Herein, khayadhammam ("having the nature of destruction"), which has the nature of going to destruction. Vayadhammam <334.34> ("having the nature of passing away"): having the nature of going to passing away. [423] Virägadhammam ("having the nature of fading away") = virajjanasabhävam. Nirodhadhammam ("having the nature of cessation"): having the nature of ceasing. What is expounded by this ? It is the comprehension (sammasana) of previous insight by subsequent insight which is expounded. What is expounded by that ? Insight into insight (vipassanäpativipassanä) seven times is expounded. For having, by means of the first knowledge, seen all formations as impermanent, painful and no-self, it is proper to see that knowledge by means of the second, the second by means of the third, the third by means of the fourth, the fourth by means of the fifth, the

16. Classification of Knowledge

171

fifth by means of the sixth and the sixth by means of the seventh. Thus insight into insight seven times is expounded.40 Octads 2135. In the description of the bases of knowledge as of eight kinds, sotäpattimagge pafifiä <335.19> ("understanding of the Path of Stream-Entry"): understanding in the Path of Stream-Entry. By this is expounded only understanding associated (sampayutta) [therewith]. So with the remaining expressions. Enneads 2136. In the description of the bases of knowledge as of nine kinds, anupubbavihärasamäpattisu <335.24> ("about the attainments as successive abidings") [means] about the attainments called the successive abidings. Their being successive abidings should be regarded as in the sense of having to abide in them successively following the order, and their being attainments in the sense of having to attain them. 2137. Herein, pathamajhänasamäpattiyä pafifiä <335.26> ("understanding about the attainment of the first jhäna") and so on should be understood as the eight kinds of understanding associated [therewith]. The ninth is reviewing understanding; for that occurs in one who reviews the attainment of cessation as peaceful and sublime. Hence it is said safifiävedayitanirodhasamäpattiyä vutthitassa paccavekkhanäfiänam <335.31> ("the reviewing knowledge of one who has emerged from the attainment of the cessation of perception and feeling"). Decads Ten Tathagata Powers — 1 2138. In the description of the bases of knowledge as of ten kinds, atthänam <335.35> ("impossible") is the exclusion of cause (hetu); anavakäso <335.37> ("cannot be") is the exclusion of condition (paccaya). He excludes reason (karana) too by both; for a reason, because of [its own fruit] being necessarily dependent upon it, is called both the possibility (thäna) and the ability (avakäsa) for its own fruit. Yam ("that"): by means of which reason. Ditthisampanno ("possessed of [Right] View"): a noble disciple who is a Stream-Enterer possessed of the [right] view afforded by the path.

172

The Dispeller of Delusion

2139. [424] Kifici safikharam <335.38> ("any formation"): any single formation among the formations of the four planes. Niccato upagaccheya ("should treat as permanent"): should take to be permanent. N' ctam thänam vijjati <336.1> ("that is not possible"): that reason does not exist, is unobtainable. Yam puthujjano <336.2> ("that an ordinary man"): by which reason an ordinary man. TUnam ctam vijjati <336.3> ("that is possible"): that reason exists. For he would take as permanent any formation from among the formations of the three planes, is the meaning. But the formation of the fourth plane41 is not an object for [wrong] view (ditthi) or for other unprofitable things, just as an iron heated for a day [is not a target] for flies because of its excessive heat. 2140. In this way, too, should the meaning be understood as regards kifici sankhäram sukhato <336.4> ("any formation as pleasant"). Sukhato upagaccheyya ("should treat as pleasant"): this is stated with reference to taking as pleasant by way of the self-view thus: "The self is entirely pleasurable and [continues] intact after death" (D i 31). But with a mind dissociated from wrong view,42 a Noble Disciple, when overcome by the fever [of sensual desire], may for allaying that fever treat any formation as pleasant — just as one threatened by an elephant in rut or as the Brahman Cokkha ("Clean") [though] desirous of purity [treat] dung.43 2141. In the section on self (attä)y kifici dhammam <336.9> ("any state") is said, instead of saying "any formation", for the purpose of including the concepts of the kasinas, etc. And here, too, the definition should be understood by way of four planes for the Noble Disciple and by way of three planes for the ordinary man. Or alternatively as regards all sections, the definition of the Noble Disciple is also correct by way of three planes only. For whatever the ordinary man takes, that the Noble Disciple takes in the reverse way; since whatever the ordinary man takes as "permanent, pleasant, self', that the Noble Disciple takes in the reverse way (gäham vinivetheti), taking it as "impermanent, painful, no-self'. 2142. As regards mätaram <336.13> ("mother"), etc., the "mother" is just "she who gives birth".44 2143. Arahä <336.17> is intended as one in a human existence whose cankers are destroyed. But what ? Would a Noble Disciple deprive some other [creature than these] of life ? That also is impossible. Even if one were to say to a Noble Disciple who had come to his next existence and was unaware of his own noble discipleship: 'After depriving this ant of its life, you may take up the Wheel-Turning Monarch's rule over the whole interior of the world sphere,' yet he would not deprive it of life.

16. Classification of Knowledge

173

[425] Alternatively, were they to tell him: 'If you do not kill this, we will cut off your head/ yet he would not kill it even were they to cut off his head. But this is said for the purpose of showing the greatly reprehensible state of the ordinary man and for the purpose of illustrating the power of the Noble Disciple. And the intention here is this: reprehensible is the state of the ordinary man in which the ordinary man will commit matricide, etc. which bring immediate effect; and of great power is the Noble Disciple who does not commit these deeds. 2144. Dutthacittena <336.18> ("with malevolent mind'): with murderous mind connected with hate. Lohitam uppädeyya ("should shed the bloody, should shed in the living body even as much blood as a smallflycould drink. 2145. Sangham bhindeyya <336.19> (^'should cause a schism in the Order"): should cause a schism in an Order which is in communion (samänasamvOsaka) and is established within the same boundary (slmä). For this is said: 'In five ways, Upäli, is a schism caused in the Order: by act (kamma), by recital (uddesa), by one speaking (voharantena), by persuasion (anusävana) and by vote-taking (saläkaggäha)' (Vin v 202). 2146. Herein, "by act" is by some one among the four kinds of act beginning with the proposal of aresolution."Byrecital"is by some one among the five recitals of the Pätimokkha. "By one speaking" is one speaking; one who exemplifies on such and such an occasion the eighteen bases of causing a schism beginning with "what is not the Law as the Law". "By persuasion" is by persuading through uttering words in the ear thus: 'Do you not know my going forth from a noble family and my great learning ? It isrightfor you to wonder: "Might one like me take the Master's dispensation as wrong discipline and wrong law ? Is Avici cool to me like a blue lotus grove ? Have I no fear from the states of woe ?"' and so on. "By vote-taking": having thus persuaded and sustained their minds and made them not liable to retreat, [then saying:] 'Take this voting stick,' is "by vote-taking". 2147. And here, the "act" itself or the "recital" is the measure; "speaking", "persuasion" and "vote-taking", however, are the prior stage. For no schism is caused in the Order by one speaking by way of exemplifying the eighteen bases, and when a vote is taken, after persuading, for the purpose of knowing opinion thereon. But when four or more, after taking the vote thus, carry out a separate or [Pätimokkha] recital, then [426] a schism is caused in the Order. That one possessed of [Right] View should cause a schism in the Order thus — that is not possible. 2148. Up to this point the five kinds of kamma with immediate effect (änantariyakamma) beginning with matricide, which the ordinary man

174

The Dispeller of Delusion

but not the Noble Disciple commits, have been pointed out. For the purpose of classification, (1) As to act, (2) to door, (3) to lasting for the aeon, (4) to ripening, (5) By what is common and so forth, the definition should be known. (MA iv 109; AA ii 5) 2149. Herein, (1) "as to act" [means] firstly that the act (kamma) of one here in the human existence who deprives of life while in the human existence his mother or his father — even if they have changed sex45— is of immediate effect. Although, thinking to avoid its result, he fills the whole world with gilt monuments (thüpa) as big as the Great Shrine and offers full alms-giving to the seated Order of Bhikkhus throughout a whole world sphere (cakkavala), and walks without letting go the hem of the Enlightened One's robe, still, on the break-up of the body, he appears in hell. But the kamma of one who, himself a human, deprives of life his mother or father reborn as an animal, or who, himself reborn an animal, [his mother or father] in the human state, or, himself an animal, [his mother or father] themselves animals, is not of immediate effect. But it is weighty (bhariya); it remains near46 to [a kamma] "with immediate effect" (see M sutta 136). But [here] this question is stated by way of those who have human birth. 2150. Here, the "ram tetrad", the "battle tetrad" and the "robber tetrad" should be expounded.47 (i) For a human who, although with the intention: 'I shall kill a ram,' yet kills a human mother or father standing in the ram's place, reaps immediate effect. But one who, (ii) with the intention of killing a ram or (iii) with the intention of killing his mother or father, kills a ram, does not reap immediate effect, (iv) One who, with the intention of killing his mother or father, kills his mother or father, reaps immediate effect. So, too, with the other two tetrads. 2151. And just as in the case of the mother and father, so also in the case of the Arahat should these tetrads be understood. Only by killing an Arahat in human existence does he reap immediate effect, not [an Arahat] in the existence of a spirit (yakkhabhüta); but the kamma is weighty [then] and similar to that of immediate effect. But if to a human Arahat, at the time when he is still an ordinary man, a stab with a knife or poison is given and he dies thereby after attaining Arahatship, he [who caused his death] becomes an Arahanticide. But the gift which was given to him at the time when he was still an ordinary man [427] and which he uses after reaching Arahatship is still given to an ordinary man. There is no kamma of immediate effect for one who kills the other

16. Classification of Knowledge

175

[three] noble persons, but the kamma is weighty and similar to that of immediate effect. 2152. As regards the drawing of blood, because of the invulnerability of the Perfect One's body, after making the attack and breaking the skin, there is no outflow of blood; but the blood flows in one place inside the body. Although the splinter which broke from the rock flung by Devadatta struck the Tathagata's foot, and although the foot was as though struck by an axe, yet there was blood only inside the foot. For one so acting it is of immediate effect. But Jivaka, by cutting the skin with a knife at the Tathagata's wish and drawing bad blood from that place, caused him relief. For one so doing it is only meritorious kamma. 2153. Then those who, after the Tathagata's complete extinction, break up a shrine, cut down a Wisdom Tree and attack the relics — what is their [kamma] ? It is weighty kamma similar to that of immediate effect. But it is permissible to cut the branch of a Wisdom Tree which is pressing on a monument or image containing relics. It is also permissible to cut if birds roosting there drop excrement on the shrine. For the shrine [containing a part] of the body (sariracetiya) is more important than a shrine [in commemoration] of what was made use of (paribhogacetiya). It is also permissible to cut and remove roots of the Wisdom Tree which are going to crack a shrine. But it is not allowed, for the purpose of protecting the Wisdom Tree house, to cut a branch of the Wisdom Tree which is pressing on the house; for the house is for the Wisdom Tree's benefit, not the Wisdom Tree for that of the house. So also in the case of a Wisdom Seat house. But it is permissible to cut a branch of the Wisdom Tree for the purpose of protecting a [Wisdom] Seat house in which relics are deposited. It is also permissible for the purpose of looking after the Wisdom Tree to cut off a branch that is sapping its strength or a rotten part; this is meritorious as in looking after the body. 2154. In the case of a schism in the Order, for one who, by gathering together a following separately, without the Order resident inside the boundary having met together, carries out an act or recites a [Pätimokkha] recital after he has done the speaking, persuasion and vote-taking, there is a schism created, and kamma of immediate effect. But it is permissible out of a belief that the Order is in agreement, since for one who does it believing that the Order is in agreement, there is neither schism nor kamma of immediate effect.48 Likewise when the following is less than nine in number. But for one who creates a schism in the Order by means of giving the final decision among nine people, the kamma has an immediate effect. [428] The kamma of the followers

176

The Dispeller of Delusion

who assert what is not the Law is greatly reprehensible. Those who assert the Law are blameless. 2155. Herein, this is the sutta concerning the schism in the Order consisting of nine: 'On one side, Upäli, there are four, on the other there are four, the ninth does the persuading and takes the vote thus: "This is the Law, this is the Discipline, this is the Master's dispensation; take this, accept this"; thus, Upäli, there is both a dispute in the Order and a schism in the Order. When there are nine, Upäli, or more than nine, there is both a dispute in the Order and a schism in the Order.' (Vin ii 203). But among these five [acts which bring immediate effect], causing a schism in the Order is verbal kamma; the rest are bodily kamma. Thus should the definition as to the act be recognized. 2156. (2) "As to door": all these originate both from the body door and from the speech door. But the first four here, although they [may] have originated from the speech door by way of command or magic spells as the means, only come to completion in the body door. And although creating a schism in the Order [may] have originated from the body door of one causing the schism by means of a sign with the hand, it only comes to completion in the speech door. In this way here should the definition as to door be recognized. 2157. (3) "As to lasting for the aeon (kappa)": here it is only causing a schism in the Order that lasts for the aeon. After causing a schism in the Order when the aeon is developing, or in the middle of the aeon, he is still released when the aeon is finished.49 For even if he were to cause a schism in the Order today and the aeon ended tomorrow, he would be released tomorrow; he would be roasted only one day in hell. But there is no doing this. The remaining four are only "of immediate effect" and are not "lasting for the aeon". In this way here should the definition as to lasting for the aeon be recognized. 2158. (4) "As to ripening": for one by whom all these five acts have been committed, it is only causing a schism in the Order that ripens by way ofrebirthlinking; the rest are called in accordance with the passage beginning: "There was kamma, there was no result of kamma" (Ps ii 78 f.). In the absence of causing a schism in the Order it is the shedding of blood; in the absence of that, Arahanticide; in the absence of that, if the father is of good conduct and the mother of bad conduct, or not of such good conduct [as the father], it is patricide that ripens inrebirthlinking. If the mother, matricide; when the two are of equally good or equally bad conduct, it is only the matricide that ripens as rebirth linking. For a mother does what is hard to do and is of great help to her children. In this way here should the definition as toripeningbe recognized.

16. Classification of Knowledge

177

2159. [429] (5) "By what is common and so forth": the first four are common to both householders and those gone forth. But causing a schism in the Order, from the passage: * A schism, Upäli, is not caused in the Order by a bhikkhuni, nor by a female probationer, nor by a male or female novice, nor by a lay devotee or woman devotee; but it is a bhikkhu, Upäli, who is in good standing, who is in communion and is resident within the boundary (sima) that causes a schism in the order' (Vin i 204), being peculiar to the said kind of bhikkhu, not to any other; it is therefore not common [to any other]. By the words "and so forth" it is meant that all these are accompanied by painful feeling and associated with hate and delusion. In this way here should the definition by what is common and so forth be recognized. 2160. Afifiam satthäram <336.19> ("another teacher"): that [he should point to:] 'This is my teacher able to perform the function of a teacher'; the meaning is: even in the next existence that he should take another "ford-maker"50 (titthakara) thus: 'This is my teacher' — that is not possible. 2161. Atthamam bhavam nibbatteyya <336.20> ("should produce an eighth existence"): that even one of the most slow understanding of all should exceed the seventh existence and produce an eighth — that is not possible. For it is precisely with reference to the seventh existence in the last extremity that he is called "assured [of the future] and destined to enlightenment" (see M i 34, etc.). But what assures him ? Is it a previous cause which assures [him] ? Or the path which has been obtained ? Or the three higher paths ? This is simply a name taken by the Fully Enlightened One. But there is no person who is assured. For if "a previous cause assures him" is said, a decisive-support for the three upper paths is stated, and one falls into [the fallacy of] the absence of a decisive-support for the first path; thus one arrives at the production of that without cause and without condition. And when "the path which has been obtained assures" is said, the three upper paths become functionless and only the first path has a function; by putting down the defilements by means of the first path alone complete extinction can be reached. When "he is assured by the upper three paths" is said, the first path becomes functionless; only the upper three paths have a function. The three upper paths are to be produced without having produced the first path; the defilements are to be put down by the first without even entering it. Therefore there is no other [factor] that makes one assured; only the insight of the three upper paths makes one assured. For if the insight of those [paths], being keen and courageous, carries on, one attains complete extinction by reaching Arahatship after producing only one existence. [430] Insight more

178

The Dispeller of Delusion

slow than that attains complete extinction by reaching Arahatship in the second, third, fourth, fifth or sixth existence. The most slow understanding of all attains complete extinction by reaching Arahatship after producing the seventh existence. Thus this is simply a name taken by the Fully Enlightened One. 2162. For the Master, after judging with the Buddha's judgement, after defining with omniscient knowledge that: 'This person has the greatest understanding of all and keen insight and he will grasp Arahatship after producing one existence more only,' created the name "One with a single seed" (ekabijin); [knowing] that: 'This person will grasp Arahatship after producing a second, a third, a fourth, a fifth, a sixth existence,' he created the name "One who goes from clan to clan" (kolankola); [knowing] that: 'This person will grasp Arahatship after producing the seventh existence,' he created the name "seven times at most" (sattakkhattuparama). But there is no person who is certain of seven existences. But the Noble Disciple attains complete extinction before the eighth existence in whatever way his understanding is slow. He only goes to a seventh existence even if he enjoys the process [of existence] as much as Sakka. In the seventh existence, even if he lives in all negligence, his insight knowledge comes to ripen. Feeling revulsion for even the smallest object, he arrives at peace. And even if, in his seventh existence, while he is asleep or going facing another way, anyone standing behind him were to cut of his head with a sharp sword, or he were to be killed by being drowned 51 in water, or a thunderbolt were to fall on his head, even in such a kind of death there is no dying with rebirth-linking. He attains complete extinction by reaching Arahatship. Hence it is said: "That he should produce an eighth existence, that is not possible." 2163. Ekissä lokadhätuyä <336.23> ("w one world element')', in the ten-thousandfold world system. For there are three fields: (1) the field of birth (jätikhettä), (2) the field of authority (änäkhetta), (3) the field of scope (visayakhetta). 2164. Herein, (1) the "field of birth" is the ten-thousandfold world system (lokadhätu). For it was that that quaked at the time of the Tathagata's entry into the mother's womb, at the time of his coming out, at the time of his enlightenment, on the setting of the Wheel of the Law turning, on the giving up of lifespan, on the complete extinction. 2165. (2) It is the hundred-thousand-million52 (kotisatasahassa) world spheres (cakkaväla) which are the "field of authority". For it is here that the authority of the Ätänätiya (D iii 194), the Mora (J ii 33) protection,

16. Classification of Knowledge

179

the Dhajagga (S i 218), the Ratana (Sn ii 1) [431] protection, etc. prevails. 2166. (3) To the "field of scope'*, however, there is no limit. For from the words: "The Enlightened Ones' knowledge is as much as what is to be known, and what is to be known is as much as their knowledge; what is to be known is coextensive with their knowledge, and their knowledge is coextensive with what is to be known" (Ps ii 195); there is nothing that is not its scope. 2167. But as regards these three fields, there is no sutta [which says:] "Enlightened Ones appear in another world sphere apart from this world sphere*'. But there are [suttas in which it is said] that they do not appear. For there are three Pitakas: the Vinaya Pitaka, the Sutta Pitaka and the Abhidhamma Pitaka. There are these three councils: the council of the Elder Mahäkassapa, the council of the Elder Yasa and the council of the Elder Moggaliputta-Tissa — these are the three councils. In the words of the Enlightened One in the three Pitakas come down in the three councils, there is no sutta [which says:] "Leaving aside this world sphere, Enlightened Ones appear elsewhere". But there are [suttas which say] that they do not appear. 2168. Apubbam acarimam <336.24> ("simultaneously")', "neither before nor after i.e. together they do not arise; it is before or after that they arise" is what is said. Herein, "before" should not be understood as: "Starting from the time of sitting in the Wisdom Seat [resolving:] * Without attaining enlightenment I shall not arise,' as far [back] as the taking of rebirth-linking in the mother's womb — so far [back] is "before"." For when, by the quaking of the ten-thousandfold world sphere because of the Bodhisatta's taking of rebirth linking, the acquisition of the field of birth is effected, then the arising of another Enlightened One is precluded. Also "after" should not be understood as "starting from the complete extinction, for as long as a relic as [small as] a mustard seed remains is * after'". For while the relics endure, the Enlightened Ones endure, too. Therefore the arising of another Enlightened One in the meanwhile is precluded. But when the complete extinction of the relics has come to pass, the arising of another Enlightened One is not precluded. 2169. For there are three kinds of disappearance (antaradhäna):53 (1) disappearance of competency (pariyatti), (2) disappearance of penetration (pativedha) and (3) disappearance of practice (patipatti). Herein, (1) competency is the three Pitakas; (2) the "penetration" is the penetration of the Truths; (3) the "practice" is the way. And herein, penetration and practice both are and are not [from time to time]. For at one time the bhikkhus who effect penetration are many and the bhikkhu

180

The Dispeller of Delusion

who is still an ordinary man must be pointed out with the finger. And in this island,54 too, on one occasion [432] there was no bhikkhu who was an ordinary man. Also those who fulfil the practice are now many, now few. So penetration and practice both are and are not [from time to time]. 2170. But the measure of the Dispensation's endurance is by competency (in scripture). For a wise man, on hearing the Tipitaka, fulfils the two. 55 Just as our Bodhisatta, after producing the five kinds of supernormal achievement and the seven attainments under Älära (see M sutta 26), asked for the preliminary work for the attainment of the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception; 'that I do not know/ he replied. Then, after going to Uddaka and consolidating the distinction he had attained, he asked for the preliminary work for the attainment of the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. He told it. And immediately after his words, the Great Being succeeded [in the attainment]. So indeed a bhikkhu, possessed of understanding, on hearing the scriptures fulfils the two. Therefore while competency in scripture endures, the dispensation endures. 2171. But when that disappears, then first the Abhidhamma Pitaka is lost. The Patthäna disappears first of all, and last in succession the Dhammasangaha. When that has disappeared, while the remaining two Pitakas endure, the Dispensation endures, too. Herein, while the Sutta Pitaka is disappearing, first the Ahguttara Nikäya from the Elevens down to the Ones disappears. Next to that the Samyutta Nikäya from the Cakkapeyyäla down to the Oghatarana [Sutta] disappears. Next to that the Majjhima Nikäya from the Indriyabhävanä [Sutta] down to the Mülapariyäya [Sutta] disappears. Next to that the Digha Nikäya from the Dasuttara [Suttanta] down to the Brahmajäla [Suttanta] disappears. A question of one or two stanzas, like the questions of Sabhiya (Sn iii 6) or the questions of Alavaka (Sn i 10) lasts a long while {addhänam gacchati) but cannot carry on the dispensation. These, it seems, being of the time of the Buddha Kassapa, could not carry on the Dispensation in the interval. 2172. But when the two Pitakas have disappeared, while the Vinaya Pitaka endures, the Dispensation endures. When the Parivära and the Khandhakas have disappeared, while the twofold56 [Sutta-] Vibhanga endures [the Dispensation] endures. When the twofold [Sutta-] Vibhanga has disappeared, while the Mätikä endures [the Dispensation] endures. When the Mätikä has disappeared, while the Pätimokkha and the Going Forth and the Admission endure, the Dispensation endures. The outward sign lasts a long while {addhänam gacchati); but the lineage of white-clothed recluses, starting from the time of the Buddha

16. Classification of Knowledge

181

Kassapa, could not carry on the Dispensation. But starting with the last to penetrate the Truths and with the breaking of his virtuous conduct by the last one, the Dispensation is termed withdrawn. From then on the arising of another Enlightened One is not precluded. 2173. [433] There are three kinds of complete extinction: (1) complete extinction of the defilements, (2) complete extinction of the aggregates, (3) complete extinction of the relics. Herein, (1) complete extinction of the defilements took place on the Wisdom Seat, (2) the complete extinction of the aggregates [took place] at Kusinärä and (3) the complete extinction of the relics will take place in the future. 2174. At the time of the withdrawal of the teaching, the relics in this island of Tambapanni being gathered together, will go to the Great Shrine and from the Great Shrine to the Royal Tree (Räjäyatana) Shrine in Nagadlpa. From there they will go to the Great Wisdom Seat. From the Näga world, the world of deities and the world of Brahma, the relics will also go to the Great Wisdom Seat. Of the relics, not even as much as a mustard seed will be lost meanwhile. Heaped up on the Great Wisdom Seat, they will become one solid [mass] like a pile of gold and will emit the six-coloured rays. These will pervade the ten-thousandfold world system. Thereupon, the deities in the ten-thousandfold world system having come together [saying:] 'Today the Master attains to complete extinction, today the Dispensation is withdrawn, now is our last sight [of it],' will feel more compassion than on the day of the TenPowered One's complete extinction. Excepting the Non-Returners and those whose cankers are destroyed, the rest will not of their own nature be able to stand firm.57 The fire element will spring up in the relics and will mount up to the Brahma world; while there is still a relic the size of a mustard seed, the flame will continue. It will be extinguished when the relics come to an end. After demonstrating their great power thus, when the relics have disappeared, the Dispensation is termed disappeared. As long as they have not disappeared thus, it is "not after". Thus it is that [two Enlightened Ones] "should arise simultaneously — that is not possible". 2175. But why do they not arise simultaneously ? Because of nonextraordinariness. For the Enlightened Ones are extraordinary humans, according as it is said: 'One person, bhikkhus, arises in the world as an extraordinary person. Which one person ? The Tathagata, the Accomplished, Fully Enlightened One' (A i 22). And if two or four or eight or sixteen were to arise together, they would not be extraordinary. For there is no outstanding gain or honour on account of two shrines in one monastery. Bhikkhus, too, are not extraordinary because they are

182

The Dispeller of Delusion

numerous; and so it would be for the Enlightened Ones. Therefore they do not arise [together]. 2176. [434] And also because of absence of difference in the Teaching. For the Law consisting of the divisions of the Foundations of Mindfulness and so on which one teaches, would also have to be taught by another who arose. Owing to that, he would not be extraordinary. But when only one teaches the Law, the Teaching also is extraordinary. 2177. Also because of the absence of disputes. If many Enlightened Ones were to appear [together], people would dispute like the pupils of many teachers: 'Our Enlightened One is admirable, our Enlightened One is sweet-voiced, our Enlightened One is gifted and meritorious !' Therefore they do not appear together. 2178. Furthermore, this reason was also stated in detail by the Elder Nägasena when questioned by King Milinda; for it is said therein: 'Herein, Venerable Nägasena, this is said by the Blessed One: "It is impossible, bhikkhus, it cannot be, that in one world system there should arise simultaneously two Accomplished, Fully Enlightened Ones — that is not possible" (A i 27). Venerable Nägasena, all the Tathagatas, when teaching, teach the 37 states that partake of enlightenment, and when preaching, preach the four Noble Truths, and when training, train in the three trainings, and when instructing, instruct in the practice of diligence. If, Venerable Nägasena, there is for all the Tathagatas only one teaching, one preaching, one training, one instruction, for what reason do two Tathagatas not arise at one time ? Since firstly this world is illuminated by the arising of one Buddha, if a second Buddha were to arise, it would by the radiance of the two be that much more illuminated; and two Tathagatas giving advice would do so with ease. Show me the reason for this so that I may become free from doubt.' 2179. 'This ten-thousandfold world system, your Majesty, carries one Buddha, it carries the qualities of only one Tathagata. If a second Buddha were to appear, this ten-thousandfold world system would not carry him; it would waver and tremble and rock and swoop and swerve and tumble and roll over and capsize and it would not come to rest. Just as though, your Majesty, there were a one-man boat. When one man boards it, it is evenly trimmed; but should a second man [435] similar in lifespan, colour, age,58 size, figure and limbs come and board that boat, would that boat, your Majesty, bear the two ?' 'No, venerable sir, it would not bear them; it would waver and tremble and rock and swoop and swerve and tumble and roll over and capsize, and it would not come to rest but would founder in the water.' 'So indeed, your Majesty, this ten-thousandfold world system carries one Buddha; it

16. Classification of Knowledge

183

carries the qualities of only one Tathagata. If a second Buddha were to appear, this ten-thousandfold world system would not carry him. It would waver and tremble and rock and swoop and swerve and tumble and roll over and capsize, and it would not come to rest. 2180. 'Or indeed, your Majesty, just as a man might eat as much food as he wished and, enjoying it and being filled up to his gullet, might be sated, appeased, filled, stuffed, dazed and stiff as a board, would he be happy if he were to eat as much again ?' 'No, venerable sir, if he ate as much again he would die/ 'So indeed, your Majesty, this tenthousandfold world system carries one Buddha ... would not come to rest/ 2181. 'Venerable Nägasena, does the earth waver through an overload of the Law ?' 'Here, your Majesty, [suppose] there were two carts filled to the brim with treasure, and taking the treasure from one cart one were to load it onto the [other] cart; would that cart, your Majesty, carry the treasure of the two carts V 'No, venerable sir, its nave would waver, its spokes would break, its rim would shatter and its axle would break.' 'Why then, your Majesty, is it not that the cart breaks up because of its load of too much treasure ?' 'Yes, venerable sir.' 'So indeed, your Majesty, would the earth waver through an overload of the Law. Furthermore, your Majesty, this reason is given to illustrate the Buddha's powers. 2182. 'Herein also, hear this admirable reason why the Fully Enlightened Ones do not arise at one time. If, your Majesty, two Fully Enlightened Ones were to arise at one time, disputes would spring up between their followings thus: "Your Buddha, our Buddha !" and they would become partisans on both sides. Just as, your Majesty, disputes spring up between the followings of two powerful ministers thus: "Your minister, our minister !" and they become partisans on both sides; so indeed, your Majesty, were the Fully Enlightened Ones [436] to arise at one time, disputes would spring up between their followings thus: "Your Buddha, our Buddha !" and they would become partisans on both sides. Hear this first reason why the Fully Enlightened Ones do not arise at one time. 2183. 'Here also this further reason why two Fully Enlightened Ones do not arise at one time: if, your Majesty, two Fully Enlightened Ones were to arise at one time, the saying that: "The Buddha is best" would be wrong, the sayings that: "The Buddha is supreme, chief, superlative, highest, noblest, unequalled, unrivalled, unparalleled, incomparable, peerless" would be wrong. Accept, your Majesty, as so thisreasonwhy two Fully Enlightened Ones do not arise at one time.

184

The Dispeller of Delusion

2184. * Furthermore, your Majesty, because of the Buddha's essential nature they arise only singly in the world. Why ? Because of the greatness of the cause of the qualities of the Omniscient Buddha. Besides, your Majesty, what is great is also single; the earth, your Majesty, is great and is also single; the ocean is great and is also single; Sineru the king, the chief of mountains, is great and also single; the sky is great and also single; Sakka is great and also single; Brahma is great and also single; the Tathagata, the Accomplished, Fully Enlightened One is great and also single. Where they arise there is no opportunity for others. Therefore the Tathagata, the Accomplished, Fully Enlightened One arises alone in the world.' 2185. 'Well expounded is the question, Venerable Nägasena, with its similes and reasons' (Miln 236 ff.). 2186. Ekissä lokadhätuyä <336.26> ("m one world system"): in one world sphere (cakkaväla). Although above (§2163) ten thousand world spheres were included by this term, it is nevertheless permissible to define these with only one world sphere. For when the Buddhas arise, they do so only in this world sphere, but when the place of their arising is precluded, since they do not arise in world spheres other than that, it is precluded [there], too. 2187. Apubbam acarimam <336.24> ("simultaneously"): here, before the manifestation of the Wheel Treasure (see M iii 172; D ii 172 ff.; D iii 59 ff.) is "before"; after its disappearance is "after". Herein, the disappearance of the Wheel Treasure is twofold: upon the death of the monarch, or upon his going forth into homelessness. And when it disappears, it does so on the seventh day after the death or the going forth. [437] After that the arising anew of a Wheel-Turning Monarch is not precluded. But why do Wheel-Turning Monarchs not arise [together] in one world sphere ? Because of exclusion of disputes, because of extraordinariness and because of the might of the Wheel Treasure. For if two were to arise, disputes would arise thus: 'Our king is great, our king is great !' And [by saying:] 'The Wheel-Turning Monarch is in this continent, the Wheel-Turning Monarch is in this continent!' he would not be extraordinary. And that wherein consists the great might of the Wheel Treasure, namely, its ability to confer mastery over the four great continents surrounded by the two thousand islands, would be lost. Thus because of the exclusion of disputes, because of extraordinariness and because of the might of the Wheel Treasure, two do not arise [simultaneously] in one world sphere. 2188. Yam itthi araham assa sammäsambuddho <336.28> ("that a woman should be an Accomplished, Fully Enlightened One"): here, let alone firstly the actual enlightened state which, by producing the

16. Classification of Knowledge

185

qualities of omniscience is able to cross over the world, not even the aspiration [thereto] is applicable to a woman. 2189. The human state, the right sex, too, the cause, the seeing of the Master, The going forth, right qualities, service and [lastly] zealousness — When these eight things are [all] combined the resolution will succeed. (Bu II 58; J i 14, 44; MA iv 122; AA ii 15; SnA 48; etc) These are the reasons for the success of the aspiration. When a woman is thus incapable of accomplishing the aspiration, whence [could she attain] the state of an Enlightened One ? [That is why] "it is impossible, it cannot be that a woman should be an Accomplished, Fully Enlightened One" is said. [Since] only he who is in all ways perfected and has a store of merit, produces the person in all ways perfected; [accordingly] it is a man that is an Accomplished, Fully Enlightened One, not a woman.59 2190. As regards räjä assa cakkavatti <336.30> ("should be a Wheel-Turning Monarch") and so on, because of not having the member enclosed in a sheath, etc., women do not fulfil the [thirty-two] characteristics, in the absence of the Woman treasure the possession of the seven treasures is not completed; and her person does not stand out above all mankind; that is why "it is impossible, it cannot be that a woman should be a Wheel-Turning Monarch" is said. 2191. And because the status of Sakka and so on are the three highest places, and because the female sex is inferior, therefore the status of Sakka and so on are excluded.60 But is it not a fact that since the female sex, like the male sex, does not exist in the Brahma world, therefore "that a man should occupy the status of Brahma— that is possible" should not be said ? One can certainly say it. Why ? Because of the reappearance there of [one who was] a man here. By "the status of Brahma" is intended the status of Great Brahma. And a woman, after developing jhäna here, [438] when she dies, reappears as one of the retinue of Brahma, not as Great Brahma. But it should not be said that a man does not reappear there since although there is absence of both marks of sex, still Brahmas have the male form, not the female form; that is why that is rightly said. 2192. As regards käyaduccaritassa <337.4> ("of bad bodily conduct") and so on, just as bitter nimba seeds and kosätakl seeds do not produce sweet fruits but produce only disagreeable, bitter fruits, so

186

The Dispeller of Delusion

bad bodily conduct and so on do not produce sweet results but only produce bitter results; and just as sugarcane and rice seeds, etc. produce only sweet, nice-flavoured fruits, not disagreeable, bitter ones, so good bodily conduct, etc. produce only sweet results, not bitter ones. This too is said: According as the seed is sown, so will the fruit be harvested; The doer of good will harvest good, the doer of evil only evil. (S i 227; Nett 184; MA iv 124; AA ii 16) That is why it is said: "It is impossible, it cannot be that sought after, desired and pleasing results should come of bad bodily conduct". 2193. As regards käyaduccaritasamafigi <337.22> Cone possessed of bad bodily conduct") and so on, "possessed o f (samangiri) is the fivefold possession, (1) possession of [kamma-] accumulation (äyühana), (2) possession of volition (cetana), (3) possession of kamma, (4) possession of [kamma-] result and (5) possession of appearance (upatthänd). 2194. Herein, (1) "possession of [kamma-] accumulation" is said regarding the moment of accumulating profitable or unprofitable kamma. (2) Likewise "possession of volition". (3) But as long as they do not reach Arahatship, so long are all beings "possessed of kamma" with reference to previously accumulated kamma which is good for ripening; this is "possession of kamma". (4) "Possession of [kamma-] result" should be understood as the moment of [kamma-] result itself. 2195. (5) But as long as beings do not reach Arahatship, so long, after falling from this or that [existence] and firstly when reappearing in hell, hell [appears to them] as the apparition of flames of fire, the iron cauldrons and so on; [or] when appearing in a womb-born existence, the mother's womb [or] when appearing among the deities, the divine world, as the apparition of wishing trees, palaces and so on; in this way the sign of rebirth appears [to them]. So their not being freed from this appearance of the sign of rebirth is called "possession of appearance". This [last] is alterable; the rest [of the four kinds of possession] are unalterable. For although hell has appeared [already], the divine world [afterwards] appears; although the divine world has appeared [already], hell [afterwards] appears; although the human world has appeared [already], the animal kind of generation [afterwards] appears; although the animal kind of generation has appeared [already], the human world [afterwards] appears.

16. Classification of Knowledge

187

2196. [439] Herein, this is the story. In the Paceli61 monastery at the foot of the Sona mountain (Sonagiripäde) there was a preacher of the Law called the Elder Sona. His father was a hunter called Sunakhaväjika62 ("who goes along with dogs").63 Although the Elder forbad him that, yet being unable to establish him in restraint, [he thought:] 'Let the unhappy man not be lost,' and he made him go forth in his old age against his will. As he lay on his sickbed, hell appeared to him. Enormous dogs coming from the foot of the Sona mountain surrounded him as though they would devour him. Greatly frightened, he cried out: 'Stop them, Sona ! Stop them, Sona !' 'What is it, Mahäthera ?' 'Did you not see ?' and he told him what had occurred. The Elder Sona [thought:] 'How can the father of one like me be reborn in hell ? I shall be his support.' He had many flowers brought by novices and, after having had offerings made by strewing them on the ground and strewing them on the altar (äsana), on the shrine terrace and on the Wisdom Tree terrace, he had his father brought with his bed to the shrine terrace. Making him lie down on the bed, he said: 'This offering is for your benefit, Mahäthera. This is a special offering, in distress, to the Blessed One.' Then he said: 'Pay homage to the Blessed One and set your mind at rest.' The Mahäthera, seeing the offerings and doing as suggested, set his mind at rest. Immediately the divine world appeared to him and the palaces of the Nandaka, Cittalatä, Missaka and Phärusaka groves as well as the divine dancers appeared as though surrounding him. 'Go, Sona, go, Sona !' 'What is it, Thera ?' 'These are your mothers that are coming.' The Elder thought: 'Heaven has appeared to the Mahäthera.' So it should be understood that possession of appearance is alterable. 2197. As regards these [five kinds of] possession, here "possessed of bad bodily conduct" and so on should be understood as stated by way of possession of accumulation, volition and kamma. The rest is all clear in meaning. Tathagata Powers — 2 2198. In the description of the second power, gatisampattipatibälhäni <338.19> ("while inhibited by the success of the destiny"): inhibited, prevented, precluded by the success of the destiny. So with the remaining expressions. And here 8 amp at ti ("success"): the destiny that has succeeded (sampanna) is the divine world and the human world. Vipatti <338.31> ("failure"): the destiny that has failed (vipanna) is the four states of woe.

188

The Dispeller of Delusion

2199. Upadhisampatti <338.20> ("success of the substratum"): success as to the person (attabhäva); upadhivipatti <338.32> ("failure of the substratum"): possessing an inferior person. 2200. Kälasampatti <338.22> <? success of the time"): [440] the time which has succeeded and is called the time of good kings and good people. Kälavipatti <338.34> (^failure of the time"): the time which has failed and is called the time of bad kings and bad people. 2201. Payogasampatti <338.23> ("success of means"): the right means; payogavipatti <338.35> ("failure of the means"): the wrong means. 2202. Herein, (1) someone has many evil deeds. Those would ripen for him while he remained in an unsuccessful destiny; but by means of a single good deed he is reborn in a successful destiny among deities or humans. And in such a place it is not the turn of the unprofitable, there is only the turn of the entirely profitable. He understands that these deeds of this person, while inhibited by the success of the destiny in this way, do not ripen. 2203. (2) Another has many evil deeds. Those would ripen for him while he remained in an unsuccessful substratum; but by means of a single good deed he remains in a successful substratum with wellshaped limbs, handsome, beautiful, radiant like Brahma. Even if he is born as a slave in a slave-woman's womb, [thinking:] 'One with such a person is not suited for dirty work,' they do not make him do elephant keeper's or horse-groom's or cowherd's work; but getting him to dress in fine clothes, they set him up in the position of storekeeper, etc. If it is a woman, they do not make her cook elephants' meals and so on; they give her clothes and ornaments and they make her do the guarding of beds, or they make her a favourite like Queen Sämä. In the time of King Bhätiya, it seems, they caught many people eating beef and showed them to the king. When they were asked: 'Can you pay a fine ?' they said: 4We cannot.' Then they made them cleaners in the king's court. The daughter of one of them was handsome, beautiful and pleasing. Seeing her, the king took her into his harem and established her in the position of favourite. The rest of her relatives lived happily through her influence. In such a person evil acts cannot effect result. He understands that [those deeds], while inhibited by the success of the substratum in this way, do not ripen. 2204. (3) Someone has many evil deeds. Those would ripen for him while he remained in an unsuccessful time. But by means of a single good deed he is reborn in a time of a good king and good people in the period of the appearance of the people at the beginning of an aeon or of a Wheel-Turning Monarch or of a Buddha. And at such time there is no

16. Classification of Knowledge

189

opportunity for the unprofitable which has been produced to give result; there is opportunity only for what is entirely profitable. He understands that [those deeds], while inhibited by the success of the time in this way, do not ripen. 2205. (4) Another has many evil deeds. Those [441] would ripen for him while he remained in [a state with] unsuccessful means. But by means of a single good deed he remains in [a state with] successful means, he refrains from killing living things, etc. and he fulfils good conduct of body, speech and mind. In such a position there is no opportunity for the ripening of the unprofitable. There is opportunity only for what is entirely profitable. He understands that [those deeds], while inhibited by the success of the means in this way, do not ripen. 2206. (5) Another has many evil deeds. Those would not ripen for him while he remained in a successful destiny. But by means of a single evil deed he is reborn and remains in an unsuccessful destiny. There those evil deeds of his come upon him and give result each in its turn. At one time they get him reborn in hell; at another time in the animal kind of generation; at another time in the realm of ghosts; at another time in the demon group. For a long period of time they do not allow him to lift his head above the state of woe. He understands that having been unable to give result because of having been inhibited by success of destiny in this way, when failure of destiny is arrived at, they ripen. 2207. (6) Another has many evil deeds. Those would not ripen for him while he remained in a successful substratum. But by means of a single evil deed he remains in an unsuccessful substratum; he is ugly, hideous, misshapen, unsightly (ylbhacchd) like a goblin (pisäca). But if he is born as a slave in a slave-woman's womb, [people say:] 'These are suited to him' and make him do all the dirty work, even including removing rubbish. If it is a woman, [people think:] 'These [jobs] are suited to her' and make her do all the dirty work such as cooking elephants' meals and so on. And even when born in a family's home, the king's men collecting the taxes, getting the idea that she is a house slave, bind her and go away [with her] like the housewife of the great landowner at Kotalaväpigäma. He understands that [the deeds], having been unable to give result because of having been inhibited by success of substratum in this way, ripen when failure of substratum is arrived at. 2208. (7) Another has many evil deeds. Those would not ripen for him while he remained in a successful time. But by means of a single evil deed he is reborn in an unsuccessful time, in the time of a bad king and bad people, bitter and ungrateful, at a time when the lifespan is ten years, when the five products of the cow are no more and kudrüsaka

190

The Dispeller of Delusion

grain is the best food. Although he is reborn in the human world, he lives like wild animals and cattle. At such time there is no opportunity for the ripening of the profitable. There is only opportunity for the entirely unprofitable. He understands that [the deeds] having been unable to give result because of having been inhibited by success of time in this way, [442]ripenwhen failure of time is arrived at. 2209. (8) Another has many evil deeds. Those would not ripen for him while he remained with successful means. But he remains with unsuccessful means and he performs the ten kinds of unprofitable kamma beginning with the killing of living things. Then people catch him with the stolen goods and show him to the king. The king has many tortures inflicted upon him and has him executed. He understands that [the deeds], having been unable to give result because of having been inhibited by success of means in this way, ripen when failure of means is arrived at. 2210. Thus evil kamma which, while inhibited by the four kinds of success, has not given result, gives result when the four kinds of failure are arrived at. For just as some man might please the king by some act, and then the king, having given him a post, gave him a province; and being incapable of using it rightly he might break it like a bag of food seized by a monkey. Anyone's chariot or beast of burden or slave-girl or park or field that he saw that pleased him, all that he might take by force. People would not be able to say anything, [knowing that] he was the king's favourite. He might offend64 another, a still greater favourite and the king's minister. That one, having seized him and having had him thoroughly beaten and trounced and thrown on the ground on his back, might go to the king and have him arrested, [saying:] 'One named so and so, sire, is breaking your province.' The king, having had him chained in the prison, might have the drums beaten in the city, [proclaiming:] 'Who has had anything carried off by one named so and so ?' And people might come and raise a thousand shouts: 'This property of mine was seized, that property of mine was seized !' and the king, being so much the more angered, after torturing him in many ways in the prison, would execute him, and would say: 'Go and throw him onto the charnel ground and bring back his skeleton.' So does this happen. For like the time when that man pleased the king with some act and got the post, is the time when an ordinary man is reborn in heaven by some meritorious act. Like the people's inability to say anything when something was taken from them while he was breaking the province, is the time when the unprofitable gets no opportunity for result when he has been reborn in heaven. Like the time when one day [443] a king's favourite, having been offended, was angry with him

16. Classification of Knowledge

191

and informed the king and had him chained and imprisoned, is the time when, having fallen from heaven, he is reborn in hell; like the time of the people's shouting: 'This [property] of mine was seized, that [property] of mine was seized !' is the time of all his unprofitable acts gathering together and seizing [him] when he is reborn in hell. Like the throwing him onto the charnel ground and bringing back his skeleton is the time of his cooking for the whole aeon in hell without lifting his head from hell by the result of another act each time one act is used up. For there is not just one or two or a hundred or a thousand beings who cook in hell for one aeon by doing acts which last for the aeon; the beings who cook thus, it seems, exceed the possibility of counting. 2211. (9) As regards atth' ekaccäni kalyänäni kammasamädänäni gativipattipatibalhäni na vipacanti <338.30> ("there are some good undertakings of kamma which, while inhibited by failure of destiny, do not ripen") and so on, the construction should be understood thus: here someone has many good deeds. Those would ripen for him while he remained in a successful destiny. But by means of a single evil deed he is reborn and remains in an unsuccessful destiny in hell or in the demon group. In such a place the profitable cannot give result; only the entirely unprofitable can do so. He understands that these deeds of his, while inhibited by the failure of the destiny in this way, do not ripen. 2212. (10) Another has many good deeds. Those would ripen for him while he remained in a successful substratum. But by means of a single evil deed he remains in an unsuccessful substratum and ugly like a goblin ipisaca). Even if he is reborn into a royal family he does not get the kingdom after his father's death [because they think:] 'What will become of the kingdom of such an unlucky one ?' Even when he is reborn in a general's house and so on, he does not get the general's post and so on. 2213. But in order to explain the meaning of this, the story of the Island King should be told. It seems that the king, when his son was born, granted the queen a boon to please her. She accepted the boon and kept [it for a later time]. When the prince was seven or eight years old, he was making cocks fight in the royal court. A cock jumped up and put out the prince's eye. When the prince was fifteen or sixteen years old, his mother the queen, [thinking:] 'I shall rule the kingdom,' went to the king and said: 'Sire, when the prince was born, you granted me a boon; I accepted and kept [it for a later time]. Now I will take it.' 'Good, take it.' 'There is nothing, sire, that I have not [already] had from you. [444] But now give the kingdom to my son.' 'Queen, your son is deficient in his limbs; the kingdom cannot be given to him.' 'If you

192

The Dispeller of Delusion

cannot grant the boon I choose, why did you grant it to me [originally] V The king was greatly distressed. 'It is impossible to give your son the rule over the whole of Lanka Island; but let him set up the umbrella in Nägadipa and dwell there.' He came to be known as the Island King (Dlparäjä). If he had not been deficient in one eye, he would have got the rule with all its prosperity over the whole of the threehundred-league Tambapanni Island. He understands that these deeds of his, while inhibited by the failure of the substratum in this way, do not ripen. 2214. (11) Another has many good deeds. Those would ripen for him while he remained in a successful time. But by means of a single evil deed he is reborn in an unsuccessful time, at a time of a bad king and bad people, bitter and ungrateful, when the lifespan is short, at the extremity of the aeon (gatikotike). At such a time good deeds cannot give result. He understands that [these deeds of his], while inhibited by the failure of the time in this way, do not ripen. 2215. (12) Another has many good deeds. Those would ripen for him while he remained with successful means. But remaining with unsuccessful means, he kills a living thing ... he fulfils all kinds of misconduct. Thus the families that are born on an equal footing with his own do not enter into marriage contracts [with him, thinking:] 'This bad man is intemperate with women, intemperate with drink, intemperate with dice'; [hence] they keep far away from him. And good deeds cannot ripen. He understands that [these deeds of his], while inhibited by the failure of the means in this way, do not ripen. 2216. In this way the good deeds which ripen on arrival at the four kinds of success do not ripen because of being inhibited by the four kinds of failure. 2217. (13) Another has many good deeds. Those would not ripen for him while he remained in an unsuccessful destiny. But by means of a single good deed he is reborn in a successful destiny. There those deeds of his come to him and give result in turn. At one time they get him reborn into the human world, at another time into the divine world. He understands that, while unable to give result owing to being inhibited by failure of destiny in this way, they ripen when success of destiny is arrived at. 2218. (14) Another has many good deeds. Those would not ripen for him while he remained in an unsuccessful substratum. But [445] by means of a single good deed he is established in success of substratum, he is handsome ... radiant like Brahma.65 Because he is established in success of substratum, his good deeds give results. If he is reborn into a royal family, although there may be other elder brothers, [yet, saying:]

16. Classification of Knowledge

193

'His person is successful; when his umbrella has been raised there will be happiness in the world,' it is he only whom they anoint. And if he is reborn into a viceroy's house and so on, when his father dies he obtains the viceroyalty, the general's post, the storekeeper's post. He understands that while unable to give result owing to being inhibited by failure of substratum in this way, they ripen when success of substratum is arrived at. 2219. (15) Another has many good deeds. Those would not ripen for him while he remained in an unsuccessful time. But by means of a single good deed he is reborn in a successful time, in a time of a good king and good people. The good deeds of one who is reborn in such a successful time give result. Herein, this story of the Elder Mahäsona should be told. 2220. At the time of the Brahman Tissa troubles,66 it seems, twelve thousand bhikkhus were living at Cittalapabbata and a like number at Tissa Mahavihara. In the two monasteries there was almsfood for three years; but rats ate it all in one night, leaving only the husks. The Order of Bhikkhus at Cittalapabbata, [thinking:] * There will be almsfood at Tissa Mahavihara; we will go and live there,' set out from the monastery. And the Order of Bhikkhus at Tissa Mahavihara, [thinking:] * There will be almsfood at Cittalapabbata; we will go and live there,' set out from the monastery. Both [parties] met at the edge of a deep glen (kandara).61 When they had questioned each other and learned that the almsfood was destroyed, [thinking:] 'What shall we do by going there ?' the twenty-four thousand bhikkhus went into the woods in the deep glen, and just when seated there they attained complete extinction by the nibbäna element without remainder of clinging. Afterwards, when the fear [i.e. the rebellion] was allayed, the Order of Bhikkhus, with Sakka the King of the Gods, collected the relics and made a shrine. 2221. And the robber, the Brahman Tissa, ruined the country. The Order met together and took counsel and sent eight elders to Sakka [to ask him] to keep off the robber. Sakka the King of the gods [said:] 4 Venerable sirs, a robber that has arisen [446] cannot be kept off. Let the Order cross the sea. I will guard the sea.' The Order from all the quarters went to Nägadipa and they had a great raft68 of three stories constructed at the port of Jambukola. One storey was under the water; in one the Order of Bhikkhus sat; in one they put the bowls and robes. Three elders, the Samyutta Reciter the Elder Cülasiva, the Elder Isidatta and the Elder Mahäsona were the leaders of that assembly. Two of those elders said to the Elder Mahäsona: * Friend Mahäsona, board the raft.' 'But you, venerable sirs ?' 'Friend , there is death on the water and there is death on dry land just the same. We shall not go. But it

194

The Dispeller of Delusion

depends on you that the tradition of the Dispensation continues in the future. Do you go, friend.' 'Since you are not going, venerable sirs, I shall not go.' And so saying up to the third time, and they being unable to make the elder go aboard, they turned back. 2222. Then the Elder Cülasiva said to the Elder Isidatta: 'Friend Isidatta, that the tradition of the Dispensation continues in the future depends on the Elder Mahäsona. Do not let him go from your hand.' 'But you, venerable sir ?' 'I shall pay homage at the Great Shrine/ And, having advised the two elders in this way, he wandered by stages and eventually arrived at the Great Monastery. 2223. At that time the Great Monastery was empty. Castor oil plants were growing on the shrine terrace. The shrine was surrounded by bushes and covered with moss. After paying homage at the Great Shrine as though showing humility to the living Buddha, the elder entered the hall on the west side and, looking around, he sat down [thinking:] 'The place where are deposited the bodily relics of such a one who reached the summit of gain and the summit of fame has become uncared for.' 2224. Then a deity who dwelt in a nearby tree, in the guise of a human traveller, took a tube of uncooked rice and a lump of sugar and, going to him, [asked:] 'Where are you going, venerable sir ?' 'I [am going] south, lay follower.' 'I, too, want to go there. Let us go together, venerable sir."I am weak. I shall not be able to go your pace. Do you go in front, lay follower.' 'I, too, shall go your pace,' and he took the Elder's bowl and robe. And when they had mounted on the embankment69 of the Tissa Reservoir {TissavapT), he brought out the bowl and prepared a drink and gave it to him. As soon as the Elder had drunk, he gained a measure of strength. Then the deity shortened the distance (lit. "earth") and, on arriving at an abandoned monastery near theriverVenu, he got ready a dwelling place for the Elder and gave it to him. [447] On the next day, as soon as the Elder had washed his mouth, he gave him rice gruel he had cooked. When he had drunk the rice gruel, he brought himricehe had cooked. The elder [said:] 'Keep it for yourself, lay follower.' And he covered his bowl with his hand. After saying: 'I am not going far,' the deity put the cooked rice into the elder's bowl; and when the elder had finished his meal, taking the bowl and robe and setting out on the road, he shortened the distance and led him to the neighbourhood of the Jajjara river. 'Venerable sir, this is the dwelling place of the people who eat leaves. Smoke is appearing. I shall go forward.' And having paid homage, he went to his own sphere. The elder lived in dependence on the leaf-eating people all through the time of trouble.

16. Classification of Knowledge

195

2225. The Elder Isidatta, too, wandering by stages, eventually arrived at the Ala country (Alajanapada). There, people were breaking open unripe madhuka fruits and, taking the kernels, they went [about] throwing away the skins. The elder said: * Friend Mahäsona, almsfood has appeared.' And fetching his bowl and robe, he put on the robe; and taking out his bowl, he waited. Young boys, seeing the elder waiting [and thinking:] 'What use will this be ?' wiped the sand off and put the madhuka fruit skins into his bowl and gave them to him. The elders ate. For as much as seven days there was only that food. 2226. Eventually they arrived at Coriyassara. People took white lotuses and went [about] throwing away the stalks. The elder said: 'Friend Mahäsona, almsfood has appeared/ And fetching his bowl and robe, he put on the robe; and taking out his bowl, he waited. Village girls cleaned the lotus stalks and they put them into his bowl and gave them. The elders ate them. For as much as seven days there was only that food. 2227. Eventually as they were wandering they arrived at one of the village gates in the dwelling place of the leaf-eating people. There, when the parents of a [certain] girl were going to the forest, they said: 'If any noble monk (ayya) comes, do not let him go anywhere [else], tell him the venerable*s dwelling place, my dear/ When she saw the elders, she took their bowls and made them sit down. There was no kind of grain in the house, but taking a chopping knife she pounded up gufijä70 and cinnamon {coca) bark together with gwtfya-creeper leaves and, making it into three lumps, she put one into the Elder Isidatta's bowl and one into the Elder Mahäsona's bowl; she was stretching out her hand to put the extra lump into the Elder Isidatta's bowl, but her hand moved and put it into the Elder Mahäsona's bowl. [448] The Elder Isidatta said: 'The kamma that gives lumps of gufijä and cinnamon as its result during the Brahman Tissa troubles — how great a result will it give when there is success of place and time !' After eating these, they went to the dwelling place. And she told her parents when they came back from the forest: 'Two elders came; I told them about the dwelling place.' 2228. They both went to the elders, and after paying homage to them [they said:] 'Venerable sirs, with what we get we will look after you; dwell here only.' And they obtained their consent. And the elders lived in dependence on them during the whole time of the troubles. 2229. When the robber Brahman Tissa was dead, King Pitu71 had the umbrella [of his royal authority] raised. 2230. Hearing that the troubles were over and the countryside full, the Order of Bhikkhus from across the sea disembarked from a ship at the port of Mahätittha. After asking: 'Where is the Elder Mahäsona liv-

196

The Dispeller of Delusion

ing ?' they went to the elder. The elder, surrounded by five hundred bhikkhus, arrived at the Mandaläräma monastery in Kälaka-gäma.72 2231. At that time seven hundred families were living at Kälaka-gäma. Deities wandered in the night and told people: 'The Elder Mahäsona, surrounded by five hundred bhikkhus, has arrived at the Mandaläräma monastery. Let each give almsfood worth a kahäpana with cloth of nine hands.' Next day the elders went into Kälaka-gäma for alms. People seated them and gave them rice-gruel. The Elder Tissabhüti, dweller at the Mandaläräma, took his seat as senior elder of the order. A prominent lay devotee paid homage to him and asked: Venerable sir, which is the elder named Mahäsona ?' At that time the elder, being new [in the order], was seated at the end. The elder held out his hand and said: 'He is called Mahäsona, lay devotee.' 2232. The lay devotee paid homage to him and took his bowl. The elder did not give it.73 The Elder Tissabhüti said: 'Friend Sona, just as you do not know, we too likewise do not know. The deities make merit to ripen for those who are endowed with it. Give your bowl and help your companions in the life of purity.' The elder gave his bowl. The prominent lay devotee took the bowl and he went and filled it with the almsfood worth a kahäpana and, making the cloth of nine hands into a parcel,74 he brought it and placed it in the elder's hand. And another lay devotee, [saying:] 'For the elder'75 [and so on, in all] they gave to the elder alone seven hundred lumps of food. The elder [449] shared it with the Order of Bhikkhus. 2233. Eventually he arrived at the Great Monastery. After washing his mouth, he paid homage at the Great Wisdom Tree and at the Great Shrine. While waiting at the Thüpäräma, he put on his robe and, surrounded by the Order of Bhikkhus, he entered the city by the eastern gate. From the gate as far as the Valanjanaka-hall in that distance, he received almsfood worth sixty kahäpanas. But from then on there was no measure to the honour [he received]. 2234. Thus in an unsuccessful time, even the skin of madhuka fruits and white lotus stalks were hard to get. But in a successful time such great gain as this accrued. 2235. And it was at the time when the Elder Vattabbaka Nigrodha was a novice that the Brahman Tissa troubles sprang up. 2236. The novice and his preceptor did not go across the sea. They were on their way to the borderland, thinking to dwell in dependence on the leaf-eating people. The novice had been seven days without food when he saw in a village square some fruit on a palmyra tree. He said to his preceptor: 'Venerable sir, wait a little; I shall get the palmyra fruit down.' 'You are weak, novice; do not climb up.' 'I shall climb up»

16. Classification of Knowledge

197

venerable sir.' And taking a small hatchet, he climbed up the palmyra and began to cut off the palmyra cluster. The blade of the hatchet came off and fell to the ground. The elder thought: 'He only climbed up with difficulty. What will he do now ?' The novice split up a palmyra leaf and, tying the handle of the hatchet with it, bit by bit he lowered it to the ground; and he said: 'Venerable sir, it would be good if you were to put the blade of the hatchet back into this.' [Thinking:] 'The novice is ingenious (upäyasampanna),' he put the blade of the hatchet [back into the handle] and gave it [back]. [The novice] pulled up the hatchet and cut down the palmyra fruits. After getting him to drop the hatchet, the elder cut up a fallen fruit and said to him: 'Novice, you are weak. Eat this first.' 'I shall not eat what is not also eaten by you, venerable sir/ and taking the palmyra fruits he cut them up, and he took out the bowl and put the palmyra flesh into it and gave it to the elder, and himself ate. 2237. They lived there as long as the palmyra fruits lasted. When the fruits were finished, they eventually entered an abandoned monastery in the dwelling place of the leaf-eating people. The novice prepared a dwelling place for the elder. After instructing the novice, the elder went into his dwelling. 2238. The novice thought: 'There is no measure of persons perishing in a hopeless situation.76 [450] I shall wait upon the Buddhas,' and he went to the shrine terrace and started weeding it. Since he had been seven days without food, he fell down trembling and he pulled up the grass even while lying down. And some people who had been wandering in the forest and had got honey and collected wood and herb leaves, [wondering] by the sign of the moving grass whether it was a deer, went up to the novice and asked him: 'What are you doing, novice ?' 'I am taking up the tangle of grass, lay devotees.' 'Is there anyone else, venerable sir V 'Yes, lay devotees, my preceptor is inside the room.' Saying: 'Give this to the Mahäthera and eat, venerable sir,' they gave honey to the novice and, telling him where they lived themselves, they said: 'We shall break branches as we go. By that sign come with the elder, noble sir,' and they went away. 2239. The novice took the honey and went to the elder and, standing outside, he said: 'I pay homage, venerable sir.' Thinking: 'The novice will have come because he is consumed with hunger,' the elder kept silent. [The novice] said again: 'I pay homage, venerable sir.' 'Why, novice, do you not let weak bhikkhus lie in peace ?' 'It is fitting to open the door, venerable sir.' The elder got up and opened the door. 'Have you got something, novice ?' 'It is fitting to eat the honey people have given, venerable sin' 'Novice, to eat it like that will upset us. Let us take it made into a drink.' The novice made it into a drink and

198

The Dispeller of Delusion

gave it. Then the elder said to him: 'Novice, did you ask for the people's dwelling place ?' 'They told me themselves, venerable sir/ 'Novice, it will upset us to go in the morning. Let us go today.' And getting him to take his bowl and robe, he went out. They went and lay down not far from the people's dwelling place. In the night the novice thought: 'Since the time I went forth I have never let the sun rise on me inside a village/ He took his bowl and went to the forest to let the sun rise on him. Not seeing the novice in the place where he had been lying, the Mahäthera thought: 'He will have been taken by man-eaters.' 2240. When the novice had let the sun rise on him in the forest, he came back with water in his bowl and with tooth sticks. 'Novice,* where have you been ? Aged bhikkhus have been made to think about you. You must take a punishment.' 'I will take it, venerable sir.' When the elder had washed his mouth he put on his robe, and both [451] went to the people's dwelling place. The people gave tubers, roots, fruits and leaves for their own use. The elders ate and went back to the monastery. The novice brought water and said: 'I wash your feet, venerable sir.' 'Novice, where did you go in the night ? You made us think about you.' * Venerable sir, I have never before let the sun rise on me inside a village; I went to let the sun rise on me in the forest.' 'Novice, it is not for you that the punishment is proper; it is proper only for me,' he said. He went on living in that same place. 2241. He gave a sign to the novice: 'We are old; it is not possible to know what will happen. Do you look after yourself.' The elder, it seems, was a Non-Returner. Later on, man-eaters ate him. The novice looked after himself. When the troubles were over, he took a preceptor in a similar place and became admitted. Learning the Buddha's word and becoming proficient in the Tipitaka, he came to be known as the Elder Vattabbaka-Nigrodha. 2242. King Pifii took over the realm. Bhikkhus as they came back from across the sea asked: 'Where is the Elder Vattabbaka-Nigrodha ?' and they went to him. A large order of bhikkhus surrounded the elder. Surrounded by a large order of bhikkhus, he eventually arrived at the Great Monastery, and after paying homage at the Great Wisdom Tree and the Great Shrine and the Thüpäräma, he entered the city. As he was entering, from the south gate the triple robe was given to him in nine places. From the time he entered inside the city, great honour was accorded to him. 2243. Thus in an unsuccessful time even palmyra fruits and tubers, roots and leaves were hard to get. But in a successful time such great gain as this accrued. He understands that while unable to give result

16. Classification of Knowledge

199

owing to being inhibited by an unsuccessful time in this way, they [i.e. deeds] ripen when a successful time is arrived at. 2244. (16) Another has many good deeds. Those would not ripen for him while he remained with unsuccessful means. But by means of a single good deed he remains with the right means, he fulfils the three kinds of good conduct; he keeps the five precepts, the ten precepts. For one reborn in a successful time, kings, thinking: 'They are fit for him,' send kings' daughters adorned with every kind of ornament. Thinking: 'They are fit for him,' they send him various special gifts such as chariots, beasts of burden, gems, gold, silver and so on. [452] And when he goes forth, he becomes greatly famous and mighty. 2245. Here is this story. It seems that King Kütakanna had a great admiration for the elder Cülasudhamma who dwelt at Girigämakanna. While he was dwelling at Uppalaväpi, he had the elder summoned. When the elder came, he lived in the Mäläräma monastery. The king asked the elder's mother: 'What does the elder like ?' 'Radish (kanda), your Majesty/ The king had radishes taken and went to the monastery, and when he gave them to the elder he was unable to observe his face. When he had come out, he asked the queen outside in the cell: 'WTiat is the elder like ?' 'You, being a man, are unable to observe; how shall I be able ? I do not know what he is like.' The king said: 'In my kingdom I am not able to observe the son of a tax-gatherer; great indeed is the Buddha's dispensation,' and he clapped his hands. 2246. And he greatly admired the Elder Tipitaka Cülanäga. A boil appeared on the elder's finger. The king went to the monastery to see the elder. With great affection he took the finger in his mouth. The boil burst inside his mouth. He did not spit out the pus and blood but out of love for the elder he swallowed it as though it were ambrosia. 2247. That same elder at another time lay on his deathbed. The king went and he put the chamber pot (?) 77 on his head and wandered about lamenting: 'The axle is breaking, the axle is breaking in the chariot of the Law !' 2248. The ruler of the earth, wandering about, having put on his head the chamber pot, is the destiny of whom ? It is the destiny of one with right means. He understands that while unable to give result owing to being inhibited by unsuccessful means in this way, they ripen when a successful means is arrived at. In this way the good deeds which, being inhibited by the four kinds of failure, do not ripen, do so on arrival at the four kinds of success. 2249. Herein, this is a simile which brings out the true meaning. It seems that a king became somewhat angered with a minister and had him chained in prison. His relatives knew the king was angry and said

200

The Dispeller of Delusion

nothing. When the sharpness of his anger was abated, they made known to the king the innocence of the minister. The king freed him and restored him to his original post. Then there was no end to the gifts which came to him from the various quarters. People could not cope with them. 2250. [453] Herein, like the time of his being chained in prison when the king was somewhat angered is the time of the ordinary man's being reborn in hell. Then like the time of his being restored to his original post after the king has been made to perceive by the relatives is the time when he is reborn in heaven. Like the being unable to cope with the gifts should be understood the good deeds bringing him to nibbäna on arrival at the four kinds of success by leading him on from happy station to happy station, from the divine world to the human world and from the human world to the divine world by giving happy result for even a hundred thousand aeons. Patisambhidä Method 2251. Having firstly illustrated the second power thus in accordance with the Pali, it should be further illustrated in accordance with the Patisambhidä method beginning: "There has been kamma, there has been kamma result" (Ps ii 78). 2252. Herein, (1) "there has been kamma" means "there has been, in the past only, kamma which was accumulated in the past"; but "there has been kamma-result" is said with reference to that by means of which result was given in the past. (2) But when many kammas to be experienced here and now (ditthadhammavedaniya) and so on have been accumulated, one kamma to be experienced here and now gives result; the rest are without result. One kamma to be experienced on rebirth (upapajjavedaniya) accomplishes the rebirth-linking; the rest are without result. One is reborn in hell through one kamma of immediate effect (anantariya); the rest are without result. Among the eight attainments, one causes rebirth in the Brahma world; the rest are without result. It is with reference to this that "there has not been kamma-result" is said. But also when one, after performing much profitable and unprofitable kamma, attains Arahatship thanks to a good friend, of that kamma it is said: "There has not been kamma-result". 2253. (3) Of that which was accumulated in the past and gives result now, it is said: "There has been kamma, there is kamma-result". (4) Of that which becomes without result in the way aforesaid, it is said: "There has been kamma, there is not kamma-result." (5) Of that which was accumulated in the past and will give result in the future, it is said:

16. Classification of Knowledge

201

"There has been kamma, there will be kamma-result". (6) Of that which will become without result in the way aforesaid, it is said: "There has been kamma, there will not be kamma-result". 2254. (7) Of that which is accumulated now and gives result now too, it is said: "There is kamma, there is kamma-result". (8) Of that which becomes without result in the way aforesaid, it is said: "There is kamma, there is no kamma-result". (9) Of that which is accumulated now and will give result in the future, it is said: "There is kamma, there will be kamma-result". (10) Of that [454] which will become without result in the way aforesaid, it is said: "There is kamma, there will not be kamma-result". (11) Of that which, being itself future, wil become future result, it is said: "There will be kamma, there will be kammaresult". (12) Of that which will be in the future and will become without result in the way aforesaid, it is said: "There will be kamma, there will not be kamma-result". 2255. Idam tathagatassa <339.5> ("this is the Tathagata's"): this Tathagata's knowledge consisting of knowing in all these ways the kamma interval and the kamma-result interval should be understood as the second power in the sense of non-wavering.78 Tathagata Powers — 3 2256. In the description of the third power, either maggo <339.10> ("path") or patipadä ("way") is a name for kamma itself. 2257. As regards nirayagämini ("leads to hell") and so on, hell (niraya) is in the sense of being without satisfaction (nirassäda) and in the sense of being without delight (nirati). 2258. "Animals" (tiracchäna) are those which proceed (aflcita)19 horizontally (tiriyam) instead of going upright. Animals (tiracchäna) themselves are the animal kind of generation (tiracchänayoni). 2259. "Ghosts" (petti) is because of being gone past (petatä); through the state of having gone back from here (ito paccägatabhävena) is the meaning. Ghosts themselves are the ghost realm (pettivisaya). 2260. "Humans" (manussa) are because of prominence (ussannatä) of the mind (m ana)*0 Humans themselves are the human world (manussaloka). 2261. "Deities" (deva) sport with (dibbanti) the five cords of sense desire or they shine (dibbanti) through great success of place.81 Deities themselves are the world of deities. 2262. Craving is called longing (väna); "there is not that here" is nibbäna.

202

The Dispeller of Delusion

2263. "It goes to hell" is nirayagaml [masculine] ("leading to heir). This is said with reference to the path82 (maggo). But the way (patipada) is called nirayagämini [feminine] ("leading to heir). So with the remaining expressions. 2264. And all of this way the Tathagata knows. How ? When the inhabitants of a whole village are together depriving a pig or a deer of life, the volition of all has only another's life faculty as its object. Yet that kamma is diverse even at the moment of their accumulating it. For amongst them, one acts purposefully with care; another acts because he is pressed to do so by others thus: 'Come, you do it too;' another goes about without preventing it as though of the same desire. Amongst these, one is reborn in hell by that same kamma, another in the animal kind of generation, another in the ghost realm. At the very moment of [kamma-] accumulation, the Tathagata understands that: * Because of being accumulated in this manner, this one will be reborn in hell, [455] this one in the animal kind of generation, this one in the ghost realm.' And as to one who is being reborn in hell, he understands that: 'This one will be reborn in the eight great hells; this one will be reborn in the sixteen prominent hells.'83And as to one who is being reborn in the animal kind of generation, he understands that: 'This one will become a footless one, this one a biped, this one a quadruped, this one a manyfooted one.' And as to one who is being reborn in the ghost realm, he understands that: 'This one will become one consumed with craving, this one full of hunger and thirst, this one dependent on others' gifts.' 2265. And amongst these kinds of kamma, he understands that: 'This kamma will not be able to bring about rebirth-linking; being weak, it will ripen in the [personal]84 substratum when rebirth-linking has been furnished [by another kamma].' 85 2266. Likewise, when the inhabitants of a whole village give almsfood together, the volition of all has only almsfood as object. Yet that kamma is diverse in the aforesaid way even at the moment of their accumulating it. Some among them will be reborn into the divine world, some into the human world. At the very moment of accumulation, the Tathagata understands that: 'Because of being accumulated in this manner, this one will be reborn in the human world, this one in the divine world.' And as to one who is being reborn into the divine world, he understands that: 'This one will be reborn among the Paranimmitavasavatti deities, this one among the Nimmänarati deities, this one among the Tusita deities, this one among the Yäma deities, this one among the Tävatimsa deities, this one among the Cätumahäräjika deities, this one among the Earth deities. But this one will be reborn as a supreme divine king; this one will be reborn as his

16. Classification of Knowledge

203

retainer occupying second or third place.' 86 And for those being reborn among humans, he understands: 'This one will be reborn in a Khattiya family, this one in a Brahman family, this one in a Vessa family, this one in a Sudda family. But this one will be reborn a king among men; this one will be reborn as his retainer occupying second or third place.' 2267. And amongst these kinds of kamma, he understands that: 'This kamma will not be able to bring about rebirth-linking; being weak, it will ripen in the substratum when rebirth-linking has been furnished.' 2268. Likewise, amongst those who established insight too, he understands that: 'According to the manner in which insight [meditation] is undertaken, this one will attain Arahatship, this one will be unable to attain Arahatship, this one will become only a NonReturner, this one only a Once Returner, this one only a Stream Enterer; this one will not be able to realize path or fruition, he will be established only in the insight which has the [three] characteristics [of existence] as object; this one only in the laying hold of conditions; [456] this one only in the laying hold of mentality-materiality, this one only in the laying hold of the immaterial, this one only in the laying hold of the material, this one will only define the mere great primaries; this one will not be able to discern anything.' 2269. And amongst those doing preliminary work on kasinas, he understands that: 'For that one it will be merely preliminary work, he will not be able to arouse the sign. But this one will be able to arouse the sign, but he will not be able to reach absorption; this one, by reaching absorption, making the jhäna the basis [for insight] and establishing insight, will attain Arahatship. Tathagata Powers — 4 2270. In the description of the fourth power, khandhanänattam <339.22> ("difference of the aggregates") means that he understands the different aspects of the five thus: 'This is called the materiality aggregate ... this is called the consciousness aggregate.' And as regards these, he understands the difference of each aggregate thus: 'The materiality aggregate in one way ... the materiality agregate in eleven ways. The feeling aggregate in one way ... the feeling aggregate in many ways. The perception aggregate in one way ... the formation aggregate in one way ... the consciousness aggregate in one way ... the consciousness aggregate in many ways' (see Vbh 12-61 and above, §§160 ff.). 2271. Äyatananänattam <339.23> ("difference of the bases"): he understands the difference of the bases thus: 'This is called eye base ...

204

The Dispeller of Delusion

this is called the mental datum base. Herein, ten bases belong to the sense sphere; two are of the four planes.' 2272. Dhätunänattam <339.22> {"difference of the elements"): he understands the difference of the elements thus: 'This is called the eye element ... this is called the mind-consciousness element. Herein, sixteen elements belong to the sense sphere; two are of the four planes.' 2273. Again, anekadhätunänädhätulokam <339.23> {"the world of many elements and different elements"): this is included in order to show that the Tathagata understands not only the difference of the world of formations that is grasped at [by kamma] {upädinnaka) but also that he understands the difference of the world of formations that is not grasped at {anupädinnaka). For the Paccekabuddhas and the chief disciples know only in part {ekadesato) the difference of the world of formations that is grasped at, not comprehensively {nippadesato); but they do not know the difference of the world of formations that is not grasped at. But an Omniscient Buddha understands the difference of the world of formations that is not grasped at thus: 'When this element is prominent, this tree's trunk is white, this one's is black, this one's is smooth, this one has thick bark, this one has thin bark; when this element is prominent, this tree's leaf is such and such as to colour, shape, etc. But [457] owing to the prominence of this element, this tree's flower is blue, yellow, red, white, scented, bad-smelling. When this element is prominent, its fruit is small, large, long, round, wellshaped, ill-shaped, smooth, rough, scented, bad-smelling, sweet, bitter, sour, sharp, acid.87 When this element is prominent, this tree's thorn is sharp, blunt,88 straight, crooked, coppery,89 black, white.' For this is a Power of the Omniscient Buddhas, not of others. Tathagata Powers — 5 2274. In the description of the fifth power, hinädhimuttikä <339.30> {"of inferior resolve") means of inferior inclinations. Panitädhimuttikä {"of superior resolve") means of good inclinations. Sevanti <339.32> {"cultivate"): support, stick to. Bhajanti {"frequent"): approach. Payirupäsanti {"keep company with"): approach again and again. For if the teacher and preceptor are not virtuous in conduct and their co-residents are virtuous in conduct, they do not approach their own teacher and preceptor; they approach only bhikkhus who are like themselves. If the teachers and preceptor are suitable bhikkhus and the others unsuitable, they also do not approach the teacher and preceptor; they approach only those of inferior

16. Classification of Knowledge

205

resolution like themselves. But in order to show that such approaching is not only in the present but also in the past and future, he said atltam pi addhänam <339.34> ("in the past") and so on. That is clear in meaning. 2275. But what is it that assures this cultivation of the unvirtuous by the unvirtuous, this cultivation of the virtuous by the virtuous, this cultivation of the stupid by the stupid, this cultivation of the wise by the wise ? It is the element of inclination that assures it. 2276. Many bhikkhus, it seems, were wandering in a village on almsround in groups. People brought cooked rice and filled their bowls, saying: 'Use it according as you have grouped yourselves by similarity;' they gave it and took their leave. The bhikkhus said [amongst themselves90:] 'Friends, people have engaged in work according to the Dhätu Samyutta' (see S xiv). 2277. Also the Elder Tipitaka-Cüla-Abhaya was going with five hundred bhikkhus to pay homage at the shrine in Nägadipa when he was invited by people in a certain village. With the elder there was an uncongenial bhikkhu. In the local monastery also there was an uncongenial bhikkhu. While the two Orders of Bhikkhus [458] were visiting the village, both those persons, although the resident had never before been seen by the visitor nor the visitor by the resident, nevertheless got talking together in one corner and laughed and laughed. When the elder saw them he said: 'The Dhätu Samyutta was expounded by the Fully Enlightened One who knew/ 2278. Having said thus that it is the element of inclination that assures it, this meaning should be illustrated by means of the Dhätu Samyutta. The Blessed One was lying on a sickbed on the Vulture-Peak Hill, there being round him for protection Säriputta, Moggalläna and so on, each walking up and down together with his following; and observing [this] he addressed the bhikkhus: 'Do you see, bhikkhus, Säriputta walking up and down with many bhikkhus ?' 'Yes, venerable sir.' 'All those bhikkhus are of great understanding' (S ii 155); thus all should be elaborated. Tathagata Powers — 6 2279. In the description of the sixth power, as to äsayam <340.7> ("habitat"): where beings inhabit (äsayanti), dwell, that dwelling place of theirs is either wrong view or correct knowledge. Anusayam ("inherent tendency"): defilement which is inherent because unabandoned. Caritam <340.8> ^conduct"): the profitable and unprofitable formed by the body and so on. Adhimuttim ("resolve"):

206

The Dispeller of Delusion

inclination. As regards apparajakkhe ("with little dust on their eyes") and so on, "they have little, not much of the dust of greed, hate and delusion in the eye consisting of understanding" is "with little dust on their eyes"; owing to the muchness of that same [dust], one is "with much dust on his eyes" (mahärajakkha). 2280 By both of these he shows beings with slight defilement and with much defilement. Those whose faculties of faith, etc. are keen are "keen facultied" (tikkhindriya); and those in whom they are dull are "dull facultied" (mudindriyd). Those whose parts consisting of "habitat" and so on are good "have good qualities" (sväkära); the opposite kind "have bad qualities" (dväkära). Those who discern a reason explained and can easily be made to recognize are "of easy recognition" (suvififiäpaya); the opposite kind are "of difficult recognition" (duvihMpayd). Those who are suitable for the penetration of the Noble Path and have the potentiality (upanissayd) for it are "able" (bhabba); the opposite kinds are "unable". 2281. After thus setting forth the schedule of the sixth power, he now said katamo ca sattänam äsayo ? <340.12> ("which is the habitat of beings ?") and so on, classifying it in order of succession. [459] Herein, the meaning of sassato loko <340.13> ("the world is eternal") and so on has been stated above in the commentary to the Description Section (Asl 370 f.). Iti bhavaditthisannissitä vä ti <340.18> ("so they are either dependent on the view of existence"): they are either dependent thus on the eternity view; for it is the eternity view which is here "the view of existence" (bhavaditthi), and it is the annihilation view that is called "the view of non-existence" (vibhavaditthi). For owing to the fact that all [wrong] views are included by the eternity and annihilation views [together], all these beings who hold [wrong] views are dependent on those two kinds of [wrong] view. This also is said: 'This world, Kaccäyana, mostly depends on two things, on existence and non-existence' (S ii 17); and here, "existence" (atthita) is eternity, "non-existence" is annihilation (uccheda). This firstly is the habitat of beings that are ordinary men dependent on the process. 2282. Now in order to show the habitat of pure beings who are based on the standstill (vivattasannissita), ete vä pana ubho anto anupagamma <340.19> ("but without having recourse to either of these extremes") is said. Herein, ete vä pana ("but ... these") = ete yeva. Ubho anto <340.20> ("either of [these] extremes"): the two extremes called eternity and annihilation. Anupagamma ("without having recourse to"): without adhering to. Idappaccayatä-paticcasamuppannesu dhammesu ("with specific conditionally and dependency originated states") = idappaccayatäya c'eva paticca-

16. Classification of Knowledge

207

samuppannadhammesu ca. Anulomikä khanti <340.21> ("acceptance in conformity") is insight knowledge. Yathäbhütam vä flänam <340.22> {"correct knowledge") is path knowledge. 2283. This is what is said: "The insight into dependent origination and into dependently originated states which is obtained without having recourse to either of the extremes of eternity or annihilation, and the path knowledge which is superior to that — this is the habitat of beings; and this is the habitat, this is the dwelling place of all beings, both those based on the process and those based on the standstill". This is the agreed commentary of the teachers. 2284. But a disputatious speaker91 said: 'The path goes destroying dwelling (väsa), [but] you say that the path is a dwelling.' He should be asked: 'Are you a preacher of the Noble Dwellings (ariyaväsa) or not ?' If he says: 'I am not,' he should be told: 'It is because you are not that you do not know.' If he says: 'I am a preacher [of it],' he should be told: 'Quote a sutta.' If he quotes, it is good. If he does not quote it, one should quote it oneself: 'Ten, bhikkhus, are these kinds of Noble Dwelling (ariyaväsa) in which the Noble Ones have dwelt or dwell or shall dwell' (A v 29; cf. D iii 269-71). For this sutta illustrates the state of the path as dwelling, [460] therefore this is properly stated. 2285. But when the Blessed One knows the habitat of beings, he knows it even at the moment of the non-occurrence of their [wrong] views and of their insight and path knowledge. For this is said: "He knows of one who cultivates the sense desires: 'This person gives weight to the sense desires, has sense desires as his habitat, is resolved upon the sense desires.' He knows of one who cultivates sense desires: 'This person gives weight to renunciation, has renunciation as his habitat, is resolved upon renunciation.' He knows of one cultivating renunciation ... ill will ... non-ill will ... stiffness and torpor ... he knows of one who cultivates perception of light: 'This person gives weight to stiffness and torpor, has stiffness and torpor as his habitat, is resolved upon stiffness and torpor'" 92 (Ps i 123). 2286. In the description of the inherent tendencies (anusayd), "it is greed for sense desire (kämaräga) and it is inherent tendency in the sense of being unabandoned", thus it is the inherent tendency of greed for sense desire. So with the remaining terms. Yam loke piyarüpam <340.26> ("what is dear in the world") is what is classed as dear in this world. Sätarüpam ("agreeable") is what is classed as agreeable. [This signifies] a desirable object as proximate cause of enjoyment. Ettha sattänam rägänusayo anuseti ("here inheres the beings' inherent tendency to greed'): in that desirable object, beings' inherent tendency to greed in the sense of its being unabandoned inheres. Just as there is

208

The Dispeller of Delusion

water below and above and on all sides of one who is immersed in water, so indeed in a desirable object the arising of greed is completely habitual for beings, and likewise in an undesirable object the arising of annoyance (patigha). Iti imesu dvisu dhammesu <340.28> ("so in these two states"): thus in these states which are possessed [respectively] of greed for sense desire (kämaräga) and annoyance and have a desirable and undesirable object. Avijjänupatitä <340.29> ("ignorance lurks"): being connected with greed for sense desire and annoyance, ignorance lurks by means of the making an object. Tadekattho ("along with that"): along with (ekattha) through being along with that [ignorance], Mäno ca ditthi ca vicikicchä ca* ("pride and [wrong] view and uncertainty"): the nine kinds of pride (see Vbh 389), the 62 kinds of [wrong] view and the eight-based uncertainty (see Vbh 364). But here the inherent tendency to greed for existence is included by the inherent tendency to greed for sense desire, it should be understood. 2287. In the description of carita <340.31> ("conduct"), the thirteen volitions are the puflrläbhisankhäro <340.32> ("formation of merit"), the twelve are the apufiftäbhisankhäro ("formation of demerit"), the four are the änefijäbhisankhäro ("formation of the imperturbable") (see above, §§645 ff.). Herein, that of the sense sphere is parittabhümako ("has a limited plane"); the others are mahäbhümako ("have a large plane"). [461] Or alternatively it should be understood that, among the three, any that has little result has a limited plane; and any that has much result has a large plane. 2288. The description of adhimutti <340.35> ("resolve") has been made clear above (§§2274 ff.). But why is this "resolve" included again although it has already been stated above ? It was included above as showing a power separately. Here it is for the purpose of showing the keenness and dullness of beings' faculties. 2289. In the description of mahärajakkha <341.10> ("with much dust in their eyes"), ussadagatäni <341.14> ("become prominent") [means] become abundant. The description is given out of its order [in the schedule] according to the order of abandoning. 2290. Anussadagatäni <341.17> ("not become prominent"): not become abundant. 2291. In the description of tikkhindriya <341.24> ("keenfacultied") and mudindriya <341.19> ("dull facultied") it is the faculties as decisive support that are expounded. But the reason why these are given here in the description out of order should be understood as aforesaid. Likewise in the description of dväkärä <341.27> ("have bad qualities") and so on. Päpäsayä <341.28> ("have evil habitats"): have

16. Classification of Knowledge

209

unprofitable habitats. Päpacaritä ("have evil conduct91): fulfillers of the formation of demerit. Päpädhimuttikä ("have evil resolves"): delighters in personality (sakkäya) and with inclination towards the process [of existence]. 2292. In the description of sväkärä <3441.31> ("have good qualities"), because there is no inherent tendency called "good", therefore "of good inherent tendency" (kalyänänusaya) is not said. The rest should be understood in the opposite way to that already stated. 2293. In the description of bhabba <342.1> ("able") and abhabba <341.37> ("unable"), kammavaranena <341.38> ("with the obstruction of kamma") means with the five kinds of kamma with immediate effect. Kilesävaranena ("with the obstruction of defilement"): with assured wrong view. Vipäkävaranena <341.39> ("with the obstruction of [kamma-] result"): with root-causeless rebirth-linking. But because there is no penetration of the Noble Path for those with a two-rooted rebirth-linking, therefore those with tworooted rebirth-linking should also be understood as "with the obstruction of [kamma-] result". 2294. Asaddha ("without faith"): devoid of faith in the Buddha and so on. Acchandikä ("without zeal"): devoid of profitable zeal as desireto-act. The people of Uttarakuru have entered into a place without zeal. Duppaüfiä <341.40> ("without understanding"): devoid of lifecontinuum understanding. But even when life-continuum understanding is complete (paripunna), if [that] life continuum [of a person] is not the basis for the supramundane, such a person too is called "without understanding". Abhabbä niyämam okkamitum kusalesu dhammesu sammattam ("unable to enter upon the certainty in profitable states which is rightness"): unable to enter upon the path called the certainty ofrightnessin profitable things. 2295. Na kammavaranena <342.2> ("without the obstruction of kamma") and so on, should be understood in the opposite sense. 2296. This is the classification of two kinds of knowledge, namely, knowledge of the disposition of faculties (indriyaparopariyattaMna) [462] and of knowledge of habitat and inherent tendency (äsayänusayaüäna). For here the knowledge of the disposition of faculties is classified by means of the knowledge of habitat and inherent tendency. So the two kinds of knowledge together become one kind of power knowledge.

210

The Dispeller of Delusion

Tathagata Powers — 7 2297. In the description of the seventh power, "he practises jhäna" (Jhäyati) is jhäyi <342.12> Ca practitioner of jhäna"). Cattäro jhäyi Cf our kinds of practitioner of jhäna"): it is four kinds of people who are called "practitioners of jhäna" (jhäyino). Herein, in the first tetrad, firstly, the first being an obtainer of attainment, perceives that he is not 93 an obtainer, it being the meditation subject [he perceives it] as not94 the meditation subject; this should be understood as one who is an obtainer of an unfamiliar jhäna. The second being a non-obtainer of the attainment perceives that he is an obtainer, it not being the meditation subject [he perceives it] as the meditation subject; this is called as practitioner of sleep as jhäna: having gone to sleep he imagines thus when he wakes up. The third being an obtainer of the attainment perceives that he is an obtainer of the attainment; it being the meditation subject, he perceives it as the meditation subject; this should be understood as an obtainer of familiar jhäna. The fourth being a nonobtainer perceives that he is a non-obtainer, it not being the meditation subject [he perceives it] as not the meditation subject. Thus here two kinds of people who are not practitioners of jhäna have been included among the practitioners of jhäna and called "practitioners of jhäna". 2298. In the second tetrad, one who suppresses states obstructive to concentration with prompting and with effort is called dandham samäpajjati <342.18> Cone who attains slowly"); one who, having remained there during one or two turns of consciousness, quickly emerges, is called khippam vutthäti <342.19> Cone who swiftly emerges"). But one who easily purifies states obstructive to concentration is called khippam samäpajjati Cone who attains swiftly"). One who emerges when the time has gone by instead of emerging at the time decided upon is called dandham vutthäti <342.20> Cone who emerges slowly"). The other two should be understood in this same way. And these four kinds of people are obtainers of attainment only. 2299. In the third tetrad, one who is clever at defining and delimiting thus: 'This jhäna is five-factored, this is four-factored' is called samädhismim samädhikusalo <342.23> ("skilled in concentration as regards concentration").95 But one who is not skilled in suppressing the hindrances and putting the mind into the mind's casket96 is called na samädhismim samäpattikusalo <342.24> {"not skilled in attainment as regards concentration"). The other three should be understood in this same way. And these four are obtainers of attainment only.

16. Classification of Knowledge

211

2300. Now he said cattäri jhänäni <342.30> {'four jhänas") and so on in order to show the jhänas on which these practitioners of jhäna depend. Herein, the four [463] jhänas and three liberations (vimokkha) have been made clear above in the commentary on the Dhammasahgaha (Asl §§162 ff. and 190 ff.). The meaning of "liberation" amongst the rest [of the terms] should be understood according to the way explained there. Furthermore, here, because of liberation from opposing states successively at each moment of absorption and because of being intent (adhimuccanato) on the object, seven are called "liberation" (yimokkhä). But the eighth, because of the liberation from all perception and feeling, is called the liberation of disappearance (apagamavimokkha). 2301. As regards the kinds of concentration (samädhi) <343.7>, it is concentration of the first jhäna in the tetrad and pentad methods that is called "accompanied by applied thought and accompanied by sustained thought". It is concentration of the second jhäna in the pentad method that is called "concentration without applied thought and with sustained thought only". It is the concentration in the three higher jhänas in the tetrad and pentad methods that is called "concentration without applied thought and without sustained thought". 2302. As regards the attainments (samäpatti) <343.10>, eight attainments successively are called "attainment" (samäpatti) and also concentration (samädhi). Why ? Because of the presence 97 of onepointedness of mind. Because of the absence of that in the attainment of cessation, it is not called concentration. 2303. H ä n a b h ä g i y a d h a m m o <343.16> ("state partaking of diminution") is the reaching for sense desire, etc. of the perception and bringing to mind of one who has emerged from unfamiliar first jhäna, etc. 2304. Visesabhägiyadhammo <343.17> ("state partaking of distinction") is the reaching for the second jhäna, etc. of the perception and bringing to mind of one who has emerged from familiar first jhäna, etc. 2305. Vodänam pi vutthänam <343.18> ("purification and emerging"): by this familiar purification is expounded as emerging; for each lower familiar jhäna is the proximate cause for each upper one — that is why "purification and emerging" is said. 2306. Tamhä tamhä samädhimhä vutthänam pi vutthänan ti <343.19> ("the emerging from this or that concentration is emerging"): by this it is life-continuum emerging that is expounded; for the emerging from all jhänas is through the life continuum. But the

212

The Dispeller of Delusion

emergence from cessation is through fruition attainment. This is called the emerging which is not included in the Pali. Tathagata Powers — 8 2307. In the description of the eighth power, [the meaning of] anekavihitam pubbe-niväsam <343.26> ("manifold former lives") and so on is all given in detail in the Visuddhimagga. Tathagata Powers — 9 2308. [464] In the description of the ninth power, also [the meaning of] dibbacakkhunä <344.3> ("with the divine eye") and so on is all given in detail there too. Tathagata Powers — 10 2309. In the description of the tenth power, cetovimuttim <344.23> ("mind deliverance") is fruition concentration. Pafirlävimuttim <344.24> ("understanding deliverance") is fruition knowledge. The rest is clear throughout. 2310. This in the first place is the agreed commentary of the teachers. But one who dissented said: 'There is no separate knowledge of the Ten Powers; this is only a division of omniscient knowledge.' That should not be regarded thus. For the knowledge of the Ten Powers is one and omniscient knowledge is another. For each kind of the knowledge of the Ten Powers knows only its own function; but omniscient knowledge knows both that and the rest. As regards kinds of the knowledge of the Ten Powers, also, the first knows only reasons and not-reasons; the second only kamma intervals and [kamma-] result intervals; the third only the delimitation of kamma; the fourth only the reason for the difference of the elements; the fifth only beings' inclinations and resolves; the sixth only the keenness and dullness of the faculties; the seventh only the jhänas, etc. together with their defilements, etc.; the eighth only the continuity of aggregates formerly lived; the ninth only beings' death and rebirth-linking; the tenth only the definition of the truths. But omniscient knowledge knows both what is to be known by those and what is beyond that, but it does not perform all their functions. For that cannot bring absorption by being jhäna; it cannot transform by miraculous power; it cannot put down the defilements by being the path.

16. Classification of Knowledge

213

2311. Furthermore, the dissenter should be questioned thus: 'Is the knowledge of the Ten Powers accompanied by applied and sustained thought, or without applied thought and with sustained thought only, or without applied thought and sustained thought; is it of the sense sphere, of the fine-material sphere or of the immaterial sphere; is it mundane or supramundane ?' If he knows he will say: 'Seven kinds of knowledge in order are accompanied by applied and sustained thought.' He will say: 'After that, two are without applied and sustained thought.' He will say: 'Knowledge of the destruction of the cankers may be accompanied by applied and sustained thought, or it may be without applied thought and with only sustained thought, or it may be without sustained and applied thought.' He will say: 'Likewise, in succession, seven are of the sense sphere; the two after that are of the fine-material sphere; the one at the end is supramundane.' But he will say: 'Omniscient knowledge is only accompanied by applied thought and sustained thought, is only of the sense sphere, is only mundane.' Thus knowledge of the Ten Powers is one, omniscient knowledge is another. End of Classification of Knowledge

214

The Dispeller of Delusion FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER SIXTEEN

1. Attha-sattati — but 68 are given in the text. 2. So Nänamoli, but mt rejects this explanation on the grounds that the last dyad is not based on the Dhs mätikä [LSC]. 3. Mt again rejects and anut points out that this is because the triplets beginning with "understanding consisting in ratiocination" are not based upon the Dhs triplet mätikä [LSC]. 4. Or "Black-wolf and River, Grey, Copper, Brown, Perfume, Royal, Snow, Uposatha, Six-tusked, these ten". 5. Naräyanasahghätabalam. Nora (not in PED): tikäs to MA and SA have Näräyanasanghätabalan ti ettha närä vuecanti rasmiyo; tä bahü nänävidhä ito uppajjanti ti näräyanam vajiram. Tasmä näräyanasanghätabalan ti vajirasanghätabalan ti attho. (See Kosa VII 31 for a Sarvästivädin treatment of this topic [LSC].) 6. The numbers 73 and 77 appear to have been confused between the Samyutta (S ii 59 f.) and the Patisambhidä Nänakathä which has 73 kinds. Commenting on this passage, mt says: Samyuttake ägatäni tesattati fiänäni, sattasattati üänärii ti vuttam. Tattha pana Nidänavagge sattasattati ägatäni catucattärisafi ca, tesattati pana Patisambhidämagge sutamayädlni ägatäni dissanti, na Samyuttake ti. 7. Reading vaja- with C e 1932 (v.l. gavaja-) [LSC]. 8. I.e. usabha is the noun and äsabha the adjective. 9. See A Dasaka 21 and Catukka 33, and S XXII 78; khandhakavaggaägatena (mt). 10. Reading visittham; alternative is visuddham (see Ee; C e 1932). 11. E e reads vatassu. 12. So mt. 13. Padhäna: here not "effort" but equivalent to Sanskrit pradhana [Ny]. 14. Appanä: not in this sense in PED. The tika to M sutta 12 has appanan ti nigamanam. 15. The text makes pahcavihMnam singular and na hetum eva agree with it. 16. This is simply a rearrangement of the components of the compound: "owing to being overcome by old age, they are 'old-age-overcome'." 17. C e 1932 inserts fiatvä here as below [LSC]. 18. By means of a true dream (mt) [LSC]. 19. AA has na nämapassati. B e has na supinam nämapassati. 20. Reading sutto rather than yutto.

16. Classification of Knowledge

215

21. Manorathapüranl here continues: "This [dream] is unable to bring about rebirth linking through volition owing to its having a weak basis; but in the course [of an existence] when supported by other profitable and unprofitable [kamma] it gives result. Though it gives result, still, because of its arising in regard to no [sensory] domain, dream volition is negligible. But by way of time, this dream does not in the first place become visible during the day; likewise in the first and middle watches [of the night]. But in the last watch it becomes strong towards dawn; when what has been eaten, drunk and chewed is entirely digested, when the nutritive essence is established in the body, when the sun is rising, dreams become visible. One who sees a dream which has an agreeable sign accepts it as agreeable; one who sees one which has a disagreeable sign accepts it as disagreeable". 22. Mt: Indeterminate only due to the arising of mere adverting only, they say. It should be seen that those who say this mean that, at the mind door, adverting arises two or three times taking the place of impulsion and falls back into the life-continuum. As anut indicates, "at the mind door" is said to distinguish this from the similar occurrence in a five door process (the second mogha-vära) (Asl 269). Since arahats do not dream, there is no case in which indeterminate consciousness can arise during impulsion (javana) itself [LSC]. 23. Reading tassä ca vasena with O 1932 and mt for Ee yassä ca vasena [LSC]. 24. Or "supernormal achievement". 25. "[This refers to] the removal of venom, after having made a circle, having called the serpents by the science [of magic] and made an offering" (mt). 26. "Hereby venom is removed by blowing with [the sound] phu\ this is a spell against spider [-bite], etc." (mt). 27. Mt: A-ä-ti-ädikä mätikä ka-kä-ti-ädiko tap-pabhedo lekhä [LSC]. 28. Ce 1932 reads mücati ti muti; müdatl ti müdi tipipätho [LSC]. 29. I.e. for Sammäsambuddhas and Paccekabuddhas [Ny]. 30. Adhigaccha, not in PED. 31. Ee has pälimokkhasamvarasamvutassa. 32. Ee has atirekapaMäya\ however, Ce 1932, mss to Ee and mt all read adhipaamya [LSC]. 33. This is a different version of kammassakatä to that given, for instance, in M sutta 135. 34. As mt points out, what is meant here is not sense desires as such but sense objects (yatthukäma) [LSC].

216

The Dispeller of Delusion

35. Mt: he refers to either the sense of attraction (nikanti) or the consciousness arising associated with a sense of attraction as "wrong mindfulness" [LSC]. 36. C e 1932 reads: tarn evapathamajjhänaläbhimjhänato [LSC]. 37. Mt explains "unfamiliar jhäna" as jhäna which lacks the five kinds of mastery (yasita) [LSC]. 38. According to mt they are like feet because they stand on their object and arouse the fourth jhäna. The pervasion is the suffusing of the body with subtle rüpas originated by rapture and happiness (anut) [LSC]. 39. So read with Vbh (Ne); Vbh (C°) has patippassaddhä laddho [LSC]. 40. Mt disagrees and holds that only the seventh case is insight knowledge [LSC]. 41. The fourth plane (catuttha-bhümaka) refers to the four paths and the four fruitions of holiness [Ny]. 42. I.e. with one of the four greed cittas dissociated from wrong view [LSC]. 43. In a footnote the Translator says that "this sentence is obscure". He quotes a parallel from MA on the Bahudhätuka Sutta (MA iv 107), using the text of the Sinhalese Aluvihära edition. Here we give this parallel according to the Burmese Sahgäyanä edition for the sake of its better readings which have also been followed in the revised rendering of this passage given above: Ditthivippayuttacittena pana ariyasävako parilähäbhibhüto parilähavüpasamattham mattahatthiparittäsito viya (VbhA adds: sucikämo) cokkhabrähmano viya ca gütham kafici sahkhäram sukhato upagacchati (v.l. upagaccheyya) [Ny]. 44. MA has janikä va mätä janako pitü; so also Ce 1932. 45. C e 1932 reads väaparivattalihgam [LSC]. 46. Ahacca has here the meaning of "touching", "coming close". The Burmese Yojanä explains it as sadisam, "similar" [Ny]. 47. Cf. what follows with Kvu 593-5. 48. Reading with C e 1932: samaggasaflfläya pana vattati; samaggasafifiäyahi karontassa nevabhedo vahoti na ... [LSC]. 49. As mt points out, this is in conflict with KvuA 140 where the kappa involved is said to be an äyukappa. According to anut this is a lifespan whose maximum extent is an antarakappa [LSC]. 50. I.e. a founder of a non-Buddhist sect or order [Ny]. 51. Osäretväy not in this sense in PED. (Ee, however, reads otäretvä; Cc 1932 osädetvä [LSC].) 52. Although Nänamoli both here and at Vis Trsl. p.455 translates "a hundred thousand million" (perhaps for stylistic reasons), the precise figure is one billion (British). The three kinds of lokadhätu are

16. Classification of Knowledge

217

respectively 1000 = 103 cakkavälas (in size); 1000 x 1000 = 106 cakkavälas and (1000 x 1000) x (1000 x 1000) = 1012 cakkavälas. It is the last which corresponds to the "field of authority" of a Buddha. See AA ii 340 f. In North Indian Buddhist sources, the third is said to consist of 1000 x (1000 x 1000) = 109- i.e. one billion (American) cakkavälas [LSC]. 53. See also variant descriptions of the antaradhäna at AA i 87 ff., ii 14; SA ii 202 ff. 54. I.e. Ceylon. 55. I.e. penetration and practice. 56. I.e. for bhikkhus and bhikkhunis. 57. Sinhalese MA has santhätum. VbhA (E e , B e and C e 1932) has sandhäretum. 58. Reading with B e , E e and Ce 1932 vayena; Sinhalese MA has yasena. 59. C e 1932 reads ... na itthi, "yam itthl räjä ... " [LSC]. 60. Patisiddha, not in PED. 61. Different readings give Acela, Pipphali, Pancala, etc; E e has Pipphali. 62. The Burmese Yojanä and mt derive it from vajati, "to go", which is more fit than from väja, "strong" i.e. "strong on account of dogs" as suggested by Nänamoli [Ny]. 63. Sinhalese MA has Tassapitä sunakhaväjiko (-jiviko) ahosi. B e and Ee have Tassapitä sunakhaväjiko näma luddako ahosi. 64. Reading virujjheyya with O 1932 for Ee virajjheyya [LSC]. 65. Ee, C c 1932 and B e here and above have brahmavacchasadiso, "like a Brahma-calf*. Should it be Brahmavaccasadiso ? See PED under Brahmavaccasin where it is rendered "with a body like that of Mahä Brahma"; but under vaccasin it is given as "splendour". There is no comment in the tikäs and in the Yojanä [Ny]. (But see the tikä to DA i 282: Brahmavaccasl ti uttamasarirabho; suvannäbho ice eva attho [LSC].) 66. At the time of King Vattagämini of Sri Lanka. This rebellion (10788 B.C.) caused a severe famine [Ny]. 67. Gambhxra-kandaräya tire; so in Ee, B c and C e 1932. As Nänamoli translates as "deep wilderness", perhaps his text has kantärassa ? The Burmese Yojanä, however, explains Gambhira-kandaräya näma nadiyä, "[at the bank of] a river called Deep Cleft". The feminine kandarä makes it probable that it serves as a name (kandara being neuter). Gambhlrakandaravanam pavisitvä may, then, have to be rendered: "went into the forest of the Deep Cleft" [Ny].

218

The Dispeller of Delusion

I assume that the suggestion in the Yojanä is based on the presence of tire which may, however, mean "edge". The feminine kandarä is not impossible [LSC]. 68. Mt comments: "Paccari" ti pi ulumpassa nämam; ettha katä "Mahäpaccarr ti vuccati [LSC]. 69. Pali, not in this sense in PED. 70. Guüjä— Abrus precatorius [LSC]. 71. Pitu-räjäy "the father-king", was a by-name of King Vattagämini. For the reason for this cognomen, see Mhvs 33, 35-36 [Ny]. 72. Appears in Sinhalese AA, commentary to Ekanipäta ii 6, as Kallagämake Mandalärämaka-Mahävihära. 73. Mt: "The Elder thought: 'How is it that I am known to him ? Perhaps somebody has pointed out something/ Therefore he did not give his bowl." Being in seniority a junior in the Order, he did not wish to be singled out [Ny]. 74. Ädhäraka, not in this sense in PED. 75. This translation follows a reading: Aparopi upäsako therassä ti; so also O 1932 and B e , which add sattasätakasatäni, "seven hundred pieces of cloth". But mt and Yojanä read aparassa (for therassä ti) and explain: "Another lay follower takes the bowl of another bhikkhu" [Ny]. 76. Free rendering of anäyatane; mt reads nikkärane ayutte vä nassanatthäne [Ny]. 77. Asucikapallaka. Yojanä has asuclhi püritam kapallakam [Ny]. 78. An abbreviated version of the above with the addition of the "eleven kinds of kamma according to the suttanta method" is given at A A to A Tikanipäta 33 (no. 34 in tikä). 79. Not in PED = gatä (mt). 80. Mt: "because of prominence" — they say that this is because of the prominence of applied thought; or "because of prominence" is through such qualities as heroism [LSC]. 81. Taking dibbati in two senses; cp. Kh Trsl. 133 [LSC]. 82. Vbh (Ne and C e 1952) follow the reading -garni given as v.r. in B e [LSC]. 83. See Vis Trsl. p. 326 n. — mt is similar to mht cited there [LSC]. 84. Bracketed addition according to Sammohavinodani Yojanä [Ny]. 85. Idem. 86. According to mt, those among the devas in second or third place are such as Pajäpati, Varuna, Isäna, etc. [LSC]. 87. Kasäva, not in PED. 88. Atikhina {a + tikhina). 89. Mt: Kappo ti dvedhä bhütaggo. Ettha ca bijädidhätunänattavasena khandhääidhätunänattam veditabbam [LSC].

16. Classification of Knowledge

219

90. So mt. 91. Vitandavädins — see §§39, 252 and 1563 above. Pali references are collected by Sodo Mori: "The Vitandavädins (Sophists) as seen in the Päli Atthakathäs" in Essays on the Pali and Buddhist Civilization, Society for the Study of Päli and Buddhist Civilization, Tokyo, 1982 pp. 1-18. In the Dipavamsa (XXII, 43 and 45) the term clearly refers to some form of Mahayana. In Nyäya terminology the term vitandä is used to describe a negative critique where the proponent does not put forward any arguments to establish his own position (Nyäya-sütra 1.2.2). Not surprisingly, therefore, the name Vaitandika is sometimes applied to the Mädhyamikas. See D. S. Ruegg, La Theorie du Tathagatagarbha et du Gotra, Paris, 1969 p. 338 n. and "Towards a chronology of the Madhyamaka school" in L. A. Hercus et al., Indological and Buddhist Studies, Delhi, 1982 p. 521 nn. 65 and 66. The occurrence of the term in the Pali commentaries suggests rather an earlier usage associated with the kind of issues with which the Kathävatthu is concerned — pre- or proto- Mahayana [LSC]. 92. There are several variations to the text of this passage. See Ps Trsl. pp. 125 and 137 n. 42 for one possible emendation with six sentences. However, it may have been intended to cover all twelve possibilities, i.e. one practising sense desires and given to sense desires; one practising sense desires but given to renunciation; one practising renunciation and given to renunciation; one practising renunciation but given to sense desire; etc. [LSC]. 93. Read na labhimhl ti with B e and O 1932; E e omits na, 94. Read na kammatthänan ti with B e and O 1932; E e omits na. 95. In the two quotes from the Vbh text, the editions of Sammohavinodani are wrong. In the Vibhahga Päli, the first pair which is here commented upon reads: samädhismim samädhikusalo samädhismim samäpattikusalo. The translation has been amended accordingly. U Thittila's English translation, too, accords with it (p. 448, §828), though he renders samäpatti as "maintaining" [Ny]. 96. "Mind's casket" (citta-mafljüsä). Mt: "This is the continuity of a consciousness (cittasantati) purified from the hindrances, etc.; either concentration (samädhi) or the subject of meditation (kammatthäna) [Ny]. 97. Sabbhäva, not in PED.

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN CLASSIFICATION OF THE MINOR BASES. {Khuddakavatthuv ibhahgd)
A. MÄTIKÄ (Schedule) 2312. [465] Now in the Classification of the Minor Bases1 next to that, the schedule is laid down first and the description is given following the order of the words set forth. Herein, this is the delimitation of the setting forth. 2313. Firstly at the beginning, the 73 beginning with jätimado <345.3> ("vanity of birth") and so on are set forth as monads. After that the eighteen dyads beginning with kodho ca upanäho ca <346.25> (ganger and enmity"). There are 35 triads beginning with the unprofitable roots (akusalamüla) <347.6>. There are fourteen tetrads beginning with the tetrad of cankers (äsava) <348.4>. There are fifteen pentads beginning with that of the lower fetters (orambhägiyasamyojana) <348.22>. There are fourteen sestads beginning with the roots of disputes (vivädamüla) <349.1>. There are seven septads beginning with the inherent tendencies (anusaya) <349.8>. There are eight octads beginning with the bases of defilement (kilesavatthu) <349.12>. There are nine enneads beginning with the bases for irritation (äghätavatthu) <349.17>. There are seven decads beginning with the bases of defilement (kilesavatthu) <349.22>. There are six octodecads beginning with ajjhattikass' upädäya atthärasa tanhävicaritäni <349.26> ("eighteen modes of behaviour of craving in regard to the internal"). Thus it should be understood that all these amount to eight hundred and one defilements2 set forth. 2314. This in the first place is the delimitation of the setting forth. B. DESCRIPTION (Niddesa) (a) Monads 2315. Now as regards the section of the description which begins with the words Tattha katamo jätimado ? <350.1> ("Herein, which is vanity of birth ?") and so on according to what is set forth in the schedule, jätim paticca <350.2> ("due to birth") means dependent on

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

221

birth. And here it is the dueness of presence (atthipaticcam)* which is expounded. Therefore "when there is birth" is the meaning here. 2316. As regards gottam paticca <350.6> {"due to clan") and so on, the method is the same. 2317. Mado <350.2> ("vanity") is as an intoxicant (madanaka); majjanä ("intoxication") is a mode of intoxication (majjanäkära); majji tat tarn ("intoxicatedness") is the intoxicated state (majjitabhäva). 2318. M i n o mafifianä ("conceit, imagining") and so on have the meaning already stated in the commentary to the Dhammasahgaha (see As} 758 ). 2319. Ayam vuccati <350.4> ("this is called'): when there is birth thus, the conceit that occurs as a mode of intoxication arisen dependent on that birth is called "vanity". This arises [on the basis of] the four castes beginning with the Khattiya [caste]. For one who is possessed of birth indulges in conceit thus: * There is no other Khattiya like me; the rest have been bom as Khattiyas sprung up in the meantime. But I am a Khattiya come from the lineage.' So with brahmans and so on. 2320. And also as regards the description of "vanity of name" (gottamada) and so on, the meaning should be understood by this means, too, here. [466] For a Khattiya indulges in conceit thus: 'I am of the Kondanna clan; I am of the Adicca clan.' And a brahman indulges in conceit thus: *I am of the Kassapa clan, I am of the Bhäradväja clan.' And the vessa and the sudda each indulges in conceit on account of his own family and clan; and those of the eighteen guilds indulge in conceit, too, thus: 'I am born in one [of those] guilds.' 2321. And as regards vanity of health (ärogyamada) and so on, the conceit that arises as intoxication thus: 'I am healthy; the rest are unhealthy; there is no sickness in me even for as long as it takes to milk a cow' is called "vanity of health". The conceit that arises as intoxication thus: *I am young; the person of other beings is like a tree growing on a cuff. But I am in the first stage [of life]' is called "vanity of youth" (yobbanamada). The conceit that arises as intoxication thus: 4 1 have lived long, I am living long, I shall live long, I have lived happily, I am living happily, I shall live happily' is called "vanity of life" (jivitamada). The conceit that arises as intoxication thus: *I am one who has gain, the remaining beings gain little, but there is no limit to my gain' is called "vanity of gain" (labhamada). The conceit that arises as intoxication thus: * Whatever other beings may obtain, I obtain requisites of robes, etc. which are well-made and superior* is called

222

The Dispeller of Delusion

"vanity of honour" (sakkäramada). The conceit that arises thus: 'People go treading on the backs of other bhikkhus' feet and they do not pay homage [to them thinking:] "This is a recluse," but they pay homage on seeing me; they think I am to be treated as weighty like a stone umbrella, and as difficult of approach as a mass of fire' is called "vanity of veneration" (bahukäramada). 2322. The conceit that is arisen as intoxication thus: 'When a question arises, it is only solved (chijjati) with my leadership. When they go on almsround, they do so with me only in the front and surrounding me' is called "vanity of deference" (purekkhäramada). The conceit that is arisen as intoxication thus: 'Firstly as a layman with a great following, a hundred men, a thousand men followed me. But as one gone into homelessness, a hundred recluses, a thousand recluses follow me. The rest have little following; I have both a great following and a pure following' is called "vanity of following" (pariväramada). But although belongings (bhoga) are included by the inclusion of gain (labha), nevertheless they are included in this instance as a hoard; therefore the conceit that arises as intoxication thus: 'The rest of beings do not get even enough for their own use; but there is no limit to my wealth in store' is called "vanity of belongings" (bhogamada). 2323. [467] Vannam paticca <350.9> ("due to colour"): due to colour of body and colour of virtuous qualities. The conceit that is arisen as intoxication thus: 'The rest of beings are ugly-coloured, unsightly; but I am handsome and pleasing. The rest of beings are without virtuous qualities, unfamed,4 with no reputation; but my reputation is quite clear among deities and men thus: "Thus is that elder very learned, thus is he of virtuous conduct, thus is he devoted to the ascetic qualities'" is called "vanity of colour" (vannamada). 2324. The conceit that arises as intoxication thus: 'The rest of beings have little learning; but I am very learned' is called "vanity of learning" (sutamada). The conceit that arises as intoxication thus: 'The rest of beings have little intelligence; but there is no limit to my intelligence' is called "vanity of intelligence" ipatibhanamada). The conceit that arises as intoxication thus: 'I have knowledge about [many] nights;5 I know the division of night and day and the conjunctions of the constellations and the moment as regards such and such a Buddha's lineage, such and such a king's lineage, the history of such and such a countryside,6 the history of such and such a village' is called "vanity about chronological knowledge" (rattaflflumada). The conceit that has arisen as intoxication

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

223

thus: The rest of the bhikkhus have become intermittent almsfooders, but I am a "born" (i.e. natural) almsfooder' is called "vanity of the almsfooder" (pindapätikamada). The conceit that arises as intoxication thus: 'The rest of beings are disdained, despised; but I am7 not despised' is called "vanity of not being despised" (anavarMätamada). The conceit that arises as intoxication thus: 'The deportment of the rest of beings is disagreeable, but mine is agreeable* is called "vanity of deportment" (iriyäpathamadä). The conceit that arises as intoxication thus: 'Other beings are like crows with clipped wings; but I am very successful and mighty,* or thus: 'Whatever work I do succeeds' is called "vanity of success" (iddhimada). 2325. "Fame" (yasa) is included above by the inclusion of "following" (parivära). But in this instance it is included as conceit of supporters. It should be explained according both to the layman and to the homeless. For a certain layman is chief of one among the eighteen guilds. [He thinks:] 'I place the rest of the men and move them about.' And some homeless one becomes chief somewhere [and he thinks:] 'The rest of the bhikkhus carry out my instructions; I am chief.' The conceit that arises as intoxication thus is called "vanity of fame" (yasamada). 2326. The conceit that arises as intoxication thus: 'The rest of the bhikkhus are badly conducted; but I am of virtuous conduct' is called "vanity of virtuous conduct" (sllamada). The conceit that arises as intoxication thus: 'The rest of beings do not have one-pointedness of mind even for as long as it takes a cock to drink water; but I am an obtainer of access concentration and absorption' [468] is called "vanity of jhäna" (jhänamada). The conceit that arises as intoxication thus: The rest of beings have no craft; but I have a craft' is called 'vanity of craft' (sippamada). The conceit that arises as intoxication thus: 'Other beings are short but I am tall' is called 'vanity of growth' (flrohanamadd). The conceit that arises as intoxication thus: 'The rest of beings are either short or tall, but I [am well-proportioned like] the circumference of a banyan tree' is called "vanity of girth" (parinähamada). The conceit that arises as intoxication thus: 'The bodies of the rest of beings are unshapely, misshapen, but mine is agreeable and pleasing' is called "vanity of shape" (santhänamada). The conceit that arises as intoxication thus: 'The bodies of the rest of beings have many faults, but in my body there is not even the tip of a hair to be criticised' is called "vanity of perfection" (päripürimada).

224

The Dispeller of Delusion

2327. Having by this means in so many instances expounded conceit with a basis, he now said Tattha katamo mado ? <350.17> {"Herein, which is vanity ?") and so on, showing only conceit produced without a basis. That is obvious. 2328. In the description of pamäda <350.21> {"negligence"), cittassa v o s s a g g o <350.23> {"relinquishment of the mind") is the relinquishing of the mind without restraint by mindfulness in respect of these several instances; "lack of mindfulness" is the meaning. Vossaggänuppadänam {"keeping relinquishing") = vossaggassa anuppadänam; "giving way again and again" is the meaning. 2329. Asakkaccakiriyatä <350.24> {"carelessness in action") is careless action through the careless acting, either on the part of the person or in making the thing to be given, in the development of those profitable states beginning with giving. A continuous {satata) state is perseverance {sätacca); an uncontinuous state is non-perseverance; asätaccakiriyatä <350.25> {"non-perseverance in action") = na sätaccakiriyatä. Anatthitakiriyatä {"unfinishedness in action") = anatthitakaranam. Just as a chameleon goes a little distance and remains a little and does not go uninterruptedly, so indeed the person who one day gives a gift or makes an offering, or hears the Law or does the recluse's work and does it again after a long time and does not pursue it uninterruptedly. That action of his is called "unfinished action", Olinavuttitä {"inertia of habit"): a sluggish habit due to the absence of the activity called continual acting. Nikkhittachandatä <350.26> {"abandonment of zeal"): the abandoned state of the zeal of energy in respect of profitable action. Nikkhittadhuratä {"abandonment of one's charge"): the laying down of the charge of energy; "withdrawnness of the mind" is the meaning. [469] 2330. Anadhitthänam <350.27> {"non-resolution"): absence of establishment in profitable things. Ananuyogo {"non-devotion") = ananuyufijanam. Pamido {"negligence") -pamajjanam. Yo evarüpo pamädo {"such negligence as that"): this is to show the quality [of negligence in general], as there would be no end of it [when explaining it] by way of meaning and by way of letter. This is what is said: this negligence, which has been shown starting from the beginning [of this section] and that other negligence of such quality, of such kind, which is reckoned as neglecting {pamajjanä) by being a mode of neglecting and as neglectedness {pamajjitatta) by the state of being neglected — this is called "negligence" (pamäda). But as to characteristic, it has the

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

225

characteristic of relinquishment of mindfulness in respect of the five cords of sense desire. It should be understood as the quality of having given up mindfulness in that same respect.8 2331. In the description of obduracy, thambho <350.31> ("obduracy") has the sense of being stiff (thaddha); here it is the stiffness of the mind, like cloth stiffened with paste, that is expounded.9 A mode of stiffening is thambhanä ("stiffening"). The state of being stiffened is thambhitattam ("stiffened"). The state of a hard person is kakkhaliyam ("hardness"). The state of a harsh person is phärusiyam <350.32> ("harshness"). The state of mind that is kept erect (uju) only, by not according respect to those deserving respect such as salutations and so on, is ujucittatä ("mental rigidity"). The state of one who is stiff and not soft is amudutä ("unsoftness"). Ayam vuccati ("this is called'*): this is called obduracy (thambho). A person possessed of it is like a python that has swallowed a ploughshare, or like a bellows skin full of wind; on seeing a shrine or his seniors, such a person being unable to bend down keeps to the side only. And this should be understood to have an inflated state of mind as its characteristic. 2332. In the description of presumption,10 särambho <350.34> ("presumption") is by presuming (särambhanä). Presumption by counter-objection (patippharitvä) is patisärambho ("counterpresumption"). The mode of presuming is särambhanä ("presuming"). The act of presuming by counter-objection is patisärambhanä ("counter-presuming"). The state of one who has counter-presumed is patisärambhitattam <350.35> ("counterpresumingness"). Ayam vuccati ("this is called"): this is called "presumption". 2333. As to characteristic, it is stated as having the characteristic of outdoing (karanuttariya) (cf. MA i 170). The person who is possessed of it does everything twice as much [as anyone else]: as a layman, when one household (gharavatthu) is fitted out by one person, another does twice that, another four times that, another eight times that, another sixteen times that. As a houseless one, when one collection of discourses (nikäya) is learnt by one, [thinking:] 'I will not be beneath him/ another learns two, another three, another four, another five. It is not permissible to learn [a collection] actuated by presumption; [470] that is the unprofitable side and it is the path which leads to hell. On the profitable side, however, when one has given tickets for a single

226

The Dispeller of Delusion

distribution of food, it is permissible to give two; and when one is giving two it is permissible to give four. And when one collection has been learnt by another bhikkhu, it is permissible to outdo that, keeping to the side of the standstill, for one who learns and recites two collections, [thinking:] 'It pleases me.' 2334. In the description of aticchatä <350.36> {"excessive wishing'1) and so on, instead of taking, as in the [commentary11 to the] Ariyavamsa Sutta (A ii 27; AA iii 45 ff.), the sense of itaritara <350.37> {"any") in the sense of very inferior (lämaka-lämaka), it refers here to one who is discontented (asantutthassa) with whatever is obtained from among robes and so on. Or to a layman who is discontented with whatever is obtained from among visible data, sounds, odours, flavours and tangible data. Bhiyyokamyatä <350.37> {"desire for more"): desire for [something] special. Icchä <351.1> {"wish") is by wishing. The wish itself is icchägatam {"sphere of wishes"); or it is a mode of wishing. The state of excessive wishing about one's own gain is aticchatä {"excessive wishing"). Rägo {"greed") and so on have the meaning stated above. Ayam vuccati <351.2> ("this is called"): this is called excessive wishing. Atricchatä12 is a name for the same thing. 2335. But as to characteristic, discontent with one's own gain and longing for others' gain is the characteristic of excessive wishing. For to a person who has excessive wishes (atricchapuggala), even if his own gain is superior it seems wretched; and even if what is gained by another is wretched it seems superior. The cooked rice-gruel or boiled rice or cakes which are taken out of the same receptacle seem wretched when put into his own bowl and superior when put into another's. But those gone forth and laymen and animals have this excessiveness of wishes (atricchatä). Herein, there are these stories. 2336. It seems that a land owner invited thirty bhikkhunis and gave them rice with cakes. The senior bhikkhunl (sahghatheri) had the cake in each bhikkhuni's bowl turned over and only after that did she eat the one she had obtained. 2337. It also happened that the King of Benares went into the forest with the queen to eat meat cooked on charcoal. Seeing a kinnari,13 he left the queen and went after her. The queen turned back and went to her retreat where she did the preliminary work on a kasina. She attained the eight attainments and the five kinds of supernormal achievement, and as

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

227

she sat she saw the king coming and she rose up into the sky and went away. A deity living in a tree spoke this stanza: 'Wishing for this one (atr' iccham) through greed, with greed intoxicated, Thus he loses his self, just as, seeking Canda (the moon), Asitäbhü [was lost]' (Jii231;cf.UdA227). [471] The deity made fun of the king thus: 'Just as he who longed for the kinnarl Canda was abandoned by the Princess Asitäbhü, so wishing for this he abandons, loses his self. 2338. Also, at the time of the Buddha Kassapa, there was a rich man's son called Mittavindaka who was without faith and unbelieving. When his mother told him: 'My dear, keep the uposatha today and go to the monastery and listen all night to the Law and I shall give you a thousand [pieces of silver],' he undertook the uposatha precepts out of greed for money; and he went to the monastery and, deciding that the place gave no grounds for fear, he lay down underneath the preaching seat. After sleeping there the whole night, he went home. In the early morning his mother cooked gruel and brought it to him. He took the thousand [pieces] and drank the gruel. Then he thought of making money and he became desirous of going to sea in a ship. His mother said: 'My dear, in this family there is wealth to the amount of forty kotis. Enough! Give up going!' He would not heed her words and made to go. She stood in front of him. Then he became angry with her and thinking: 'She is standing in front of me,' he kicked her with his foot and went away leaving her lying [on the floor]. His mother got up and said: 'Do you believe,14 son, that it will bring happiness to you in the place you go to, to have gone away after doing such an act (kamma) to a mother like me ?' When he had boarded a ship and had sailed, on the seventh day the ship stopped. Then the people said: 'Surely there is an evil man here. Cast the lot.' When the lot was cast, it fell to him three times. They gave him a raft and threw him into the sea. He came to an island. When he was enjoying good fortune together with the spirits of a palace iyemänika-peti), they [stood] before him. Yet seeing twice that much good fortune [in store], he [went on and] eventually saw a man wearing a razor-wheel. To him the wheel appeared like a lotus flower. He said to him: 'Fellow, give me that lotus you are wearing as an

228

The Dispeller of Delusion

ornament.' 'This is not a lotus, sir; it is a razor-wheel.' Saying: 'You are cheating me! Have I never seen a lotus before ?' he continued: 'You do not want to give me the lotusfloweras an ornament having smeared it with red sandal.' [Then the other man] thought: 'This man has done a kamma like that done by me and wants to experience its fruit.' Then saying: 'Well then!' [472] he put his wheel on Mittavindaka's head and fled. It was seeing this meaning that the Master spoke this stanza: '"From four may they increase to eight, and the eight become sixteen, And the sixteen thirty-two!" He has got the wheel of too much wishing; And so the wheel spins on the head of the man a prey to wishes' (J i 414, iii 207, iv 4; DA iii 996; AA i 120; UdA 227) 2339. Another one of excessive wishes15 went away from his own locality and entered another locality. There he was beaten up, and he fled. He entered an ascetic's dwelling and after taking the uposatha precepts, he lay down. When asked by the ascetic: 'What have you done ?' he spoke these stanzas: 'Despising my own abode through too much wishing, I went away and came to Malaka.16 And there the people came out from the village And took and beat me soundly with their sticks. With my head broken and my limbs bloodstained, I have come back into my own abode. And that is why I keep the uposatha Lest too much wishing come again once more' (J iv 331). 2340. In the description of mahicchatä <351.3> {"greatness of wishes"), "he wishes for great objects" or "his wish is great" is "one of great wishes" (mahiccho). His state is "greatness of wishes" (mahicchatä). But as to characteristic, the claiming of non-existent qualities and lack of knowledge of the right amount in accepting and using are the characteristic of greatness of wishes. Just as the hawker, taking with his hand ornamental goods, putting in his lap what was fit to be put [there], says to the multitude looking on: 'Take that, my dear,

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

229

take this/ apportioning them by way of mouth, so indeed a person of great wishes is desirous of encouraging the multitude to know his virtuous conduct or book-learning or ascetic qualities (even if these qualities are few) as soon as he has dwelt a little in the forest; and having encouraged, when requisites are brought in carts instead of saying: 'Enough!' he accepts them. For there are three things that cannot be filled: fire with fuel, the sea with water and one of great wishes with requisites. A conflagration, and the ocean, and the person who wants much, Though given many requisites — these three are never to be filled.17 [473] For a person of great wishes cannot take a small amount even from the mother who gave him birth, how much less from his supporters. Herein, there are these stories. 2341. A young bhikkhu, it seems, liked flour cakes. His mother, investigating his behaviour, thought: 'If my son knows the right amount in accepting, I will keep him in cakes for the whole three months,' and, testing him on the day of entering on the Residence of the Rains, she first gave him one cake; when that was finished, a second; when that was finished, a third. Instead of saying: 'Enough!' he ate it. When his mother found that he did not know the right amount, she thought: 'Today alone the cakes for the whole three months have been eaten by my son,' and from the second day onward she did not give him even one cake. 2342. Further, when King Tissa was supplying alms daily to the Order of Bhikkhus at Cetiyapabbata, it was said by the country people: 'Why, your Majesty, do you choose only one place ? Why is it not right to give alms elsewhere ?' So on the following day he gave alms on the full scale in Anuradhapura. Not even one bhikkhu knew the right amount in accepting. Two or three people had to lift up the hard and soft food that was accepted by each one. On the following day the king invited the Order of Bhikkhus at Cetiyapabbata and when they had come to the royal palace he said: 'Give the bowls.' They said: 'Let it be, your Majesty, they will take alms according to their capacity,' and not even one bhikkhu gave the bowl. All accepted only a fitting amount. Then the king said: 'You see, among your bhikkhus not even one knows the right amount. Yesterday there was nothing whatever left; today not much was taken and plenty is left.' He was pleased at their knowledge

230

The Dispeller of Delusion

of the right amount and displeased at the others' lack of knowledge of the right amount. 2343. In the description of päpicchatä <351.8> ("evilness of wishes"), as regards assaddho samäno saddho ti mam jano jänätu <351.9> ("being without faith [he wishes:] 'Let people know me as faithful") and so on, what does one who wishes thus do ? One who is without faith shows the aspect of one who is faithful. One who is badly conducted and so on shows the aspect of one who is of virtuous conduct and so on. How ? In the first place, one who is without faith, on the day of a great festival18 at the time when people come to the monastery, takes a broom and sweeps the monastery; he throws away the rubbish. When he finds he is seen by the people, he goes to the shrine terrace and there, too, he sweeps and throws away the rubbish. He smoothes the sand. He washes the seats. He sprinkles water on the Wisdom Tree. When they see him, people think: 'Surely there is no other bhikkhu who looks after the monastery; he alone looks after this monastery. He is a faithful elder.' When it is time to go, they invite him and go away. 2344. [474] Also one of bad conduct approaches one who knows the Vinaya by heart in the presence of his supporters and asks: 'Venerable sir, when I walk along, an ox takes fright and because of its running19 away, grass gets broken; as I do the sweeping, grass gets broken; as I walk up and down, small creatures die; as I spit unmindfully, the spittle falls on the grass. What about that ?' And when it is said: 'There is no fault, friend, when it is not done on purpose, unmindfully, unknowingly,' he says: Venerable sir, it seems very serious to me; consider it well.' Hearing that people think: 'The noble one is so scrupulous, how could he do anything worse ? There is no-one so virtuous as he' and they believe in and honour him. 2345. And one who has learnt little sits in the middle of his supporters and says: 'So and so who knows the Tipitaka by heart, so and so who knows four collections is a pupil of mine; it was under me that the Law was learnt by them.' People think: 'There is no-one so learned as our lord; it was under him that the Law was learnt by so-and-so and by soand-so' and they believe in and honour him. 2346. And one who loves company, on the day of a great festival, has a long bench and a mattress taken, and he sits for the day at the foot of a tree on the confines of the monastery. People come and ask: 'Where is the elder ?' As the sons of a hypocrite are hypocrites20 too, therefore

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

231

[his pupils] say: * At such times the elder does not sit here; he stays on the long ambulatory at his daytime quarters on the monastery confines.' After spending the day there, he has spiders' webs stuck to his forehead, and he has the bench taken and comes and sits in the door of his cell. People say: * Venerable sir, where did you go ? We came but we did not see you.' He makes known his love of seclusion thus: 'Lay followers, the interior of the monastery is crowded; that is the place for young novices to wander about in. We were seated in the daytime quarters on the sixty-hand long ambulatory.' 2347. And one who is idle sits in the midst of his supporters and says: 'Lay followers, did you see the falling star ?' They say: 'We did not see it, venerable sir;' and when he is asked: 'What time was it V he answers: 'It was the time we do our walking up and down/ and asks: 'Did you hear the sound of an earthquake ?' They say: 'We did not hear it, venerable sir.' And when he is asked: 'What time was it ?' he answers: 'It was in the middle watch at the time when we put the supporting board on the mattress.' And he asks: 'There was a bright light, did you see it ?' And when he is asked: 'What time was it, venerable sir ?' he says: 'It was the time when we come down from the ambulatory.' [475] People think: 'Our elder is on the ambulatory in the three watches of the night. There is no-one so energetic as our lord,' and they believe in and honour him. 2348. And one who is forgetful sits in the midst of his supporters and says: 'At such and such a time I learnt the Digha Nikäya, at such and such a time the Majjhima, the Samyuttaka, the Anguttarika. In the meantime I have not looked at them. Whenever I wish, the text comes to my lips. But these other bhikkhus stay gobbling like sheep.' People think: 'There is no-one whose mindfulness is established like our lord,' and they believe in and honour him. 2349. And one who is not concentrated asks questions of the teachers of the commentaries in the presence of his supporters: 'How is a kasina developed ? At what stage does the sign arise ? At what stage access ? At what stage absorption ? How many factors has the first jhäna, the second jhäna, the third jhäna, the fourth jhäna ?' He smiles when it is explained by them according as they have learnt it, and when they say: 'Friend, is it not thus ?' saying: 'It might be, venerable sir,' he hints (süceti) at his having obtained an attainment. People think: 'The lord is one who has obtained an attainment,' and they believe in and honour him.

232

The Dispeller of Delusion

2350. And one who is without understanding sits in the midst of his supporters and makes a show of his great understanding by speaking thus: 'As I was looking up in the Majjhima Nikäya the three kinds of proliferation, 21 I came to the path with the miraculous powers. Competency in the scriptures is not difficult for us. But one who gets involved22 in scriptural competency is not released from suffering, so we gave up scriptural competency/ and so on. But one who speaks thus strikes a blow at the dispensation. There is no greater rogue (mahäcord) than this. For it is not a fact that an expert in the scriptures is not released from suffering. 2351. And one whose cankers are not destroyed sees village boys [and asks them:] 'What do your parents say I am V They say an Arahat, venerable sir.' He says: 'Such clever householders cannot be mistaken;* thus he makes it appear that his own state is that of one whose cankers are destroyed. 2352. And here there should be understood the "jar-arahat" (cätiarahantd), the "branch-arahat" (päroha-arahanta) and so on. It seems that one schemer had ajar buried in his room . At the time people came, he got into it. People asked: 'Where is the elder ?' When it was said: 'In the room/ they went in and searched and, not seeing him, came out again. [476] They said: 'The elder is not there/ When it was said: 'Nevertheless, the elder is in the room,' they went in again. The elder, who had come out of the jar, was sitting on his bed. Then when it was said: 'We did not see you before, venerable sir, and we went out; where did you go ?' he said: 'Monks go to any place they wish.' Thus with these words he made it appear that his state was of one whose cankers are destroyed. 2353. Another schemer dwelt in a leaf hut on a hill. And behind the leaf hut there was a kacchaka tree on a cliff. One of its branches went and rested on the ground on the other side. People came by the road and invited him. Taking his bowl and robe, he climbed down by the branch and showed himself at the village gate. Thereupon, when he was asked by the people who came behind him: 'By what road did you come, venerable sir ?' he replied: 'It is improper to ask about the road travelled by monks; they just come to any place they wish/ Thus with these words he made it appear that his state was that of one whose cankers are destroyed. But someone with sharp ears (viddhakanna) recognized that schemer, and thinking: 'I will catch him/ one day, seeing him climbing down by the branch, he cut it behind him leaving only a little

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

233

[uncut]. Thinking to climb down from the branch, he fell and his clay bowl broke. Knowing he had been discovered, he left fleeing. 2354. The state of one whose wishes are evil is päpicchatä <351.8> Cevilness of wishes"). But as to characteristic, it should be understood that the characteristic of evilness of wishes is making it appear one has qualities that one has not, and no knowledge of the right amount in accepting. 2355. In the description of singa23 <351.21> ("dandyism"), siAga <351.22> ("dandyism"; lit. "horn") is in the sense of piercing (vijjhana). That is the name for the defilement of dandyism called urbanity. The smart state is singäratä ("smartness"); or it is the mode of being smart. The state of one who is clever is caturatä ("cleverness"); likewise cäturiya. Parikkhattatä ("ensconcedness") is the state of one who is ensconced; this is a name for the firmly smartened state of one who is as though set by being dug round [with moats].24 The other word (pärikkhattiya) is a synonym for this. Thus by all these words smartness as a defilement is expressed. 2356. In the description of tintina <351.24> ("possessiveness"), tintina <351.25> ("possessiveness") is fussing (khlyana). The mode of being possessive is tintinäyanä ("being possessive"). The state of one endowed with possessiveness, who goes (ayita) according to possessiveness, is tintinäyitattam ("state of being affected by possessiveness"). The state of one who is gluttonous (lolupabhäva) is loluppa ("gluttony"). The other two words are the description of the mode and the state. [477] Pucchafijikatä <351.26> ("dithering") is the low habit of shaking and trembling at the possibility of getting or not getting. Sädhukamyatä ("wanting things nice") is longing for superior things. Thus by all these words is expressed the mode of fussing as a defilement about: 'This is yours, this mine,' like the yapping of a dog who is lapping uprice-gruelin a dog's trough and sees another dog. 2357. In the description of cäpalya <351.28> ("vanity"),25 the embellishment of a robe by the state of being pressed and ironed is civaramandanä <351.29> ("embellishment of robes"). The embellishment of a bowl by giving it a coating the colour of a gem is pattamandana ("embellishment of bowl"). The embellishment of a personal abode with paintings, etc. is senäsanamandanä ("embellishment of abode"). Imassa vä pütikäyassa ("of this putrid body"): of this human body. Just as a jackal even born that day is still

234

The Dispeller of Delusion

called an "old jackal" (jarasigäla), and a galoci creeper, even if the size of the thigh, is still called a "putrid creeper" (pütilatä), so the human body, even if the colour of gold, is still called a "putrid body". The decking out with under and upper clothing of various shades of dye, etc. is m a n d a n ä <351.30> ("embellishing"). Bähiränam vä parikkhäränam Cor of the external requisites"): of the rest of the requisites except for the bowl and robes; or alternatively, it is the embellishment of the body by means of those requisites which were stated as "embellishment of robes" and "embellishment of bowl", or "embellishment by the embellishment and disposition of those external requisites; thus should the meaning be understood. 2358. Mandanä-vibhüsanä C embellishment and smartening"): here "embellishment" should be understood as the filling out of hollow parts; and "smartening" as by colouring the skin and so on. Kelanä <351.31> ("pranking") is trimming out (kilanä). Parikelanä ("prinking") is tricking out (parikllanä). Giddhikatä ("greediness"): attachment to greed. Giddhikattam is a synonym for that. The state of one who is vain (capala) is capalatä <351.32> ("vainness"), likewise cäpalya. Idam vuccati ("this is called"): this is called by the name of vanity, endowed with which a person, even if he is a hundred years old, is like a child born that day. 2359. In the description of asabhägavutti <351.33> ("rude behaviour"), vippatikulagähitä26 <351.36> ("improper treatment") is treatment not in conformity. [478] Vipaccanikasätatä ("pleasure in opposing") is taking pleasure in contrary, obstructive actions. The state of one who lacks consideration is anidariyam <352.1> ("inconsiderateness"); likewise anädariyatä. The state of one who is discourteous is agäravatä ("discourtesy"). Not caring for seniority is appatissavatä ("disobedience"). A yam vuccati ("this is called"): this is called "rude behaviour". A rude way of living is the meaning, endowed with which a person does not look at his mother or father even when they have recovered27 from an illness; he quarrels with his mother about his father's property and with his father about his mother's property; he lives his life rudely; he quarrels with his elder and younger brothers about his parents' property. He speaks shameless words; he does not do the various duties for teacher and preceptor; he does not look after the sick. At places in sight of the shrines of the Buddha the Blessed One he makes water and evacuates, and spits and casts snot; he carries an umbrella and goes about wearing sandals. He is shameless

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

235

regarding the Buddha's disciples; he does not pay respect to the order, he shows no shame or modesty regarding those to berespectedsuch as his mother's relatives or his father's relatives (mätimatta-pitimattädi), etc.; and all these acts in one who behaves thus are called rude behaviour towards the objects such as his mother and so on. 2360. In the description of arati <352.3> {"boredom"), pantesu <352.4> ("with remote") means distant or secluded. Adhikusalesu ("with the higher profitable"): with states of tranquillity and insight. Arati <352.5> ("boredom") is the negative of delight. Aratita ("boredness") is a mode of being bored. 28 Anabhirati ("dissatisfaction") is the state of one who is dissatisfied. Anabhiramanä ("being dissatisfied") is a mode of being dissatisfied. Ukkanthitä <352.6> ("discontent") is a mode of being discontented. Paritassitä ("fretting") is fretting through dissatisfaction. 2361. In the description of tandi <352.7> ("languor"), tandi <352.8> ("languor") is idleness. Tandiyanä ("being languid') is a mode of being languid. Tandimanatä ("languid-mindedness") is the state of mind overwhelmed by languor. The state of one who is idle is älasyam ("idleness")', a mode of idling is älasyäyanä ("idling"). The state of one who is made idle is älasyäyitattam <352.9> ("state of being kept idle"). Thus by all these words is expressed bodily idleness due to defilement. 2362. In the description of vijambhitä <352.10> ("shaking"), jambhanä <352.11> ("moving") is shifting. Moving again and again is vijambhana ("shaking"). [479] Anamanä ("bending forwards") is bending towards the front. Vinamanä ("bending backwards") is bending towards the back. Sannamanä <352.12> ("bending all ways") is bending in every direction. Panamanä ("unbending"): as a weaver who has got up from his loom catches hold of anything and raises his body erect, so is this setting upright of the body. Vyädhiyakam ("shivering"): shuddering that has arisen. Thus by all these words is expressed bodily shifting due to defilement. 2363. In the description of bhattasammada <352.14> ("meal intoxication"), bhuttävissa <352.15> ("w one who has eaten") = bhuttavato. Bhattamucchä ("giddiness due to food') is sickness due to food; for through much one comes to giddiness. Bhattakilamatho ("distress due to food") is a distressed state due to food. Bhattapariläho ("fever due to food ") is discomfort due to food; for at that time the body hurts since its faculties are oppressed and it comes to

236

The Dispeller of Delusion

a state of fever. Käyadutthullam <352.16> ("bodily inertia")29 is bodily unwieldiness due to food. 2364. The description of cetaso linatta <352.17> ("mental sluggishness") has the same meaning as stated in the commentary to the Dhammasafigaha (see Asl §377). But by all these words it should be understood as a mode of sickness of the mind due to defilement. 2365. As regards the description of kuhanä <352.21> (^scheming"), läbhasakkärasiloka sannissitassa <352.22> ("on the part of one who depends on gain, honour and renown") is on the part of one who is bent on gain, on honour and on reputation; on the part of one longing [for them] is the meaning. Päpicchassa ("of one of evil wishes"): of one who wants to show qualities that he has not got. Icchäpakatassa ("of one a prey to wishes") = icchäya apakatassa; attacked (upadduta) [by them] is the meaning. 2366. After this, it is because the examples of scheming (kuhanavatthu) have been handed down in the Mahäniddesa (Ndi 224-7; 461-3) as of three kinds, namely, those connected with "cultivation of requisites" (paccayapatisevana)?® "indirect talk" (sämantajappana) and deportment (iriyäpatha), that the passage beginning paccayapatisedhanasankhätena vä <352.23> ("or by what is called refusal of requisites")31 is stated in order to show it as of three kinds. 2367. Herein, [a bhikkhu] is invited [to accept] robes, etc. and, just because he wants them, he refuses them out of evilness of wishes. And then, since he knows those householders believe in him implicitly, when they think: 'Oh, how few are our lord's wishes! He will not accept a thing! How lucky for us if he should accept just a little thing!' and they put fine robes, etc. before him by different means, he then accepts, making a show that he wants to be compassionate towards them — it is this hypocrisy [of his], which becomes the cause thereafter of their bringing [them] even by cartloads, that should be understood as the "basis for scheming called cultivation of requisites". 2368. For this is said in the Mahäniddesa: "What is the example of scheming called refusal of requisites ? Here, householders invite bhikkhus [480] [to accept] robes, almsfood, lodging and the requisite of medicine for the sick. One who is of evil wishes, who is a prey to wishes, wanting robes, almsfood, lodging, the requisite of medicine for the sick, refuses robes, refuses almsfood, refuses lodging, refuses the requisite of medicine for the sick because he wants more. He says: 'What has an ascetic to do with expensive robes ? It is proper for an

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

237

ascetic to gather rags from a charnel ground or from a rubbish heap or from a shop 32 and make them into a patchwork robe (sahghäti) to wear. What has an ascetic to do with expensive almsfood ? It is proper for an ascetic to get his living by the dropping of lumps [into his bowl] while wandering for gleanings. What has an ascetic to do with expensive lodgings ? It is proper for an ascetic to be a tree-root dweller or an open-air dweller. What has an ascetic to do with an expensive requisite of medicine for the sick ? It is proper for an ascetic to cure himself with putrid urine or broken gallnuts (haritaki-khanda).' Accordingly he wears a coarse robe, makes use of coarse almsfood, lives in a coarse lodging and takes a coarse requisite of medicine for the sick. 2369. "Then householders think: 'This monk has few wishes, is content, is secluded, keeps aloof from company, is strenuous, is a preacher of asceticism,' and they invite him more and more [to accept] robes, almsfood, lodging and requisites of medicine for the sick. He says thus: 'With three things present a faithful clansman produces much merit: with faith present a faithful clansman produces much merit; with goods to be given present a faithful clansman produces much merit; with those worthy to receive present a faithful clansman produces much merit. You have faith, the goods to be given are here, and I am here to accept. If I do not accept, then you will be deprived of the merit. I have no use for [all] that, but I will accept it out of compassion for you.' Accordingly he accepts many robes, he accepts much almsfood, he accepts many lodgings, he accepts many requisites of medicine for the sick. Such grimacing, grimacery, scheming, schemery, schemedness, is called the example of scheming called refusal of requisites" (Ndi 224 f.; 461 f.). 2370. But it is the hypocrisy on the part of one of evil wishes [481] who gives it to be understood verbally in such and such wise that he has attained higher than human states which should be understood as the "example of scheming called indirect talk",33 according as it is said: "What is the example of scheming called indirect talk ? Here someone of evil wishes, a prey to wishes, intent on being admired, thinking: 'Thus people will admire me,' speaks words concerning the noble state. He says: 'He who wears such a robe is an ascetic of great importance.' He says: 'He who carries such a bowl, metal cup, water filler,34 water strainer, water vessel, 35 waistband, sandals, 36 is an ascetic of great importance.' He says: 'He who has such a preceptor, teacher, such a friend, associate, intimate, companion, with the same preceptor, the

238

The Dispeller of Delusion

same teacher, he who lives in such a monastery, lean-to (addhayoga), mansion, house (hammiya), cave, grotto, hut, upper chamber, watchtower, hall, granary,37 waiting room, pavilion, tree-root is an ascetic of great importance.' Or alternatively, ail-eagerly, all-grimacing, all-scheming, all-talkative (mukha-sambhavita)y with an expression of admiration he utters such deep, mysterious, cunning, obscure, supramundane talk suggestive of voidness as: 'This monk is an obtainer of such peaceful abidings and attainments as these;' such grimacing, grimacery, scheming, schemery and schemedness is known as the example of scheming called indirect talk" (Ndi 226; 463). 2371. But it is hypocrisy on the part of one of evil wishes which takes the form of deportment influenced by intentness on being admired that should be understood as the "example of scheming dependent on deportment"; according as it is said: "What is the example of scheming called 'deportment' ? Here someone of evil wishes, a prey to wishes, intent on being admired, thinks: 'People will thus admire me' as he composes his way of walking, composes his way of laying down; he walks studiedly, stands studiedly, sits studiedly, lies down studiedly; he walks as though concentrated, stands, sits, lies down as though concentrated; and he is one who meditates in public (äpäthakajjhäyi). Such disposing, posing, composing, scheming, schemery, schemedness of deportment is called 'example of scheming called deportment'" (Ndi 225; 462-3). 2372. Herein, paccayapatisedhanä <352.23> ("by rejection of requisites") means by the rejecting of requisites so called. Sämantajappitena ("by indirect talk") is by what is said that is close [to the subject]. Iriyäpathassa <352.24> ("of the deportment"): of the four modes of deportment. Atthapani ("disposing"): initial posing (ädithapanä) or carefully posing (ädarena thapanä). Thapanä ("posing"): the mode of posing. Santhapanä ("composing"): prearranging; assuming a trust-inspiring attitude is what is meant. Bhäkutitä <352.25> ("grimacing") is the making of grimaces show (?) a former state of effort;38 "facial contraction" is what is meant. One who has the habit of making grimaces is a grimacer (bhäkutika). The state of the grimacer is bhäkutiyam ("grimacery"), Kuhanä ("scheming") is hypocrisy. The manner (äyanä) of a schemer (kuha) is kuhäyanä ("schemery"). The state of what is schemed (kuhita) is kuhitattam ("schemedness").

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

239

2373. As regards the description of lapanä <352.27> ("talking"), älapanä <352.29> ^talking at") means this, [an ascetic,] on seeing people coming to the monastery, talks from the very beginning (ädito va lapanä) thus: * What have you come for, good people ? Is it to invite bhikkhus ? If it is that, then go along and I will come later, bringing [with me the other] monks;' this is älapanä. Or alternatively, talking at is talking by advertising oneself thus: 'I am Tissa, the king trusts me; such and such king's ministers trust me.' Lapanä ("talking") is the same kind of talking on being asked a question. Sallapanä ("talking around") is thorough talking (sutthu lapanä) by one who is afraid of householders' displeasure because he has given occasion for it. UUapanä ("talking up") is talking by extolling thus: 'He is a great landowner, a great shipowner, a great lord of giving.' Samullapanä <352.30> ("continually talking up") is talking by extolling in all ways. 2374. Unnahanä ("persuading") is going on tying39 [people] up thus: 'Lay followers, formerly you used to give first-fruit alms40 at such a time; why do you not do so now ?' until they say: 'We shall give, venerable sir, we have had no opportunity' and so on; "entangling" (vethanä) is what is meant. Or alternatively, seeing someone with sugar cane in his hand, he asks: 'Where are you coming from,41 lay follower ?' 'From the sugar-cane field, venerable sir.' 'Is the sugar cane sweet there ?' 'One can find out by eating, venerable sir.' 'It is not allowed, lay followers, for a bhikkhu to say: "Give [me] sugar cane'"; [483] such entangling talk on the part of an entangler is unnahanä ("persuading"). Persuading again and again in all ways is samunnahanä ("continually persuading"). 2375. Ukkäcanä ("suggesting") is insinuating (käcanä) and suggesting by specifying thus: 'That family alone understands me; if there is anything to be given there, they give it to me only;' "pointing out"42 is what is meant. 2376. And here the story of the oil seller should be told. It seems that two bhikkhus went into a village and sat down in the sitting hall. Seeing a girl, they called to her. Then one asked the other: 'Whose girl is this, venerable sir ?' 'She is the daughter of our supporter the oil seller, friend. When we go to her mother's house and she gives us ghee, she gives it in the pot. And this [girl] gives it in the pot like her mother, too.' Thus did he persuade; persuading in all ways again and again is samukkäcanä ("continually suggesting").

240

The Dispeller of Delusion

2377. Anuppiyabhanitä <352.31> {"ingratiating chatter") is endearing chatter repeated again and again without regard to whether it is in conformity with truth and dhamma. Cätukamyatä {"flattery")*** is speaking in a humble manner, always maintaining an attitude of inferiority. Muggasüpyatä {"bean-soupery") is resemblance to bean soup. For just as when beans are being cooked only a few do not get cooked, the rest get cooked; so the person in whose speech only a little is true, the rest being false, is called "bean soup"; his state is "beansoupery". Päribhatyatä <352.32> {"fondling") is the state of fondling. For when a man fondles children of families on his lap or on his shoulder, like a nurse ["he nurses" is the meaning], that fondler's act is the act of fondling {päribhatyam); the state of the act of fondling is päribhatyatä. 2378. As regards the description of nemittikatä <352.33> {"hinting"), nimittam <353.1> {"a sign") is any bodily or verbal act that gets others to give requisites. Nimittakammam {"giving a sign") is skill in making a sign. Herein, there is this story. It seems an almsfooder went to the door of a supporter who was a smith, and when asked: 'What is it, venerable sir ?' he drew out his hand from his robe [484] and made a gesture of cutting with a knife. The smith, saying: 'I understand, venerable sir,' made him a knife and gave it to him. 2379. Obhäso {"indication") is talk that alludes to requisites. Obhäsakammam <353.2> {"giving indication"): on seeing cowboys he asks: 'Are these milk cows' calves or buttermilk cows' calves ?' When it is said: They are milk cows' calves, venerable sir,' [he remarks:] 'They are not milk cows' calves. If they were milk cows' calves, the bhikkhus would be getting milk,' etc., and the getting of the knowledge to the boys' parents in this way and so getting them to give milk is "giving indication". 2380. Sämantajappä {"indirect talk") is talk that is close [to the subject]. And here there should be told the story of the Jätaka preacher.44 It seems an elder, a preacher of the Jätakas, wanted to eat, and he went into the house of a woman supporter and sat down. She was unwilling to give, and saying: 'There is no rice,' she went to a neighbouring house as though to get rice. The bhikkhu went inside the storeroom, and looking around, he saw sugarcane in the corner behind the door {kavätakona), sugar in a bowl, a string of salt fish in a basket,45 rice in a jar and ghee in a pot. He came out and sat down. The housewife came back and said: 'I did not get any rice.' The Elder46 said:

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

241

'Lay follower, I saw a sign just now that today alms will not be plentiful.' 'What, venerable sir ?' 'I saw a snake which was like sugarcane put in the corner behind the door; looking for something to hit it with, [I saw] a stone like a lump of sugar in a bowl; when the snake had been hit with the clod, it spread out a hood like a string of salt fish in a basket, and its teeth as it tried to bite the clod were like rice grains in a jar. Then the saliva mixed with poison that came out of its mouth in its fury was like ghee put in a pot.* She thought: 'One cannot hoodwink the shaveling,' and she gave the sugarcane to him and she cooked the rice and gave it all to him with the ghee, the sugar and the fish. Such talk that keeps near [to the subject] should be understood as "indirect talk". Parikathä ("roundabout talk") is talking round and round [the subject] in such a way that one obtains [what one wants]. 2381. As regards the description of n i p p e s i k a t ä < 3 5 3 . 4 > ("pressure"), akkosanä <353.6> ("abusing") is abusing by means of the ten examples of abuse. 47 V a m b h a n ä ("disparaging") is contemptuous talk. [485] Garahanä ("reproaching") is enumeration of faults such as: 4He is faithless, he is untrusting.' Ukkhepanä ^snubbing") is taking up (ukkhipana) verbally thus: 'Don't say that here!' Snubbing in all ways, giving grounds and cause is samukkhepanä <353.7> ("continual snubbing"), or alternatively, when someone does not give, taking him up thus: 4 Ah, what a prince of givers!' is "snubbing"; the thorough snubbing thus: 'A great prince of givers!' is "continual snubbing". Khipanä ("ridicule") is making fun thus: 'What sort of life has this man who eats up his seed (grain) ?' Sankhipanä ("continual ridicule") is making fun more thoroughly thus: 'What, you say this man is not a giver, who always gives the words: "There is nothing" to everyone ?' Päpanä48 ("denigration") is denigration by saying that he is not a giver or by blaming him. Allround denigration is sampäpanä ("continual denigration"). 2382. Avannahäritä <353.8> ("tale-bearing") is bearing tales from house to house, from village to village, from country to country, [thinking:] 'So they will give to me out of fear of my bearing tales.' Parapitthimamsikatä ("backbiting") is speaking censoriously behind another's back after speaking sweetly to his face; for this is like the biting of the flesh of another's back, when he is not looking, on the part of one who is unable to look him in the face; therefore it is called "backbiting". A yam vuccati nippesikatä ("this is called pressure"): because it removes (nippeseti)*9 wipes off,50 the virtuous qualities of

242

The Dispeller of Delusion

others as a bamboo scraper (velupesikd) does unguent,51 or because it is a pursuit of gain by grindmg(nippimsitva)52 and pulverising others' virtuous qualities, like the pursuit of perfume by grinding the kinds of perfumed substances; it is therefore called "pressure" (nippesikata). 2383. As regards the description of läbhena läbham nijigimsanatä <353.10> {"pursuing gain with gain"), nijigimsanatä <353.10> ("pursuing") is hunting after. Ito laddham <353.11> ("got from here"): got from this house. Amutra <353.12> ("there"): into that house. Etthi <353.13> ("seeking") is wanting. Gavetthi <353.14> ("seeking for") is hunting after. Pariyetthi ("seeking out") is hunting after again and again. The story of the bhikkhu who went round giving the alms he had got in the beginning to children of families here and there and in the end got milk and gruel should be told here. Esanä ("searching") and so on are synonyms for "seeking" (etthi) and so on; therefore the construction here should be understood thus: esanä ("searching") is seeking; gavesanä ("searching for") is seeking for; pariyesanä ("searching out") is seeking out. 2384. [486] In the description of the pride of superiority <353.16>, jätiyä <353.17> ("on account of birth") is on account of fortunate birth such as the Khattiya state. Gottena ("on account of clan") is on account of the exalted Gotama clan, etc. Kolaputtiyena ("on account of being the son of a good family") is on account of a great family. Vannapokkharatäya <353.18> ("on account of appearance"): on account of having a body possessed of a fortunate appearance; for the body is called "a lotus" (pokkhara); on account of the fortunate appearance of that; on account of elegance, is the meaning. Dhanena ("on account of wealth") and so on are clear in meaning. Man am jappeti <353.20> ("he works up pride"):53 on account of any one among these bases he produces, makes, pride thus: seyyo 'ham asmi <353.21> ("/ am superior"). 2385. In the description of pride of equality <353.24>, mänam jappeti <353.28> ("he works up pride") means that on account of any one among these bases he produces pride thus: sadiso 'ham asmi <353.31> ("/ am equal"). This is the distinction here as to meaning. But there is no differentiation in the Pali. 2386. In the description of the pride of inferiority <353.32>, omänam jappeti <352.36> ("he works up pride of humility") means he produces pride in baseness (hetthä-mäno); omäno <352.37> ("pride of humility") is low pride in baseness.54 Omaftftanä omaüfiitattam

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

243

("taking pride in humility, proudness in humility") are the descriptions of the mode and the state. Hilanä <353.38> ("self-loathing") is disgust with oneself due to birth and the like.55 OhÜanä ("self -detesting") is excessive self-loathing. Ohilitattam ("self-detestation") is the description of the state of the last-named. Attuüfiä ("selfdepreciation") is recognising oneself as inferior. Attavafifiä ("selfcontempt") is being contemptuous of oneself. Attaparibhävo ("selfdespising") is being proud (mahhana) by despising oneself thus: 'I have not even got a fortunate birth, etc.* 2387. Thus these three kinds of pride are expounded by means of the bases of birth, etc. only, and independently of a person. And as regards these, each one of the three arises in respect of the three, namely, those who are superior, equal and inferior.56 Herein, only the pride that says: 'I am superior' of one who is superior is the true pride of superiority, the rest are not true pride; only the pride that says: 'I am equal' of one who is equal is the true pride of equality, the rest are not true pride. Only the pride that says: 'I am inferior' of one who is inferior is true pride of inferiority; the rest are not true pride. 2388. But tattha katamo seyyassa seyyo 'ham asmi <354.1> {^herein, the pride of one who is superior that says: 7 am superior*") and so on are expounded as the nine kinds of pride according to persons. Among these, three arise in each one. Herein, dahati <354.6> ("judges") means "places". Tarn nissäya ("depending on that"): depending on that judging as superior. But here, seyyassa seyyo 'ham asm! ti mono <354.9> ("the pride of one who is superior that says: 7 am superior'") arises in both kings and those gone forth. For a king, ön account of his kingdom or his wealth or his beasts of conveyance (vähana), feels this pride thus: 'Who is there equal to me ?' and one gone forth, [487] on account of his virtuous conduct, his ascetic practices, etc., feels pride thus: 'Who is there equal to me ?' 2389. Seyyassa sadiso 'ham asm! ti mäno <354.10> ("the pride of one who is superior that says: 7 am equal'") arises in them too. For a king, on account of his kingdom or his wealth or his beasts, feels this pride thus: 'What difference is there between me and other kings ?* And one gone forth, on account of his virtuous conduct, his ascetic practices, etc., feels this pride thus: 'What difference is there between me and another bhikkhu ?' 2390. Seyyassa hino 'ham asm! ti mäno <354.19> ("the pride of one who is superior that says: 7 am inferior'") arises in them too. For

244

The Dispeller of Delusion

the king whose kingdom or whose wealth or whose beasts are not successful feels pride thus: 'I have only the mere pleasure of the name of king; what kind of a king a m i ? ' And one gone forth who has little gain and honour feels this pride thus: 'I am merely called a preacher of the Law, a learned person, a senior elder; what kind of a preacher of the Law am I ? What kind of learned person am I ? What kind of senior elder since I have no gain and honour ?' 2391. Sadisassa seyyo 'ham asm! ti mäno <354.28> ("the pride of one who is equal that says: 7 am superior"') and so on arise in ministers and so on. For a minister or a governor,57 on account of property, vehicles and beasts, feels these kinds of pride thus: 'What other courtier is there equal to me ?' or: 'What difference is there between me and others ?' or: 'I have only the mere name of minister; I have not even food and clothing; what kind of a minister am I ?' 2392. Hinassa seyyo 'ham asm! ti mäno <354.35> ("the pride of one who is inferior that says: 'I am superior'") and so on arise in bondsmen and so on. For a bondsman, because of mother or father, feels these kinds of pride thus: 'What other bondsman is there equal to me ? Others have become bondsmen because of their stomachs when they were unable to make a living; but I am superior because I am so hereditarily' or: 'Because of pure bondsmanship on both sides owing to heritage, what difference is there between me and such and such a bondsman ?' or: 'I have come to bondsmanship because of my stomach. But on my mother's and father's side I do not have bondsmanship. What kind of a bondsman am I ?' And as the bondsman, so the pukkusa and the candäla [castes] and so on feel these kinds of pride too. 2393. And here only the pride arisen in one who is superior that says: 'I am superior' is true pride; the other two are not true pride. Likewise only the pride arisen in one who is equal that says: 'I am equal' and that arisen in one who is inferior that says: 'I am inferior' are true pride, the other two [in each case] are not true pride. 2394. Herein, true pride is cast out by the path of Arahatship; what is not true pride is cast out by the path of Stream Entry. 2395. Having thus expounded the kinds of pride that have a basis, now [488] Tattha katamo mäno ? <355.11> ("Herein, which is pride ?"), etc. is said in order to point out pride which is produced without basis. 2396. In the description of atimäno <355.14> ("haughtiness"), it is described by the bases of birth, etc. without touching on the person

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

245

according to superiority, etc. Herein, atimafifiati <355.17> ("is overproud") means he shows pride to excess (atikkamitvä mafiflati) about birth, etc. thus: 'There is no-one equal to me.' 2397. In the description of mänätimäno <355.20> ("pride upon pride"), yo evarüpo <355.24> ("such"): such pride as this arisen thus: 'This [man] was formerly my equal; now I am foremost and he is inferior.' He spoke thus in order to point out that this pride upon pride depends on former pride of equality like a burden upon a burden.58 2398. The description of omäno <355.27> ("pride of humility") is the same as the description of hinamäna <353.32> ("pride of inferiority") above. But for the sake of those who are teachable, this pride stated thus: 'I am inferior' is called omäno ("pride of humility"). Furthermore, this should be understood here as "Pride of humility when it occurs as self-abasement thus: 'You have birth but your birth is like a crow's birth; you have a clan, but your clan is like a Candäla clan; you have a voice, but your voice is like a crow's voice.' 2399. In the description of adhimäna <355.35> ("overestimation"), appatte pattasaöfiitä <355.36> ("perception of what is not attained as attained") is through the perception of the four truths as attained when they are not attained. Akate ("of what is not done"): of the functions to be performed by the four paths not yet performed. Anadhigate ("of what is unachieved"): of the states of the four truths still unachieved. Asacchikate <355.37> ("of what is not realized"): of what is not done through personal experience by the path of Arahatship. Ayam vuccati adhimäno <355.39> ("this is called overestimation"): this is called pride of achievement (adhigatamäna). 2400. But in whom does this arise and in whom does it not ? Firstly it does not arise in the Noble Disciple. For he, being full of joy through reviewing path, fruition, nibbäna, abandoned defilements and remaining defilements, has no doubts about the penetration of the noble qualities; therefore in Stream Enterers and so on there does not arise pride that says: 'I am a Once Returner' and so on. Also it does not arise in one of bad conduct; for he is not eager to attain noble qualities. Also it does not arise in one who is of virtuous conduct who has given up his meditation subject and is devoted to delight in sleep, etc. 2401. But it arises in one whose virtuous conduct is pure, who is diligent in his meditation subject; who, after defining mentalitymateriality, has overcome doubt by laying hold of conditions; who, after applying the three characteristics, is comprehending the

246

The Dispeller of Delusion

formations and has initiated insight. And when it has arisen, an obtainer of pure tranquillity or an obtainer of pure insight pauses midway. For during ten, twenty, thirty years, not seeing the frequenting of the defilements, [489] he imagines that he is a Stream Enterer, a Once Returner, a Non-Returner. But an obtainer of tranquillity and insight only pauses at Arahatship. For by the power of his concentration his defilements are suppressed, and by the power of his insight the formations are thoroughly laid hold of. Therefore the defilements do not frequent him for 60 years, 80 years, 100 years. It is the mental behaviour of one who has destroyed the cankers, too. Not seeing any frequenting of the defilements for so long without pausing, he imagines that he is an Arahat. 2402. Like the Elder Mahänäga, who lived at Uccatalanga,59 like the Elder Mahädatta, who lived at Hankanaka, like the Elder Cülasumana, who lived in the Ninkaponna60 meditation house (padhänaghara) at Cittalapabbata. Here is one story as an illustration. 2403. It seems that the Elder Dhammadinna, who lived at Talanga,61 one of the great ones whose cankers were destroyed and who had acquired the Discriminations (patisambhida), was the instructor of a large assembly of bhikkhus. One day, as he was sitting in his own day quarters, he wondered: 'Has our teacher, the Elder Mahänäga, who lives at Uccatalanga, brought his work of recluseship to its culmination or not ?' He saw that he was still an ordinary man. Knowing that if he did not go up to him he would die an ordinary man, he rose up into the sky with miraculous power and descended near the Elder who was sitting in his day quarters. He paid homage to him, showed obeisance and sat down at one side. When he was asked: 'Why, friend Dhammadinna, have you come unexpectedly ?' he replied: 'I have come to ask a question, venerable sir.' When he was told: 'Ask, friend. If we know we shall say/ he asked a thousand questions. 2404. The Elder spoke without hesitation each time he was questioned. Then when it was said: 'Your knowledge is extremely keen, venerable sir; when was this state attained by you ?' he replied: 'Sixty years ago, friend.' 'Do you practise concentration, venerable sir?' 'That is not difficult, friend.' 'Then make an elephant, venerable sir.' The Elder made an elephant, all white. 'Now, venerable sir, make this elephant come straight at you with ears outstretched and tail extended, and putting his trunk in his mouth making a frightful trumpeting.' The Elder did so. Seeing the frightful aspect of the elephant coming swiftly,

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

247

he got up and began to run away. Then the Elder whose cankers were destroyed [490] stretched out his hand and, catching the hem of his robe, said: 'Venerable sir, is there timidity in one whose cankers are destroyed ?' 2405. Then he recognized that he was still an ordinary man. 'Be my help, friend Dhammadinna,' he said, and he knelt at his feet. 'Venerable sir, I will be your help. That is why I came. Do not worry.' And he expounded a meditation subject to him. The Elder took up the meditation subject. When he had gone up onto the walk, he reached Arahatship, the highest fruition, at the third step. It seems the Elder was one of hating temperament. 2406. In the description of asmimäno <356.1> ("the pride that says: 7 am'"), rüpe asm! ti mäno <356.2> ("the pride that says: 7 am' in respect of materiality'*) is pride arisen thus: 'I am materiality' (aham rüpam). Chando ("zeal") is the zeal that accompanies the pride. Likewise anusayo ("inherent tendency"). As regards feeling and so on, the method is the same. 2407. In the description of micehämäno <356.7> ("wrong pride"), as regards päpakena vä kammäyatanena <356.8> ("on account of an evil sphere of work") and so on, an evil sphere of work is the work of doing fishing with lines and traps; an evil sphere of craft (sippäyatana) is proficiency in both making fishing nets and trammels and in casting harpoons and impaling with spears; evil sorcery (vijjätthäna) is any kind of wizardry (vijjä) which hurts others; evil lore (suta) is that connected with the Bhärata War or the rape of Sita; evil talk (patibhäna) is talk about ballads, dancers, idle talk, etc. which is connected with what is ill-spoken; evil asceticism (slid) is goat-asceticism, ox-asceticism; vow (vata) is a goat-vow or an ox-vow; evil view (ditthi), however, is any one among the 62 wrong views. 2408. In the description of fiätivitakko <356.16> ("thought of relatives"), etc., the thought arisen instigated by relatives through worldly affection based on the five cords of sense desire thus: 'May my relatives be happy and fortunate' is "thought of relatives"; but it is not such thought of relatives as occurs thus: 'They have come to destruction and have passed away; they are faithful and trusting.' 2409. Janapadavitakko <356.20> ("thought of country") is the thought arisen based on worldly affection in one who is contented thus: 'Our country has plenty of alms, has a rich harvest;' but it is not such

248

The Dispeller of Delusion

thought of country as occurs thus: * People in our country are faithful, trusting, have come to destruction and have passed away.' 2410. "Thought with the aim of immortality" or "an immortal thought" is amaravitakko <356.23>. Herein, the thought connected with mortification in one who is practising mortification, thinking: 'When suffering is used up by perpetual squatting, and so on, in the life to come [491] the self will be happy and immortal* is "thought with the aim of immortality". But a holder of wrong views, when asked: 'Do you assert eternity V and so on starts wriggling thus: 'Not that I think thus, nor like that, nor otherwise, nor that I think not, nor that I do not think not.' This thought of his which is connected with wrong view is called "immortal" (amara) because, just as the fish called "immortal" (amara)62 cannot be killed when caught in the water but darts hither and thither and does not get caught, similarly this [thought] does not get killed (na marati) since it does not commit itself to one side or the other. Taking these two together, ayam vuccati amaravitakko <356.26> ("this is called thought of immortality") is said.63 2411. Paränuddayatä-patisamyutto <356.27> ("connected with fellow feeling for others"): connected with worldly affection which takes the form of fellow feeling.64 As regards sahanandi <356.28> ("he shares their delights"), when his suporters delight or sorrow, he delights with them twice over, sorrows with them twice over; when they are happy he is twice happy; when they suffer he suffers twice as much. Uppannesu kiccakaraniyesu <356.29> ("when work and business crop up"): when these great or small works crop up. Attanä vä yogam äpajjati <356.30> ("he sets to work himself): accomplishing such and such works, he exceeds his calling, he disturbs effacement. Yo tattha ("that which in this respect"): that worldly thought about that dwelling in company, or about undertaking that work. This is called "thought connected with fellow feeling for others". 2412. Läbhasakkärasilokapatisamyutto <356.3> ("connected with gain, honour and renown"): connected with gain consisting of robes, etc. and with honour and with fame by making them the object. 2413. Anavaflflattipatisamyutto <356.37> ("connected with not being despised'): thought arisen together with the longing not to be despised thus: 'Ah, let others not despise me, let them not talk hurtfully and damagingly about me!' Yo tattha gehasito <357.1> ("that which therein is worldly"): that thought which has arisen

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

249

dependent on the world called the five cords of sense desire when the mind has arisen thus: 4Let not others despise me!' 2414. The rest is clear throughout. Dyads 2415. As regards the dyads, the description of kodha <357.5> (llangeryy) and so on should be understood in the way stated above (see As] 367). 2416. But in such descriptions as that of u p a n ä h a <357.5> ("enmity")65 which have not been given above, anger at a subsequent time is called "enmity" (upanäha) since it bears enmity (upanayhati) on account of previous anger. [492] The mode of bearing enmity is upanayhanä <357.12> ("bearing enmity"). The state of one who is inimical is u p a n a y h i t a t t a m ("inimicalness"). Atthapanä ("arranging"): the placing in order of that which is first arisen; or the placing of limits, f h a p a n a ("placing") is the original placing. Santhapanä <357.13> ("setting") is the fixing of resentment in all ways again and again. Anusamsandanä ("continual affliction") is uniting with the anger first arisen without showing any interval. Anuppabandhanä ("continual linking up, anchoring") is the joining up of the previous with the subsequent. Dalhikammam ("making firm") is making solid. Ayam vuccati <357.14> ("this is called"): this is called enmity which has the characteristic of bearing enmity and the function of not relinquishing hostility. Endowed with it, a person is unable to relinquish hostility. 'So and so is unfit to speak to me;' thus he goes on pursuing him. He flames like a lighted rotten firebrand. Like bearskin when it is washed, and like rags smeared with grease and oil, he does not get clean. 2417. Makkho <357.15> ("disparaging")66 is the state of disparaging; and when it occurs as the besmirching of others' good qualities, it first besmirches one's own action, like dung besmirches one who throws dung. The two words that follow are the description of the mode and the state. The scorned (nitthura)61 state is nitthuriyam <357.16> ("scorn"); saying: 'There is no depending on him for even that much' and spitting, is the meaning. Nitthuriyakammam <357.17> ("act of scorning") = nitthuriyakaranam. A householder living in dependence on a householder, or a bhikkhu on a bhikkhu, having got angry for some trivial reason, as though saying: 'There is no depending on him for even

250

The Dispeller of Delusion

that much' and spitting and rubbing it out with his foot, scorns (nitthuriyam karoti) him. That act is called an act of scorning. But as to characteristic, etc., disparaging has the characteristic of besmirching others' good qualities; its function is to destroy them; it manifests as the covering up of deeds well done by others. 2418. "It domineers"68 is paläso <357.18> ("domineering"). On seeing another's good qualities it makes them equal to one's own good qualities, is the meaning. The process (äyanä) of domineering is paläsäyanä <357.19> ("action of domineering"). It is "domineering", and because of bringing (äharana) victory to oneself it is nutriment (ähära) as well; hence it is paläsähäro ("domineering and nutriment thereof). Vivädatthänam ("ground for dispute") is cause for dispute. Yugaggäho <357.20> ("interfering") is taking charge equally. Appatinissaggo ("non-relinquishment") is the non-relinquishing of what one has taken hold of. [493] 2419. But as to characteristic, etc. domineering has the characteristic of interfering; its function is the equalizing of one's good qualities with those of others; it manifests as establishing according to the measurement of others' good qualities. For a domineering person does not give charge to another, he keeps exerting himself equally. When in the debating hall many suttas and reasons are quoted by another bhikkhu he says: 'What is the difference between what you say and what I say ? Is not what we say as alike as [the two parts of] a suvanna (coin) broken in half ?' 2420. The descriptions of issä <357.21> ("envy") and macchariya ("avarice") have the meaning aforesaid (see Asl 373-6; cf. 257). 2421. In the description of mäyä <357.31> ("deceit"), väcam bhäsati <358.1> ("he speaks words") means: although he knows, he speaks as though at peace thus: 'Bhikkhus who transgress the observance do wrong; but we have no grounds for transgressing.' K i y e n a parakkamati <358.2> ("he exerts himself bodily"): he does the customary duties "so that no-one may know the evil deed done by me". 2422. Because of covering up existing faults it is deceit (mäyä) like the conjuring (mäyä) which is a deluding of the eye. The state of one who deceives is mäyävitä <358.3> ("deception"). Having done evil, because of covering it up again beings persist (äsaranti)69 in transgression (aticca) because of that, is accäsarä ("exaggeration"). It cheats (varlceti) because of showing [it] otherwise by body, speech and thought, is vaflcanä ("cheating"). "By that beings trick" (nikaronti) is

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

251

nikati ("trickery"); they do wrong, is the meaning. Vikirani ("prevarication") is because of denial of evil [actions] thus: 'I do not do so.' Pariharana <358.4> ("misleading") is because of suggesting: 4I do not do so.' Guhanä ("hiding") is because of concealing by body, etc. Hiding in all ways is pariguhanä ("hiding away"), "It covers evil by means of bodily and verbal action like excrement with grass and leaves" is chädanä ("covering"). Covering in all ways is paricchädanä ("covering over"). "It does not show by making clear" is anuttänlkammam <358.5> ("obscuring"). "It does not show by making plain" is anävikammam ("veiling"). Thorough covering is vocchädanä ("completely covering"). Päpakriyä ("evil action") is because of doing evil again due to the covering up of what is done. Ayam vuccati <358.6> ("this is called"): this is called deceit with the characteristic of covering up what is done; endowed with which a person is like an ember covered up widi ash, like a snag covered up with water and like a knife wrapped up in rags. 2423. [494] In the description of sätheyya ("fraudulence"), sätho <358.8> ("a fraud") is one who does not speak rightly because of making a show of non-existent qualities. Parisatho ("a complete fraud") is one who is a fraud in all ways. Yam tattha ("that which herein"): that which in that person. Satham ("fraud") is dishonesty in making a show of non-existent qualities. Sathatä <358.9> ("fraudulency") is the mode of fraud. Kakkaratä ("roughness") is a harsh, grating state which does not bear touching like that of a lotus stalk. Kakkariyam ("rough state") is a synonym for that. By the two words parikkhattatä pärikkhattiyam <358.9; see also 351.22> ("ensconcedness, ensconced state"), firm dishonesty is stated which is as though set by being dug round [with moats] (see above, §2355). Idam vuccati <358.10> ("this is called"): this is called fraudulence with the characteristic of proclaiming qualities non-existent in oneself; when a person is endowed with this, it is impossible to know his belly or his back. "By his left he is a hog, by his right side a goat, By his voice he is a calf,70 and by his horn an aged bull." (DAii656;NdAii421) He is like the demon hog71 so described.

252

The Dispeller of Delusion

2424. The descriptions of avijjä <358.11> ("ignorance") and so on have the meaning stated above. 2425. In the description of anajjavo <359.29> ("indirectness"), anajjavo <359.30> ("indirectness") is a mode of unstraightness. The state of one who is unstraight is anajjavatä ("indirectness"). Jimhatä ("twistedness") is the bentness of the moon [sickle]; vankatä ("crookedness"): the crookedness of cow urine [on the road]. Kutilatä ("falseness") is the crookedness of the plough's tip. By all these words only crookedness of body, speech and mind is stated. 2426. In the description of amaddava <359.32> ("unsoftness"), the state of one who is not soft is amudutä <359.33> ("unmildness"). The mode of being unsoft is amaddavatä ("being unsoft"). The state of one who is hard is kakkhaliyam ("hardness"). The harsh state due to the absence of moisture which softens is phärusiyam ("harshness"). The state of the mind which remains rigid owing to the habit of unlowliness is ujucittatä ("mental rigidity"); the inclusion of unsoftness (amudutä) again is for the purpose of distinguishing that. Mental rigidity is called unsoftness (amudutä); mental rigidity is not called directness (ajjava).12 2427. The description of akkhanti <360.1> ("impatience") and so on should be understood in the opposite sense to the descriptions of patience (khanti) and so on. 2428. In the description of the samyojana <361.14> ("fetters"), ajjhattam <361.15> ("internally") is sense-desire existence (kämabhava). Bahiddhä <361.16> ("externally") is fine-material and immaterial existence. For although beings dwell in the sense-desire existence [495] for a short time, only a fourth part of an aeon (kappa), in the remaining three parts the sense-desire existence is void and empty. They dwell for a long time in the fine-material and immaterial existences. Likewise because their deaths and rebirth-linkings are many in sense-desire existence and few in the fine-material and immaterial existences, and where deaths and rebirth-linkings are many, there longing, aspiration and wishes are many; where they are few, those too are few; therefore the sense-desire existence has got the name "internal" and the fine-material and immaterial existences the name "external". So the bond in the sense-desire existence called "internal" is called the ajjhattam samyojanam <361.15> ("internal fetter") and the bond in thefine-materialand immaterial existences called "external" is called the bahiddhä samyojanam <361.16> ("external fetter").

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

253

2429. Herein, each one is fivefold; hence paficorambhägiyäni <3611.15> {'five lower") and paflcuddhambhägiyäni <361.16> ("five higher") is said. Herein, this is the word-meaning. The sensedesire element is called oram <361.15> Clow er"). Because of effecting rebirth there they frequent (bhajanti) the lower (oram), thus they are "lower" (orambhägiya). The fine-material and immaterial elements are called uddham <361.16> ("higher"). Because of effecting rebirth there they frequent the higher, thus they are "higher" (uddhambhägiya). Triads 2430. In the description of the triads <361.18>, it is the behaviour of the roots of the process [of existence] that is expounded by the three unprofitable roots. As regards akusalavitakka <362.32> ("unprofitable thoughts"), etc., vitakka ("thought") is through thinking (vitakkana), safifiä <363.8> ("perception") is through perceiving, dhätu <363.20> ("element") is in the sense of nature (sabhäva). 2431. In the description of duccarita <363.35> ("bad conduct"), the first method is classified according to the courses of action. The second is according to all-inclusive kamma. The third is according to the volition-produced only. 2432. In the description of äsava <364.12> ^cankers"), three cankers are expounded according to the Suttanta method. 2433. In the description of esanä <366.20> ("search"), briefly the searching and greed for sense desire stated by the passage beginning tattha katamä kämesanä <366.22> ("herein, which is search for sense desire ?") should be understood as kämesanä <366.24> (^search for sense desire"). The searching and greed for existence stated by the passage beginning yo bhavesu bhavacchando <366.26> ("that which is zeal for existence among the kinds of existence") should be understood as bhavesanä <366.27> ("search for existence"). The view which searches for the life of purity considered as that of one possessed of wrong views stated by the passage beginning sassato loko <366.29> ("the world is eternal") should be understood as brahmacariyesanä <366.28> ("the search for the life of purity as wrong view"). And because it is not only greed and wrong view that are "search" but also the action (kamma) that goes together with it (tadekattha) as well, therefore the second method is set forth in order to

254

The Dispeller of Delusion

show that. Herein, tadekattham <366.34> ("that goes together with it") should be understood as the togetherness of association (sampayuttekattha). [496] 2434. Herein, what goes together with greed for sense desire is only appropriate to beings of the sense sphere; but what goes together with greed for existence is appropriate to the Great Brahmas. There is unprofitable bodily kamma at the time of taking delight in the jhäna factors in those who are walking up and down after emerging from an attainment; there is verbal kamma at the time of taking delight by uttering the words: 'Ah, the bliss! Ah, the bliss!' There is mental kamma at the time of taking delight with the mind only without setting in motion the bodily and verbal factors. And as regards the wrong view which takes up extreme [standpoints] (antaggahika), there are these [three kinds of kamma] through walking up and down and so on for all those with wrong views. 2435. As regards the description of vidhä <367.5> ("modes"), in such passages as: "What kind (kathamvidham) of person do they call virtuous ? What kind of person do they call wise ?" (S i 53), vidhä stands for aspect and shape. In such passages as: "One kind (ekavidham) of basis of knowledge" (Vbh 306) it is a portion. In such passages as: "He does not waver in the modes of self-conceit" (Th 1076) it is pride. And here it is only pride that is called vidhä. For because of modifying (vidahana) according to superiority, etc., it is called "mode" (vidhä). Or vidhä is in the sense of placing. Therefore it is the mode of pride, the placing of pride, that arises thus: 'I am superior' that should be understood as seyyo 'ham asm! ti vidhä <367.6> ("the mode: 7 am superior'"). So also with the remaining two phrases. 2436. In the description of bhaya <367.9> ("fear"), jätim paticca bhayam <367.12> ("fear due to birth") is fear arisen conditioned by birth. Bhayänakam ("fearing") is the description of the mode. Chambhitattam ("quaking") is the shaking of the limbs through fear. Lomahamso ("hair-raising") is the raising, the standing up of the bodily hairs. After showing fear as to its function by these two terms, he again shows it as to its nature [by the words] cetaso uträso <367.13> ("mental terror").™ 2437. In the description of tama <367.21> ("darkness"), it is ignorance that is expounded under the heading of uncertainty. For because of the words: "The flood of ignorance, dark, blind and deluded, is vast" (J iii 60), it is ignorance that is called "darkness". But the teaching is given

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

255

under the heading of uncertainty for the sake of the easiness in teaching according to the three periods of time. 2438. Herein, of one who doubts thus: 'How is it ? In the past was I a Khattiya or a brahman or a vessa or a sudda, or black or white, or short or tall ?' is said atitam addhänam ärabbha kankhati ("doubts about the past") (cf. MA i 68 f.). Of one who doubts thus: 'How is it ? In the future shall I be a Khattiya or a brahman or a vessa or a sudda, or black or white, or short or tall ?' is said anägatam addhänam ärabbha kankhati <367.23> ("doubts about the future"). Of one who doubts thus: 'How is it ? Am I now a Khattiya or a brahman or a vessa or a sudda ? How is it ? Am I materiality or feeling, perception, formations, consciousness ?' is said paccuppannam addhänam ärabbha kankhati <367.25> ("doubts about the present"). 2439. Herein, although no Khattiya is unaware of his own Khattiya state, or brahman of his own brahman state, or vessa of his own vessa state, or sudda of his own sudda state, [497] yet beings who believe in a soul (jlva) hear about the colour and so on74 of Khattiya and other souls and doubting thus: 'What is the soul inside us like ? Is it blue or yellow, red, white; square, hexagonal, octagonal ?' it is said that he doubts in this way (i.e. about the present). 2440. Titthäyatanäni <367.28> ("sectarians' spheres"): spheres (äyatana) which are fords (tittha); or spheres of ford-makers (titthiya). Herein, "ford" is a name for the 62 views. "Ford-makers" are those whom those views please and satisfy. The meaning of äyatana ("sphere") has been stated above (see §212 f.).75 Herein, because all those with views, when they come to birth, are born in these three places only, and when they meet they meet in these places only and assemble there, and it is these only which are their cause in the state of having wrong view, therefore titthäyatanäni means that they are fords (titthäni) and spheres (äyatanäni) in the sense of being bom and so on. And titthäyatanäni means that they are spheres (äyatanäni) of the fordmakers (titthiyänam) in that same sense. 2441. Purisapuggalo <367.30> ("person") is a being. And certainly, when man (purisa) and person (puggala) are said, a "being" (satta) is said. But this is a talk in conventional usage; it is stated thus to one who understands it thus. Patisamvedeti ("experiences"): knows as arisen in his own continuity; makes it experienced, or undergoes it. 2442. Pubbe katahetu <367.32> ("due to [kamma] done in the past"): owing to what has been done in the past being the cause; the

256

The Dispeller of Delusion

meaning is that he experiences owing to kamma done in the past being the condition [for that experiencing]. This is the doctrine of the Niganthas. But those who assert this deny both active feeling (kammavedanä) and functional feeling (kiriyavedana) and accept only resultant feeling (yipäkavedanä). They reject seven out of the eight ailments beginning with that originating from bile (see S iv 230) and accept only the eighth [born of kamma-result]. They reject two out of the three kinds of kamma beginning with that to be experienced here and now (see M iii 214 f.) and accept only that to be experienced in a subsequent existence. Among the four kinds of volition called profitable, unprofitable, resultant and functional, they accept only resultant volition. 2443. Issara-nimmäna-hetu <367.36> ("because of a lord's creation") = issara-nimmäna-käranä\ "one experiences it because of creation by a lord — by Brahma or by Pajäpati" is the meaning. This is the doctrine of the brahmans. For this is their intention, that one cannot experience these three kinds of feeling consequent upon what has been done by oneself in the present or consequent upon a command [in the present], or through what has been done previously, or without cause or condition; but it is only because of creation by a lord that one experiences them. But those who assert thus rule out all the eight kinds of ailment above-mentioned without accepting even one of them. Likewise they rule out all the above-mentioned kinds of kamma beginning with that to be experienced here and now [498] without accepting even one. 2444. A h e t u - p a c c a y ä <368.2> ("without cause and without condition"): without a cause and a condition; the meaning is that one experiences owing to no reason. This is the doctrine of the Ajivakas. Those who assert thus also rule out all the above-mentioned causes and ailments without accepting even one of them. 2445. Kificanä <368.4> ("ownings") are holdings onto (palibodha) (see M ii 263-4 kiücanatä\ M i 298 and MA ii 354). Rägo kiflcanam <368.5> ("greed is an owning"): when greed arises it binds beings and holds onto them, therefore it is called an "owning". So also with hate and delusion. 2446. Anganäni <368.7> ("blemishes"): in the passage handed down as: "there on open ground they found water" (J i 109), angaria is a piece of ground. In the passage handed down as: "he strives to abandon that stain or dirt" (M i 100) it is any kind of grass or mud (panka). In the

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

257

passage handed down as: "or possessing blemishes" (M i 125) it is strong defilement of many kinds. And here it is only angaria as defilement that is intended. Hence he said rägo anganam <368.8> ("greed is a blemish") and so on. 2447. Maläni <368.8> ("stains"): reasons for a stained state. Rago malam <368.11> ("lust is a stain"): when lust arises it makes the mind stained, causes it to get a stain, therefore it is called a stain. So also with the other two. 2448. In the description of visama <368.13> ("unevenness"), because both in greed, etc. and in bodily misconduct, etc. beings trip up, and in tripping up they fall from the dispensation and from the happy destiny, therefore because of being the cause of tripping up and falling, rago visamam <368.14> ("lust is an unevenness")y etc. is said. 2449. Aggi <368.19> ("fires"): fire in the sense of burning up. Rägaggi <368.20> ("fire of lust"): when lust arises it burns up beings, consumes them, therefore it is called a fire. So also with hate and delusion. Here are relevant stories. 2450. A young bhikkhuni went to the uposatha house at Cittalapabbata and stood looking at the sculpture of a doorkeeper (dvärapälaka). Then lust arose in her. She was consumed then and there and died. Bhikkhunis passing by said: 'Summon that young bhikkhuni standing there.' One went and, taking her by the hand, asked: 'Why are you standing V As soon as she was touched she turned and fell. This in the first place is the story of the burning up of lust. 2451. But it is in accordance with the burning up of hate that the deities whose minds are debauched by hate (manopadosika) should be regarded, and it is in accordance with the burning up of delusion that the deities whose minds are debauched by amusement (khiddäpadosika) should be regarded (see D i 20). For it is through delusion that the loss of their mindfulness comes about. That is why they die after letting their time for feeding pass by due to amusement. 2452. Kasäva <368.22> ("astringent"): bitter without nourishment. And out of lust, etc. and bodily misconduct, etc. there is not even one which is superior and possessed of nutritive essence, therefore rägo kasävo <368.23> ("greed is an astringent"), etc. is said. 2453. Assädaditthi <368.26> ("wrong view of enjoyment") is wrong view associated with enjoyment. Natthi kämesu doso <368.28> ("there is no harm in the sense desires"): he says that there is no harm in indulging the sense desires as object with the sense desires as

258

The Dispeller of Delusion

defilement.76 Pätabyatam ("downfall") is the using, the swallowing of a state which must cause downfall; for one who asserts thus uses the sense desire as defilement among the sense desires as object like one who drinks, like one who swallows. Attänuditthi <368.30> ("the wrong view of self) is wrong view which follows self. Micchiditthi <369.1> ("evil wrong view") is bad wrong view. 2454. Now because the first here is the eternity view (sassataditthi), the second is the personality view (sakkäyaditthi), the third the annihilation view (ucchedaditthi), therefore in order to point out that meaning he said sassataditthi assädaditthi <369.6> ("wrong view of enjoyment is eternity view") and so on. 2455. The description of arati <369.8> ^boredom") and the description of vihesä <369.12> ("cruelty") have the meaning aforesaid. 2456. Adhammacariyä <369.17> ("unlawful behaviour") is the performance of the unlawful; "unlawful action" is the meaning. Behaviour which is uneven, or the performance of uneven action, is visamacariyä <369.18> ("uneven behaviour"). 2457. The description of dovacassatä <369.21> ("bad-spokenness")11 and päpamittatä <369.26> ("evil friendship") have the meaning aforesaid (see Asl 393-4; cf. 52). 2458. Perception regarding diverse things because of occurring in respect of objects which have many signs is nänattasafiflä <369.31> ^perception of diversity"). Or "because perception of sense desire is one, perception of ill-will another [and perception of cruelty another], therefore perception is diverse" therefore it is perception of diversity. 2459. In the descriptions of kosajja <369.37> ("idleness") and parnada ("negligence"), the sluggish habit due to lack of devotion to the development of profitable things in one whose mind is given to the five cords of sense desire is kosajja ("idleness") and the neglectful state through neglecting should be understood as pamädo <370.7> ("negligence"). 2460. The descriptions of asantutthitä <370.16> ("discontent") and so on have the meaning aforesaid (see Asl). 2461. In the description of anädariya <371.7> ("inconsiderateness"), the state of non-consideration (anädara) through not taking (anädiyana) advice is anädariyam <371.8> ("inconsiderateness"). The mode of being inconsiderate is anädaratä ("want of consideration"). The state of disrespect in the sense of not living a life with a teacher (garu) is agäravo ("disrespect"). Apatissavatä ("disobedience") is in the sense

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

259

of not living a life with a senior. Anaddä <371.9> ("disregard') is unheedfulness (anädiyanä). Anaddäyanä ("disregarding") is the mode of not heeding. Anaddäyitattam ("state of disregard") is the state of one who is heedless. Asilyam ("unconcern") is the state of no concern. Acittikäro ("lack of deference") is the lack of showing deference to the teacher. 2462. Assaddhiyam <371.21> ("faithlessness") is the state of lack of faith. Assaddahanä <371.24> ("disbelieving") is the mode of disbelieving. Anokappanä ("unrelying") is not accepting by relying and approaching. Anabhippasido ("distrust") is in the sense of not trusting. 2463. AvadaMutä <371.26> ("illiberality") is not knowing the words "give", "do" owing to obdurate avarice. [500] Buddha ca Buddhasävakä ca <372.26> ("the Buddhas and their Disciples"): here, by the inclusion of the Buddhas the Pacceka Buddhas are included too. A s a m e t u k ä m a t ä <372.27> ("unwillingness to meet") is unwillingness to go near them. 2464. Saddhammam asotukämatä <372.30> ("unwillingness to hear the good Law"): the 37 states partaking of enlightenment are called the "good Law" (saddhamma); unwillingness to hear that. Anuggahetukämatä <372.36> ("unwillingness to learn") = na uggahetukämatä. 2465. Upärambhacittatä <372.38> ("censorious mindedness") is the state of a censorious mind. But because as to meaning that is the same as censoriousness (upärambho), therefore in order to point that out Tattha katamo upärambho ? <373.1> ("Herein, which is censoriousness ?") and so on is said. Herein, upärambho <373.2> ("censoriousness") is through censoring. Repeated censoriousness is anüpärambho ("condemnation"). The mode of censuring is upärambhanä ("censuring"). Repeated censuring is anüpärambhanä ("condemning"). The state of one who is condemnatory is anüpärambhitatta <373.3> ("condemnatoriness"). Ufiflä ("despising") is looking down on. Avafifiä ("contempt") is being contemptuous. Scorning is paribhavo ("scorn"). Randhagavesitä ("searching for a weak spot") = randhassa gavesitä; or one who searches for a weak spot is a searcher for a weak spot; his state is the "search for a weak spot". Ayam vuccati <374.4> ("this is called"): this is called censoriousness with the characteristic of contemplating others' faults. Endowed with this a person, just as a repairing tailor

260

The Dispeller of Delusion

when he has spread out the cloth, only looks for the holes, thus besmirches all another's good qualities and only dwells upon his bad qualities. 2466. Ayoniso manasikäro <373.15> ("unwise bringing to mind") is bringing to mind of what is not the means. Anicce niccam <373.16> ^concerning the impermanent as permanent"): which occurs concerning an object which is only impermanent thus: This is permanent.' So also with dukkhe sukham ("concerning the painful as pleasant") and so on. 2467. Saccavippatikülena vä <373.18> ("or by what is contrary to truth") by what is not in conformity with the four Truths. Cittassa ävattanä <373.19> ("advertence of the mind'), etc. are all synonyms for adverting (ävajjanä); as adverting causes the life-continuum consciousness to advert (ävatteti), it is "advertence of the mind". "It continues to cause it to advert" (anu anu ävatteti) is anvävattanä ("continued advertence"). "It inclines (abhuHjati), hence it is äbhogo ^inclination"). "It brings (samannäharati) from the object of the lifecontinuum to another object", hence it is samannähäro (^bringing to bear"). "It makes that the object in the mind as it arises following upon itself, hence it is manasikäro <373.20> ("bringing to mind"); "it makes" means "it places". Ayam vuccati ("this is called'): this bringing to mind which is not the means which has the characteristic of errant bringing to mind is called "unwise bringing to mind". By means of it a person is unable to advert properly to the Truths of suffering, etc. 2468. In the description of kummaggasevanä <373.21> ("cultivation of the wrong path"), the cultivation of one who cultivates the wrong path is called "cultivation of the wrong path". [501] In order to point that out, the second question is asked: Tattha katamo kummaggo ? <373.22> ("Herein, which is the wrong path ?"). 2469. The rest is clear throughout. Tetrads 2470. In the description of the tetrads, as regards the arisings of craving (tanhuppäda), civarahetu <375.36> ("because of robes") means that it arises with robes as the reason thus: * Where shall I get a nice robe ?' Itibhaväbhavahetu <375.39> ("thus because of one kind of existence or another"): here iti is a particle in the sense of indication;

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

261

the meaning is : "as because of robes and so on, so because of one kind of existence or another". And here, better and better oil, honey, molasses, etc. is referred to as bhaväbhavo {''one kind of existence or another"). But it should be understood that the Four Noble Heritages (ariyavamsa) (see A ii 27 f.) are taught successively for the purpose of abandoning these four kinds of arising of craving. 2471. As regards the ways of going wrong, chandägatim gacchati <376.1> ("goes wrong through zeal") means that he goes wrong, does what should not be done, through zeal, through affection. So also with the other words. Herein, through zeal he makes what is not the master the master (assämikam sämikam karoti) thus: 'This is my friend, or my companion, or my intimate, or he gives me a present.' He is called "one who goes wrong through zeal". Through a natural hostility or through anger arisen at that moment, he who makes what is the master not the master thus: 'This is my enemy' is called "one who goes wrong through hate". But he who, by saying something or other out of dullness or stupidity, makes what is not the master the master, is called "one who goes wrong through delusion". But one who, being frightened, makes what is not the master the master thus: 'This king's favourite or usurper78 will do me harm" is called "one who goes wrong through fear". But he who, when distributing anything at a place of distribution gives extra through affection thus: 'This is my friend or my companion or my intimate,' or gives less through hate thus: 'This is my enemy,' or out of stupidity and not knowing what is given or not given gives extra to one and less to another, or gives extra to someone being afraid thus: 'If this is not given this man will do me harm' — he goes wrong successively in the four ways beginning with going wrong through zeal. 2472. "The noble ones do not go by this" is agati <376.2> ("going wrong"). By this "the ignoble ones go to the going wrong" is agatigamanam ("way of going wrong"). This pair is stated as common to the four. Chandagamanam <376.3> ("going by zeal") = chandena gamanam. This is stated as not common to hate, etc. Going according to disharmony by giving way to greed for one's own side and hate for the other side is vaggagamanam ("going with a faction"). This is stated as common to zeal and hate. Going according to the slope like that of water is värigamanam ("going like water"). This is stated as common to the four.

262

The Dispeller of Delusion

2473. [502] As regards the mistakes, "they seek (esanti) the wrong way round (viparltato), namely, impermanent, etc. objects as permanent, etc." are vipariyesä <376.5> ("mistakes"). Saflflävipariyeso <376.6> ("the mistake in perception") = sahhäya vipariyeso. So also with the other two. Thus these which are four according to the fourfold [division]79 come to be twelve with [the three, namely,] perception and so on [i.e. consciousness and wrong views] in respect of [each of] those [four]; and among these, eight are abandoned by the path of Stream Entry. The perversions (vipalläsa) of perception and consciousness which see the beautiful in the foul are attenuated by the path of Once Return and are abandoned by the path of Non-Return. The perversions of perception and consciousness which see the painful as pleasant are abandoned by the path of Arahatship. It should be understood in this way. 2474. As regards the kinds of ignoble usage, anariyavohärä <376.12> ("ignoble usages") are the usage of the ignoble, of the bad. Ditthaväditä <376.13> ("asserters that it was seen"): they are asserters thus: 'It was seen by me.' And here the meaning should be understood as the volition which originates such and such [a false assertion]. It is also said that, together with the word, the volition is spoken of. 2475. In the second tetrad also the same method applies. For there is no noble one who, not having seen, asserts: 'It was seen by me' or who, having seen, asserts: 'It was not seen by me'; only an ignoble one speaks thus. Therefore these eight volitions together with the word of one who speaks thus should be understood as "ignoble usage". 2476. As regards the kinds of bad conduct, the first tetrad is stated according to hostile volition; the second according to verbal bad conduct. 2477. As regards the kinds of fear, in the first tetrad jätibhayam <376.25> ("fear of birth") is fear arisen due to birth. So also with the rest. In the second tetrad, räjabhayam <376.28> ("fear of kings") is fear arisen because of a king. So also with the rest. In the third tetrad, cattäri bhayäni <376.24> ("four kinds of fear") are the kinds of fear for one who embarks upon the water in the great ocean. In the great ocean, it seems, the wave of Mahinda rises up to sixty leagues, and the wave of the Ganges up to fifty; the wave of Rohana rises up to forty leagues; fear arisen due to such waves is called ümibhayam <376.31> ("fear of waves"). Kumbhilabhayam ("fear of crocodiles") is fear

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

263

arisen because of a crocodile. Avaftabhayam {'fear of whirlpools'") is fear arisen because of water whirlpools. It is a savage fish that is called a susuki ("shark"); fear because of that is susukäbhayam ("fear of sharks"). In the fourth tetrad, attänuvädabhayam <376.34> ("fear of self-criticism") is fear that arises in one who does evil and blames himself. Paränuvädabhayam ("fear of others' criticism") is fear arisen because of another's criticism. Dandabhayam ("fear of punishment") is fear arisen in a householder due to punishment imposed by a king, and in one gone forth due to punishment by discipline (vinaya). Duggatibhayam <376.35> ("fear of an unhappy destiny") is fear arisen due to the four states of woe. [503] Thus there are sixteen kinds of great fear expounded by these four tetrads. 2478. In the wrong view tetrad, it is the [wandering ascetic] Timbarüsaka's wrong view (S ii 22) that is expounded. Herein, sayamkatam sukhadukkham <376.37> ("pleasure and pain are selfmade") is the view, arisen in one who regards feeling as self, that "feeling is made by feeling only". And that being so, there follows also the previous existence of that feeling; thus this is the eternity view. Saccato thetato ("as true and reliable"): as true and firm. Paramkatam <376.38> ("made by another") is the view, arisen in one who regards self as feeling to be the cause of feeling which [cause ] is other than present feeling, that "this feeling is made by another feeling". That being so, there follows the annihilation of the previous causal feeling; thus this is the annihilation view. Sayamkatafi ca paramkatafl ca <377.1> ("self-made and made by another") is the view arisen in one who takes it that in the aforesaid meaning, "half is self-made and half is made by another"; that is called the eternityannihilation view. The fourth is the view arisen in one who takes it that "pleasure and pain come to be without a cause". That being so, this is the view of no-cause. The rest is clear in meaning here because of the method having been explained above. Pentads 2479. In the explanation of pentads, it is because those in whom personality view, etc. are unabandoned, when reborn in the summit of existence (bhavagga), are drawn down [by them] and made to fall again into the sense-desire existence, that they are therefore called orambhägiyäni samyojanäni <377.6> ("lower fetters"). Thus these

264

The Dispeller of Delusion

five do not obstruct one who is going away, but they lead back one who has gone away. And the five beginning with rüparäga <377.10> ("greedfor the fine-matericd") do not obstruct one who is going away, but they do not cause him to come. 2480. The five beginning with greed are saügä <377.16> ("ties") in the sense of attaching. They are called sallä ("darts") in the sense of penetrating. 2481. Cetokhilä <377.22> ("barren wastes") are the hardened states, the useless states, the thorny states of the mind. Satthari kankhati <377.23> ("he doubts about the Master"): he doubts about the Master's body or his qualities. Doubting about his body, he does so thus: 'Is his body adorned with the 32 supreme characteristics or is it not ?' Doubting about his qualities, he does so thus: 'Has he or has he not omniscient knowledge capable of knowing the past, future and present ?' Vicikicchati ("he is uncertain"): as he investigates (vicinanto) he is troubled (kicchati); he encounters pain, he is unable to decide. [504] Nädhimuccati ("he does not resolve"): he does not acquire the determination: 'Thus it is.' Na sampasidati ("he does not settle down"): he is unable to settle down, to become undisturbed through absence of uncertainty by applying himself to the qualities. 2482. Dhamme <377.24> ("about the Law"): about the Law of competency in scripture and about the Law of penetration. Doubting about the Law of competency in scripture, he does so thus: 'They say that the Buddha's Word of the Tipitaka has eighty-four thousand items of dhamma; are there or are there not ?' Doubting about the Law of penetration, he does so thus: 'They say that the path is the outcome of insight, that fruition is the outcome of the path, that the relinquishment of all formations is nibbäna; does that exist or does it not ?' Sanghe kaftkhati <377.25> ("he doubts about the Order"): he doubts thus: 'The Order as the sum of the eight kinds of persons, that is, the four established in the path and the four established in fruition, who are of such conduct as is stated by the words "rightly conducted" and so on — does it exist or not ?' Doubting about the training, he does so thus: 'They say "the training of the Higher Virtue, the training of the Higher Consciousness, the training of the Higher Understanding"; does that exist or does it not ?'. 2483. Cetaso vinibandhä <377.29> ("bonds of the mind"): it holds by binding the mind as though taken in the fist, is a "bond of the mind". Käme <377.30> ("as regards sense desires"): as regards sense desires

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

265

as object and sense desires as defilement. Käye <377.31> Cos regards the body'9): as regards his own body. Rüpe <377.32> ("as regards visible form"): as regards external visible form. 2484. Yavadattham <378.1> ("to his heart's content"): as much as he wants. Udarävadehakam ("his belly full"): filled his belly. For that is called "his belly full" because it fills up (avadehana)*0 the stomach (udara). Seyyasukham ("pleasure in lying down") is pleasure in bed and chair, or seasonal pleasure. Passasukham ("pleasure in the side") as there is pleasure of the right and left sides for one who lies and turns over; it is pleasure arisen thus. Middhasukham ("pleasure in torpor") is pleasure in sleeping. Anuyutto ("devoted to"): he dwells entirely devoted to. 2485. Panidhäya ("aspiring"): longing. As regards sHena ("by this virtuous conduct") and so on, silam ("virtuous conduct") is virtuous conduct of the fourfold purity. Vata ("vow") is the undertaking of a vow. Tapa ("asceticism") is ascetic behaviour. Brahmacariya ("life of purity") is avoidance of sexual intercourse. Devo vä bhavissämi ("either I shall become a [great] deity"): I shall either become a deity of great importance, devaflflataro vä ("or some [minor] deity"): or some one among the unimportant deities. 2486. "They obstruct, they hinder profitable states" are nivaranäni ("hindrances"). 2487. Mätä jivitä voropitä hoti ("he is one who deprives his mother of life"): he is one who, as a human, deprives of life his own human mother who gave him birth. [505] And the father is a human father only. An Arahat is a human Arahat only. Dutthena cittena ("with malevolent intent"): with murderous consciousness. 2488. Safifii <378.17> ("percipient"): possessed of perception. Arogo ("intact"): permanent. Itth' eke abhivadanti ("so some say") = ittham eke abhivadanti; the meaning is "thus some say". So far the sixteen assertions of percipience are expounded. Asafifil ("nonpercipient"): devoid of perception. By this term the eight assertions of non-percipience are expounded. Sato vä pana sattassa ("of an existent being") = atha väpana vijjamänass'eva sattassa. Ucchedam ("the cutting off*) = upacchedam. Vinäsam ("the obliteration"): the not seeing. Vibhavam ("the non-existence"): the departure of existence. All these are synonyms for one another. 2489. Herein, two people hold the annihilation view, an obtainer [of attainments] and a non-obtainer. The obtainer having seen the death of

266

The Dispeller of Delusion

an Arahat with the divine eye and not seeing his rebirth; or one who is able to see only death but not rebirth, holds the annihilation view. But one who is not an obtainer, thinking: 'Who knows the other world ?' holds the annihilation view out of greed for pleasure in sense desire by reasoning thus: 'Just as the leaves of trees that fall do not go up again, thus are beings' and so on. But here the seven kinds of annihilation view which arise by speculating in one way and another due to craving and wrong view are expounded. For this is a comprehensive term for them. 2490. Ditthadhammanibbänam vä pan' eke ("or some maintain nibbäna to be in this present existence"): here it is personal experience (paccakkhadhamma) that is called "in this present existence" (ditthadhamma); this is a term for a person obtained here or there. Ditthadhammanibbänam = ditthadhamme nibbänam; the meaning is: "Sufferings81 are pacified in this very person". This is a comprehensive term for the five kinds of assertions of nibbäna in this present existence. 2491. Vera {"hostilities"): hostile volitions. Byasanä ("ruins"): destructions. 2492. Akhantiyä ("of impatience"): from non-endurance. Appiyo ("undear"): not to be held dear owing to repugnance to sight and hearing. "Owing to repugnance to thinking of it, the mind does not become fixed (appeti) on that" is amanäpo ("disagreeable"). Verabahulo ("very hostile") is "with much hostility". Vajjabahulo ("very blameable"): with many faults. 2493. Äjivakabhayam <379.4> ("fear due to livelihood") is fear arisen due to livelihood, mode of life. [506] That is to be found both in the householder and in one gone forth. Herein, many unprofitable things have been done by a householder for the sake of a livelihood; then when hell appears at the time of his death, fear arises. By one gone forth also much wrong seeking [for requisites] has been done; then when hell appears at the time of his death, fear arises. This is called "fear due to livelihood". Asilokabhayam ("fear due to renown") is fear of reproof. Parisasärajjabhayam ("fear of embarrassment in assemblies"): there arises fear called embarrassment in a person who has done evil and who approaches an assembly that has foregathered; this is called "fear of embarrassment in assemblies". The remaining two are clear.

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

267

2494. As regards the kinds of assertions about nibbäna in this present existence, paficahi kämagunehi <379.8> ("with the five cords of sense desire*'): with the five portions or bonds of sense desire beginning with agreeable visible data. Samappito ("fully furnished with99): thoroughly furnished with, not lacking. SamaÄglbhüto ("endowed with99): possessed of. Paricäreti ("goes about99): makes the faculties frequent, and goes about amongst, leads hither and thither among those cords of sense desire as long as they are pleasurable. Or alternatively it sports, delights, plays. 2495. And here sense desires are of two kinds, human and divine. The human should be regarded as like the sense desires of Mandhätu, and the divine like the sense desires of the King of the Paranimmitavasavatti deities. They call one who has attained to such sense desires "one who has reached the supreme nibbäna in the present existence". Herein, paramaditthadhammanibbäna. ("supreme nibbäna in the present existence99) = paramam ditthadhammanibbanam; "superlative" is the meaning. 2496. In the second section, aniccä ("impermanent99) should be understood in the sense of absence after having been; dukkha ("painful99) in the sense of oppression; viparinämadhammä ("subject to change99) in the sense of abandoning its original nature. Tesam viparinämafifiathäbhävä ("from their change and alteration99): from the alteration called change of these sense desires. Uppajjanti sokap a r i d e v a d u k k h a d o m a n a s s u p ä y ä s ä ("there arise sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and woe99) in the way stated thus: *What I had, I have no longer' (M i 86). 2497. Herein, sorrow has the characteristic of inner brooding; lamentation has the characteristic of wailing which is dependent on that; pain has the characteristic of oppressing the body; grief has the characteristic of distress of mind; woe has the characteristic of dejection. 2498. Vitakkitam ("thought by applied thought99): applied thought occurring by focussing. Viciritam ("thought by sustained thought99): sustained thought occurring by squeezing. Etena etam ("by this that99): by this applied thought and sustained thought this first jhäna seems gross and possessed of thorns (see A v 135). Pitigatam ("effected by rapture99) is rapture itself. Cetaso ubbillävitam ("mental elation99) is making an elated state of mind. Cetaso äbhogo <380.6> ("mental

268

The Dispeller of Delusion

inclination"): [507] the mental inclination and bringing to mind again and again of that happiness; after emerging from jhäna. 2499. The rest is clear in meaning throughout. Sestads 2500. In the description of the sestads, because one who is angry or who holds angrily to his own view falls into wrangles, quarrels and contention owing to the holding to his own view,82 therefore anger, etc. are called vivädamüläni ("roots of dispute"). 2501. In the description of chandaräga <380.17> ("zeal and greed"), after saying chandaräga gehasitä dhammä ("zeal and greed as states dependent on the worldly life") inclusively because of the sense desires being based on the worldly life, he again said manäpiyesu rüpesu ("concerning agreeable visible data, etc"), etc. in order to show it in its various divisions. Herein, manäpiyesu ^concerning agreeable") means concerning mind-increasing,83 desirable. 2502. Virodhavatthüni abases of opposition") are opposition itself. Amanäpiyesu (^concerning disagreeable"): concerning undesirable. 2503. As regards the kinds of disrespect, agäravo <3813.2> ("disrespect") is devoid of respect. Appatisso ("rebellious") is disobedient, not humble. 2504. But here the bhikkhu who, while the Master is living, does not go to attend upon him at the three times, who walks up and down wearing sandals when the Master walks up and down without sandals, who walks up and down on a high walk while the Master walks up and down on a low walk, who lives above while the Master lives below; who keeps both shoulders covered in the place for seeing the Master, who carries an umbrella, who wears sandals, who bathes, who evacuates and makes water there; or who, when the Master has attained complete extinction, does not go to pay homage at a shrine, who does all that has been mentioned in a place where shrines are perceived — he is called satthari agäravo ("disrespectful to the Master"). But he who, when the preaching of the Law is announced, does not listen dutifully to the Law, sits chattering, does not take it dutifully — he is called dhamme agäravo ("disrespectful to the Law"). But he who, when unasked by an elder bhikkhu, teaches the Law, answers questions, bumps into aged bhikkhus as he walks, stands or sits, who sits, clasping his robe in front of his bent knees (dussapallatthikam

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

269

karoti) or clasping his hands in front of his bent knees (hatthapallatthikam karoti), who wears his robe on both shoulders in the midst of the Order, who carries an umbrella or wears sandals — he is called sanghe agäravo (? disrespectful to the Order"). For when disrespect is shown to one bhikkhu, it is shown to the whole Order. 2505. But one who does not fulfil the three trainings is called sikkhäya agäravo ("disrespectful to the training"). One who does not increase the characteristic of diligence is called a p p a m ä d e agäravo ("disrespectful to diligence"). One who does not observe the twofold friendliness (patisanthard) (see Vbh 360) is called patisanthäre agäravo ("disrespectful to friendliness"). 2506. Parihäniyä dhammä ("states productive of loss"): states that cause loss. Kammärämatä ("delight in works**) [508] is delight in and devotion to building work or in work of looking after robes, etc. Bhassärämatä ("delight in talk") is devotion to talk in the form of "animal" talk (tiracchänakathä). Niddärämatä ("delight in sleep") is devotion to sleep. Sanganikäramatä ("delight in company") is devotion to company. Samsaggärämatä ("delight in contact") is devotion to the five kinds of contact, namely, contact by seeing, contact by hearing, contact by conversation, contact by common use of something and bodily contact. Papaficärämatä ("delight in proliferation") is devotion to the kinds of proliferation through craving, pride and wrong view. 2507. As regards the ways of thinking with joy and so on: "they think together with joy" are somanassupavicära ("ways of thinking with joy"). Cakkhunä rüpam disvä ("on seeing a visible datum with the eye": seeing a visible datum with eye consciousness. Somanassatthäniyam ("productive of joy"): become the cause of joy by being its object. Upavicarati ("he thinks it"): he thinks by means of the occurrence of sustained thought concerning it. But the meaning should be understood in the three sestads in this way: applied thought or associated with that. 2508. Gehasitäni ("based on the worldly life"): depending on the cords of sense desire. Somanassäni ("kinds of joy"): kinds of mental pleasure. 2509. Domanassäni <382.3> ("kinds of griefy): kinds of mental pain. 2510. Upekkhä ("kinds of indifference"): kinds of indifferent feeling associated with unknowing. "Indifference of unknowing" is also a name for these.

270

The Dispeller of Delusion

2511. Atthi me attä ti vä Neither I have a self): in each instance the word vä has the meaning of an alternative (vikappa); "either the wrong view arises thus" (evam vä ditthi uppajjati) is what is said. And here, in saying: *I have a self the eternity view assumes the existence of the self at all times. Saccato thetato ("as true and reliable"): asrealand solid; "this is true owing to its thoroughfirmness"is what is said. 2512. Natthi me attä ("/ have no selfy): this, however, is the annihilation view because of assuming the annihilation here or there of an existing being. Or alternatively, the former is the eternity view when assuming that it exists in [all] three times; and is annihilation view when it assumes that it exists only in the present; and the latter is annihilation view in one who assumes that it does not exist in the past and future, like [the annihilation view] of those who assume the view that sacrifice ends with the ashes (bhasmantä ähutiyo; see D i 55); by assuming that it is non-existent only in the past, it is the eternity view of the fortuitous originists (adhiccasamuppannika). 2513. Attanä vä attänam safijänämi ("/ perceive the self with the self): one who, by taking the aggregates as self under the heading of perception, and by means of perception perceives the remaining aggregates, thinks thus: 'By means of this self I perceive the self.' Attanä vä anattänam ("I perceive the non-self with the self'): One who, by taking the perception aggregate only as self, by means of perception perceives the other four aggregates which he takes as nonself, thinks thus. Anattanä vä attänam ("I perceive the self with the non-self): one who, by taking the perception aggregate [509] as nonself, by means of perception perceives the other four taking them as self, thinks thus. And all these are eternity and annihilation views. 2514. But vado vedeyyo ("which speaks and feels") and so on are modes of adherence through eternity view only. Herein, vado ("a speaker") is that which speaks; "it is the doer of verbal action" is what is meant. Vedeyyo ("one who feels") is one who feels; "it knows, experiences" is what is meant. Now in order to show what he experiences, tatra tatra digharattam kalyänapäpakänam ("for long here and there experiences the result of good and evil things"), etc. is said. Herein, tatra tatra ("here and there") means among such and such kinds of generation, destiny, station, abode or groups; or among such and such kinds of objects. Digharattam ("for long") = cirarattam. Paccanubhoti ("experiences") -patisamvedeti. Na so jäto nähosi ("that was not born, has not become"): that self, because

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

111

it is not subject to birth, is not called born; the meaning is that it is always existent. Hence too it did not become in the past and it will not become in the future; for what was born became and what will be born will become. Or alternatively, na so jäto nähosi means that self, because it exists, was certainly (jätu) not non-existent in the past and will certainly not be non-existent in the future. Nicco ("permanent"): devoid of rise and fall. Dhuvo ("everlasting"): solid, essential. Sassato ("eternal"): belonging to all time. Aviparinämadhammo ("not subject to change"): not subject to abandoning its original state. It does not enter upon a variable state like a chameleon. Thus this which is known as the wrong view given in the Sabbäsava-sutta (M i 8) has been described. 2515. The rest is clear in meaning throughout. Septads 2516. In the description of septads, "they inhere (anusenti) in the sense of tenacity, in the sense of being unabandoned" are anusayä <383.1> ("inherent tendencies"). 2517. "They fetter, they secure beings in the round [of existence]" are samyojanäni ("fetters"). 2518. "They take possession of by besetting" are pariyutthänä ("besettings"). Kämarägapariyutthänä ("greed for sense desire as besetting") = kämarägo pariy utthanatn. So with the rest. 2519. States of those who are not good (asatam), or states (dhamma) that are not good (asanta) in the sense of evil, are asaddhammä ("bad states"). 2520. Kinds of conduct (carita) corrupted (duttha) by the corruptions of greed, etc. are duccaritäni ("kinds of bad conduct"). 2521. "They imagine (mahhanti) in this way or that" are mänä ("kinds of pride"). 2522. In the description of ditthi ("wrong views"), rüpi <383.27> ("possessed of materiality") is the element of material form (rüpadhätu).** Catumahäbhütiko ("consisting of the four great primaries") is "made of the four great primaries". "That is the mother's and father's" is "what belongs to the mother and father". What is that ? Semen and blood. "Produced, bom from what belongs to the mother and father is mätäpettikasambhavo <383.28> ("sprung from what belongs to the mother and father"). Here he calls the human person the

272

The Dispeller of Delusion

self under the heading of the material body. The second rejects that and calls the divine person the self. Dibbo <383.35> ("divine"): produced in the divine world. Kämävacaro ("of the sense sphere"); [510] included among the six kinds of sense-sphere deities. "It feeds upon material food" is kabaliAkärabhakkho ("feeding on material food"). Manomayo <384.9> ("mind-made"): produced by jhäna mind. Sabbangapacca6gi ("possessed of all its limbs"): connected to all its limbs. Ahinindriyo ("with no faculties lacking"): with its faculties complete. This is said of those which are in the Brahma world and by way of shape for the others.85 Äkäsänaficäyatanüpago <384.20> ("in conformity with the sphere of boundless space"): conformed to the state of the sphere of boundless space. So with the rest. 2523. The rest is clear in meaning throughout. Octads 2524. In the description of the octads, the defilements themselves are the kilesavatthüni <385.16> ("bases of defilement"). 2525. Kusitavatthüni <385.19> ("instances of one who is indolent") are the instances, the support of one who is indolent, who is idle; "reasons for indolence" is the meaning. Kammam kätabbam hoti <385.20> ("there is work to be done"): there is work of seeing to robes, etc. to be done. Na viriyam ärabhati <385.23> ("he does not stir up energy"): he does not stir up the twofold energy.86 Appattassa ("of what is not yet reached"): for the reaching of states of jhäna, insight, path and fruition not yet reached. Adhigatassa ("of what is not yet attained"): for the purpose of attainment of those same things not yet attained. Asacchikatassa <385.24> ("of what is not yet realised"): for the purpose of realising those same things.87 Idam pathamam <385.25> ("this is the first"): this giving way thus handäham nipajjämi <385.22> ("suppose I lie down ?") is the first instance of one who is indolent. The meaning should be understood in this way throughout. Mäsäcitam mafifle <386.26> ("it seems like a sack of [wet] beans"; cf. M i 332; MA ii 416)88: but here mäsäcita is a wet bean; it is heavy like a wet bean; heavy in this way is what is intended. Gilänä vutthito hoti <386.37> ("has got up from an illness"): having been ill, he has subsequently got up. 2526. Atthasu lokadhammesu <387.1> ("concerning the eight worldly states"): here worldly states are states of the world. There is

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

273

no-one who is free of these. They exist even for the Buddhas, therefore they are called "worldly states". Patighäto <387.2> ("disturbance") is the mode of vexing. Läbhe särägo <387.3> ("infatuation about gain") is infatuation arisen through joy based on the worldly life: 'I got some gain/ That vexes the mind. Aläbhe pajivirodho ("dismay about lack of gain") is dismay arisen through grief thus: 4I do not get gain/ That also vexes the mind. Therefore it is called a disturbance. And as regards yasa ("fame") and so on, their arising should be understood thus: 'I have a large following,' 'I have a small following,' 'I have won praise,' 'I have won blame/ 'I have won pleasure/ 'I have won pain.' 2527. Anariyavohärä <387.7> ("the usage of the ignoble ones") = anariyänam vohärä. 2528. Purisadosä <387.16> ("faults in a man") =purisänam dosä. Na sarämi <387.18> ("/ do not remember"): he hedges by means of forgetfulness and evades thus: 'I do not remember any instance of this act done by me, I am not aware of it.' [511] 2529. Codakam patippharati <387.21> ("he counters the reproof"; cf. MA ii 66): he answers (pharati) by opposing; he keeps answering back. Kim nu kho tuyham <387.22> ("what business have you"): he points out: 'What business has an ignorant fool like you to speak, who knows neither the offence according to the instance nor the rebuke ? And you who thus knows nothing presume to speak!' Thus he drowns him [with a flood of abuse]. 2530. Paccäropeti <387.27> ("counter-accuses"): saying tvam pi kho 'si ("you also have"), etc., he counter-accuses. Patikarohi <387.28> ("make amends"): he points out: 'Confess what leads to confession. Emerge from [the offence] that leads to emergence. Thereupon, being established in purification, you can reprove another.' Afifie afifiam paticarati <387.31> i?prevaricates"): he conceals one act or word with another act or word; when it is asked: 'Did you commit the fault ?' he says: 'Who committed ? Committed what ? Committed how ? Committed in what ? What do you say ? Why do you say ?' Or when it is asked: 'Was any such thing seen by you ?' he does not listen and says: 'I do not hear.' Bahiddhä katham apanämeti <387.32> ("leads the talk aside"): on being asked: 'Did you commit such and such an offence ?' he says: 'I went to Pätaliputta/ and when he is told: 'We did not ask you about going to Pätaliputta, we asked you about an offence,' [then he says:] 'From there I went to Rajagaha.' 'Whether you went to Räjagaha or to Brähmanageha, did you commit the

274

The Dispeller of Delusion

offence V 'And there I had pork to eat/ and so on. Speaking thus, he diverts the talk away. Kopam ("anger") is an angry state. Dosam ("hate") is a hateful state; both of these are terms for anger (kodha). Appaccayam <387.33> ("dissatisfaction") is a mode of being discontented (asantutthi); this is a name for mental pain. Pätukaroti ("manifests"): shows, makes plain. 2531. Bähävikkhepakam bhanati <388.2> ("speaks waving his arms"): waving his arms, he speaks shameless words. Viheseti <388.10> ("vexes"): annoys, hurts. Anädiyitvä <388.5> ("without accepting"): without receiving with respect, despising; with discourtesy is the meaning. 2532. Atibälham <388.13> ("too strongly"): too solidly, too greatly. Mayi byävatä ("you are set against me"): you have undertaken to work against me. HInäyävattitvä <388.15> ("returning to the lower [life]")'- returning for the sake of the lower household state; having become a layman, is the meaning. Attamanä hotha <388.16> ("you may be glad now"): you may be content in your minds; 'Obtain what should be obtained by me, live in the place that should be lived in by me, a comfortable life has been given you by me' is what he implies. 2533. The assertion which occurs thus, "non-percipient" is "assertion of the non-percipient"; "they have that" is asafifiivädä <388.19> ("asserters of the non-percipient"). As regards rüpi attä <388.20> ("the self is material"): in an obtainer [of jhäna] who has taken the materiality of the kasina to be the self there arises the view that the self is material. In a non-obtainer [it arises] through mere reasoning [512] as with the Ajlvakas. In an obtainer, too, who has taken the sign of an immaterial attainment as the self there arises the view that the self is immaterial. In a non-obtainer [it arises] through mere reasoning as with the Niganthas. But here the cause is not to be sought always in the non-percipient existence (asaMlbhäva); for a holder of views seizes upon anything like a madman. Rüpi ca arüpi ca <388.24> ("material and immaterial") is said by taking it as mixed material and immaterial. This view arises in an obtainer of the material and immaterial attainment and in a reasoner. Neva rüpi närüpi <388.26> ("neither material nor immaterial") is entirely a view of the reasoner. Antavä <388.28> ("possessed of an end in space") is the view of one who takes a limited kasina as the self. Anantavä <388.30> ("not possessed of an end in space"): a measureless kasina. Antavä ca anantavä ca <389.1> ("both possessed of an end in space and not possessed of an

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

275

end in space'1) is the view arisen by taking as self a kasina which has no end above and below but has an end all round. Nev' antavi nänantavä <389.3> ("neither possessed of an end in space nor not possessed of an end in space") is the view of a reasoner. 2534. The rest is clear in meaning thoughout. Enneads 2535. In the description of the enneads, the nava äghätavatthüni <389.24> {"nine bases for irritation") are set forth according to arising in regard to beings only.89 2536. Purisamaläni <389.33> {"stains in a man"): stains of men. 2537. Navavidhä <389.36> {"ninefold"): having nine parts, having nine divisions. 2538. Tanham paticca <390.11> {"due to craving"): dependent on craving. 90 Pariyesanä {"search") is the search for visible data, etc. as object. For that comes to be when there is craving. Läbho {"gain") is the gain of a visible datum, etc. as object. For that comes to be when there is a search. But vinicchayo <390.12> {"discernment"; see D ii 58-61) is fourfold by knowledge, craving, view and applied thought. Herein, discernment by knowledge is this: "One should know how to discern [the different kinds of] happiness; knowing how to discern happiness, one should devote oneself to happiness within" (M iii 230, 233). The 108 ways of behaviour of craving (see MA i 219) handed down thus: "Discernment — there are two kinds of discernment. Discernment by craving and discernment by view (Ndi 266 f.; cf. 186, 296) are discernment by craving. The 62 kinds of wrong view are discernment by view. But in the sutta [which says:] "Zeal, Lord of Gods, has its origin in applied thought" (D ii 277) and here as well, it is only applied thought which has been handed down as discernment. For on making a gain, the discerning is done by applied thought [of it as] desirable or undesirable, good or not good. 'So much will be for the purpose of a visible datum as object for use; so much for the purpose of sound, etc. as object; so much will be mine; so much will be another's; so much I shall use; so much I shall store;' hence läbham paticca vinicchayo {"due to gain there is discernment"). Chandarägo {"zeal and greed"): when the object has been thus thought about by unprofitable applied thought, both weak and strong greed arises. For here zeal {chanda) is a term for weak greed {räga). [513] Ajjhosänam

276

The Dispeller of Delusion

<390.13> ("claiming") is the strong conviction of I and mine. Pariggaho ("taking possession") is the act of taking possession through craving and wrong view. Macchariyam <390.14> ("avarice") is the inability to bear sharing with others. Hence the Ancients explain its meaning thus: 'Let this marvellous thing be for me only, let it not (ma) be another's marvellous thing (acchariyam)V Because it occurs thus it is called macchariya ("avarice"). Arakkho <390.15> ("guarding") is thorough guarding by bolting doors and protecting coffers, etc. "It causes" is "cause" (adhikarana). This is a term for reason (kärana). Ärakkhädhikaranam ("because of guarding") is neuter in gender; "with guarding as the cause (hetu)" is the meaning. As regards taking up sticks and so on, the taking up of a stick for the purpose of prohibiting another is dandädänam ("taking up sticks"). The taking up of a knife with a single edge, etc. is satthädäna ("taking up knives"). Kalaho <390.16> ("fighting") is bodily fighting and verbal fighting. The former kind of opposition is viggaho ("struggling"); the latter is vivädo ("dispute"). Tuvamtuvam ("insolence") is a word for disrespect; the meaning is: 'Thou, thou' (tvam tvam). 2539. Löjitäni <390.19> ("vacillations") are vacillations, shiftings. By all the expressions beginning with asm! ti ifljitam etam <390.21> ("7 am' is a vacillation"): it is conceit (mänd) itself that is expressed. The conceit that occurs thus: 'I am' is a vacillation too; also that which occurs thus ayam aham ("/ am this"); [and so on up to] and also that which occurs thus neva saflfil näsafifii bhavissam <390.28> ("/ shall become neither percipient nor non-percipient"). 2540. In the rest of the enneads it is simply conceit (mäna) that is stated. For conceit is called a "vacillation" because of vacillating; and "imagining" (maMita) because of imagining; a "wobbling" (phandana) because of wobbling; a "proliferation" (papaflcita) because of proliferating; and because of being formed by such and such causes, it is called "formed" (sahkhata). 2541. The rest is clear in meaning throughout. Decads 2542. In the description of decads, the defilements themselves are the kilesavatthüni <391.10> ("bases of defilement").

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

277

2543. Aghätavatthüni <391.14> {"bases for irritation"): are here, however, stated in the ways beginning with: 'He is working for my harm* together with the irritation without reason in regard to stumps, thorns, etc. which should not be objects of annoyance. 2544. As regards the micchattäni <391.35> ("wrongnesses"), micchäflänam <392.1> ("wrong knowledge") is the delusion arisen through a mode of reviewing: 'It was well done by me' after doing evil because of thinking up a clever means (upäya) for evil actions. Micchävimutti ("wrong deliverance"): is one's perceiving himself as delivered when he is not delivered 2545. The rest is clear in meaning throughout. Behaviour of Craving 2546. In the description of modes of behaviour of craving, tanhävicaritäni <392.20> ("modes of behaviour of craving") means habits of craving, occurrence of craving. Ajjhattikassa upädäya ("depending on the internal"): depending on the internal pentad of aggregates; this is a genitive in the sense of the accusative. Asm! ti hoti <392.22> ("'there comes to be the thought: 7 am'"): since there comes to be the thought: 'I am' depending on this internal pentad of aggregates, due to taking it as a unit (samühagäha) through craving, pride and wrong view; "that being so" is the meaning. [514] As regards itth' asm! ti hoti <392.23> ("there comes to be the thought: 'Such am /'") and so on, however, if there is the taking of it as a unit in this way as "I", then the taking of it occurs in two ways, without comparison and with comparison. 2547. Herein, as to without comparison there comes to be the thought: 'Such am V by making only one's own state the object without reference to any other aspect; among Khattiyas and the like there comes to be the thought through craving, pride and wrong view thus: 'I am of this kind' is the meaning. This in the first place is the taking of it without comparison. 2548. But the taking of it by comparison is of two kinds, as the same and as not the same. In order to show that, ev' asmi <392.24> ("thus I am") and afiftathä 'smi <392.25> ("/ am other") are said. Herein, "thus I am" is taking by comparison as the same; "as this Khattiya is, as this brahman is, thus am I" is the meaning. But in the case of "I am other", this is taking [by comparison] as not the same; "I am other than

278

The Dispeller of Delusion

this Khattiya is, than this brahman is, inferior or superior" is the meaning. These in the first place are the four kinds of behaviour of craving according to the present time. 2549. But the four beginning with bhavissam <392.26> ("/ shall be") are stated according to the future. The meaning of these should be understood according to the method for the first tetrad. Asmi <392.30> ("/ am"): I am eternal. Sät as mi <392.31> ("/ am temporary"): I am not eternal. Or As' asm! ti ... sätasmi ti is a reading. Herein, asa is that which exists (atthi); it is a term for permanent.91 "It subsides" (sidati) is satam;92 this is a term for impermanent. Thus these two should be understood as expressing the eternity and annihilation views. 2550. The four that follow beginning with siyam <392.32> ("/ might be") express doubt and speculation. As to meaning, they should be understood according to the method stated in respect of the first tetrad. 2551. But the four beginning with apäham siyam <393.1> {"even were /") express planning occurring thus: 'Even should I be.' These should be understood according to the method stated in respect of the first tetrad. 2552. Thus as regards these: Two headings with views; and four other headings,93 three under each of which There come those rooted in the headings; thus these eighteen should be explained (AA iii 208). For as regards these, the "two headings with views" express eternity and annihilation. The four, namely, "I am", "I shall be", "I might be" and "even were I" are the simple headings. The sets of three beginning with "I am such" and so on are called the twelve rooted in the headings. In this way these two headings with views, and four simple headings, and twelve rooted in the headings should be understood as eighteen states as modes of behaviour of craving. 2553. Now kathafi ca asm! ti hoti <393.5> ("how does there come to be the thought: 7 am'") and so on is begun in order to show these states in order of succession by analyzing them. Herein, kifici dhammam anavakärim katvä <393.6> ("without differentiating94 anything") means making no discrimination of any single thing at all among materiality, feeling, etc., [515] not taking them singly, taking them only as a unit. Asm! ti chandam patilabhati <393.7> ("he

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

279

acquires the zeal that says: 7 am'"): he acquires the craving that says: T by seizing the five aggregates without remainder. So also with man am <393.8> ("pride") and ditthi ("wrong view"). Herein, although this is the description of the behaviour of craving, yet pride and wrong view do not exist without craving, therefore they are stated here by way of inseparability therefrom. Or the three kinds of proliferation are summarised under the heading of craving. It is in order to explain it in accordance with the synopsis (uddesa) that pride and wrong view are included. Showing the proliferation of craving, he spoke thus in order to show the remaining two kinds of proliferation together with it. Tasmim sati imäni papaficitäni <393.9> ("that being so, there come to be these proliferations"): that trio of proliferation (papaüca) stated in the way beginning asm! ti chandam patilabhati <393.7> ("he acquires the zeal that says: 7 am'") being so, again there come to be these kinds of proliferation (papaHcita) beginning with itth' asmi <393.9> ("such am /"). 2554. As regards khattiyo 'smi <393.12> ("/ am a Khattiya"), etc., the meaning should be understood in this way: "I am a Khattiya by anointing, army, ministry, etc.; I am a brahman by studying the brähmanic texts (manta), the royal chaplaincy, etc.; I am a vessa by farming, cattlekeeping, etc.; I am a sudda by sickle and carrying-pole; I am a householder by the mark of the layman". Evam itth' asm! ti hoti <393.16> ("thus there comes to be the thought: 'Such am / ' " ) : thus by applying to the self the kinds of behaviour, Khattiya, etc., amongst those beginning with Khattiya, there comes to be the thought: 'I am of such a kind/ 2555. As regards yathä so khattiyo <393.18> ("as that Khattiya") and so on, the meaning should be understood in this way: "As that one is a Khattiya by anointing, army, ministry, etc. is, in the same way am I a Khattiya also". 2556. By the second method the meaning should be understood in this way: "As that one is a Khattiya by anointing, army, ministry, etc., I am not a Khattiya in this way; but I am lower than he, or better than he". 2557. As regards the description of bhavissam <394.7> ("/ shall be") and so on, the method is the same. 2558. Having thus analysed the kinds of behaviour of craving depending on the internal, he now said tattha katamäni <396.19> ("herein, which") and so on in order to classify the kinds of behaviour of craving

280

The Dispeller of Delusion

depending on the external. Herein, bähirassa upädäya ("depending on the external) means depending on the external pentad of aggregates. Here also the genitive is in the sense of the accusative. 2559. Iminä <396.21> ("by means of this"): by this materiality ... or by this consciousness. The rest, however, in the section of the synopsis should be understood in the way aforesaid. 2560. But in the description section, avakärim karitvä <397.1> ("by differentiating") is by separating (vinibbhogam katva). As regards iminä asm! ti chandam patilabhati <397.2> ("he acquires the zeal that says: 'By means of this I am*") and so on. The meaning should be understood thus: by taking a part of the five aggregates thus: 'By means of this materiality ... or by means of this consciousness,' he acquires the zeal, etc. that says: 'By means of this I am.' 2561. As regards iminä khattiyo 'smi <397.8> ("by means of this I am a Khattiya99) and so on, [516] the meaning should be understood in the way aforesaid thus: "By means of this umbrella, or by means of this sword, or by means of this anointing, army, ministry, etc. 1 am a Khattiya". 2562. Iminä nicco 'smi <398.22> ("by means of this I am permanent"): without95 differentiating the five aggregates and taking only a single thing among materiality, etc. as "I", he imagines: 'By means of this sword or by means of this umbrella I am permanent.' And so also with the annihilation view. The rest should be understood throughout in the way aforesaid. 2563. Iti evarüpäni atitäni chattimsa <400.12> ("thus these 36 as past99): 36 in the past for each person. Anägatäni chattimsa ("36 as future99): 36 too in the future for each one. Paccuppannäni chattimsa <400.13> ("36 as present99): 36, either for each person according as he encounters them, or for the many in the present. But for all beings they should be understood as precisely 36 in the past, 36 in the future and 36 in the present; for beings differently classified by craving, pride and wrong view are infinite. A t t h a tanhävicaritasatam hoti <400.15> ("there are 108 modes of behaviour of craving"): but here the meaning should be regarded as "the modes of craving reckoned at 108". 2564. The rest is clear in meaning throughout. Views

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

281

2565. In the description of views, Brahmajäle veyyäkarane <400.16> ("i/i the Brahmajäla Discourse") means in the first suttanta in the Digha Nikäya, the discourse named the Brahmajäla. Vuttäni bhagavatä <400.17> ("are stated by the Blessed One"): spoken by the Blessed One delivering it himself. As regards cattäro sassatavädä <400.18> ("four asserters of eternity"), etc., the division and the meaning should be understood in the way stated in the Brahmajäla Suttanta beginning thus: "And those worthy recluses and brähmans, on account of what, instigated by what, do they as asserters of eternity declare the self and the world as eternal in four instances ?" (D i 13). End of the Explanation of the Classification of the Minor Bases

FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER SEVENTEEN 1. Or Classification of the Text on Minor [Dhammas ?1, taking valthu as meaning "text" as suggested by L. Schmithausen ("Zur Liste der 57 kleineren Fehler* in der Rainävali", Studien zur Indologie und Iranistik 11/12 (1986) p.2()7 n.29). In the same article, Schmithausen gives a useful survey and synoptic table of lists preserved in non-Pali sources which parallel the "monads*' of the Vibhahga [LSC]. 2. Nänamoli has "eight hundred" as given in Cc 1932 and Bc (cited Ec). Ec has "eight hundred and eleven". However, the numbers add up to 801 and this is confirmed by the Mohavicchedani which gives 863, including the 62 views of the Drahmajälasutla (Moh 209). Read therefore ekädhikani atthakilesasatäni. There are slight variations in the editions of Vbh as to items listed in the "triads" and "tetrads" [LSC]. 3. This use of paiiccam as a noun equalling paccaya is not in FED. 4. Apatthala, not in this sense in PED. 5. "I have knowledge about [many nights 1 {ahum rattanhu)" In the suttas, the term rattannu refers mostly to a monk of long standing, of great seniority, and a translation by "vanity of seniority" would fit best into the other vanities enumerated in this passage of the Vibhahga. But VbhA explains differently, on which ml remarks: "They say that it is 4 lhc vanity about the knowledge of antiquity (puränahhulä-mado ti vadanti)". Mt, however, adds also the other explanation of the term: "Or, the vanity of one who can know of having been born a long lime (lit. nights) ago, of having gone forth a long time (nights) ago" [NyJ. 6. Vamsa may mean "lineage" or chronicle, history. For the last two terms of the text, "history" is more befitting [Ny]. 7. Cc 1932 adds anuhnälo "not disdained" [LSC]. 8. As mt indicates, this means timi pamäda is not a separate dhamma but all four mental aggregates when unprofitable and opposed to mindfulness [LSC]. 9. On this interpretation, lhambha is simply citla occurring in a particular way, but mt offers as an alternative that it is a type of mäna [LSC]. 10. Scirambha would perhaps bc belter translated as "competitiveness" or "oneupmanship", cf. MA i 107 [LSC]. 11. So Nänamoli, but AA iii 45 ff. in fact interprets as here [LSC]. 12. Many editions of Vbh read alricchatä throughout, but VbhA clearly reads something different here. This may have been aticchatä but mi's

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

283

explanation (ra-kärassa ta-käram katvä) suggests atticchatä i.e. with assimilation of the -fr- found in the Jätaka occurrences of atricchatä, etc. or just possibly for atV icchatä ("wishing for oneself') [LSC]. 13. "Wild woman"; cf. kimpurisa, see A i 77. 14. O 1932 reads evam satiham makäsi tvam [LSC]. 15. C? 1932 adds amacco [LSC]. 16. So O 1932; Ee reads malayam, B e mallagämam [Ny] 17. See MA ii 139; AA i 75; UdA 229; NdAii 328. VbhA has for second line bahuke pi paccaye dente, tayo p' ete na püraye; the others have sakatenapaccayam dentu, toy op* ete atappiyä. 18. Cf. Mhvsv94[LSC]. 19. Reading dhävatä with C e 1932 [LSC]. 20. Ganthikä — not in PED in this sense; Nänamoli tentatively suggested "hard-studying" but Ny prefers "hypocrite", following mt: ye patirüpena vaflcenti, te ganthikä; duräcärena vä ganthibhütä. Anut has: ganthikä say am ganthikaranato. The phrase may simply mean: "the children of an entangled person are certainly themselves entangled" i.e. from ganthi ("a knot") [LSC]. 21. Reading papaflcattayam with Ee and Ce 1932, but mt reads and explains Paflcattayam i.e. the sutta on the "threefold Five" (M ii 228 ff.). This seems more probable [LSC]. 22. Vävata; not in PED. 23. Not in this sense in PED. 24. Parikhanitvä; not in PED. See Vbh 358 and §2423 below. From parikkhä ("moat", "trench") rather than parikkhanati; PED seems wrong here. 25. The meaning "fickleness,, given in PED does not seem reconcilable with the description here. See Vis Trsl. 108 n. 26. The termination of the compound -gähitä is not in PED. 27. So Ny for Nänamoli's "returned". Ce 1932 reads pativattitvä [LSC]. 28. This should have been aratibhävo rather than aramanäkäro. 29. This meaning is not in PED; see M iii 151, 159. 30. Or "refusal" if one reads patisedhana. 31. -patisedhana seems preferable to -patisevana; see Vis Trsl. 25 n. 32. ÄpanikänU not in this sense in PED. Vis has päpanikäni. 33. Sämantajappana, lit. "borderline talk" [Ny]. 34. Ee reads dhamma-karakam ("regulation [or standard] water-pot"); v.l. dhamakaranam [Ny].

284

The Dispeller of Delusion

35. Kundikä; a water vessel with spout and handle as carried by Indian ascetics [Ny]. 36. Ndi (but not Vis) has also äyogam dhäreti ("wears such a bandage") [LSC]. 37. Uttanda, not in PED. 38. Reading padhänapurimatthitabhävadassanena with O 1932 and v.l. to Ee. Vis and Ee have padhäna-pcoimathitabhäva-. 39. Nahana = nayhana from nayhati. 40. Dänarn; Vis has navadänam. 41. Ägatam; Vis has abhatam. 42. Ukkhipanä; Vis and O 5 1932 have uddlpanä and add ukkäcanä after 43. For this and the next two words, see also above §1659 f. 44. Jätakabhänaka In Vis he is simply called a kulupakabhikkhu, "a bhikkhu supported by a family". 45. Pitake; Vis haspatike. 46. r/iero; Vis has bhikkhu. 47. See §1674 above [LSC]. 48. Not in PED. 49. Not in PED; cf. Vis Trsl. 30 n. 50. NippufichatU not in PED. 51. Abbhanga, not in PED; cf. Vis Trsl. 30 n. 52. So C e 1932; not in PED. 53. This meaning of jappeti (mänam pavatteti, karoti) is not in PED. 54. This meaning is not in PED. 55. Idem. 56. See the ninefold "personal" exposition that follows immediately. 57. Ratthiya, not in PED (mt: rajabhogena ratthdbhuftjanako rqjanissito ratthiyo [LSC].) 58. Ec, C e and B c read bhäratibhäro viya; the Translator's edition seems to have only bharo [Ny]. 59. Vis has Uccavälikaväsl; O 1932 has Uccamälikaväsi; E e and vl to C? 1932 Uccatalahka-. 60. Vis has Nikapennaka-, 61. Vis has Tälankaravasi; O 1932 Mälikaväsl\ Ee Talankavasl 62. Eel ? See D i 24. 63. Mt: Amaravitakka is thought to be connected either with the unslayable doctrine (amaraväda i.e."eel-wriggling") because that cannot be slain or with thought aimed at a deva state [LSC].

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

285

64. Anut makes clear that it is ordinary affection counterfeiting the appearance of loving-kindness (mettä) and sympathy (anukampa) which is meant here [LSC]. 65. According to anut, enmity is like a binding of the mind to one of the grounds for annoyance cf. MA i 107 [LSC]. 66. Cf. definitions given at MA i 106 and 169. This word also carries the sense of ingratitude by belittling, calumny and malice. The direct meaning is "smearing over others' good qualities". 67. The meaning of "hardness" or "harshness" given in PED does not fit at all well here. Here nitthura seems to be used as a negative of thura (= thüla) ? There is an attempt here, however, to ally it with nitthubhana ("spitting"), apparently. 68. Paläsati, not in PED. 69. Not in PED. 70. C e 1932 reads elako [LSC]. 71. According to DA ii 656 and mt, the demon hog (sükara-yakkha) shows the appropriate feature to the animal which it seeks to catch [LSC]. 72. I.e. uju is here used in the sense of rigidity (of a straight poker), not in the sense of rectitude or uprightness as in ajjava. 73. According to mt: Mental terror is unpleasant feeling; or hatred; or volition, etc. associated with that [hatred - anut] [LSC]. 74. Mt: Hearing about the different colours and so on: it seems that some say that the soul of a khattiya is pale red (pandu) in colour. Why ? Because it finds pleasure in the morning and in the morning the light (chäyä) is pale red in colour. The souls of brahmans, vessas and suddas are white, yellow and black in colour; for they find pleasure in very dark times at noon-time, afternoon and night-time when the light is white, yellow and black — this is hearing about their differences in colour and hearing about their differences in shape is [hearing] from those who say such things as that [the soul] is pervasive or spherical [LSC]. 75. The meanings of äyatana taken up here are those of birth-place, meeting-place and cause [LSC]. 76. I.e. there is no harm in applying the desires to desirable objects. 77. The meaning is "hard to be spoken to", i.e. unamenability to advice [Ny]. 78. Visamanissita, perhaps meaning "one ill-disposed [towards me]" [Ny].

286

The Dispeller of Delusion

79. I.e. permanence, happiness, self, beauty. 80. See CPD [Ny]. 81. But C e 1932 reads dukkhavüpasaman ti attho; for -vüpasamanan ? [LSC]. 82. Mt: sanditthiparämasitä attano ditthiyam abhinivitthatä [LSC]. 83. ManavaddhanakOy the normal exegesis of manapa. 84. C e 1932 reads rüpavä for Ee rüpadhätu [LSC]. 85. Only the senses of sight, hearing and mind function in the Brahma realm. The other three do not, but although this is so, the bodies of Brahmas still retain the outward form of the missing sense organs [LSC]. 86. I.e. bodily and mental [Ny]. 87. Ee adds: apaccakkhakatassa; C e 1932 has: asacchikatassa [LSC]. 88. Mt: Mäsäcitam maMe ti ettha äclta-saddo tinta-saddassa, maMesaddo ca viya-saddassa attham vadatl ti adhippayena "tintamdso vry<f ti ay am attho vibhävito; mäsacayo viyä ti vä attho [LSC]. 89. I.e. leaving out the tenth: atthäne vä pana äghäto jäyati; see Vbh 391. 90. AA iv 188-9 (to A iv 400-1) has: "Tanham policed ti. These are two kinds of craving: craving which searches (esanatanha) and craving for what has been sought (esitatanhä)". The craving whereby one searches and seeks, by entering onto goat tracks and thorny tracks, etc. for wealth is called "craving which searches". The craving for those things when they have been searched for, sought out and obtained is called "craving for what has been sought". But here it should be regarded as craving which searches. 91. This meaning not in PED. 92. Idem (For both of these see GS ii 226 nn. and cp. AA iii 206-8 [LSC]). 93. C e 1932 reads cattäro suddhaslsä for Ee slsaJMe cattäro [LSC]. 94. PED has "despising, neglecting, degrading" which makes no sense in the context and is contrary to the commentary. Also the word papafica does not mean "obsession" but the "diversification" or "proliferation" which takes place as the result of the force of craving, etc. (see M sutta 16). This paragraph in Vbh therefore translates thus: "And how does there come to be the thought: 4I am' ? Without differentiating (anavakärim karitvä) anything [such as] matter, feeling, perception, formations or consciousness, he acquires the zeal that says: *I am,' he

17. Classification of the Minor Bases

287

acquires the pride that says: *I am,' he acquires the wrong view that says: 'I am.' That being so, there come to be the kinds of proliferation (papaUcitäni): 'Such am I,' "Thus am 1/ *I am otherwise'" (Vbh 393). 95. Anavakärim karitvä; so in Ee and B c . But the former quotes a reading avakärim karitvä, which seems to be correct, as here there is in fact a differentiation among the aggregates. If this reading is accepted, the passage should read: "Differentiating among the five aggregates and taking... " [Ny].

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN CLASSIFICATION OF THE HEART OF THE LAW (Dhammahadayavibhanga)
2566. [517] Now in the Classification of the Heart of the Law next to that, the division of the Pali should first be understood. For here, at the beginning, the All-inclusive Section is set forth with twelve parts consisting of the aggregates and so on <401.1>. The second is called the section showing the arising and non-arising of those same states in the sense-desire element, etc. <404.6>. The third is called the section showing which are included and which are not included there <409.3>. The fourth is called the section showing the states which are existent and non-existent at the moment of rebirth in [each of] the three planes <411.37>. The fifth is called the section showing different planes to which those states belong <421.1>. The sixth is called the section showing the kamma causing rebirth and the length of life in the various destinies <422.1>. The seventh is called the section on what is to be directly known, etc. <426.15>. The eighth is called the section on what has and what has not an object <428.3>. The ninth is called the section showing those states consisting of aggregates, etc. by including them as seen, heard, etc. <429.18>. The tenth is called the section showing them by including them according to the profitable triad and so on <430.4>. 1. First Section 2567. The Pali having been thus divided up into ten sections, firstly in the first all-inclusive section, when it is asked: "How many aggregates are there between Avici and the summit of existence (bhavagga) ?", instead of saying "one" or ... "four" or "six" and showing the power of his knowledge since no other is capable of saying "five", he gave the reply paficakkhandhä <401.4> ("five aggregates") as being in conformity with the question. For it is answering in accordance with the question that is called "the Omniscient One's reply". 2568. As regards dvädasäyatanäni <401.23> ("twelve bases") and so on, the method is the same. But the division of the rüpakkhandha <401.17> ("materiality aggregate") and so on should be understood

18. Classification of the Heart of the Law

289

according to the method given in the Classification of the Aggregates (see above, §§7 ff.) and so on. 2. Second Section 2569. In the second section, kämadhätuyä paficakkhandhä <404.8> ("in the sense-desire-element five aggregates"), etc. is said including all those states which arise for beings that are produced by the sense-desire element in the sense-desire existence, whether those states are included in the sense-desire element or not. And also in the case of the rüpadhätu <405.11> ("fine-material element"), etc. this is the method. But because, owing to the absence of the nose base and so on in beings included in the fine-material element, the odour base and so on do not perform the functions of base and so on, therefore rüpadhätuyä cha äyatanä nava dhätuyo <405.12> ("in the finematerial element six bases, nine elements") and so on is said.1 2570. [518] And because there is no unincluded element (apariyäpannadhätu) either by spatial location (okäsa) or by beings' rebirth, therefore instead of saying "in the unincluded element", apariyäpanne kati khandhä <407.32> ("in the unincluded, how many aggregates ?") and so on is said in order to show only those states which are unincluded. 3. Third Section 2571. In the third section, kämadhätupariyäpannä <409.3> ("included in the sense-desire element") means included in the sense of belonging to the sense-desire element, depending thereon, within it; the meaning is that it is reckoned only as the sense-desire element. So with the remaining terms. 2572. Pariyäpannä <411.17> ("included"): included by way of [one of the] existences or included by spatial location. Apariyäpannä <411.18> ("unincluded"): not so included. 4. Fourth Section 2573. In the fourth section, ekädasäyatanäni <411.40> ("eleven bases"): lacking the sound base; for that does not arise at all in rebirthlinking. The meaning should be understood in this way throughout. As

290

The Dispeller of Delusion

regards one who has seven [bases], instead of saying "for deities", "for demons" according to destiny, gabbhaseyyakänam <415.36> ("/ör those in the womb") is said without distinction because 2 wherever those in the womb occur, seven bases should be understood for them in that place. Likewise the elements. The rest in clear in meaning throughout. 5. Fifth Section 2574. What should be said regarding the fifth section has been said in the commentary to the Dhammasangaha (see Asl 387 f.; cf. 50 ). 6. Sixth Section 2575. In the sixth section, devä <422.1> ("deities") means: "They divert themselves (dibbanti) by means of the five cords of sense desire or by means of the various kinds of miraculous power" (iddhivisesa). Sammutidevä (? conventional devas") are the devas (i.e. kings and queens) called according to the conventional usage of the world: devo ("his majesty") and devi ("her majesty"). Uppattidevä ("deities by birth") are deities because of having arisen, because of rebirth in the divine world. Visuddhidevä <422.2> ("deities by purity"): they are deities owing to purification from all defilements, being worthy of the offerings of all deities. Räjäno ("kings") are Khattiyas anointed on the head. Deviyo ("queens") are their chief consorts. Kumärä ("princes") are princes that have appeared in the womb of an anointed queen of an anointed king. 2576. Uposathakammam karitvä <422.7> ("having done the uposatha work"): having observed on the fourteenth day and so on the uposatha possessed of the eight factors. 2577. Now because the meritorious kamma of giving on a small scale is a condition for human prosperity, and when effected in a fair measure [it is a condition] for the extreme of human prosperity, and owing to the variety of the extreme state it is a condition for the variety of states consisting of the Khattiyas of great substance, etc.; therefore he said app ekacce gahapatimahäsälänam <422.8> ("some reappear in the company of householders of great substance"), etc., showing the kinds of rebirth brought about by its means. [519] Herein, "of great substance" (mahä-särä) means "they have great substance" (mahä-säro);

18. Classification of the Heart of the Law

291

but by substituting the letter "1" for the letter "r", mahäsälä (lit. "of great halls") is said. Gahapatimahäsälä means either "the householders are of great substance*9 or "those of great substance among householders". So with the rest. 2578. Herein, one in whose house a minimum wealth of forty kotis is deposited and where the daily outgoing expenditure is five ambanas3 of kahäpanas is called a householder of great substance. But one in whose house a minimum wealth of eighty kotis is deposited and where the daily outgoing expenditure is ten ambanas of kahäpanas is called a brahman of great substance; but he in whose house a minimum wealth of one hundred kotis is deposited and where the daily outgoing expenditure is twenty ambanas of kahäpanas is called a Khattiya of great substance. Sahavyatam ("m the company of9): in togetherness; born to share with, is the meaning. 2579. As regards cätumahäräjikänam <422.20> ("of the deities of the Four Kings99) and so on: those of the Four Kings are halfway up Mount Sineru; among them are those that rest on the mountain and those that rest on space, and they extend uninterruptedly to the mountain [wall] of the world sphere (cakkaväla). Those who are debauched by amusement (khiddäpadosika), those who are debauched by hate (manopadosika), those of cold clouds (sitavalähaka), those of hot clouds (unhavalahaka), the Moon deity, the Sun deity, all belong to the divine world of the Four Kings. 2580. Because 33 persons are reborn there, it is called "the ThirtyThree" (Tävatimsä); also Tävatimsä is said as being just the name of those deities. And there are those [of them] who rest on the mountain and those who rest on space, and they extend uninterruptedly to the mountain [wall] of the world sphere. Likewise for those of Yäma and so on.4 For in [any] single world of deities, there are no deities who do not extend uninterruptedly to the mountain [wall] of the world sphere. 2581. Herein, because they are gone to (yäta), wholly gone to (payäta), arrived at divine bliss, they are the Yäma [deities]. They are contented and happy (tutthahattha), hence they are the Tusita [deities]. They delight (ramanti) by creating (nimminitvä) treasures according to their pleasure at the time when they are desirous of delighting in something extra to the object originally provided, hence they are Deities who Delight in Creating (Nimmänarati). By knowing the conscious workings of others they wield power over the treasures created by

292

The Dispeller of Delusion

them, hence they are Deities who Wield Power over Others' Creations (Paranimmitavasavatti). 2582. Appam vä bhiyyo <422.19> ("or a little more"): without having reached the second century, twenty or thirty or forty or fifty or sixty years over the century is the meaning. And all this is called "a little" (appa) because of not reaching the second century. 2583. As regards the Brahmapärisajjä ("Brahma's Retinue") and so on, the retinue, the following of the Great Brahmas is Brahma's Retinue (Brahmapärisajjä). Those occupying the place of their court chaplains are Brahma's Court Chaplains (Brahmapurohitä). [520] Both because of being possessed of beauty and because of their long lifespan, the Brahmas are great, hence they are the Great Brahmas; of these Mahäbrahmänam <424.15> ("Great Brahmas"). These three kinds of persons (jana) live on one level in the plane of the first jhäna; but the extent of their lifespan is different. 2584. They have a limited radiance, hence they are the Deities of Limited Radiance (Parittäbha). They have unlimited radiance, hence they are the Deities of Unlimited Radiance (Appamänäbha). Like the flame of a torch of sticks, the radiance (äbhä) from the body, as though continually detaching itself and falling, streams (sarati) and flows, hence they are the Deities Streaming with Radiance (Abhassara). And these three kinds of person live on one level in the plane of the second jhäna; but the extent of their lifespan is different. 2585. They have limited glory, hence they are the Deities of Limited Glory (Parittasubha). They have unlimited glory, hence they are the Deities of Unlimited Glory (Appamänasubha). They are covered, enveloped with glory; they are of one mass by the colour of their glorious bodily radiance; they have the refulgence of a flaming golden ball placed in a golden casket, hence they are the Deities Refulgent with Glory (Subhakinna). And these three kinds of person live on one level in the plane of the third jhäna; but the extent of their lifespan is different.5 2586. Ärammananänattatä <425.8> ("through diversity of object") = ärammanassa nänattabhävo. So also with manasikäranänattatä ^through diversity of bringing to mind') and so on. Here one has the earth kasina as object ... one has the white kasina; this is diversity of object. One brings to mind the earth kasina ... one the white kasina; this is diversity of bringing to mind. One has zeal for the earth kasina ... one has it for the white kasina; this is diversity of zeal. One makes

18. Classification of the Heart of the Law

293

an aspiration concerning the earth kasina ... one concerning the white kasina; this is diversity of aspiration. One determines by means of the earth kasina ... one by means of the white kasina; this is diversity of determination. One resolves his mind by means of the earth kasina ... one by means of the white kasina; this is diversity of resolution. One has understanding which defines the earth kasina ... one has understanding which defines the earth kasina; this is diversity of understanding. 2587. Herein, object and bringing to mind are explained as the prior stage (pubbabhäga); zeal, aspiration, determination and resolution are appropriate both in absorption and also in access; but understanding is explained as mixed mundane and supramundane. 2588. AsafifLasattänam <425.23> {"of the non-percipient beings"): of the beings devoid of perception. For some, after going forth in a sectarian sphere and seeing a fault in consciousness because lusting, hating and being deluded depends upon consciousness, imagine that: 'The consciousnessless state is good, this is nibbäna in the present existence;' [521] and they generate the fading away of greed for perception and, developing the fifth attainment in conformity therewith, they are reborn there. At the moment of their rebirth the materiality aggregate alone is reborn. If he is reborn standing, he stands only; if reborn sitting, he sits only; if reborn lying down, he lies only. They remain for five hundred aeons like painted statues. At their end the material body vanishes; sense-sphere perception arises. Through the arising of that perception here [in this sphere] those deities notice (paftfläyanti) that they have passed away from that [material] body. 2589. "Of abundant fruits" (vipulä phala) is the meaning of vehapphalä ("Most Fruitful Deities"). They do not lose (na häyanti) their own prosperity, hence they are the avihä <425.26> ("Aviha Deities"). They torment (tappenti) no being at all, hence they are the atappä ("Atappa Deities"). Good to look at, handsome, pleasing, hence they are the sudassä <425.30> ("Fair-to-See Deities"). They see thoroughly;6 their seeing is good, hence they are the sudassi ("Fairseeing Deities"). They are senior on account of all virtuous qualities and on account of a prosperous [state of] existence; there is no junior here — hence they are the akanitthä <425.34> ("Not-Junior Deities"). Äkäsänaflcäyatanupagä <425.36> ("Deities Belonging to the Sphere of Boundless Space") = äkäsänahcäyatanüpagatä. So with the rest.

294

The Dispeller of Delusion

2590. So with the six kinds of sense-sphere [deities] and nine of the Brahma world, and five of the Pure Abodes, and four immaterial together with non-percipient beings and the Most Fruitful Deities, there are 26 worlds of deities. Together with the human world there are 27. 2591. Herein, the Fully Enlightened One, when defining the lifespan of deities and humans, did not define the lifespan in the four states of woe or of the earth deities. Why was that ? Firstly as regards hell, kamma only is its measure;7 as long as the kamma is not used up they do not pass away. Likewise with the rest of the states of woe. Also kamma only is the measure for the earth deities. On being reborn there, some only remain for seven days, some for a fortnight, some for a month; and there are those too who remain for the aeon. 2592. Herein, among humans there are Stream Enterers who remain in the lay state, and they reach the fruition of Once Return, the fruition of Non-Return and Arahatship. Among these the Stream Enterers and so on remain for as long as their lives last; but one whose cankers are destroyed either attains complete extinction or goes forth [into monkhood]. Why ? Arahatship is the highest virtue; the mark of the layman is inferior. On account of its inferiority, it cannot support the supreme virtue. Therefore they wish to attain complete extinction or they wish to go forth. But the earth deities remain for as long as their life lasts even after attaining Arahatship. 2593. Among the six kinds of sense-sphere deities, Stream Enterers and Once Returners remain as long as life lasts. It is proper for a NonReturner to go to the fine-material existence and for one whose cankers are destroyed to attain complete extinction. [522] Why ? Because there is no place to stay.8 2594. All those of the fine-material and immaterial sphere remain there for as long as life lasts. Herein, Stream Enterers and Once Returners reborn in the fine-material sphere do not come back here again; they reach complete extinction there. They are called "Jhäna Non-Returners" Q'häna-anägämin).9 2595. But what determines [rebirth] for those who are obtainers of the eight attainments ? The jhäna which is most familiar. Only by means of that which is familiar is he reborn. But when all are familiar, what determines it ? Aspiration. He is reborn where he aspires to be reborn. When there is no aspiration, what determines it ? The attainment which he enters upon at the time of death. If there is no attainment at the time of death, what determines it ? The attainment of neither-perception-

18. Classification of the Heart of the Law

295

nor-non-perception. For he is certainly reborn in the Sphere of NeitherPerception-Nor-Non-Perception. 2596. For noble disciples reborn in the nine Brahma worlds there is rebirth there and rebirth higher up; there is no rebirth lower down. But for ordinary men there is rebirth there and higher up and lower down. For noble disciples [reborn] in the five Pure Abodes and in the four immaterial worlds there is rebirth there and higher up. A Non-Returner reborn on the plane of the first jhäna, after purifying [himself in the] nine Brahma worlds, attains complete extinction when he reaches the top. The three worlds of deities, that is, the Most Fruitful Deities, the Not-Junior Deities and the Sphere of Neither-Perception-Nor NonPerception, are called the Highest Kinds of Existence (setthabhava).10 Non-Returners reborn in these three places go neither up nor down; they attain complete extinction where they are. This is the general method (pakinnaka) for this.11 7. Seventh Section 2597. In the seventh section, the state of being directly knowable (abhiüfieyyatä) should be understood in accordance with direct knowledge which lays hold of specific characteristics (salakkhanapariggähika)}1 The state of being fully understandable (pariMeyyatä) in accordance with the full understandings of the known, of recognition and of abandoning (Mta-tirana-pahänapariMä).13 And that should be understood in accordance with full understanding of the known and of recognition, in such passages as Rüpakkhandho abhiflfieyyo pariflfieyyo na pahätabbo <426.22> ("The materiality aggregate which is to be directly known, fully understood, it is not to be abandoned*'); and it should be understood in accordance with the full understanding of abandoning in such passages as Samudayasaccam abhififieyyam parinneyyam pahatabbam <426.37> ("The Truth of Origination is to be directly known, fully understood and abandoned"). 8. Eighth Section 2598. In the eighth section, the state of object and not-object should be understood in accordance with eye consciousness, etc. which have visible data, etc. as object.

296

The Dispeller of Delusion

9. Ninth Section 2599. The ninth section is clear in meaning. 10. Tenth Section 2600. Also as regards the tenth section, [what should be said] has all been said already in various places in the Questionnaire Section. End of the Explanation of the Classification of the Heart of the Law

18. Classification of the Heart of the Law EPILOGUE 2601. [523] Engaged in teaching Abhidhamma To gods pledged to the adoring of the law, The Teacher of the Law, surrounded By a thousand gods massed in the divine city, He who is without a rival, Adorned with eighteen classifications And qualities sublime, the Saviour Gave out this second book, the Classification. The Commentary for explaining Its meaning, which, because I was requested By the illumined Buddhagosa, Guide of swift progress and of solid virtue, I started to compose, and which Has got the name "Dispeller of Delusion" Because it can dispel delusion Concerning the most cryptical of meanings, Has now arrived at its conclusion Without mishap, and it has drawn the substance From the ancient commentaries With forty recital sections in the Pali; And as it is with one, So too may all the pure aspirations Of all beings proceed To their successful conclusion. And by this merit, got by me Composing it in order to promote The good Law's long endurance here, So may the world attain tranquillity.

297

298

The Dispeller of Delusion So may the Law last long indeed. Let the world ever rejoice in the Law; Always may the countryside Be blessed with safety, plenty and such things. POSTSCRIPT

2602. This commentary to the Vibhahga, called the Dispeller of Delusion was made by the Elder who is adorned with supreme and pure faith, wisdom and energy, in whom are gathered a concourse of upright, gentle, etc. qualities due to the practice of virtue, who is capable of delving into and fathoming the views of his own and others' doctrines, who is possessed of keenness of understanding, who is strong in unerring knowledge of the Master's dispensation as divided into three Pitakas with their commentaries, a great expounder, [524] gifted with the sweet and noble speech that springs from the bliss produced by mastery of syntax, a speaker of what is appropriately said, a superlative speaker, a great poet, an ornament of the Lineage of the Elders who dwell in the Great Monastery, and who are shining lights in the Lineage of the Elders with unblemished enlightenment in the superhuman states that are adorned with the qualities of the six kinds of supernormal achievements, and the categories of discrimination, who has abundant purified wisdom and who bears the name Buddhagosa conferred by the venerable ones. 2603. May it continue here to show The way to purity of wisdom To clansmen seeking for the means To ferry them across the worlds For just as long as in the world Shall last that name, "Enlightened One", By which, thus purified in mind, Is known the Greatest Sage, World Chief. End of the Commentary on the Dispeller of Delusion

18. Classification of the Heart of the Law FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER EIGHTEEN

299

1. Mt finds this argument inconsistent with Vbh 419 where nonpercipient beings (asahhasattd) are said to have only two bases: visible datum base and mental-data base. Anut replies: "Even if the visible datum base of non-percipient beings is not an object for them because of having no eye nor for beings of lower levels because it is extremely subtle, yet it is an object for the eye base of the Most Fruitful Deities who belong to the same level and for that of the Deities of the Pure Abodes who belong to higher levels — so [the visible datum base] certainly does perform the functions of base and so on" and refers back to the discussion mentioned in n. 58 to §736 above [LSC]. 2. Reading yasmä with Ce 1932 for Ee tasmä [LSC]. 3. Not in PED but see ammana. (Mt: catudonam ambonam; chadonan ti eke [LSC]). 4. PED confuses Yamaräja, King of the Underworld (see corny to M sutta 130), with the Yämadevaloka, whose king is called Yäma; but there is no connection between them. 5.Cp.MAi35. 6. Mt: with the eye of wisdom and with the fleshly and divine eyes [LSC]'. 7. Mt says that this means that the divisions into lifespans of an abbuda and so on is made due to kamma. Anut has a long passage: "They say that the lifespan of the deities of the Four Kings is one day and night in Sanjlva. Thirty nights of such a night is a month. The year has twelve months of such a month. Five hundred years of such a year is the lifespan in Sanjlva. The lifespan of the deities of the Thirty-Three is one day and night in Kälasutta ... etc. ... One thousand years of such a year is the lifespan in Kälasutta. The lifespan of the Yäma deities is one day and night in Sanghäta ... etc. ... Two thousand years of such a year is the lifespan in Sanghäta. The lifespan of the Tusita deities is one day and night in Roruva ... etc. ... Four thousand years of such a year is the lifespan in Roruva. The lifespan of the Deities who Delight in Creating is one day and night in Mahäroruva ... etc. ... Eight thousand years of such a year is the lifespan in Mahäroruva. The lifespan of the Deities who Wield Power over Others' Creations is one day and night in Täpana ... etc. ... Sixteen thousand years of such a year is the lifespan in Täpana ... etc. ... The lifespan in Mahätäpana is half an antarakappa and that in Avici one antarakappa. It should be understood that kamma

300

The Dispeller of Delusion

only is its measure was said, understanding that, just as with the willed (adhimutta) death of deities, by similar power of meritorious action there is death in the interval also. That being so, the division into lifespans of an abbuda and so on is more appropriate" [LSC]. 8. Mt: "The meaning is because there is no place other than one which is full of sense pleasures and constantly attended by the companies of nymphs born together [with a deity there]" [LSC]. 9. C e 1932 reads: jhänaläbhi anägämino [LSC]. 10. Anut mentions the names for these three places respectively of summit of existence for ordinary people (Most Fruitful Deities), summit of existence for noble ones (Not-Junior Deities) and summit of existence for all (Sphere of Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-Perception) [LSC]. 11. Mt discusses this paragraph in the light of Yam ii 375-6, which mentions the rebirth in the formless realm of those with only five or three anusayas i.e. noble ones. It suggests that this would not apply to the Most Fruitful Deities, etc. Alternatively it suggests that the comments in the atthakathä refer specifically to a noble disciple who has not suppressed desire for form (rüparäga) i.e. Stream Enterers and Once-retumers and who is reborn in a Brahma realm. The Yamaka is referring to the case of someone who develops the path in the Brahma realm and suppresses desire for form by means of the formless jhänas [LSC]. 12. Mt: Lays hold of specific characteristics: lays hold of general and specific (visesa) characteristics in the way beginning "materiality has the characteristic of being molested (ruppana); contact has the characteristic of touching". Cf. anut and Vis 606 f. [LSC]. 13. Mt explains "full understanding of the known" as purification of view and purification by crossing over doubt, "full understanding of recognition" as the purifications from then until conformity and "full understanding of abandoning" as from contemplation of rise and fall until the path. Cp. Vis Trsl. pp. 705 and 812 [LSC].

INDEX OF WORDS AND SUBJECTS
Apart from references indicated by volume and page (e.g. I 67) or by chapter number (e.g. chap. IV), all references are to paragraph number. abandoned (pahina) 1828 abandoning (pahänä) 129 130 551 848 850 1394 1458 1828 2289 Abhidhamma 64 167 392 648 1806 2056 2601 (method) (-pariyäya) 637 639 1806 abode/lodging (senäsana) 1089 1178 1312 1588 f. 1592 1799-1806 1810 1812 1817 2357 2368 f. abode of beings (sattäväsa) 617 728 756 767-73 778 f. cf. 922 2514 absence condition (natthipaccaya) 667 1761 absorption (appanä/appita) 378 f. 1071 1079 1081 f. 1143 1145 1187 f. 1191 1193 f. 1198 1237 1315 f. 1371 f. 1527 f. 1887 1889 1894 2114 2119 2125 ff. 2269 2300 2310 2326 2349 2587 abstention (refraining) (virati) All 541 1566-68 1572-75 1622 1624 n. 1906-09 abstention/abstaining (veramani) 55962 1572 1574 1906 1909 1924

1927 1930 abuse/abusive (akkosa, akkosaka) 1674 (ten examples of) 1674 2381 (abusing) (akkosanä) 2381 acceptance (khanti) 2075 2282 (see patience) acceptance (receiving) (sampaticchana) 178 403 410 689 708 834 1752 2044 cf. 2442-44 access (upacära) 378 f. 1145 1195 1198 1237 1344 1371 f. 1475 1498 2326 2349 2587 accomplished (arahat) 424 accomplished (produced) (nipphanna) cf. 127 484 1502 accumulation (äyühana) 2193-94 2197 accumulation (äcaya) 2102 (leading to) (-gämin) 859 accusative (upayoga) 2096 2546 2558

achievement (comprehension) (abhisamaya) 419 642 1458 (single) (eka-) 551 acme (agga) 1617 (see also summit) (4 kinds) 1615 acquired sign (uggahanimitta) 1144 act (i.e. of Vinaya) (kamma) 1618 f. 2145-47 (see announcement of the act) action/act (äkärä) 465 f. 485 489 498 991 (see mode) action (kiriyä) 440 f. adhering (parämösa) 922 admission (upasampaää) 1618 f. 2172 cf. 2241 (8 kinds) 1619 adventitious (ägantuka) 101 adverting/advertence/advert (ävajjana/ävajjeti) 178 f. 412 f. 650 652 708 714 f. 903 1145 1176 1191 1193 1412 1437 1686 175256 1761 1794 n. 2037 f. 2042 2049 f. 2058 2467 aeon (kappa) 23 f. 33 65 78 112 522 704 1922 2035 2148 2157 2210 2250 2428 2588 2591 (-destroying) 322 333 (person at the beginning) (pathamakappika) 2204 (antarakappa) 2591 n. agent (pätibhoga) 753 aggregate(s) of state(s) (dhammakkhandha) 138 aggregate (khandha) chap. I and 245 ff. 253 262 361 403 407 409 446 452 454 472 475 f. 551 567 617 638 f. 676 737 ff. 776-84 803 f. 822 860 865 868 ff. 914 949 962 f. 1145 1194 1205 1220 1241 1448 1460 1462 1483 f. 1491 ff. 1501 f. 1526 1534 1537 1749 1757 f. 1762 1846 1861 1864 1873 1876 2014 2018 2033 2075 2099 2128 2270 2310

302

The Dispeller of Delusion
animal (tiracchäna) 46 758 2013 2149 2258 2334 (kind of generation) (-yoni) 1325 1949 2195 2206 2258 2264 (talk) (katnä) 2506 (tiraccha) 464 annihilation (uccheda) 849 896 910 1510 2281-83 2488 2552 (view) (-ditthi) 430 525 838 871 896 924 f. 2281 2454 2478 2489 2512 2549 2562 announcement of the act (kammaväcä) 1621 annoyance (resentment) (patigha) 369 371 1252 f. 1718 2286 (see resistance) anointed (abhisitta) 2575 anointing (abhiseka) 2554 ff. 2561 ant (kipillikä) 123 ant hill (vammlka) 1772 ape's drowsing (kapimiddha) 2056 apparitionally born/of apparitional rebirth/apparitional (opapätika) 92 97 f. I l l 453 728 734-36 769 781-82 787 896 937 951953 appearance (upatthäna) 2193-96 appearance (vanna) 211 469 2384 (see colour) appellation (conventional usage/ expression) (vohära) 477 746 1215 1479 1604 applied thought/thinking (vitakka) 394 441 543 ff. 737 740 1145 f. 1194 f. 1792 1826 n. 1860 2104 2240 2260 n. 2408-13 2430 2498 2507 2538 (of renunciation) 372 ff. 431 554 (of sense desire, etc.) 368 ff. 380 554 ff. (triad) 1994 applied thought, absence of/without (avitakka) 2108 (with sustained thought) 2301 2311 (without sustained thought) 740 1537 ff. 1542 2125 f. 2301 2311 applied and sustained thought, with/possessed of (savitakkasavicära) 431 740 2017 2301 2311 approach (ägamana) 2111 f.

2513 2546 2553 n. 2560 2562 2566 ff. (complete extinction of) (-parinibbdna) 2173 agitation (uddhacca) 183 658 988 1084 1233 f. 1289 1315 1317 1457 1510 1515 f. 1830 (and worry) (-kukkucca) 1277-S9 agreeable (ittha) 37-45 183 191 511 2057 n. 2501 (see desirable) agreeable (mandpaj-iya) 229 2501 agreeable (sätarüpa) 527 529 536 2286 agreement (katika) 1656 1731 1736 agreement/in agreement (samagga) 1618 2154 air (väyas) 403 1741 (body) (-kayo) 1034 (element) (-dhätu) 226 267 334-52 359 392 398 1140 1169 1203 1741 f. 1750 1767 1772 1776 1782 f. 1790 akka bark (-väka) 1096 Skullflower1130 all-helpful (sabbatthika) 1317 1514-16 (see omnipresent) all-inclusive (sabbasahgähika) 381 937 f. 1825 2431 2566 ff. allowed (kappiya) 1283 1287 almsfood (pindapäta) 1324 1328 133032 2368 f. almsfooder (pindapätika) 2324 2378 almsround (bhikkhäcariya) 1608 cf. 1655 altar (äsana) 2196 alteration (vikära) 211 467 469 474 altruistic joy (muditä) 1898 almsfood eater (pindapätika) 1080-81 1737 ambrosia (amata) 41 ambulatory (cahkamana) 1734 1792 2346 f. ämisa 1525 2120 (see worldly; material) amity (mettä) 373 378 f. 556 f. 125458 1261-63 1883-1904 2411 n. analysis (bheda) 854 863 866 anger (kodha) 1825 2313 2415 2500 2530 (kopa) 2530

Index of Words and Subjects
Arahat/Arahatship 1611 1613 1615 2057 n. 2060 2063 2143 2151 2158 2351 f. 2401 2487 2489 (fruition of) (-phala) 72 2119 (path of) (-magga) 70 850 1251 1276 1289 1308 1322 1341 1354 1374 1382 1464 1499 f. 1610 f. 1694 2007 2394 2399 2473 (arahatta) 181 183 185 187 193 196 253 273 361 366 1058 1156 1174 1216 1221 1330 f. 1429 1717 1729 1733 ff. 1739 1799 1955 f. 1958 2122 2151 2161 f. 2194 f. 2252 2268 f. 2401 2405 2592 archer (dhanuggaha) 1188 ardent/ardour (ätäpin/ätäpa/ätappa) 1039 1045 1206 1208 1212 1406 1625 arisen (uppanna) 202 595 1394 1396 1406-08 1443-54 1462 1465 1834 1965 n. 2007 2028 2063 2087 arising (uppatti) 129 f. 211 222 f. 391 485 608 f. 848 f. 1028 1590 1592 1976 2535 2566 arising (uppäda) 24 30 91 101 112 116-24 238 623 1395 1976 aritthaka seed 1093 arouse (samutthäpeti) 1400 f. arrow (asana) 444 ascetic (täpasa) 242 2082 f. 2339 asceticism (sila) 2407 (tapa) 2485 asceticism, preacher of (dhutaväda) 2369 ascetic practice (dhutanga) 1275 1433 1436 f. 1739 2388 f. ascetic quality (dhutaguna) 2323 2340 asking questions (paripucchakatä) 1281 1288 1294 1301 1310 f. aspect (äkära) 130 136 2059 2343 2435 2547 (see mode) aspiration (panidhäna) 2188 f. (panidhi) 2586 f. (patthanä) 2594 assertion(s) (väda) 567 1542 1564 1672 2419 (about the self) (atta-) 157 844-47 851 872 (Elder's) (thera-) 1688

303

association (sampayutta) 2433 (tetrad) (-catukka) 934 965-67 (state) (-dhamma) 540 573 1481 association condition {sampayuttapaccaya) 198 667 796 808 822 830 834 853 876 945 f. 965 1003 assure {niyömeti) 2161 2275 2278 assured (niyata) 1174 2161 (wrong view) 2019 2293 athletics (dafhi) 1438 atom (anuj 430 n. 435 n. 676 1683 1689-91 (see fundamental particle) attachment (attraction) (nikanti) 2107 (to jhäna) 525 attain (samäpajjati) 2046 2078 2123 2298 attainment (adhigama) 587 1954 f. 1961 2370 2400 cf. 2525 attainment (patiläbhd) 587 cf. 1482 1498 attainment (samäpatti) 28 54 127 18188 194 197 557 565 567 870 1349 1409 1417 f. 1437 1452 1545 1631 1834 1843 1858 2017 2060 2063 2078 2083 2085 2113 2119 2136 f. 2170 2252 2297 ff. 2302 2306 2337 2349 2370 2434 2533 2588 2595 (one with) (samäpanna) 57 77 (one without) (asamäpanna) 56 f. attentive(ly) (samähita) 1 599 auspicious (bhadra) 1615 avarice (macchariya) 2420 2463 2538 awaken {bujjhati) 1510 1512 awakening (bodhi) 1509 f. (see enlightenment) awakening/full awakening (sambodha) 642 1531 awakening factor (bojjhahga) 1509-57 (see enlightenment factor) axle (simile of greasing the) (akkha) 1738 backwards/reverse order (patiloma) 608 921 1062 bad conduct (misconduct) (duccarita) 547 569 617 660 868 1572 1575 1638 1897 2091 2192 f. 2431 2448 2452 2476 2520

304

The Dispeller of Delusion beginning (ädi) 1626 f. behaviour (samudäcöra) 1449 f. 1454 being (satta) 1214 f. 1220 1376-80 being questioned (paripucchä) 1954 f. 1961 belching (uggärd) 336 n. belief (misinterpreting; adherence) (abhinivesa) 845 849 922 1031 1510 2514 belief (upaladdhi) 1214 belly (kucchi) 338 belonging to the Order (sahghika) 1639 1642-47 1656 (see Order) bending (<mamanä> etc.) 2362 bending (sammifljitd) 1763-67 benediction (armmodanä) 1332 1726 benefit (attha) 1211 1716 f. 1747 1764 f. 1769 1773 1779 1799 1800 2086 2091 2095 (clear comprehension of benefit) (sätthaka-sampajaftfla) 1715 1747 1764 1769 1773 1779 1787 (beneficial) (sdtthd) 1718-22 benefit (änisamsa) 1324 1326 1421 1588 beryl (veluriya) 299 besetting (pariyutthäna) 642 2518 bhikkhu 1024 f. 1055 1393 1474 1586 1591 1604-19 1669 1676 1680 ff. 1692 1694 1765 f. 1804 1883 1917 f. 2082 f. 2159 bhikkhuni 1024 1669 1676 1681 f. 1692 1694 1765 1919 1922 2082 2159 2336 2450 bhütinaka grass 673 n. bile (pitta) 272 305 f. 309 1062 1098 1126 1130 1136 1154 1168 2052 2442 birth (Jäti) 193 407 446-64 482 f. 513 519 f. 603 ff. 623 626 676 877-S0 897-900 908 913-22 946 f. 962 f. 974 976 1369 1966 2131 2436 2514 (i.e. high» etc.) 1486 1489 1490 n. 1706 2384 2396 2398 (fear of) (-bhaya) 2477 (vanity of) (-mada) 2313 2315 2319 bitter gourd (titta-aläbu) 535

bad-spokenness (dovacassatä) 2457 bad state (the seven) (asaddhamma) 2519 bamboo (velu) 1053 1639-48 1663 1804 banyan (circumference of) (nigrodhaparimandala) 2326 barren waste (cetokhila) 2481 f. base/sense base (äyatana) chap. II and 206 454 615 617 623 782 815-30 904 ff. 940 953 1171 f. 1749 1759 2014 2271 2440 2568 f. 2573 (see sixfold base; sixth base; sphere) (complete) (paripunna-) 97 f. 453 937 953 956 (incomplete) (aparipunna-) 453 937 951 956 base of success (iddhipäda) chap. IX 431 basic/basic factor (padhäna) 670 n. 1603 1630 f. (state) (-dhamma) 891 basis (vatthu) 211 271 1030 f. 1211 1215 1220 1618 2059 2327 2395 (see cleansing the basis; sense desire)(i.e. heart basis) 94 101 111 196 226 689 692 ff. 732 786 816 ff. (the five or six bases) 80 f. 86 89 140 149 164 f. 218 228 365 617 626 671 688-94 803 f. 814 2031 ff. (decad)94 736 779 781 basis for all benefit (sabbatthapädaka) 1841 f. 1854 1857 1869 basis for the performance of merit (puflflakriyävatthu) 650 basis (thiti) 776 bat (vagguli) 11 bathing powder (sinäna) 1657 bean-soupery (muggasüpyatä) 1660 2377 beauty/beautiful (subhd) 893 1019 1385 (element) 392 f. (sign of) (-nimitta) 393 1187 1243 f. bed (mailed) 1801 beg (bhikkhati) 1606 beggar (bhikkhakal-uka) 1607 beginner (ädikammika) 273 552

Index of Words and Subjects blame (savajja) 1910 1917-22 2143 cf. 2154 blameless (anavajja) 717 719 f. 1293 1309 1599 1832 2154 blemish (angaria) 2446 (dosa) 1683* blind (andha) 677 916 (from birth) (jaccandha) 611703 736 blood (lohita) 308 f. 354 f. 388 1062 1098 1117 1133 f. 1154 2144 2152 2158 (ruhira) 1034 (sonita) 879 blue[-black] (nlla[ka]) 1154 n. boat (nävä) 2179 bodily (käya) 1534 2361 (see intimation) (action) (-kamma) 573 1563 2046 2155 2378 2422 2434 (bad conduct/misconduct) (-duccarita) 617 868 1575 1638 1897 2091 2192 f. 2448 2452 (contact) (samsagga) 2506 (good conduct) (sucarita) 617 2192 (inertia) (-dutthulla) 2363 (power) (-bala) 1998-2000 bodily (käyika) 53 487 1533 bodily formation (käyasankhära) 118 bodily octad (sariratthaka) 270 f. bodily pain (see pain) bodily pleasure (see pleasure) bodily tie (see tie) body (käya) 81 191 f. 211 277-95 30617 324 ff. 329 f. 347 365 403 528 564 615 646 732 950 1012 1019 1022 1026 ff. 1056 1196 ff. 1210 1212 1312 1344 1384 ff. 1526 f. 1741 1772 1819 1843 1858 1870 2119 2357 2483 (see contemplation of the body; physical body) (decad)94 97 736 779 (door) 45 178 180 191 579 657 708 2156 (faculty) 579 589 f. 594 743 (sensitivity) 94 164 362 body consciousness (käyaviflfläna) 44 81 140 401 403 678 681 684 708 819 2050 2119 (element) 365

305

body-hair (loma) 271 277 310 357 1031 1035 1056 f. 1062 1069 1076 1093 1101 1130 1133 f. 1142 1154 1157 1160 1179 1184-90 1201-04 1312 (body) (-käya) 1034 bond (five of the mind) (cetovinibandha) 17302483 bond (the four) (yoga) 155-58 503 1020 1675 (see surcease of bondage) bone (atthi) 279 281-86 356 1034 1062*1106 1108-15 1154 1157 1165-67 1705 1741 (310 bones) 1108 (300 bones) 1109 1110 (-marrow) (-mifija) 284 1034 1062 1114 f. 1157 1168 book (gantha) 1433 1435 2340 boon (vara) 2213 border dweller (paccantaväsin) 39 boredom (arati) 1044 1265 f. 2360 2455 boundary (sima) 51 1612 1618 2145 2154 2159 boundary post (indakhila) 1806 boundless state (appamaflfla) 1881— 1904 (see measureless) bowel(s) (anta) 291-94 338 f. 1062 1122 1157 (entrails) 1216 (kottha) 339 bowl (patta) 1768 1773-77 brahman 2319 f. 2438 f. 2443 brain (matthaluhga) 271 295 1062 1129 1139 1157 1168 1176 1191 1193 (pentad) (-paticaka) 1062 1148 break (bhindati) 1610 f. 1617 breaking (khanda) 1924 1931 breathing thing (pänin) 470 brew (äsava) 1907 cf. 673 brief (see in brief) bright (pabhassara) 1084 1829 (sukka) 1293 1309 1457 brilliance (rasa) 299 bring about (nibbatteti) 1400 f. bring into being (abhinibbatteti) 1400 f.

306

The Dispeller of Delusion (free from/without) (anäsava) 57 134 155 ff. 431 445 1571 ff. (subject to) (säsava) 56 f. 132 ff. 445 571 628 1571 2122 carry back (paccäharati) 1723-40 1955 carry (forth) (harati) 1723-40 1955 category (pabheda) 1938 1961 f. (Section) (-vara) 1962 cause (hetu) 31 391 428 ff. 435 445 484 531 608 612 ff. 626 669 ff. 715 722 724 737 741 f. 744 746 792 f. 868 ff. 889 f. 896 898 f. 901 f. 910 919 f. 924 926 941 1173 1220 1474 1944 f. 1964 f. 2010 2012 2138 2189 2444 2448 2538 (see root-cause) (previous) (pubba-) 2161 (section) (-vara) 1962 1964 (tetrad) (-catukka) 934 960 ff. cause (kärana) 217-19 608-11 638 642 669-71 879 2010 2478 2507 ceU (parivena) 51 1414 2245 2346 certainty (niyäma) 426 2294 (entry into) (-okkama) 2047 (ofrightness)(sammatta-) 570 2047 2294 (of states) (dhamma-) 2082 (of wrongness) (micchatta-) 2047 cessation (nirodha) 91 106 114 116— 124 394 419 422 f. 429 f. 434 f. 438 530 f. 540 551 f. 573 587 636 643 661 1211 1227 1558 1826 2099 2306 (attainment of) (samäpatti) 127 2137 2302 (nirodheti) 1036 (truth of) 361 425 429 431 f. 530-36 551 572 643 f. 2095 cessation-of-perception-and-feeling (saMavedayitanirodha) 621 2137 (element) 392 394 chair (pitha) 1801 champak tree 440 change (viparindma) 2496 change of lineage (gotrabhu) 257 characteristic (character) (lakkhana) 1809 2005 (see specific) (of a particular dhamma) 10 18 47-51 151 210 f. 221 271 296 302 371

bring to bear (samannäharati) 2037 f. 2042 2467 (upasamharati) 1196 f. (apply) 1229 bring to mind (manasikaroti) 1072 ff. 1079 1081 1084 1142 1145 1150 1154 1159 f. 1168 1178 ff. 1184 ff. 1189 ff. 1193 1198 1272 1313 1709 1729 1738 2038 2042 2086 f. 2108 bringing to bear (samannähära) 2042 2467 bringing to mind (manasikära) 275 329 347 552 776 1061 1079 1155 1158 f. 1175 f. 1186 1189 1193 1198 1200 1218 1269 1275 1363 1375 1686 2042 2106 2108 2110 2303 f. 2467 2498 2586 (of repulsiveness) 1058 1061 1089 (of the elements) (dhätu-) 273 (tenfold skill in) 273 f. 1059 107186, etc. (unwise) (ayoniso) 671 1243 f. 1252 f. 1265 f. 1277 f. 1290 f. 1434-40 1442 2466 f. (wise) (yoniso) 1245 f. 1254 f. 1267 f. 1279 f. 1292 f. 1304 f. 1309 f. 1323 1342 1355 bubble (bubbufa) 143 f. 149 Buddha interval (Buddhantara) 13 f. 1325 Buddha states (the eighteen) 1 Buddha's word (Buddhavacana) 1955 f. 2167 22412482 building (navakamma) 1433 1439 bull (asabha) 2002 (nisabha) 2002 (usabha) 2002 (vasabha) 2002 bundle (khandha) 3 burden (bhära) 431 calm (yüpasama) 1279 f. (sampasädana) 1836 calmed (vüpasanta) 1211 candäla (outcaste) 2392 2398 canker (äsava) 57 155 ff. 610 f. 626 671 884 886 f. 889 1020 1331 1533 1540 2018 2313 2432 (see destroyed the cankers)

Index of Words and Subjects
384 388 390 418 420 425 441 444 455 472 475 479 486 490 493 499 506 510 514 539 553 579 581 586 601 626 636 639 641 644 675 f. 1064 1150 1200 1202 1252 1305 1513 1529 2330 f. 2333 2340 2354 2416 f. 2419 2422 f. 2465 2497 2597 n. (the three characteristics of all dhamma) 185 196 237^8 274 484 675 f. 699 10361 355 n. 1174 1220 1316 1319 1502 2047 2268 2401 (of a great man) 2190 2481 (specific) (sa-) 916 922 950 1051 2597 n. charioteer (särathi) 1370 chewing (knayita) 1778-85 child's flesh (simile of) (puttamamsa) 1738 choice (ruci) 1594 ff. 2075 circle (mandate) 2068 2072 circumambulation (padakkhina) 1725 city (nagara) 1031 (builder) 1626 n. (with four gates) 1022 class (gotta) 2316 2320 2384 2398 (kula) 452 class (vibhäga) 418 f. (classification) 1836 classification (bhäjaniya) 1686 2296 (see Suttanta Division, Abhidhamma Division) classification (vibhahga) 1 2601 (see Table of Contents) (eighteen) 2601 (of the Aggregates) 1 2 262 390 518 575 2568 (of the Awakening Factors) 1559 (of the Discriminations) 2060 (of the Foundations of Mindfulness 274 564 1024 2100 (of the Truths) 877 913 1558 1561 classification of words (padabhäjana) 375 592 (padabhäjaniya) 450 cf. 567 1887 1908 classify (bhäjeti) cf. 207 417 577 1009 1206 1391 1397 1472 1474 1477 1480 1508 n. 1557 1584 1593 1810

307

1880 1902 1904 1937 1943 1987 22812296 2558 (vibhajati) 446 1639 clay (mattikä) 1657 cleansing the basis (vatthuvisadakiriyä) 1310 1312 1364 f. clear comprehension (sampajafltia) 642 1040 1045 1212 cf. 1214 cf. 1226 1306 f. 1588 1592 1709 1713-97 cf. 1826 climate (weather) (utu) 1174 1356 f. clinging (upädäna) 155 604 615 623 626 cf. 676 843-54 863 f. 869 871 900 902 906 911 913 917 922 934 946 962 f. 969 976 985 ff. 992 994 997 1540 1595 (aggregates as objects of) 132 ff. (the four) 155 ff. 255 843 f. 1020 (ädäna) 1036 (upädäya) 137 cloth (pata) 1609 clung to (upädinna) 270 f. 471 860 1462 1464 clung to, to be (upädäniya) 132 f. coarse (thüla) 258 1777 (lükha) 2368 cognitive series (vlthi) 28 54 222 696 713 f. 719 2046 2048 (process consciousness) (vlthicitta) 708 cohesion (öbandhanattal-tä) 1202 f. coincidence (sahgati) 676 922 cold(^/fl)911 collection (nikäya) 1282 1295 1435 2333 2345 (see Nikäya) collection (samüha) 1027 f. 1031 1035 f. (compactness) (samühaghana) 130 colour (vanna) 470 1333 1378 2179 (see appearance, scene) (six kinds) 2174 (i.e. in repulsiveness meditation) 1060 1065 1070 1090 f. 10931142 1144 1147 1151 1153 1175 1177 11861201 (i.e. object of the sense of sight) 94 736 1847 1862 (element) (-dhätu) 2129 (kasina)1153f.

308

The Dispeller of Delusion
2153 2161 f. 2174 2220 2504 2592 ff. 2596 composition (samäsa) 266 comprehend (abhisameti) 611 comprehend (sammasati) 185 f. 192 197 203 264 555 1174 1220 1717 17202401 comprehending (pariyogähanä) 642 comprehension/comprehending (sammasana) 249 382 551 f. 666 1231 1961 2134 comprehensive/with comprehensive range (nippadesa) 439 571 969 n. comprehensive term (sangahavacana) 2489 f. comprehensively (ekasesa) 804 cf. 791 and 803 cf. 826 827 conascent/conascence (sahajäta) 835 95010001051 1393 14712064 (cause) (-hem) 1390 1507 1556 1583 1853 f. 1984 (condition) (-paccaya) 409 667 796 808 810 817 822 830 834 853 875 f. 945 947 953 960 965 968 973 979 1761 2062 (predominance) (-adhipati) 204 (state) (-dhamma) 540 671 conceit (mäna) 2318-27 2539 f. (see pride) concentrated (samähita) 1237 1528 2371 (see attentive) concentrated, to become (samädhlyati) 1527 concentration (samädhi) 440 550 929 1042 n. 1083 1191 1216 n. 1237 1279 1314 ff. 1373 1433 1474 ff. 1480 1491-97 1504 1510 1528 1537-39 1563 1615 2046 2111 2113 2118 f. 2122-24 2298 f. 2301 f. 2306 2309 2401 2404 (see right concentration) (three kinds) 2017 (awakening/enlightenment factor) (-bojjhanga) 431 1363-74 1513 1515 1527 1539 1542 (faculty) (-indriya) 431 579 590 592 1313 (of consciousness) (citta-) 431 (power) (-bald) 431

(of the soul) 2439 n. (vanity of) (-mada) 2323 combination (sangaha) 854 863 ff. comfort (of the body) (sampatti) 1044 coming into being (samuggama) 91-99 comment/commentary (on the meaning) (attnavannanä) 1 176 450 599 1046 1548 1551 2021 commentary (atthakathäl-tth-) 38 118 273 620 699 937 10211058 1511 1547 1642 1726 1955 2601 (agreed) (samäna-) 251 2283 2310 (method of the) (-naya) 580 2061 2064 (teacher of the) (-äcariya) 1511 1547 1726 2349 commentary (vannanä) 175 567 1207 1398 1405 1698 1860 2281 (see comment on the meaning) (brief) (sahkhepa-) 1822 (on the new words) (apubbapada-) 1531 (E* anupubba-) 1544 1552 (word-by-word) (anupada-) 564 2019 commentary (on the words) (padasamvannanä) 328 346 (on the meaning) (attha-) 599 common (sädhärana) 2148 2159 community (senior) (agga-parisä) 1024 (the eight) 2001 2003 compact(ness) (ghana) 130 243 915 1029 1031 1033 companion in the life of purity (sabrahmacärin) 1324 1337 1347 1956 2232 compassion (anukampä) 2369 (-ate) (-in) 1825 (anuggaha) 1956 2367 (karunä/käruflna) 371 374 379 556 f. 189(5 2006 2174 competency (in scripture) (pariyatti) 1008 1954 f. 1957 1961 1968 2169 ff. 2350 2482 2602 (section) (-vara) 1962 1967 complete extinction (parinibbäna) 1335 1599 2164 2168 (three kinds) 2173 f. complete extinction, to attain (parinibbäyati) 513 1216 1799

Index of Words and Subjects (working on) (-kammika) 1316 concentration group (samädhikkhandha) 3 439 f. 570 concept {paflhattil-nn-) 127 203 206 274 452 575 594 f. 699 1071 1076 1142 1186 1189 1578 (vl.) 1604 1946 2047 2141 concern (äbhoga) 277-95 306-17 552 (see inclination) conclusion (matthaka) 361 366 conclusion (naya) 2098 f. (concluding knowledge) 2099 (nigamana) 1174 1886 concurrence (sämaggi) 228 (of states) (dhamma-) 1510 f. condemned (patikuttha) 1663 condition (paccaya) chap. VI 31 101 112 126 177 182-98 226 f. 262 401 404 f. 421 f. 571 1064 1173 1220 I 358 n.56 1407 1757 1761 f. 1944 f. 1963 1981-86 2010 2012 2024 2061 f. 2119 2138 2268 2401 2442 2577 (manner of) (-naya) 775 795-S01 (tetrad) (-catukka) 934-59 (without) 262 2161 2444 conditionally arisen (paticcasamuppanna) 624 1220 1227 (see dependently arisen) (states) (-dhamma) 638 f. conduct (corona) 570 conduct (carita) 2279 2287 2291 confidence (four kinds) (vesärajja) 607 2001 conformity (anuloma) 1519 cf. 1672 cf. 2074 2075 cf. 2076 2093 cf. 2282 2597 conscience (hiri) 1130 1888 conscious concomitant (cetasika) 213 218 1312 cf. 950 cf. 1218 1475 1621 f. 1826 (non-) (a-) 2025 consciousness (citta) 3 5 101 ff. 106 f. 111-19 143 f. 152 177 180 200 213 215 218 393 452 559-64 673 776 800 851 932 942 950 1000 1084 1218 1312 1384 1475 f. 1741 1744 1750 1826 2056 2473 (see perversion; turn)

309

(i.e. the predominance of) 204 594 1390 1471 1485 1489 1491 1495 1497 1502 1505 1556 1583 1853 f. 1984 (i.e. concentration) 2081 2083 2085 (eighty nine) 6 832 (born/originated) 28 101 118 f. 346 786 788 799 f. 950 978 1741 1750 (definition of) (-pariccheda) 2127 (limitation of) (-niyama) 696 (moment) (-khana) 939 f. 942 950 970-76 994 (others*) (para-) 2127 (purification of) 129 consciousness (viflfläna) chap. VI3 88 130 133 152 f. 158 224 394 401 452 1218 ff. 1222 2438 2559 (of three planes) 226 (of the four planes) 88 f. (the five) 62 100 103 687 996 ff. 1990 2021-59 (element) (-dhätu) 267 358 f. 392 398 1784 (group) (-käya) 222 consciousness aggregate (viflflänakkhandha) 3 5 88 f. 95 133 201 962 976 982 1241 1475 1526 1534 1758 2270 (as object of clinging) 140 constituent (avayava) 388 1031 constellation (nakkhatta) (see festival) (conjunction) (-yoga) 2324 to constrain (sampagganhäti) 1403 contact (phassalsamphassa) 606 615 623 626 671 cf. 676 823 ff. 900 904-17 922 934 936 940 f. 946 949 954 957 977 982 997 1971 2597 n. (see impression) contact (company) (samsagga) 1672 (five kinds) 2506 contemplation (anupassana) 1045 1207 12121357 n.44 (of body) (käya-) 1018 1022-46 1053-1212 1241 1384-88 (of feeling) (vedanä-) 1018 1022 1047-50 1213-30 1241 1384-87 (of mental objects) (dhamma-) 1018 1022 1241-1385

310

The Dispeller of Delusion covetousness (abhijjhä) 155 1042 ff. 1210 1212 1590 1592 1622 1747 1822 ff. cow to be slaughtered (vajjhagävl) 613 craft (sippa) 2066 ff. 2071 2326 2407 cramped (sankhitta) 1234 craving (tanhä) 259 361 425-34 513 523-36 551 571 f. 606 615 623 626 661 671 cf. 676 743 836-43 846 852 f. 894-917 922 934 946 976 985 ff. 994 997 1173 1399 2099 2262 2470 2489 2506 2538 n. (six groups) (-käya) 255 437 f. (nine things rooted in) (-mülakadhamma) 255 (36 modes of behaviour of) (-vicarita) 4312313 2546-63 (108 kinds) 839 847 2563 (for existence) 437 525 611 838 (for non-existence) 437 525 838 (for sense desire) (käma-) 437 525 838 f. (habit) {-carita) 896 1018 cream (manda) 1616 f. creation (nimmand) 429 (see Deities who Delight in Creating) creator (issara) 430 (see Lord) creature (pänaka) 229 creed (ädäya) 1594 ff. creeper (valli) 602-06 1648 (gatherer) (-häraka) 602 f. creeping thing (sirimsapa) 917 crocodile (kumbhlla) 1182 f. crosswise (pallanka) 1818 cruelty (vihimsä) 370 f. 379 f. (element) (-dhätu) 370 381 392 396 (vihesä) 2455 cultivate (äsevati) 1196 1402 1484 1824 (samsevati) 1805 (levari) 1677 1805 2274 cultivation (äsevanä) 584 1208 1393 1440 1700 cultivation of seniors (vuddhasevitatä) 1281 1288 curb (samyama) 1629 1685 curry (vyafljana) 141 cushion (bhisi) 1802

(of mind) (citta-) 1018 1022 1231^1 1384f. (the seven) 1036 1050 f. 1438 content (division of the) (antogadha) 418 431 content (santuttha) 181 2334 2369 contentment (santutthi) 431 846 1595 (santosa) 1587 contiguity (samanantara) 2041 cf. 2170 (condition) (-paccaya) 667 1761 contiguous {sampatta) 631 n. continent (four) (mahädipa) 2187 continuity (ppavatta) (kamma) 909 (resultant) (vipäka-) 909 continuity (santäna) 29 268 371 407 745 f. 827 879 924 f. 1482 1510 1544 2441 continuity (santati) 26 28 53 54 92 94 97 123 243 454 743 779 ff. 804 826 f. 978 1828 1860 2299 n. 2310 contrivance (yantaka) 1750 1782 conventional (sammuti) 46 453 475 2101 2441 2575 (common term) 750 (death) (-marana) 478 (knowledge) (-fiäna) 2101 cords of sense desire (kämaguna) 3740 525 1228 2508 (the five) 1678 2330 2408 2413 2459 2494 2575 core (substance, essence) (sard) 145 154 1616 council (three) (sahgiti) 2167 counsel (manta) 1486 1490 n. counsellor (amacca) 1486 counterpart sign (patibhäganimitta) 1144 coupled together (yuganaddha) 1151 n. course of action (kammapatha) 380 562 1912 1926 2431 (the ten) 1622 course (of existence) (pavatta) 478 756-72 786 805 808 811-20 cf. 909 1794 n. cf. 1795 2058 course of existence (pavatti) 462 687 691-96 755 774 791 793 796 807 819 (see occurrence)

Index of Words and Subjects cutting off (samuccheda) 555 557 1238 1544 ff. (death as) (-marana) 478 cycle (parivatta)201 577 597 1472 1508 15571584 1904 1937 1987 (see succession) dabba grass 277 673 1157 danger (ädinava) 662 743 1421 1588 1687 (contemplation of) (-änupassanä) 1357 n.44 dark (kanha) 1293 1309 1457 1697 darkness (tama) 2437 dart (five kinds) (solid) 2480 day (divasa) 1701 dear (piya) 1888 1898 f. (piyarüpd) 527 529 536 2286 death (passing) (cuti) 23 27 475 479 675 f. 692 ff. 737 739 f. 744 835 976 2026 2102 2310 2428 2489 (and reappearance) (-upapäta) 2018 2129 (consciousness) 100 102 117 712-16 718-24 738 death (marana) 193 475-83 520 f. 662 676 705 707 713 ff. 719 ff. 743 1369 1739 1756 2594 deathless(ness) (amata) 407 419 533 570 582 5891531 (amatapada) 435 deathlessness (accuti) 425 debauched by amusement (khiddäpadosika) 24512579 debauched by hate (manopadosika) 2451 2579 debt (ma) 3 tecad'(dasaka) 94-97 729 ff. 779 ff. 1997 2313 2542 ff. (slow) (manda-) 470 deceit (may a) 2421 f. decisive support (upanissaya) 180 182 188 194 1678 2161 2291 (see potentiality) (condition) (-paccaya) 666 ff. 695 726 757 762 796 834 f. 846 853 875-78 946 962 1000 1003-08 1761 (type) (-koti) 880 n.

311

deed (see kamma) defeat (päräjika) (offence of) 1691 defiled (sankilittha) 893 defilement (kilesa) 149 183 189 191 255 ff. 368 537 540 542 571 f. 613 f. 662 713 719 849 986 ff. 1039 1349 1433-62 1510 1526 1548 f. 1610-17 1668 1731 f. 1906 2102 ff. 2111 f. 2122 2161 2173 2279 f. 2293 2310 2355-64 2400 f. 2446 2453 2483 2524 2575 (see sense desire) (base of) (-vatthu) 2313 2524 2542 (destruction of) (-kkhaya) 252 f. 258 (round of) (-vatta) 891 911 defilement, causing (sahkilesika) 893 (sahkilesa) 2017 2310 define (vavatthäpeti) 1196 2115 definition (defining) (vavatthäna) 1939 ff. (as unmixed) (asammissato) 1029 f. (of the elements) (dhätu-) 1218 (of the factors) 601 633 (of the occasion) (samaya-) 977 definition (vinicchaya) 128-59 210-29 384^*08 418-45 581-91 601-33 775-801 854-74 877 1200-05 1405 1521 1649 1910-33 2148-59 deity (deva) 169 703 733 f. 751 802 869 887 951 1025 1335 1949 2174 2195 2261 2266 2451 2485 2522 2573-96 2601 (of cold clouds) (sitavalänaka) 2579 (of hot clouds) (unhavalähaka) 2579 deity (devaputta) 1739 deity (devata) 1331 1734 2051-54 2224 2231 f. 2337 (recollection of) (-anussati) 1343 1348 delimitation (pariccheda) 1060 1069 1091-1144 1147 1201 2312 2314 (knowledge) 2100 delusion (moha) 183 570 642 644 90207 1233 1330 1457 1718 1915 2159 2279 2445-49 2451 f. 2471 2544 (deluded) (sa-) cf. 666 1233 (destruction of) (-kkhaya) 251-58 (undeluded) (vita-) 1233

312

The Dispeller of Delusion
1409 1614 1617 1845 f. 1849 1917 ff. 1922 2143 2174 2351 ff. 2401 ff. 2592 f.

(sammoha) 907 2601 demerit (apufifia) 646 f. 677 2052 (see formation of) demon {asura) 464 2206 2211 2573 (see Kälakafijika) (hog) (yakkhasükara) 2423 demon {gäha) 1182 dependent origination (paticcasamuppäda) 598-1009 2283 dependently arisen/originated states (paticcasamuppannadhamma) 675 f. 2282 f. deportment (iriyäpatha) 2324 2366 2371 f. (see posture) derivation (nibbacana) 418 420-24 derived (upädäya) 1031 derived materiality (upädärüpa) 185 196 1170 f. 1220 1795 f. descended (i.e. descent) from the gods (devorohana) 1335 descent (okkanti) 452 f. 456 f. 904 908 922 description (niddesa) frequent — not indexed description section (niddesavära) 251 404 409 446 449 572 592 635 1000 1005 1048 1050 f. 1053 1388 1397 199120212315 2560 designation (samafiflä) 1604 1618 desirable (ittha) 130 688 758 1187 1718 2286 2501 2538 (see
agreeable) (-neutral) (-majjhatta) 688 ff. desireless (appanihita) 533 574 1387 f . 1469 destiny (gati) 226 422 451 479 n. 617 627-31 661 733 f . 737 756 767 ff. 772 778 789 914 922 1174 1897 1899 2001 2012 f . 2026 2198 2202 2206 2211 2217 2514 2566 2573 (the five) 728 770 (happy) (su-) 456 612 614 712-23 740 757 ff. 1464 1674 2448 (sign of) (-nimitta) 704 709 f . 720 722 724 743 (unhappy) (dug-) 612 f . 712-24 740 758 930 1674 2478 destroyed the cankers, one who has (khinäsava) 100 102 478 582 1331

destruction (khaya) 252 f. 258 533 666 (having the nature of) (-d ham ma) 21312134 (of cankers) (äsavänam) 1084 2018 2130 (äsava-) 2019 detail (vyahjana) 1836 determination (resolution) (adhimokkha) 985-97 cf. 1294 cf. 1301 2481 2586 f. determining (votthapana) 178 411 708 715 721 f. 1752 f. 1756 determinism (theory of) (niyataväda) 927 develop (bhäveti) 1058 1147 1196 1402 1544 1559 1824 1846 1849 2098 21912349 2588 development/developing (bhävanä, etc.) 180-97 513 552 584 1002 1045 1072 1208 1211 f. 1304 1308 f. 1322 f. 1341 1354 1363 1374 f. 1382 1390 1393 1396 1457 f. 1465 1543 1546 1556 1559 1564 1583 1587 1700 1831 1853 f. 1984 2087 2329 2459 (cultivation of) (-äsevanä) 587 (made by) (-maya) 69 650 ff. 2078 2080 (mundane) (lokiya-) 1711 (of a meditation subject) (kammatthäna-) 213 105S1901 (of insight) (vipassanä-) 1198 (of Jnana) 1592 (of the body) (käya-) 1044 (of the supramundane) (lokuttara-) 1540 (of tranquillity) (samatha-) 1313 (i.e. path of) 439 (penetration of) (-pativedha) 551 (power of) (-bald) 1828 1831 (to be abandoned by) (three kinds) 129 443 devotion (bhatti) 1671 Dhamma 607 677 (see Law; state) (of the Four Truths) (catusacca-) 582 dhafifiamäsa (measure of length) 1689f.

Index of Words and Subjects
different/ence (nänatta) 2270 ff. 2310 (in body) 767 f. (in perception) (safifiin) 161 difficulty (ganthitthäna) 1089 diligence (appamäda) 1486 2178 2505 diminution, partaking of (hänabhägiya) 2017 2106 2303 direct knowledge {abhififiä) 658 666 1084 1531 2060 2063 cf. 2099 cf. 2112 2597 (see supernormal achievement) (slow) 64 2112 (swift) (khipp'-) 1739 direction (disä) 1060 1067 1091-1144 1147 1201 (pervasion) (-pharana) 1257 ff. disagreeable (anittha) 35-45 183 507 (see undesirable) disappearance (three kinds) (antaradhäna)2169ff. disappearance condition (vigatapaccaya) 409 667 1761 discern (sallakkheti) 254 256 ff. cf. 1173 1174 1215 1706 1737 1777 2268 2280 discerning (sallakkhana) 1939 ff. discernment (vinicchaya) 567 2538 (see definition) disciple (sävaka) 648 1011 1014 2047 2463 (chief) (agga-) 2273 Discipline (see Vinaya) discoloured (käsäva) 1609 cf. 1681 discourse concerned with a person (puggalädhitthänä desana) 1209 discourse, base for (kathävatthu) 1795 discourse (see suttanta) discovery, knowledge of (anubodha) 430 discrimination (patisambhidä) 607 919 f. 1216 1938^-87 2403 2602 (knowledge) (-nana) 699 2047 (of Intelligence) (patibhäna-) 1942 1951 1973-78 1983 ff. (of Language) (nirutti-) 1941 1946 ff. 1977 f. 1981 1985 f. (of Law) (dhamma-) 1940 1945 1964 1968 ff. 1977f.

313

(of Meaning) (attha-) 1938 f. 1943 f. 1969 f. 1979 1981 1984 ff. disease (roga) 432 662 (one hundred) 1056 dish (bhäjana) 141 disparaging (makkha) 2417 n. Dispensation (säsana) 217 561 599 1055 1174 1333 1393 1428 1474 1518 1585 1591 1594 ff. 1603 1625 1729 1731 1799 1883 2146 2155 2170-74 2221 2245 2350 2448 2602 dispersal (apacaya) 1595 2102 disputatious speaker (controversialist) (vitandavädin) 39 252 1563 2284 dispute (vivdda) 2418 2538 (root of) 2313 2500 disrespect (agärava) 2359 2461 2503 ff. dissimilarity) (visabhäga) 226 418 444 f. 1069 1093 1101 ff. 1107 ff. 1114-23 1127-41 dissociation condition (vippayuttapaccaya) 796 810 814 817 819 822 830 dissolution (bhanga) 24 101 112 116 ff. 123 960 distinction (visesa) 128 132 ff. 600 1053 1073 f. 1088 1473 1720 1764 2019 2108 2170 (in existence) (bhava-) 2083 (partaking of) (-bhägiya) 2017 2108 distracted (vikkhitta) 1182 f. distraction (vikkhepa) 1071 1075 1182-86 cf. 1734 1735 distress (daratha) 1526 1534 2122 diversity (nänatta) 2458 2586 (see different) (method of) (-naya) 923 925 divided and undivided (bheddbheda) 581 588 divine (deva) 767 769 (city) 2601 (dancer) (-nätaka) 2196 (king) (-räja) 2266 (world) (-loka) 705 709 720 760 868 1024 2195 f. 2198 2217 2250 2261 2266 2522 2575 2579 divine (dibba) 2495 2522

314

The Dispeller of Delusion dye (rafija) 1627 dyer (rajaka) 1627 dying (kälakiriya) 706 708 ear (sota) 188 ff. 211 359 403 406 409 528 652 722 2036 2050 2126 (base) 223 226 250 830 (decad)97 736781 (door) 178 180 189 f. 579 2050 (faculty) (-indriya) 589 f. 594 2036 (sensitivity) (-ppasdda) 403 2035 ear-consciousness (sotavififiäna) 43 81 188 359 365 401 403 678 681 684 819 2035 2043 2050 earth (pathavi) 403 2181 2184 (body)1034 (element) (-dhätu) 226 266-302 359 392 398 115912031742 (essence) (-rasa) 1459 (kasina) 722 2586 (-supporting water) 322 earth deity (bhummadeva) 46 733 f. 2266 2591 f. eating (asita) 1778-85 echo (patighosa) 745 f. effacement (sallekha) 1672 n. 2411 efficient cause (nimittakärana) I 150 n.12 effort (padhäna) 1013 1474 f. 1491 ff. 1504 effort (väyäma) 1563 (seerighteffort, etc.) egg-bom/egg, born in an (andaja) 453 728 734 767 779 eightfold (atthangika) 537 569 573 f. 1558-30 elder (thera) 1350 2602 (see senior elder) Elder's assertion (theraväda) 1688 elegance in teaching (desanäviläsa) 169 607 6702004 element (dhätu) 243 2014 f. 2273 2430 (see bringing to mind; earth element, etc.; eye element, etc.; initiating, etc.; sense desire, etc.; world) (the three) 2569 2571 (the four) 736 1070 1137 1151 1157 f. 1174 1185 n. 1200 1203

Divine Abode (Brahmavihära) 1542 1547 1883 divine ear (dibbasota) 2126 (knowledge of) (-fiäna) 1841 1844 1854 1859 1871 divine eye (dibbacakkhu) 1689 1739 2019 2308 2489 (knowledge of) (-fiäna) 1841 1847 1854 1862 1874 (understanding of) (-pafifia) 2117 division (bhäjaniya) 1520 (see Suttanta Division; Abhidhamma Division) doctrine (samaya) 2442 ff. 2602 dog practice (kukkurakriya) 851 domain (gocara) 134 426 584 631 1024 2036 (see resort) door (dvära) 140 191 213 218 222 228 562 627 659 662 688 ff. 692 ff. 696 715 721 831-35 922 1171 1587 1591 1697 f. 2005 2035 2091 2148 2156 (see body, etc., mind door) (six) 1794 n. doorkeeper (sculpture of a) (dvärapälakarüpa) 2450 double succession (ubhatovaddhaka) 168-73 doubt (kahkhä) 1173 1832 2400 f. (crossing over) (-vitarana) 2597 n. doubt (kahkhati) 2481 dream (supina) 929 2048-58 2059 dressing in/dress in (niväsana; niväseti) 1768 f. drinking (pita) 1778-85 drum (bheri) 406 dried up (sosita) 1211 (quite dried up) (visosita) 1211 due to arise (uppädin) 595 <Mw/a (cloth rags) 1119 1135 dull (mudu) 2280 2288 2291 2310 dung (excrement) (karisa) 271 294 355 1062 1098 1126 ff. 1157 duty (vatta) 1433 f. 1521 1621-39 1805 1960 2359 2403 2421 dwarf-foot (lakuntakapäda) 115 dwell (viharati) 1209 dyad (duka) 17 32 33 38 47 77 78 125 162 168 ff. 199 ff. 1993 2313 2415 dyad (dvi-anuka) 435

Index of Words and Subjects
1218 1742 1744 1772 1776 2019 2273 (the eighteen) chap, in 206 248 617 638 676 1172 1205 1311 1749 1757 1760 1762 2014 2272 2310 2569 2573 (disturbance) (-kkhobha) 521 1139 205 Iff. (unformed) (asankhata) 251 elephant (family of) (the ten) (hatthin) 1998 f. elixir (rasäyana) 840 embellishment (mandanä) 2357 f. embryo in the first stage (kalala) 676 7321269 n.107 (see foetus) emergence (yutthäna, etc.) 425 566 f. 1686 1688 2017 2046 2047 2106 2108 f. 2119 2123 2137 2298 2303 ff. 2434 2498 2530 empty place (sufifiägära) 1817 (see void) empty village (suflfiagäma) 229 277 enactment (fiatti) 1618 f. end, possessed of an (antavat) 2533 endeavour, factor of (padhäniyanga) 275 enemy (paccamitta) 482 enemy (verin) 432 energy (viriya) 181 183 193 204 440 548 f. 563 569 575 595 620 1039 1042 n. 1083 1149 1216 1267 1314 f. 1390 1393 1399 1402 f. 1431 1443 1466 1471 1474 1476 ff. 1482 1485 1488 1491 1495 1497 1502 1504 f. 1510 1524 1533 1537 1541 1556 1583 1587 1595 1623 1710 1853 f. 1984 2329 2347 2369 2525 2602 (enlightenment/awakening factor) (-bojjhahga) 431 1323-41 1367 15131515 1524 (faculty) (-indriya) 431 579 590 592 1313 (power) {-bald) 431 enjoyment (assäda) 2453 f. enlightenment {qbhisambodhi) 1335 (bodhi) 1711 2168 (sambodhi) 2161 2164

315

enlightenment factor (bojjhahga) 431 566 1015 1303-83 1711 (see also awakening factor) enmity (upanäha) 2313 2416 n. ennead (navaka) 1996 2313 2535 ff. (see sound) (pure) (suddhika-) 1838 entering into (pakkhandana) 1548 f. (anupakkhanda) 2108 entrails (antaguna) 292 1062 1123 1157 envy (issä) 2420 Equal-Headed One (samasisin) 1216 equalising/equality (samatä) 1314 ff. 1885 equanimity (upekkhä) 681 740 758 842 1510 1537 1540 1552 cf. 1836 1900 2125 f. (awakening/enlightenment factor) {bojjhahga) 431 1368 1375-82 1513 1515 1528 1535 1552 (element) 364 f. (faculty) 164 579 589 f. 594 essence (rasa) 644 1127 (see juice, etc.) essential (nature) (sarasa) 243 636 639 cf. 743 cf. 478 (cf. nature) essentials of existence (upadhi) 523 cf. 1571 cf. 1573 establish (set up) (upatthapeti) 1189 cf. 11901589 1667 1*738 1820 established (upatthita) 1307 2348 establishing (establishment) (upatthäna) 1012 1016 cf. 1144 1513 1821 establishment (patitthä) 1620 1625 eternal (sassata) 845 2433 2514 2565 (-ness) 1204 eternity (sassata) 662 849 910 1510 2281 ff. 2552 2565 (view) (-ditthi) 430 525 838 896 924 f. 2281 2454 2478 2511 ff. 2549 eunuch (pandaka) 730 1668 evacuating (uccära) 1786 ff. evenness (samatta) 1310 1313 1364 f. evil (päpalpäpaka) 481 713 1393 1462 1466 1610 1615 1617 1747 2192 2205-15 2291 2407 2422 2514 2544

316

The Dispeller of Delusion extreme (the two) (anta) 2282 f. (see end) (takes up) (-ggähika) 2434 eye (cakkhu) 130 211 213 218 220-24 228 ff. 236 238 385 387-90 397 401 409 469 528 f. 535 f. 582 585 592 652 673 722 838 1758-61 2036 2049 2507 2589 n. (base) (-äyatana) 208 220 222 f. 226 250 f. 589 810 814 817 819 826 828 830 905 953 978 f. 1759 2271 (decad)97 736781 (door) (-dvära) 45 180-95 579 652 1755 f. 2049 (element) (-dhätu) 359 365 383 38791 397 403 f. 406 1760 2014 2272 (faculty) (-indriya) 579 587 589 f. 594 743 (impression/contact) (samphassa) 80 f. 86 177 182 184 186 198 201 823 f. 828 831 f. 834 (sensitivity) (-pasäda) 53 80 f. 86 89 164 226 403 688 736 814 834 2036 eye-consciousness (cakkhuviflfläna) 5 43 f. 81 86 89 182 201 222 224 228 385 585 617 673 678 681 684 688 f. 696 753 776 819 828 996 ff. 1750 1753 1823 1990 2028 2035 f. 2043 2049 2507 2598 (dement) (-dhätu) 359 365 391 398 401-10 589 1760 factor (anga) 601 633 638 893 f. 941 f. 1509 ff. 1565 ff. 1753 1905 2122 2299 (see eightfold; fivefold; Twelve-Membered; ElevenMembered; member, awakening) (nine) 1968 (eleven) 2131 2133 (twelve) 890 (two-factored) 1835 (three-factored) 1835 (four-factored) 2299 (five-factored) 2299 (associated) (sampayoga-) 1042 (to be abandoned) (pahäna-) 1042 faculty (indriya) 431 474 578-97 617 676 688 696 1310-17 1333 1364 f. 1587 1591 1633 1697 f. 2016 2019

evil friendship (päpamittatä) 2A51 evilness of wishes ipäpicchatä) 234354 example (nidassana) 745 f. 752 f. 1313 (see illustration) excessive wishing (aticchatä, etc.) 2334-39 exerting (paggaha) 1317 (paggahanatä) 1364 1367 exhalation (passäsa) 345 f. existence (becoming) (bhava) 102 234 429 452 455 476 523 617 676 742 ff. 849 865 ff. 1463 1599 2046 2161 f. 2433 2470 2589 (see sense existence, etc.; single-constituent, etc.; summit of) (the three) 104 525 629 687 755 ff. 764-90 857 953 1039 1464 2572 (the tenth link of dependent origination) 604 f. 623 626 854-80 897922 946 f. 962 f. 969 974 976 (canker of) (-äsava) 156 887 f. (greed for) (-räga) 2286 2434 (subsequent) (-antara) 741 f. 744 905 2046 2143 2160 (view) (-ditthi) 2281 (wheel) (-cakka) 882 f. 890 893 895 909 911 915 917 ff. 928 f. cf. 633 expanded (mahaggata) 628 697 f. 719 722 739 1145 1235 18861894 (object) (ärammana) 203 575 594 698 1843 1845-50 i981 ff. (un-) (a-) 1235 experiencer (vedaka) 882 f. 892 explaining/explanation (vibhävanä) 1939 ff. 2059 explicit (nita) 252 n. (attho) expression (phrase) (padd) 266 1480 extent (addhan) 26 f. external(ly) (bahiddhä) 17 206 1038 1143 1196 1229 1391 1471 1507 1531 1537 1557 1584 1868 1986 2033 2428 2483 (object) (-ärammana) 206 595 739 1391 1471 1507 1557 1868-78 1903 1936 1986 2033 external (bähira) 91 223 229 250 268 297 302 319 332 349 825-30 838 1312 2558

Index of Words and Subjects 2280 2288 2291 2296 2310 2494 2522 (five of feeling) 164 (bound up with) (indriyabaddha) All (condition) (-paccaya) 589 796 819 830 946 (decline of) (-vekallata) 325 (not bound up with) (anindriyabaddha) 268 477 fading away {virago) 1227 1548 1577 1595 1597 2110 2134 2588 (virajjati) 1036 failure (vipatti) 2198-2250 (bodily discomfort) 1044 faintness after meals (bhattasammada) 1265 f. faith (saddhä) 431 504 1298 f. 131316 2019 2294 2343 2369 2408 f. 2602 (faculty of) (-indriya) 431 579 587 589 f. 594 f. 1313-16 2016 2280 (power of) (-bald) 431 (-lessness) (asaddhiya) 2462 (without) (a-) 1674 1677 f. fall (vaya) 227 2134 (see rise) false speech (musäväda) 559 1571 1906 1914 ff. 1920-23 familiar (paguna) 1038 1061 1063 1175 ff. 1180 1886 1958 2108 2114 2297 2304 f. 2595 (un-) (a-) 2106 2113 n. 2122 2297 2303 family (kula) 1676 2320 famine (dubbhikkha) 13 432 far (dura) 47 ff. 77 f. 91 125 133 2126 fat(me</a)311 1062 1135 1154 (sestad) (-chakka) 1062 1148 fault (vajja) 1586 1683-91 2492 fault in a man (purisadosa) 2528 fear (bhaya) 432 1586 1683 1687 1689 1691 1727 1731 1903 2220 2436 24712477 2493 feeling (vedana) 5 f. 18 52-78 95 f. 130-44 149 153 156 161-97 394 447 564 604 606 623 626-29 633 671 676 737 743 776 804 831^12 895 899 f. 904 f. 908 911-17 922 934 946 949 986 997 1019 1030 1047 ff. 1210 1218-24 1384 f.

317

1708 1759 ff. 1764 1819 1910 1914 1924 1928 1971 2406 2438 2442 f. 2478 2553 (see contemplation of feeling) (triad) 171 199 feeling aggregate (vedanäkkhandha) 4 ff. 18 52-78 84 87 90 95 98 133 161-97 407 776 962 976 982 1241 1475 1483 1758 2270 (as object of clinging) 140 fellow feeling (anuddaya[tä\) 2411 femininity faculty (itthindriya) 47 94 579 587-90 594 731 festival (nakkhatta) 440 494 (see constellation) fetter (samyojana) 589 2428 f. 2479 2517 ' (the ten) 255 (higher) (uddhambhägiya-) 2429 (lower) (orambhägiya-) 2313 2429 2479 fever (jara) 324 fewness of wishes (appicchatä) 431 846 1595 cf. 2369 field (khetta) 1181 2168 (three kinds) 2163-67 figurative(ly) ([sa]pariyaya) 31 53 81 f. 438 cf. 849 946 1617 n. 1624 n. 1835 1909 1925 (see Suttanta, Vinaya, Abhidhamma method) (suffering) (-dukkha) 446-49 (teaching) (-desana) 1805 figure (vikappeti) 676 f. final knower faculty (afifiätävindriya) 579 582 589 f. 594 final knowledge faculty (afifiindriya) 579 582 589 f. fine material (sphere) (rüpävacard) 63 68 70-71 73 129 178 182 184 186 188 194 197 203 543^4 575 590 594 649 654-55 666 678 682 694 703 739 757 951 1145 1235-36 1538-39 1835 1845-46 1848 1981-83 2061-62 2064 2083 2102 2125-26 23112594 fine-material (rüpin) 703 735 f. fine-material (rüpd) 870 (element) (-dhätu) 2429 2569 (greed for) (-räga) 2479

318

The Dispeller of Delusion fold (^/zw/ari) 1818 following the order (anupubba) 1071 f. 1142 fondling (päribhatyatä) 1661 2377 food (anna) 652 n. food (bhatta) 2363 (intoxication due to) (sammada) 2363 food (bhojana) 141 1174 1356 f. 1697 2180 (see material nutriment) foot (corona) 1628 (päda) 1*708 ford-maker (titthakara) 1601 2160 (see sectarian) forest (araflha) 1588 f. 1806 1817 (dweller) (-oka) 1799 1806 (-ika) 1739 (dwelling) (-väsa) 1799 form (abhisahkharoti) 140 619 646 f. 675 677 767 914 cf. 922 2279 formation (abhisahkhära) 620 646 793 (see formative process) (consciousness) (-viftfläna) 795 f. 1463 (of demerit) (apuiM'-) 619 646 f. 653 656 660-63 667 684 760 768 859 2287 2291 (of merit) (punn'-) 619 645-51 656 660-63 666 668 671 f. 674 681 f. 757 ff. 767 773 856 859 861 2287 (of the imperturbable) (aneflj'-) 619 646 f. 654 ff. 660 662 f. 668 672 685 761 769 859 2287 formation / (volitional) formation (sahkhära) 85 95 130 133 143 f. 151 153 157 185 196 268 394 447 505 555 598-606 615-28 633-38 645-86 743 f. 752-74 824 862 882 890-93 897 899-903 906 911-47 960 f. 965 968 972-77 983 994 997 1000 1005 1173 1220 1531 1720 1961 2134 2139 ff. 2273 2401 2438 2482 (as opposed to beings) 380 1376-80 1913 1936 (bodily/verbal/mental) 619 621 646 f. 657 660 662 762 ff. 770 ff. 1860 (discerns the) (sallakkhanä) 1173

(state) (-dhamma) 699 2047 fine-material existence (rüpabhava) 11 436 525 653 666 696-99 726 730 757-64 857 860 863-67 870-76 937 955 f. 1464 1849 2428 2593 finger-breadth i.e. a measure of length (ahgula) 1689 f. fire (tejas) 323 402 f. 1728 (body) (-kaya) 1034 fire (aggi) (three kinds) 2449 (ofheaven)0>kf-)332 fire element (tejodhätu) 106 111 226 267 323-33 359 392 398 1169 1203 1706 f. 1728 f. 1742 1783 f. 2174 fire-stick (arani) 406 fist (mutthi) 407 1031 five-constituent existence (pahcavokära-bhava) 857 863 868 ff. five door (paäcadväraf-ika) 82 f. 692 724 833 f. 1754 n. 2044 ff. (see door) (adverting) (-ävajjana) 403 410 fivefold (paflcahgika) 573 f. 1562 ff. 1568 f. 1575 1580 five(fold) consciousness (paticavifWäna) 996 (the two) (dvi-) 62 100 103 687 fix (appeti) 35 440 flame (jäla) 149 flattery (cätukamyatä) 1659 2377 flavour (rasa) 39 44 191 f. 403 524 2334 (base) 226 flesh (mamsa) 281 354 ff. 1034 1062 1102 1108 f. 1114 1133 1135 1154 1157 1164 flood (ogha) 642 (the four) 155 ff. 1020 flowers, gifts of (puppha-däna) 1651 ff. fly (makasa) 9 15 foam (lump of) (phena) 143 ff. 154 focus (äpätha) 183-96 652 688 699 713-24 838 1755 2043 foetus 93 (see embryo) (first stage) (kalala) 92 129 130 147 f. (second stage) (abbuda) 129 148

Index of Words and Subjects
(of effort) (padhäna-) 1474 f. 1478 1480 1491-97 1504 formations aggregate (sankhärakkhandha) 5 85 ff. 95 138 151 200 407 I 152 n.38 776 962 976 982 1241 1492 ff. 1758 2270 (of clinging) 140 formative process (abhisankhära) 748 f. cf. 1628 formed (sankhata) 91 127 135 f. 143 262 419 425 443 445 533 619 ff. 914 1227 2540 (element) (-dhätu) 392 399 405 former Buddha (pubba-Buddha) 2002 former lives (pubbeniväsa) 2307 (knowledge of) (-fläna) 1841 1846 1854 1861 1873 (recollection of) (-anussati) 2018 f. 2128 former teacher (pubbäcariya) 599 f. fortuitous originist (adhiccasam uppannika) 2512 forwards/in forward order (anuloma) 608 f. 921 1062 foul (asubha) 145 153 155 556 f. 1019 1033 1044 I 355 n. 1245-50 1547 1717 1720 f. 2473 (ten contemplations on) 1198 (sign of the) (-nimitta) 1245 ff. foundation (patthäna) 1012-16 foundation of mindfulness (satipatthäna) 1010-1391 2176 (the four) 431 541 four-constituent (catuvokära) 476 (existence) (-bhava) 454 857 863 870 fraudulence (sätheyya) 2423 frequent (bhajati) 1588 1677 1805 2274 friendliness (patisanthära) 2505 from another (parato) (hearing) 2077 (without hearing) 2076 fruit (phala) (i.e. literally) 114 670 749 ff. 1459 2192 (i.e. result) 391 429 f. 435 445 531 587 608 669-74 747-53 855 890 896-901 904 908 919 924 927 941 1328 1944 1963 f. 2090 2338

319

(gifts of) (-dona) 1656 (of development) (bhdvanä-) 1045 1212 fruition (phala) 182 184 186 188 194 197 203 242 447 1058 1390 1407 1458 1545 1547 1554 1557 1583 1614 1626 1720 1840 1846 1849 1853 f. 1969 1979 1984 2006 ff. 2084 f. 2095 2268 2309 2400 2405 2482 2522 (attainment) (samäpatti) 2119 2306 (consciousness) (phala) 104 (established in the) (-ttha) 1611 2482 (of recluseship) 178 f. 434 1554 1979 full (vitthära) 843 846 f. (see in detail) full success (samiddhi) 1482 full understanding (pariflfiä) 434 551 587 cf. 591 1020 1173 1211 cf. 1460 2597 n. (of abandoning) (pahäna) 2597 n. (of recognition (tirana-) 2597 n. (of the known) (Mta-) 2597 n. (of the root) (müla-) 1751 ff. function (kicca) 31 55 213 440 482 540 f. 552 563 f. 581 589 640 673 f. 912 914 1313 1385 1388 1431 1443 1469 1474 1478 1546 f. 1565 1568 1974 f. 2095 2161 2310 2399 (i.e. of knowledge of the four truths) 418 430 582 (i.e. of the cittavlthi) 410 f. 688-94 1750 1753 1755 2042 2046 f. (descriptions of) (-niddesa) 465 f. function (rasa) 2416 f. 2419 functional (kriyä/kiriyä) 73 ff. 104 177 ff. 226 409 ff. 654 f. 698 1007 1051 1753 1838 1852 1855 1867 1879 1902 1944 1969 f. 1978 f. 1981 1983 1985 f. 2060 f. 2063 f. 2442 (produced by) (-maya) 1709 n. 1794 n. fundamental particle (paramänu) 1689 f. further becoming/future becoming (punabbhava) 102 523 furthering (element) (parakkamadhatu) 392 396 1267 f. 1323

320

The Dispeller of Delusion (made by) (-maya) 69 650 ff. 2079 (talkon)(-*a//0)129 giving up (cäga) 532 f. (see generosity) gladdening (sampahamsanatä) 1364 1369 gladden (sampahamseti) 1085 goblin (pisäca)22012212 (city) (-nagara) 662 going forth (pabbajjä) 1608 2172 2187 2189 cf. 652 going on errands on foot (jahghapesanikd) 1662 gold (suvanna) 1053 (-smith) l-kärä) 1053 1084 good (atthasiddhi) 128 154 good (kalyana) 2192 2274 2292 2514 (deed) (-kamma) 2202 ff. 2211-19 2244 2248 2250 good (panita) 1356 f. good conduct (sucarita) 431 547 cf. 869 1632 1899 2091 2205 2244 (see bodily, etc.) good conduct group (sllakkhandha) 3 good Dhamma (saddhammd) 869 good friend (kalyäna-mitta) 1058 261 1274 1286 1299 2252 (-ship) (-to) 1247 1256 1263 1269 1275 1281 1288 1294 1301 Good Law (saddhammd) 1 402 869 2464 2601 gorge (udariya) 293 1062 1124 ff. 1157 grasped at (upädinnaka) 1198 1728 2273 (see clung to) grass (tina) 1650 grease (vasa) 313 1062 1137 great being (mahäsatta) 2076 2170 Great Disciple (mahäsävaka) 1327 (eighty) 1337 Great Elder (the eighty) (mahäthera) 1953 (see senior elder) great festival (mahämaha) 2343 n. 2346 great functional (mahäkiriyä) 1961 n. Great Hell (mahäniraya) 12 (the eight) 2264 Great Man (mahäpurisa) 1357 2121 greatness of wishes (mahicchata) 2340 ff.

future (anägata) 54 55 91 112 133 205 638 f . 839 897 901 906 908 1173 1448 1454 1456 1459 1849 1858 1860 1985 2031 2098 f . 2131 2254 2274 2438 2481 2512 2514 2549 2563 (knowledge of) (-nana) 1841 1849 1854 1864 1876 (object) (-ärammana) 205 1858 1860 1864 1985 (addhäna) 608 638 2131 future (time) (aparanta) 55 405 638 f . 895

gadfly (damsa) 9 15 gain (läbha) 2526 2538 galoci (creeper) 2357 garula 351 gävuta (measure of length) 1689 f. 1731 1800 general [method] (pakinnaka) 91 1200 2596 general (sädhärana) (shared by) 1200 (designation) (-niddesa) 451 general characteristic (sämaüfialakkhana) 676 916 1051 2597 n. generally useful (sabbatthaka) 1045 1516 (see all-helpful) generation (kinds of) iyoni) cf. 460 617 628 ff. 728 732 ff. 756 766-72 778 789 922 953 957 I 269 n.107 2001 2514 generosity (recollection of) (cäg'änussati) 1343 1347 genitive (sämi-vacana) 33 2546 2558 gentle (mudu) 1351 cf. 2602 gestation (gabbha-pariharana) 458 ghost(s) (peta) 14 46 464 734 758 (three kinds) 2264 (fire) (aggi-) 333 (realm of) (pettivisaya) 13 1325 1949 2206 2259 2264 (sleeping position) (seyya) 1703 1705 (spirit of a palace) (vemänika-peti) 2338 gift/giving (dona) 666 903 1314 163958 1662 f. 1888 2005 2079 2084 2092 2151 2329 2577 (alms) 2342

Index of Words and Subjects
great primary (mahäbhüta) 5 21 22 94 185 196 357 592 776 810 953 979 1169 ff. 2268 2522 great resultant (mahävipäka) 111 f. cf. 703 Great Struggle (mahäpadhäna) 1735 greed (lobha) 39 408 570 1718 1770 1915 2338 (associated with/accompanied by) (sahagata) 651 IS 1231 (associated with) (sampayutta) 690 greed (räga) 140 251 254-58 372 448 524 f. 589 667 715 838 846 1089 1330 1457 1822 2056 2100 2104 2279 2286 2334 2433 f. 2445-50 2552 2472 2480 2501 2538 (destruction of) (-kkhaya) 251-58 (-free) (vita-) 1231 greedy (saräga) 1051 1231 2100 2127 greedy temperament (rägacarita) 1089 1117 grief (domanassa) 43 446 473 480 485 ff. 491 493 497 500 521 623 884 886 888 1042 ff. 1136 1210 1212 1747 1772 1886 2436 n. 2496 f. 2509 2526 (see mental pain) (element) (-dhätu) 392 396 (faculty) (-indriya) 164 590 grimacing/grimacery (bhäkutitä, etc.) 2369-72 gross (olärika) 32 56-76 78 81 f. 91 130 468 589 851 857 1106 1108 11461018 2498 (materiality) (-rüpa) 47-50 (-ness) (-täj-tta) 256 429 1146 group (kaläpa) 736 (khandha) (the three) 439 ff. 570 (nikäya) 226 2514 gruel (yägu) 1329 1578 1728 f. 1778 2224 22312338 guild (the eighteen) (seni) 2320 2325 guftjä 2227 n. habitat (äsaya) 1091 1095 1098 1100 1142 2279-S5 2291 (see scope) hair-raising (lomahamsa) 1812 2436 half yoke (a kind of house) (addhayoga) 1803

321

hall (mala) 1803 hand (measure of distance) (hattha) 50 happiness (sukha) 842 1527 1836 2092 2119 2124 2250 cf. 2321 2498 2538 (pervasion of) (-pharanatä) 2117 f. hardness (kakkhalatä) 1203 (thaddhatta) 1202 harm (anattha) 1675 hate (dosa) 39 408 448 1152 n.38 570 1330 1457 1887 1915 2144 2279 2436 n. 2445-52 2471 f. 2530 (accompanied by) (sahagata) 65 f. 78 (associated with) (sampayutta) 2159 (destruction of) (-kkhaya) 251-58 (-free) (vim-) 1232 (-ful)(jd-)1232 (temperament) (-carita) 2405 hatred (padosa) 1825 haughtiness (atimäna) 2396 (pride upon pride) (mänätimäna) 2397 head-hair (kesa) 271 275 f. 310 1027 f. 1031 1035 1056 f. 1062 1065 1069 1076-79 1082 1090 1093-1103 1107 ff. 1114-23 1127-42 1144 1147 1152 1154 1156 f. 1159 1176 1179 1184-91 1193 1200-05 1312 (body) (-kaya) 1034 heading (mukha) 161 1386 1468 1934 1969 (sisa) 2552 headman (bhojaka) 46 hearing (savana) 1954f. 1961 hearsay (anusava) 868 heart (hadaya) 285-90 309 342 f. 1062 1117 1119 ff. 1130 1133 1157 1216 (basis) 80 86 89 689 f. 743 810 (materiality) (-rüpa) 952 f. 979 2033 heat (unha) 9 12 (see warmth) heaven, son of (devaputta) 169 heavy goods (garubhanda) 1640 1644 1648 ff. 1656 ff. hell (naraka) 460 464 480 714 758 (cold) (süa-) 458 (of excrement) (gütha-) 464 hell (niraya) 333 709 733 f. 758 1314 1325 1922 1949 2013 2149 2157 2195 f. 2206 2210 f. 2250 2252

322

The Dispeller of Delusion
27 932-35 945 ff. 960 965 968 972-77 983 994 996 1000 f. 1006 f. 1173 1220 2286 2424 2437 (canker of) (-äsava) 888 (dement) (-dhätu) 364 f. 392 396 illusion (mäyä) 143 f. 152 917 2422 ill-will (vyäpäda) 156 369 380 589 1043 1252-64 1825 1888 2287 2458 (element) (-dhätu) 369 381 392 396 image (patimä) 2153 immaterial, the (arüpa) (i.e. the mental) 100 111 114 f. 121 185 196 360 f. 403 409 594 655 673 684 963 1172 1218 1222 1224 f. 1484 2268 (i.e. the sphere, etc.) 100 104 430 575 655 739 870 2590 2596 n. (attainment) (samäpatti) 567 870 2533 (dement) (-dhätu) 2429 (life faculty) (-jivitindriya) 588 (state) (-dhamma) 114 f. 469 478 599 620 627 708 742 976 1521 1743 1792 1965 2047 (world) (-loka) 703 immaterial (arüpin) 82 779-84 788 11712533 (state) 776 966 immaterial existence (arüpabhava; äruppa) 11 436 525 567 653 662 cf. 696-99 726 730 739 761 769 804 807 810 816 826 857 860 863867 870-76 955 1464 1849 2428 (sphere) 723 791 immaterial sphere (arüpävacara) 63 68 73 178 182 184 186 188 194 197 203 594 654 f. 678 684 694 703 999 1235 f. 1538 f. 1845 f. 1849 1981 ff. 2061 f. 2064 2085 2102 23112594 immediate/with immediate effect (änantariya) 2143 2252 (kamma) 2019 2148 (the five kammas) 2142-59 2293 impact (impression) (patigha) 81 f. (accompanied by) (so-) 223 imperfection (upakkilesa) 1833

2257 2263 f. 2333 2493 2591 (see world interspace hell) (dwellers in) 46 helpfulness (atthacariyatä) 1888 helpless (anätha) 1777 (refuge for the) (sola) 494 1777 here (idha) 1055 1393 1474 1518 1585 1591 1593 1603 1883 heritage (däyajja) 1324 1334 hiccups (hikkära) 336 n. high (partita) 38 1293 1309 high altitude wind (verambhaväta) 350 higher consciousness (adhicitta) 570 1084 20812083 2085 2482 higher profitable (adhikusala) 2360 higher than human state (uttarimanussadhamma) 2370 2602 higher understanding (adhipahfiä) 570 2081 2084 f. 2482 higher virtue (adhisila) 570 2081 f. 2085 2482 highest (param a) 1519 highest sense/meaning (ultimate sense) (paramattha) 427 454 476 617 802 cf. 435 cf. 1377 1519 1744 1981 1985 f. 2075 2093 hindrance (nlvarana) 372 1590 1592 1834 2299 (the five) 255 1043 1242-1302 1701 1822-32 2486 hither bank (orimatlra) 432 how (katham) 1054 human (manussa) 2260 2266 (world) (-loka) 2260 2266 humility (nipaccäkära) 1725 humour (dosa) 1312 hunger (Jighacchä) 913 hunter (ludda) 1078 f. identity (ekatä) 745 f. identity, method of (ekattanaya) 923 f. idleness (indolence) (kosajja) 569 1084 1267 1315 1317 1595 2459 2525 ignoble usage (anariyavohära) 2474 f. 2527 ignorance (avijjä) 158 259 542 569 598 601 603 605 f. 610 f. 615 f. 620 624 ff. 633-45 658-77 743 862 882 ff. 889-97 900 902 f. 906 911-

Index of Words and Subjects impermanent/-ence (anicca) 143 145 153 158 230-48 401 434 441 620 652 910 1019 1033 ff. 1049 ff. I 355 n. 1220 1227 f. 1243 1245 1523 1992 2029 2074 f. 2134 2141 2466 2473 2496 2549 imperturbable (änehjd) 646 f. 654 ff. 677 (see formation of) impossible (atthänd) 2010 f. 2019 2138-97 impression (phassa) 681 149 151 156 161 200 776 1218 f. 1222 1758 1909 (pentad) (~paflcamaka) 1219 f. impression (samphassa) 5 [9] 80 ff. 86 165 177 182-95 201 2119 (see touch) (bodily) 165 f. (mental/mind) 165 f. 194 f. improper conduct (anäcära) 1635 f. impulsion (javana) 28 [41] 42 44 54 83 178 f. 411 ff. 487 667 673 690 697 699 708 713-15 719-22 903 1446 cf. 1737 1752 ff. 1794 n. 2046-50 2057 n. inactive/inactivity (unoccupied) (avyäpärä) 922 cf. 228 (method of inactivity) (-naya) 923 926 in brief/brief (sahkhepa) 210 225 f. 843 846 f. inclination (äbhoga) 2042 2467 2498 (see concern) inclination (ajjhäsaya) 402 567 646 1546 ff. 2274 ff. 2291 2310 included (pariyäpanna) 2566 2569 2571 f. inclusion (sangahd) 775 791 ff. in company (samsattha) 1671 Incomparable (änuttariya) (of Seeing) (dassana-) 223 (of Hearing) (savana-) 223 increase (vaddheti) 1544 increase (vepulla) 1396 in detail (vitthära) 210 225 f. (see full) indeterminate {avyäkatd) 57 59 60 62 77 130 277 ff. 306-17 329 f. 347 397 403 626 804 862 1008 1159

323

1168 1231 ff. 2023 2056 f. 2060 (see uno^termined) (mdeterminacy) 262 indication {naya) 1655 indifference (udäslnatä) 1888 indifferent (feeling) (upeklehä) 447 1228 2510 indirect talk {sämantajappanaj-jappä) 2366 23702372 2380 indolent (kusita) 2525 induce {janeti)\ 400 f. inferential knowledge (anvaye hand) 2099 inferior (hind) 46 76 628 715 879 1885 2067-71 2191 2274 2386 f. 2548 (see also low) (element) (-dhätu) 392 396 in front (parimukham) 1589 1820 inhalation (assäsa) 344 346 (and exhalation) (-passasa) 118 inhere (anuseti) 1540 2286 inherence (samaväya) 435 n. inherent (anusayitd) 401 1448 2279 inherent tendency (anusaya) 183 257 cf. 530 569 642 842 1457 2279 2286 2292 2296 2313 2406 2516 (the seven) 255 initiate (ärabhati) 1402 1524 initiating element (ärambhadhätu) 392 396 1267 f. 1323 inner skin (camma) 276 f. 1093 110109 1133-35 1154 1159 f. (body )(-käya) 1034 insight (yipassana) 70 181 187 273 439 n. 555-58 570 1045 1173 1199 1212 1221 1311 1331 1384 1407 f. 1425 1429 f. 1433 1438 1448 1498 f. 1522-29 1541 1545 1626 f. 1729 1732 1799 2085 2100 2161 2268 f. 2283 2360 2401 2482 2525 (eighteen principal insights) 1438 (abiding in) (-pariväsa) 2112 (development of) (-bhävanä) 1198 (employing insight) (vipassaka) 250 1438 (insight into insight) 2134 (knowledge) (-fläna) 542 f. 1523 2074 2093 2109 f.'2282 2285

324

The Dispeller of Delusion (between Enlightened Ones) (Buddha-) \3f. 1325 in the open (abbhokäsam) 1811 intimation (vihfiatti) 659 1741 1750 (bodily) (*öy a-) 657 1521 (verbal (vaci-) 658 1521 intoxicant (äsava) 673 cf. 1907 (majja) 1907 investigate (pavicinati) 1523 investigation (pavicaya) 1537 investigation/ing (santirana) 178 411 690 692 708 715 834 1752 f. investigation (vimamsä) 204 575 594 1390 1471 1476 1490 f. 1495 1497 1502 1505 1556 1583 1853 f. (road to power) (-iddhipäda) 431 investigation of states (dhammavicaya) 431 15101540 (awakening/enlightenment factor) (-bojjhanga) 1309-22 1367 1513 1515 1523 1532 invisible (anidassana) 223 irritation (äghäta) 2543 (base for) (-vatthu) 369 2313 2535 2543 I-shall-come-to-know-finally-theunknown faculty (anah'h'ätafihassämitindriya) 579 582 589 f. isolated (vivitta) 405 item of dhamma (dhammakkhandha) 2482 jhäna chap. XII 181 557 f. 565 ff. 666 1070 1364 I 359 n. 1412 1437 1475 2117 f. 2297-2306 2310 2326 2522 2525 2533 2594 ff. (four) 70 72 75 357 565 ff. 2017 2300 2349 (five) 357 567 (first) 372 556 565 ff. 573 682 767 1058 1145 1156 1195 1437 1498 1500 2017 2019 2103-10 2137 2301 2303 ff. 2498 2583 2596 (second) 566 767 1146 1498 1500 1796 2104 2108 23012584 (third) 566 767 1498 1500 2104 2301 2585 (fourth) 566 654 685 1498 1841-79
2104

(leading to emergence) (vutthänagamint) 567 699 2047 (making jhäna the basis) 1058 1154 1156 1547 cf. 2083 2269 (meditation subject) (-kammatthäna) 1070 (moment) (-khana) 555 557 1546 ff. (path of) (-magga) 652 (progressive / with succession) (-patipäti) 196 1174 1220 (pure) (suddha-) 1230 1240 1383 2401 (strong) (balava-) 699 1547 2047 (vehicle) (-yöra) 570 1018 (with characteristics as object) (lakkhanärammana) 699 2047 2268 (working on) (-kammika) 1316 insight, to have, etc. (vipassati) 230 566 f. 1204 instalment (khandha) 3 instance of merit-making (puflflakriyavatthu) 666 instrument (kärana) 387 instrumental (karana) 439 855 2096 intellect (martasa) 3 intelligence (patibhäna) 1942 2324 internal (ajjhatta) 17 32 206 268 270 f. 576 825 ff. 1531 1540 1835 1868 1986 (object) (-ärammana) 206 576 739 1537 1870-77 1903 1986 (one's own) (niyaka-) 268 270 1026 (states) (-dhamma) 587 595 1537 (strict) {-ajjhatta) 2033 (-ly) (-am) 1026 1047 1053-56 2428 internal (ajjhattika) 91 153 155 223 226 229 250 268 271 302 1531 2033 2313 2546 internal-external (ajjhatta-bahiddha) 1038 1197 1229 1986 (object) (-ärammana) 206 1871 1874 ff. 1986 interrupt (cause to advert) (ävatteti/ävatteti) 708 1753 2049 f. 2467* interruption (advertence) (ävattanä) 2042 2467 interval (antara) 2310

Index of Words and Subjects
(fifth) 682 (attachment to) (-nikanti) 525 (condition) (-paccaya) 946 (factor) (-anga) 103 1311 1510 2109 2434 (familiar) (paguna-) 650 2108 2114 2297 2304 f. 2595 (foul) (asubha) 1547 (fourfold and fivefold/tetrad and pentad) 567 574 1154 1387 1469 2301 (kasina) 722 1542 1547 (laying to heart of) (-abhinivesa) 574 1387 1469 (of the Divine Abodes) 1542 1547 (practitioner) (jhay in) 2297 (respiration) 1542 1547 (triad and tetrad of) 556 (unfamiliar) (appaguna-) 2106 2113 2297 2303 (which is the basis) (pädaka) 557 566 f. 1058 1154 11562118 2269 joint (sandhi) 1140 joy (somanassa) 44 652 681 687 740 1136 1772 2104 2507 f. 2526 (see mental pleasure) (element) 392 396 (faculty) 164 590 (ways of thinking with) (-upavicära) 2507 juice (rasa) 319 327 n. 388 (see flavour; taste; brilliance; essence) jujube (badara) 147 jungle thicket (vanapattha) 18101812 just so much (tävatva) 210 222 384 392-^02 justification (yutti) 699 kacchaka (tree) 2353 kahäpana (coin) 299 441 543 1680 1920 2231 ff. 2578 kamma 584 612 ff. 620 626 671 673 679 704-26 744 747 856 859-79 903-09 1051 1173 1377 1446 f. 1848 1875 1910 1916 1924 1930 2012 2019 2058 2090 ff. 2143 2148-55 2193 f. 2197-2269 2293 2295 2310 2338 2433 2443 f. 2566

325

2591 (see ownership of kamma; reappearance according to kamma) (four kinds) 743 (blameless) (anavajja-) 717 719 f. (bodily) 1916 1930 2434 (born of) (-ja) 38 95 ff. 101 106 116ff. 126 460 657 789 797 978 1121 1728 (condition) (-paccaya) 126 630 695 726 757 762 773 878 946 1005 (door) (dvära) 657 659 (evil) (papa) 713 2202-10 (force of) (-vega) 101 (good) (kalyäna) 2202 ff. 2211-19 2244 2248 2250 (mental) 2434 (meritorious) (pufifia-) 2577 (originated) (samutthäna) 28 36 126 270 328 788 793 800 (past) 1863 (previously performed) (pubbakata) 743 cf. 904 cf. 2442 (process) 855 865 (process existence) (-bhava) 855 f. 863 ff. 868-73 876 878 f. 902 f. 906 (profitable) (kusala) 37 f. 584 657 659 682 684 f. 722 726 753 876 913 1314 1447 2012 2058 2194 2252 (round of) (-vatta) 891 911 (sign) (-nimitta) 704-24 743 (there has been) (ahosi) 2251-53 (unprofitable) (akusala) 36 37 140 657 659 684 726 876 1447 2012 2058 2194 2209 f. 2252 2434 (verbal) 1916 1930 2434 (volition) (-cetana) 111 f. (with immediate effect) (änantariya-) 2019 2142-59 2252 2293 kamma-formed (abhisahkhata) 619 f. kamma-forming (abhisahkharana) 619 f. (see formation) kanikära (flower) 529 1117 1140 karavlka (bird) 529 kasina 187 650 722 1070 n. 1153 f. 1521 1542 1547 1749 2047 2141 2269 2337 2349 2533 2586 (disc) (-mandala) 181 1521

326

The Dispeller of Delusion (natural) (sabhäva-) 1946 f. languor (tandi) 1265 f. 2361 lassitude (linatta) 1265 f. later stage (aparabhäga) 552 568 launching element (nikkamadhätu) 392 396 1267 f. 1323 Law {dhamma) 43 402 598 1399 1485 1487 1674 1717 1945 1962-67 1972 1977 f. 1982 2095 ff. 2146 2154 2176 2181 2247 2377 2482 2504 2601 (see Good Law; Discrimination) (and discipline) 1576 1594-1603 (good men's) (sappurisa-) 847 (hearing, to hear, etc.) 169 1174 1719 1726 1955 1975 2057 2338 2504 (heart of) 2566 (is the) (-bhüta) 1601 (profundity, etc.) (gambhira) 918 920 (quality of) (-guna) 1345 (recollection of) (-anussati) 1343 (section) (-vara) 1962 1965 (sermon, talk, preaching) (-kathä, etc.) 1521 1726 1739 1974 f. 2390 (supramundane) (lokuttara-) 1337 (wheel of) (-cakka) 802 1335 law (niyama) 926 lax (manda) 1314 f. (see slack) lay devotee (upäsaka) 1693 f. 1953 2082 2159 2231 (see women devotees) (female) (upäsikä) 1953 lay hold {pariggaheti, pariganhätiy etc.) 347 1106 1108 1136 1139 1171 f. 1219 1384 1531 1720 1792-96 laying hold (pariggaha) 8 47 183 185 190 ff. 196 203-06 243 360 365 552 1038 1218 1229 1241 1821 2268 2401 cf. 2538 laying to heart (abhinivesa) 551 n. 574 1218 1387 1469 laying to heart (abhinivittha) 361 551 1154 1156 1174 leaf (patta) 1649 leaf-eating people (pannakhädaka-) 2224 2227 2236 f.

(sign) (-nimitta) 1366 kakanika (farthing) 1920 keen (tikkha) 585 589 cf. 1018 2019 2161 f. 2280 2288 2291 2310 Khattiya 2319 2384 2547 f. 2554 ff. 2561 2575 2577 kidney (yakka) 285 288 309 1062 1116 1119 1133 1157 1168 (pentad) (-paflcaka) 1062 1148 kimsuka (flower) 1108 1649 kind (jäti) 56 163 226 403 440 f. 452 640 King (räjan) 1671 ff. 1677 f. 2337 (the four) 1734 kinnari 2337 n. know (pajänäti) 1215 1226 1242 knowledge {hand) chap. XVI 869 929 1008 10401106 1310 1312 1320 1623 1826 1836 1910 2404 2538 2567 2602 (see insight; path) (associated with) (sampayutta) 681 1929 1977 ff. (as basis) (-vatthu) chap. XVI (correct) iyathäbhüta-) 2279 2282 (dissociated from) (-vippayutta) 650 681 1929 (higher knowledges) 1841-76 (of the four truths) 418 430 551 ff. 582 642 (of the discriminations) chap. XV (of the path) (magga-) 1463 2282 (omniscient) (sabbaftfluta-) 2310 f. (reviewing) (paccavekkhanä-) 2124 (that he is liberated) 1227 knowledge of the right amount in eating (bhojane mattahhuta) 1247 f. kokila (bird) 529 kosätaki creeper 306 1117 11302192 kovilära (plant) 1118 kudrüsaka (grain) 2208 kuntha grass 276 1157 lamentation (parideva) 446 489 ff. 502 521 623 884 886 2496 f. lamp (dlpa) 1312 landowner (kutumbika) 1956 2207 23362373 language (nirutti) 1941 1971 1977 f. (dhamma) 1946 1972

Index of Words and Subjects
learned (bahussuta[tä\) 1281 1288 1294 1301 1739 1974 f. 2323 f. 2390 learning (savana) 1008 learning/lore (suta) 2324 2407 learning (sevenfold skill in) (uggaha) 273 f. 1059-70 leaving (muticana) 1071 1077 ff. 1143 (release) 1189 leech (/aM<2) 1190 Lesser Stream-Enterer (cülasotäpanna) 1174 letter (vyafljana) 2022 2330 liaison (sandhi) 2022 liberated (vimutta) 1227 1238 2100 liberation (mokkha) 891 liberation (vimokkha) 1364 1359 n. (the eight) 2017 2300 liberation (vimutti) 1615 (the five) 1238 (knowledge and vision concerning) 1615 life (jivita) 94 211 477 482 561 736 818 1209 cf. 1660 2143 2321 (faculty) 306 579 587 ff. 594 f. 743 804 1913 1927 2264 (faculty ennead) 781 784 (nonad) (-navaka) 736 life (material) (rüpajivita) 818 life-continuum (bhavanga) 116 413 692 ff. 697 708 713-22 786 798 835 1752 f. 1792 f. 2042 2049 f. 2056 2057 n. 2294 2306 2467 (consciousness) (-citta) 106 118 2056 (course of) (-vithi) 690 (disturbance in) (-calana) 1755 (mind) (-mana) 222 412 (supplementary) (pitthi-) 690 life of purity (brahmacariya) 1227 1417 1421 1594 f. 1599 1603 1669-72 1717 f. 2433 2485 life[-span] (äyu) 468 478 776 789 2179 2566 2583 ff. 2591 (formation) (sahkhära) 117 1335 (giving up) (sahkhäravossajjana) 2164 light (äloka) 673 1272 1761 cf. 1829 2049 2117

327

(perception) (-saflflä) 1269 1275 1826 n. 1827 2285 (pervasion of) (-pharanatä) 2117 f. light {obhösa) 1312 2347 (see radiance) lightning (asani) 332 2002 2005 (bunch of lightnings) (-vicakka) 1678 2005 lights (lungs) (papphäsa) 290 309 like (and unlike) (sadisa) 672 ff. likkhä (measure of length) 1101 n. 1689 f. limitation (odhi) 1612 1617 cf. 1743 (according to) (odhiso) 1612 1884 (without) (anodhiso) 1613 1617 1885 limited (partita) 263 628 758 2287 2533 (object) (-ärammana) 203 264 416 575 594 698 1840 1843-49 1936 1981 ff. lineage (vamsa) 2324 (of the Elders) (thera-) 2602 link (sandhi) 898 ff. 921 link-up of the lesson (uggahasandhi) 1177 f. lion (5JM 531 1180 2003 f. (sleeping position) (seyyä) 1703 1706 f. ('s roar) (-näda) 2003 f. liquor (sura) (five kinds) 1907 (drinking of) (-päna) 1913 ff. 1921 ff. literal (non-metaphorical) (nippariyäya) 31 82 cf. 397 n. 849 1624 cf. 1770 1909 (suffering) (-dukkha) 446 448 f. (teaching) (-desana) 1806 livelihood (äjiva) 547 f. 561 f. 573 652 1563 15912066 2493 (with livelihood as eighth) (-atthamaka) 547 1632 1638 (ajivaka) 2493 liver (yakana) 287 309 1062 1118 1130 1133 1157 living in the open (abbhokäsa-väsa) 1269 1273 1275 living thing (päna) 2013 (killing) (-aiipäta) 1906 1909-17 1922 ff. 2057

328

The Dispeller of Delusion
manifestation/manifests as (paccupanhand) 371 425 455 472 479 486490 499 506 510 514 586 626 1317 2417 2419 manner (pariydyd) (see method, etc.) marionette (yanta) 1123 (däru-) 1767 masculinity faculty (purisindriya) 94 579 587-90 594 731 mass (khandha) 3 mastery (vasin) 1437 (vasibhava) 1889 (vaslbhüta) 2019 (varif<5)2113n. matchless (brahma) 2005 (see Brahma) (wheel) (-cakka) 2005 material (am is a) 1654 f. 1717 (see unworldly) material body (sarira) 1056 material cause (upädäna-kärana) 1150 material nutriment (kabalihkärähära) 47 108 111 155 cf. 787 2522 materiality )/matter (rüpa) (in general) 304 335 673 767 998 2004 2021 2025 2028 2597 (first aggregate) 4-51 92-123 130 133-37 143 ff. 153 ff. 239 f. 394 407 847 886 2074 2406 2438 2553 2560 2562 (as opposed to the mental or immaterial) 185 196 225 262 360 f. 366 728-32 776-804 816-22 940 950-55 978 1218 1220 1224 f. 1744 2268 2533 (see mentality) (25 and 96 portions of) 5 n. 17 (body) 146 ff. 476 1027 2522 2588 (concrete) (rüparüpd) 779 782 (due to kamma that has been performed) 646 773 (faculty) (-indriyd) 595 (form) 1874 2017 (instance) 735 f. 779 788 800 (of the basis) (vatthu-) 94 795 f. 817 819 (possessed of) (rüpin) 2522 (state) (-dhamma) 469 478 620 742 780 966 1743 1792 1965 material (rüpin) 2533

location (okäsa) 47-51 1060 1068 1091-1144 1147 cf. 1186 1201 2570 2572 locative (bhumma) 439 logic (yutti) 799 long-foot (dlghapäda) 115 look on with equanimity (ajjhupekkhati) 1528 looking on with equanimity (ajjhupekkhan[at]ä) 1364 1370 1552 looking away (vilokita) 1746 1749 f. 1754 1758 ff. looking towards (älokita) 1746-50 1754 1758 ff. Lord (inda) 583 f. 1734 2538 Lord/lord creator (issara) 217 429 625 676 1656 2443 lotus 457 loved, dissociation from the (piyavippayoga) 446 509 ff. low {hind) 33 34 91 1293 1309 2015 low talk (32 kinds) (tiracchänakatha) 1795 lungs (papphäsä) 1062 1121 1130 1133 1157 (see lights) (pentad) (-paticakd) 1062 1148 lust (kämacchanda) 1043 1242-51 1822 (räga) 183 191 (vänd) 1531 n. 2262 lute (vinä) 280 made away with (vyantikata) 1211 madhuka (fruit) 11 278 1130 1157 2225 2234 madman (ummattaka) 867 mahat (Samkhya evolute) 430 n. maintenance (thiti) 1396 1404 makaci (bark) 1096 maker (kärakä) 882 f. 892 915 making known (pafifiatti) 1971 (the natural way of) (sabhäva) 1972 n. making water (passäva) 1786 ff. malicious speech (pisunaväcä) 559 1571 malleable (mudu) 1084 mango (ambd) 285 1459

Index of Words and Subjects
materiality aggregate (rüpakkhandha) 4-51 95 f. 98 130 133 160 202 207 857 1171 1220 1241 1758 2270 2568 2588 2597 (as object of clinging) 140 518 maternity home (sütighara) 146 matricide (mätughäta) 2143 2148 2158 cf. 2487 meaning (attha) 210 ff. 220 252 38489 418 426 581-85 598 601 61725 642 670 854-58 918 ff. 1435 1473 1603 1944 1962-68 1972 1974 1979 1985 f. 2059 2062 2064 2330 2601 (see Discrimination) (analysis of) (-vibhäga) 843 845 (tracing out the) (-uddhära) 418 426 f. 1397 1694 means (payoga) 1910 1923 f. 1933 2201 2205 2209 2215 2244 2248 means (upäya) cf. 20 162 428 f. 432 504 1212 1245 1392 1473 1825 2053 2088 2236 2320 2367 2544 (skill in) (-kosalla) 2088 measure (noli) 656 measureless (boundless; unlimited) (appamänä) 1390 1471 1507 1556 1583 1886 1894 2533 (see boundless state) (object) (-ärammana) cf. 203 cf. 575 1390 1471 1507 1556 1583 1840 1845 f. 1849 1851 1981 ff. medicine (bhesajja) 432 1314 1461 1662 1680 1777 2368 f. (training rule) (sikkhäpada) 320 meditation subject (kammatthäna) 181 273 ff. 361 551 556 6501038 1041 1045 1058 f. 1061 1063 1070 1073 ff. 1087 ff. 1146-58 1175-91 1196 1212 1214 1218-25 1415 1485 1521 1590 1592 1720-40 1749 1764 1766 1771 1775 1781 1789 1792 f. 1796 1819 f. 1887 1901 1955 1960 2297 2400 f. 2405 meditator (yogävacara) 542 f. 551 555 1106 1201 ff. 1626 f. 1955 1960 (see yogin) (yogin) 542 medium (majjhima) 628 (dement) (-dhätu) 392 396

329

member (ahga) 955 957 963 975 (sec factor) mental (citta) 1534 (cetasika) 53 1533 mental body (nämakäya) 1526 mental datum (dhamma) 195 ff. 211 220-26 253 368 410 412 524 837 (see state; thing) (base) 220 222 225 f. 251 253 262 f. 416 828 830 1759 2271 (element) 359 f. 365 393-99 407 416 1760 mental formation (cittasahkhära) 118 mental object (dhamma) 1019 1030 1048 1051 1384 f. 1557 1584 mental pain (domanassa) 44 487 49397 I 152 n.38 652 986 cf. 1232 2530 (faculty) (-indriya) 579 589 f. 594 f. mental pleasure (somanassa) 698 1145 (see joy) (faculty) (-indriya) 579 589 f. 594 f. mentality (näma) 225 776-^815 934 f. 940 f. 946 949 952 f. 957 966 977 979 981 f. 997 1220 mentality-materiality (nämarüpa) 185 196 225 436 606 615 623 626 630 775-805 821 f. 900 904 f. 908 911-17 922 935 950 953 963 966 970 979 981 1172 f. 1220 1463 2268 2401 merit(orious) (pufiflä) 478 646 f. 650 662 665 f. 677 789 1314 2052 2152 f. 2210 2232 2369 2577 2601 (see formation of; instance of merit-making) (brings) (-bhägiya) 1571 (meritorious) (-vat) 703 (store) (-M ssay a) 2189 metal (loha) 297 ff. metaphorical use (upacära) (of the fruit [for the cause]) (phal'-) 468 1794 n. (of the cause [for the fruit]) (kdran'-) 1794 n. method (naya) 574 912 923-29 983 992 997 1003 1006 1387 f. 1468 f. 1504 ff. 1530 1551 1553 f. 1557 ff.

330

The Dispeller of Delusion 393-97 401 403 408 411-13 416 678 681 684 687 690 692 698 703 758 1117 1753 2044 2272 (impression) (samphassa) 165 f. mind deliverance (cetovimutti) 378 f. 1254 f. 2309 mind door (manodväral-ika) 82 f. 70824 833 835 1754 n. 2046-50 2057 n. mind element (manodhätu) 5 178 359 365 389-411 678-98 1117 1753 2044 (the three) 177 (impression) (samphassa) 166 mindfulness (sati) chap. VII 549 f. 564 1041 1042 n. 1045 1053 1186 1189 1190f. 1212 1305 ff. 1317 1384 f. 1434-40 1442 1510 1514 1516 1518 ff. 1537 1540 1563 1588 f. 1592 1623 cf. 1641 cf. 1654 1667 1695 1709 1714 1798 1820 f. 1826 1836 2107 2123 2328 2330 2348 2451 (awakening/enlightenment factor) (-bojjhanga) 431 1304 ff. 1513 f. 1517 ff. 1535 1545 f. 1548 f mine (äkara) 217 n. 218 f. minister (amacca) 1317 1516 1520 2182 2249 2391 minister (mahämatta) 1671 ff. 2210 2373 miracle (patihariya) 1843 miraculous power (iddhi) 1412-21 1428 1739 1841 1843 1854 1858 1870 2019 2125 2310 2350 2403 2575 (see success) mirage (marici[kä)) 143 f. 150 1033 mirror (ädäsa) 406 mirror-image (patibimba) 745 miscarriage (gabbhavipatti) 459 misconduct (dussllya) 1638 1909 2215 (micchäcära) 1906 1913 ff. 1919 1922 f. misinterpreting (abhinivesa) 922 mistake (micchäpatipatti) 627 n. 916 (vipariyesa) (twelve kinds) 2473 mistaken theory (vippatipatti) 430 modality (guna) 430 n.

1580 f. 1792 1821 1880 1908 1937 1987 (the four) 923-28 (the nine) 933 ff. (of using an all-embracing term to include its component parts) (ekadesa-sarüpekasesa-) 791 cf. 803 cf. 826 method (pariyäya) 647 1226 1406 1678 1806 1886 middle (centralness) (majjhatta) 589 1552 (keeping to the) (-payogata) 1356 1358 (state) 1528 (-tä) 1376-80 (-ness) (-to) 1552 middle way (majjhima-patipadä) 570 1181 midriff (kilomaka) 288 1062 1119 n. 1157 milk (khira) (and curds) 673 746 927 (tree) 1451 f. mind (citta) 1019 1030 1048 1051 1079 1191 1193 1196 f. 1231^*0 1317 1321 1340 1353 1361 1364 1367-71 1373 1381 1384 f. 1393 1403 1526 1552 1625 1701 2100 2299 (see consciousness) (born) {-ja) 28 799 f. ('s casket) (-mafljüsä) 2299 n. (-originated) (-samutthäna) 101 118 f. 346 786 788 800 950 978 1741 1750 mind (manas) 3 81 211 224 412 528 1526 2043 (see mind element; mind-consciousness element) (base) 222 f. 225 f. 416 810 819 828 830 940 1759 (consciousness) (-vihfläna) 224 678 681 2028 2033 (contact) (samphassa) 835 (door) 178 180 193 195 f. 469 659 f. (faculty) 579 589 f. 594 f. 743 (impression) 80 86 194 f. 198 201 (made) (-may a) 2522 mind, pervasion of (cetopharanata) 2117f. mind-consciousness element (manovififiänadhätu) 5 177 ff. 365 389

Index of Words and Subjects
mode {äkära) cf. 130 136 269 589 836 838 855 1482 1552 1830 2319 2330 2331 f. 2334 2355 f. 2386 2416 f. 2423-26 2436 2461 f. 2465 2514 2526 2544 mode iyikärä) 452 n. mode of alteration (äkäravikära) 245 248 moisture-born/born in putrescence (samsedaja) 453 728 734 ff. 782 molasses (gula) 673 molested (being) {ruppana) 922 moment {khana) 24 26 30 31 53 55 92 95-98 101 106 112 114 116 ff. 123 149 257 f. 553 555 557-65 715 f. 743 752 779 786 788 793 939 f. 942 950 954 956 970 973 f. 976 979 994 1000 1052 1384 f. 1406 1431 1443 1451 1465 ff. 1510 1529 1546 ff. 1554 1565 1764 1819 2007 f. 2057 2112 2119 2125-29 2194 2264 2285 2300 2566 2588 momentary {khanika) (see moment) (death) {-marana) 478 momentum (payoga) 619 f. monad {ekaka) 1992 2313 2315 ff. monastery {vihära) 181 652 1058 1088 f. 1178 1416 1418 1578 1608 1639 1641 f. 1653 f. 1656 1662 1736 ff. 1797 1803 2175 2237 2245 f. 2338 2343 2346 2370 monastery of the Order (sanghäräma) 51 monument {thüpa) 2149 2153 (great) 1411 money-changer {herahfiika) 441 monkey {makkata) 408 1078 f. 1192 f. monster (makara) 1182 moral-inefficiency-of-action (akiriya) (view) {-ditthi) 430 cf. 926 f. mortification {topos) (for immortality) (amara-) 661 (dukkarakärikä) 2410 mould (potthaka) 1649 n. 1772 mouth (mukha) 1630 1820 f. moving backward {patikkanta) 1712 1741-45 1797

331

moving forward (abhikkanta) 1588 1712 1741-45 1792 1797 multiple {nänä) 91 253 541 558-64 1529 (moment) {-kkhanika) 726 757 762 773 1005 mundane {lokiya) 56 64 127 207 260 387 397 414 417 430 443 445 552 567 ff. 577 592 596 619 629 678 824 993 1001 1048 1231 ff. 1386 1391 1405 f. 1431 1467 1472 1503 1508 1536 f. 1540 1542 1548 1550 1552 1557 1560 1584 1710 f. 1834 1880 1904 1937 1969 1987 2008 2019 2046 2130 23112587 mufija (grass) 1650 mushroom {ahichattaka) 101 musician (gandhabba) 840 mutuality {afifiamafifia) (condition) {-paccaya) 667 796 808 817 822 830 834 853 876 945 f. 968 970 1003 (tetrad) (-catukka) 934 968 ff. näga 46 758 1598 1772 2068 2072 (ironwood tree) 2054 (metal) 298 (world) {-bhavana) 2114 nail {nakha) 278 1062 1102 1130 1133 1154 1157 1161 1184 f. 1189 1312 naked ascetic {acelaka) 462 name (noma) 127 (and clan) {-gotta) 699 1846 1849 1861 1864 1873 1876 nature {dhammatä) 118 440 f. 1520 cf. 1654 (appropriate) {evam-) 923 927 nature, knowledge of its (pakataflfiutä) 1284 nature (function) {rasa) 371 425 441 455 472 479 486 490 499 506 510 514 586 626 1529 nature {sabhäva) 7 37 53 56 cf. 127 227 250 f. 266 269 388 392 394 400 f. (426) 430 cf. 447 452 465 f. 485 487 503 513 527 672 674 922 9261269 n.109 1313 n. 1399 1594 1832 1972 n. 2013 2015 2075 2134 2184 2430

332

The Dispeller of Delusion
(person) (-puggala) 2151 (plane) (-bhümi) 1732 (seven treasures) (-dhana) 1334 n. (state) (-dhamma) 2370 (truth) (sacca) 418^49 571 644 1510 (virtue) (sila) 452 noble one/lord (ayyd) 14 1726 2227 2238 2344-49 2367 no-cause view (ahetukaditthi) 927 2478 nominative (paccatta) 855 non-abolition (asamugghätita) 1449 1453 f. non-contiguous (asampatta) 631 n. non-covetousness (anabhijjhä) 1622 non-cruelty (avihimsa) 374 (element) 373 381 392 396 non-delusion (amoha) 586 1929 non-delusion» clear comprehension of (asammoha-sampajaflfla) 1715 1741 ff. 1750-62 1767 1772 1776 f. 1784 f. 1790 non-disappearance condition (avigatapaccaya) 667 796 808 810 814 817 819 822 830 834 853 876 945 ff. 953 960-^3 1003 non-disappearance (asammosd) 1396 1404 non-existence (vibhava) 2488 (view) (-ditthi) 2281 non-frequenting (asamudäcära) 1432 1434-41 non-greed (alobha) 372 1929 non-hate (amoha) 1929 non-ill-will (avyäpäda) 373 1622 2285 (element) 373 381 392 396 non-occurrence (appavatti) 361 535 f. 1211 non-occurrence (nivatti) 425 428 2131 (no recession) (anivatti) 587 non-penetration (appativedha) 627 non-perceptive/-percipient (asafifiin) 711 784 791 f. 2488 (asserter of the) (asaflfliväda) 2533 non-percipient (asaflha) 701 772 778 (being) (satta) 161 113 793 797 2569 n. 2588 2590 (existence) (-bhava) 857 860 862 870

nature {slid) 1029 near (kamma) (äsanna) 743 near (santike) 47 ff. 77 f. 91 133 2126 negligence (pamääa) 1428 1730 1907 2005 2162 2328 ff. 2459 neither less nor more (anünäähika) 418 428 neither-painful-nor-pleasant (adukkham-asukha) 53 57-60 1049 1217 1224 1227 f. 1914 neither-perception-nor-non-perception 857 (see sphere of neitherperception-nor-non-perception) neither-percipient-nor-non-percipient (nevasaMänäsaflflä-) (-in) 2539 (existence) (-bhava) 857 860 863 870 neuter (napumsaka) 2538 neutrality /neutral (majjhatta[bhäva]) 922 1914 1928 nibbäna 40 127 203-06 251-58 426 f. 532 ff. 542 569 f. 595 642 1022 1085 1390 f. 1471 1507 1510 1519 1531 1545 1548 f. 1556 f. 1600 1626 1628 1636 1868 n. 1944 1963 1969 1981 2013 n. 2018 2025 2047 2075 2092 2099 2110 2115 2220 2250 2262 2400 2482 (in this present existence) (ditthadhamma-) 2490 2494 ff. 2588 (quenching) 1729 (state of) (-pada) 569 niggundi(ka) (flower) 1120 night (ratti) 1699 (after the night) (apararatta) 1587 1699 (before the night) (pubbaratta) 1587 1699 nimba (seed) (-bija) 672 2192 no-action view (akiriyaditthi) 926 f. cf. 430 noble (ariya) 424 f. 431 452 537 561 569 f. 575 587 1558 1561 1571-76 1614 1836 1845 1945 2119 2284 2400 2472 2475 2596 n. (see path) (disciple) (sävaka) 1227 1510 f. 1950 2138-43 2162 2400 2596 (dwelling) (-väsa) 2284 (heritage) (-vamsa) 2470 (knowledge) (-fläna) 426

Index of Words and Subjects
Non-Returner (anägämin) 102 1058 1612 1845 1917 ff. 2174 2241 2268 2401 2593 f. 2596 (fruition) 2592 (path) 1264 1289 1464 1499 f. 1610 f. 1694 2473 non-superficiality, function of (apiläpana-kicca) 440 non-trainer (asekha) 204 445 1614 1617 1953 1978 f. 2055 non-transgression (avltikkama) 1632 normal (pakati) 465 468 1825 cf. 2496 nose (ghana) 191 f. 211 528 2050 (base) 223 2569 (decad) 97 736 (door) 45 178 180 191 f. (faculty) (-indriya) 589 f. 594 (-less) 736 n. nose-consciousness (ghänavifUlänä) 44 81 365 401 403 678 681 684 819 2050 no-self (anatta) 143 145 153 157 233 236-44 247 f. 441 652 1019 1033 1036 1220 1243 1245 1523 2074 f. 2134 21412513 not clung to (anupädinna) 270 not grasped at (anupädinnaka) 1198 1728 2273 nothingness (see sphere of nothingness) notional (impression) (adhivacana) 82 not keeping in mind (amanasikära) 243 not outleading (aniyyänika) 2027 not to be said to be/not to be (so) spoken of (na vattabba) 1471 1507 1556 f. 1583 f. 1854 1856 1984 (see the various Questionnaires; object) (past, future or present) 1448 1454 noun {noma) 1941 novice (sämaneralsämaneri) 1409 ff. 1604 1651* 1654 f. 1658 1676 1692 1720 1726 1917 ff. 1931 2159 2196 2235-41 nurse (dhätl) 840 nutriment (ähära) 28 608 673 818 f. 879 1012 1139 1173 1244 1246 1253 1255 1266 1268 1278 1280 1291 1293 1304 1309 1323 1342

333

1355 1363 1369 1375 1726 1729 1738 1785 2225 f. 2418 2451 (see material nutriment) (the four) 155 ff. 436 606 1020 1630 (condition) (-paccaya) 796 808 810 819 830 834 946 (originated) (samutthana) 787 f. nutritive essence (ojas) 94 110 f. 644 7362452 (lacking) (nir-) 1121 nymph (accharas) 2593 n. (celestial) (dev-) 662 obduracy (thambna) 2331 n. object (ärammana) 35-44 57 81 140 149 184-97 203 ff. 218 222 f. 228 257 359 365 393 408 412 416 423 430 440 f. 445 503 524 529 540 f. 550 552 556 567 569 643 652 671 688-700 704 711-24 737 ff. 758 838 ff. 905 914 922 991 1017 f. 1021 ff. 1041 1053 1075 1079 1145 f. 1187 1191 ff. 1215-19 1243 ff. 1370 1386 1390 f. 1410 1417 1428 1432 1442 1446 1449 ff. 1454 1465 1517 1527 1537 1546 1548 1711 1717 1725 1796 1830 1840-79 1882 1886 1910 1913 1924 1927 1946 1951 1972 1977 ff. 1981 ff. 2024 2028 2031-36 2052 2056 2095 2103 2108 2114 f. 2122 2126 ff. 2162 2264 2266 2286 2300 2412 2458 2467 2507 2514 2538 2547 2566 2586 f. 2598 (see internal, etc.) (condition) (-paccaya) 409 666 f. 743 830 1051 1761 (having an) (sa-) 630 2024 (not to be said to have such an object) (na vattabba-) 203 ff. 576 f. 594 f. 711 f. 719 722 f. 740 1390 f. 1840 ff. 1846 1849 f. 1853 1857 1861 1864 ff. 1877 1903 1984 f. (predominance) (-adhipati) 204 667 1984 (triad) (-tika) 203 263 416 575 594 617 626 f. 1390 1471 1507 1556 1583 18401903 19361981 (without) 263 630 2566

334

The Dispeller of Delusion
(and death) (-marana) 446 488 603 605 608 623 633 652 880 895 ff. 900 908 916-22 942 946 f. 962 f. 974 1428 1966 2115 2131 omission (apatipatti) 627 n. 916 omnipresent (sabbatthika) 1041 (see all-helpful) Omniscient (sabbaMu[ta\) 648 1674 2188 2273 2567 (bodhisatta) 2082 (Buddha) 2184 (Enlightened Ones) 2082 f. (knowledge) (-fläna) 656 921 2047 2162 2310 f. 2481 Once Rcturn(er) (sakadägämin) 102 1612 1845 1917 ff. 2268 2400 f. 2593 f. 2596 n. (fruition) 2592 (path) 1464 1499 1610 f. 2473 one-constituent (single-) (eka-vokära) cf. 476 (existence) (-bhava) 857 860 870 cf. 454 one-pointed (ekagga) 1708 1787 1807 f. 1819 (-ness) (-bhäva) 440 (-ness) (-to) 568 f. 1146 1316 1428 1527 1764 1835 2302 2326 one's own (ajjhatta) 838 opal (masäragalla) 299 open-air dweller (abbhokäsika) 2368 opinion (samaya) 598 opportunity (okäsa) 1444 1447 1454 2184 opposed (viruddha) 672 ff. order (kama) 128 ff. 210 223 f. 384 391 418 429 581 587 608 f. 843 848 ff. 15901592 2289 2291 Order (Sangha) 43 1618 1640 f. 1644 1646 1650 f. 1658 1662 1674 1717 1719 1920 2054 2145 2220 f. 2230 2242 2277 2342 2359 2482 (see belonging to the order) (qualities of) (~guna) 1345 (recollection of) (-anussati) 1343 (schism in) (-bhedal-bhedana) 1922 cf. 2145 2147 2154 ff. order of beings (sattanikäya) 450 f.

object (vatthu) 914 (see knowledge as basis) object/objective field/field (visaya) 54 130 223 445 468 626 708 713 ff. 719-22 743 f. 851 853 914 922 2036 2082 2100 2126 (having an) (visayin) 445 922 observance (pafifiatti) 1672 n. cf. 2411 2421 obstruction (avarana) 2294 (three kinds) 2019 2293 obstruction (obstacle) (palibodha) 181 273 1089 1770 1774 cf. 2445 (the ten) 1058 occasion (samaya) 977 occurrence (pavatti) 416 425 428 436 526 585 587 594 650 660 676 686 f. 696 725 752 754 775 778 790 836 838 855 927 cf. 940 942 956 1333 1465 1547 1583 1794 1796 1853 1856 1868 cf. 2008 2028 2056 2115 2131 2196 (see course of existence) (place of) (-desa) 951 957 (turning) 973 ocean ([mahä]samudda) 3 14 522 644 789 (sägara) 2184 octad (atthaka) 1996 2313 2524 ff. (bare) (suddh-) 786 ff. octodecad (atthärasaka) 381 2313 odour (gandha) 39 44 94 191 f. 211 403 524 529 670 721 736 1091 1095 1097 1142 1186 2334 (see smell) (base) 226 2569 offence (äpatti) 1688 1718 1788 2529 f. (absence of) {an-) 2056 offering (dakkhinä) 1667 offering (püjä/püjeti) 721 1410 ff. 1652 ff. 1662 1669 1718 1735 2196 2575 oil (tela) 11 92 f. 313 316 406 1312 (seller) (-kandarika) 2376 oil-of-the-joints (lasikä) 316 1062 1140 old age (ageing) (jarä) 193 232 f. 46574 482 f. 513 520 661 1369 1992 2030 2059

Index of Words and Subjects
order of succession (pubbäpara) 91 100 ff. 1435 1663 ordinary man (puthujjana) 407 521 633 847 867 1417 1614 ff. 1741 1845 1917 ff. 1950 2055 2060 2139 2141 2143 2148 2151 2169 2210 2250 2281 2403 2405 2596 n. organised (upädinnaka) 826 1133 origin (äya) 1028 1056 origination/origin (arising) (samudaya) 419 421 430 433-37 551 ff. 571 f. 575 636 643 f. 661 cf. 881 1963 2099 (truth of) 361 425 429 431 f. 523-29 575 f. 643 913 2597 origination (samutthänä) 91 126 226 328 346 (of fourfold) (catu-) 529 "or-whatever" (yeväpanaka) [47] 48 49 296 322 331333 348 352 356 otherness (nänatä) 745 f. other speaker (paravädin) 259 2310 f. outer cloak/outer robe (sahghäti) 1768 f. 2368 outer cuticle (c/iavi) 1104 outer skin body (chavikäya) 1034 outlet (niyyäna) 1821 (see not outleading) over-estimation (adhimäna) 2399-2405 ownership of kamma (kammassakatä) 1256 1259 f. 1263 1377 1995 2073 2084 f. 2090 ff. owning (three kinds) (kiilcana) 2445 ox (go) (asceticism) (sila) 845 (practice) (-kriyä) 851 (vows) (-vata) 845 ox(gona) 641 paean(udänä) 1331 pain(ful) (dukkha) 45 371 553 1620 2481 (see suffering) (three kinds) 153 (i.e. feeling) 53-60 77 140 166 447 487 491-96 615 626 633 685 751 892 922 1049 f. 1217 1224-28 1914 2159 2478 2509 (i.e. the first noble truth) 407 426 446 459-64 474 481 503 516 519 ff. 623 884 ff. 910 2497

335

(i.e. one of the two patipadä) 64 2111 f (i.e. one of the three signs) 143 145 153 156 236 240-48 441 652 910 1019 1036 1049 1523 2074 2134 2141 2496 (i.e. in the four perversions) 1019 1033 2466 2473 (bodily and mental) 362 ff. 447 491 (element) 392 396 (faculty) 164 579 589 f. 594 f. painter (cittakära) 1627 painting (cittakammd) 1718 2357 2588 pakati (see primal nature) paia (measure of weight) 1657 palace (päsädd) 1179 1803 (vimäna)2\95L Pali (text) 59 60 86 118 125 171 172 175 209 271 298 f. 352 439 449 556 574 593 824 826 832 844 897 904 906 983 989 1058 1061 1228 1282 1295 1389 1405 1435 1459 1471 1507 1514 1555 1582 1839 1903 1909 1934 f. 1955 1959 1969 1980 2001 2251 2385 2566 2601 (not in the) (-muttaka) 2061 2064 2306 pälibhaddaka (seed) 1116 palm/palmyra (täla) 1078 f. 1192 f. 1333 1649 2236 f. 2243 part (kotthäsa) 92 1063 1068 f. 107782 1091 ff. 1099 f. 1142 f. 114853 1155 1157 1175 ff. 1187 f. 1191 1193 2059 2280 2537 (see portion) partaking of enlightenment (bodhipakkhika/-iya)510 1587 1711 2178 2464 particle (nipätä) 271 517 524 1888 2470 parturition (vijäyanä) 460 pasata (measure) 1117 1921 pass away (cavati) 2046 2129 past (atita) 5 17-31 53 ff. 80 86 89 91 112 125 133 205 215 608 630 638 f. 711 f. 743 839 862 894 897 901 f. 1173 1390 1448 1454 f. 1459 f. 1471 1507 1557 1584 1856 1965 n. 1985 2028 2034 2098 f.

336

The Dispeller of Delusion peace (nibbuti) 435 2162 peace (santi) 425 f. peace (upasama) 1369 (recollection) (-anussati) 1343 1349 peace(ful) (pacified) (santa) 57 62 407 589 842 cf. 1211 1826 2107 f. 2119 2122 2137 2370 peacock (mora) 39 penetrate (pativijjhati) 1510 2103 ff. penetration, partaking of (nibbedhabhägiya)2\\0\m penetration (pativedha) 430 551 ff. 569 608 642 918 922 I 355 n. 1064 1220 1316 2103 ff. 2110 2115 2169 2172 2280 2293 2400 2482 (knowledge) (-nana) 2006 ff. (of therightpath) (fläya-) 607 (single) (eka-) 2094 f. 2115 penetration of others* minds (cetopariya) (knowledge) (-fläna) 1841 1845 1854 18601872 2019 (understanding) (-pafifla) 2117 pentad (paflcaka) 1996 2301 2313 2479 ff. perception (saflflä) 5 f. 40 79-84 95 130 133 136 140 143 f. 150 153 157 394 776 857 1215 1219 1709 1826 n. 2106 2108 2110 2303 f. 2430 2438 2458 2473 2488 2513 2588 (and feeling) (-vedayita) 2300 (perceives) (saflflin) 2297 2488 perception aggregate (saflfläkkhandha) 4 ff. 79-84 95 199 ff. 407 776 962 976 982 1241 1758 2270 (as object of clinging) 140 percipient (saflflin) 2488 cf. 2544 percipient existence (saflfläbhava) 857 860 863 868-73 perdition (vinipäta) 930 perfection (pärami) 2047 2076 (päripüri) 1304 1308 f. 1322 f. 1341 1354 1363 1374 f. 1382 1396 1564 2087 2326 period (addhäna) 91 114 f. 2437 ff. period (samaya) 26 29

2126 2128 2252 f. 2274 2438 2481 2512 2514 2563 (object) (-ärammana) 205 576 71224 740 1858 1860 f. 1863 1865 1985 (-addhäna) 608 2131 2274 past (time) (pubbanta) 55 405 638 f. 661 674 895 path (magga) chap. XI104 182-97 203 242 258 419 426-30 435-39 447 513 534-67 573 f. 661 677 1018 1022 I 355 n. 1384 f. 1387 1407 1443 1453-67 1510 1519 1531 1537 1541 1545 ff. 1553 1580 1612 f. 1626 cf. 1636 1720 1840 1846 1849 1945 1963 1979 2094 2110 2112 2161 2256 2263 2268 2280 2284 2293 f. 2310 2333 2350 2399 f. 2482 2597 n. (see Stream Entry, etc.) associated with (sampayutta) 434 555 563 1384 (condition) (-paccaya) 946 (established in) (-una) 1610 2482 (factor) (magganga) 103 558-69 1311 1510 1558-84 (knowledge) (-fläna) 1711 1969 2094 2096 2098 2282 f. 2285 (mundane) (lokiya-) 1406 (as object) (-ärammana) 204 594 1390 1471 1507 15831853 f. 1984 (as predominance) (-adhipati) 204 575 594 1471 1507 1556 1583 1853 f. 1984 (as root-cause) (-hetuka) 204 575 594 1390 1471 1507 1583 1853 f. 1984 (truth of) 361 425 429 431 f. 537-70 573 575 643 2075 2093 2099 (understanding) (-pafifla) 2084 f. 2095 2102 2105 (view) (-ditthi) 2138 (wrong) (amagga) 611 patience (tolerance) (khanti) 1594 ff. 1623 2427 (see acceptance) patricide (pitughäta) 2158 cf. 2487 Paväranä (ceremony) (mahäpaväranä) 1736 pavilion (mandapa) 1719

Index of Words and Subjects
permanent/-ence (nicca) 1017 1204 1385 2139 2514 (see Impermanence) perseverance (sätacca) 1393 1587 1710 2329 person i.e. body (attabhäva) 11 241 388 473 524 587 1325 2189 f. 2199 2203 2238 2321 2490 2522 person (puggala) 46 56 226 1052 1055 1174 1209 1215 1220 1229 1306 f. 1310 1324 1338 f. 1343 1350 f. 1356 1359 f. 1364 1371 f. 1376 1379 f. 1384 1585 2016 2329 2388 2441 (inclination) (-ajjhäsaya) 169 567 573 personal (ajjhattika) 1312 (see internal) personal(ly owned) (puggalika) 1645 ff. 1650 personal example (käyasakkhin) 1747 personality (attabhäva) 1037 (see person) personality (view) (sakkäya[ditthi\) 430 847 22912454 2479 persuasion (anusävana) 2145 ff. 2154 cf. 2155 pervade (pharati) 1886 1892 1894 perversion (vipalläsa) 40 42 44 662 2055 (see mistake) (the four) 155 ff. 1019 f. 1385 2473 perverted (viparita) 40 perverted (perverse) assumption (vipariyesagäha) 847 phlegm (semha) 305 307 671 1062 1098 11261131 1139 1168 physical base/basis (vatthu) 732 786 (see basis) (decad)736 779 physical body (karaja-käya) 1220 picture (rüpa) 1627 pig (sükara) 44 pillow (bimbohana) 1802 Pisäca (metal) 297 (see goblin) place (position) (thäna) 688 n. 690-94 2042 plane (bhümi) 53 58 62 63 68 79 f. 85 f. 88 f. 129 130 161 ff. 174 179 182 184 188 f. 191 194 f. 207 226 236 249 260 382 412 414 417 447 581 587 590 620 649 739 835 1002

337

1051 1145 1444 1448 1454 1587 1630 f. 1837 1880 1886 1934 1953 1979 2060 2062 2099 2139 2141 2271 f. 2287 2566 2583 ff. plantain stem (kadalikhandha) 143 f. 151 1031 pleasant (sukha) 53 57 59 ff. 166 841 1019 1049 f. 1214 f. 1217 1223 1226 ff. 1356 1609 1914 1928 2140 f. 2466 (see happiness) (bodily and mental feeling) 447 pleasing (manäpa) 35 39 46 pleasure (sukha) 615 625 f. 685 751 892 f. 922 1049 1214 1224 1385 2478 2484 2508 (accompanied by) 199 (bodily and mental) 362-67 (element) 392 396 (faculty) 164 579 587 589 f. 594 f. poison tree (visarukkha) 407 432 portent (pubbanimitta) 2051 f. 2055 (the five) 887 portion (kotthäsa) 3 ff. 17 22 78 111 161 263 271 275 296 306-17 318 329 f. 347 f. 574 1473 1521 1651 1744 1910 1912 1924 1926 2022 2434 2494 possessed of (samahgin) 2193 (possession, five kinds of) (-ita) 2193-97 (-bhüta) 2494 possible (thäna) 2009 ff. 2019 2138-97 postnascenceAent (pacchäjäta) 2032 (condition) (-paccaya) 814 950 953 978 f. posture (iriyäpatha) 243 483 548 1037 1209 1269 1271 1275 1356 f. 1589 1592 1634 1707 1712 1796 1883 2005 2045 (see deportment) potentiality (upanissaya) 1149 1739 2280 power (bala) 1828 1831 2082 2401 2567 (the five) 431 1311 1834 (the ten) 1997 2001 f. 2004 2009-19 (of a Buddha) 2181 2273 2288 power, exercise of/exercising (vasavattinj-vattana) 233 247 (wielding) (vasavattana) 893

338

The Dispeller of Delusion presentation, way of (pariyäya) 598 611 675 1530 2330 (see method) pressure (nippesikatä) 2381 f. presumption (särambha) 2332-33 n. prevention (väranä) 912 915 pride (mäna) i83 1457 2286 2318 2384-2407 2435 2506 2521 2546 f. 2553 2563 pride of humility (omäna) 2386 2398 pride that says *I am* (asmimäna) 2406 primal ground (first cause) (padhäna) 430 n. primal nature (pakati/prakrti) 430 n. 435 n. 610 primary (element) (bhüta) 631 803 816 f. 1031 1220 (see great primary) principal (pämokkha) 1630 principal authority (mahäpadesa) 598 n. prior stage (pubbabhäga) 541 ff. 551 553 558-65 568 582 608 652 1076 1145 1195 1384 1406 1498 1529 1585 21112115 2147 2587 prison (cäraka) 141 422 probationer (sikkhamänä) 1676 1692 2159 process (pavatti) 561 608 f. process iyatta) 503 551 611 f. 615 642 856 1191 1193 2026 f. 2083 2085 2105 2120 2162 2281 2283 2291 2430 (see round) produce (safijaneti) 1400 f. produced supramundane (nibbattitalokuttara) 1391 1470 1472 1506 1508 1538 f. 1557 15801584 product of the cow (the five) (gorasa) 2208 production (nibbatti) 2161 profitable (kusala) 56-63 67 ff. 77 104 130 162 166 f. 177 ff. 202 226 262 372 397 415 427 445 484 558-63 575 584 593 626 628 722 762 814 975 993 f. 1001 f. 1006 1387 ff. 1393 1399 1469 1471 1485 1487 1507 1553 ff. 1580 ff. 1838 f. 1854 1857 1869 1902 f. 1935 1945 1961 n. 1969 f. 1976 f. 1980 1982 f. 1985 f. 2056 f. 2060 2091

practice, frequent (b ahull kam mal bahullkära) 1208 1393 practice (progress) (patipadä) 64 cf. 226 (the four kinds) 64 practice (patipatti) 129 130 587 1008 1025 1370 1587 1621 f. 1831 1956 2013 2169 2178 2341 to practise (repeatedly) (bahullkaroti) 1402 1824 prakrti (see primal nature) preacher (bhanaka) 1570 preaching seat (dhammäsana) 2338 precept (sila) (the five) 1693 2082 2085 2244 (the ten) 1693 2082 2085 2244 preceptor (upajjhäya) 181 1410 1415 1417 1419 1425 1658 1724 1727 2236 2238 2241 2274 2359 2370 predetermination (niyati) 676 predominance (ädhipacca) 585 predominance/-ant (adhipati) cf. 130 574 922 1051 1387 1469 1474-77 1507 (condition) (-paccaya) 946 prefix (sadda) (upa-) 845 prefix (upasagga) 311 452 485 1400 1402 1482 1947 preliminary work (parikamma) 181-88 194 197 357 557 650 1079 1081 1089 1145 1153 1195 1198 1498 1521 1627 2060 2114 2170 2269 2337 prenascent/-ence (purejäta) 101 950 2032 (condition) {-paccaya) 819 830 952 f. prepared (sankhärika) 65 f. 69 72 74 78 presence condition (atthipaccaya) 667 796 808 810 814 817 819 822 830 834 853 876 945 953 presence (thitilthäna) 24 101 106 108 111 f. il6 ff. 123 232 f. 673 f. 786 present (paccuppanna) 54 55 91 112 133 205 608 711 f. 839 862 897 1448 1454 1457 1459 1860 1985 2028 2119 2124 2131 2438 f. 2443 2478 24812512 2548 2563 (object) (-ärammana) 205 712-24 740 1858 ff. 1862 1936 1985

Index of Words and Subjects 2102 2202 2204 f. 2208 2211 2279 2330 2459 (consciousness) (-citta) 642 793 993 1003 1231 ff. 1475 1977 1979 2056 (kamma) 37 f. 584 657 659 682 684 f. 722 726 753 876 913 1314 1447 2012 2058 2194 2252 (result) (-vipäka) 42 ff. 393 403 410 678 681 688 ff. 692 703 758 f. 824 997 1005 1008 (root-cause) (-hetu) 1554 (root) {-müla) 571 994 996 1005 1007 (side) (-pakkha) 2333 (state) (-dhamma) 395 571 862 993 f. 1000 1008 1292 f. 1309 1395 1406 1597 1625 f. 1630 f. 1770 1774 1780 1832 1905 1934 2043 f. 2046 2086 f. 2294 2329 2486 (triad) (-tika) 975 2566 (volition) (-cetanä) 619 f. 649 654 ff. 704 862 1000 2013 2442 cf. (skilled) 1636 profound/profundity (gambhirä) 445 553 607 644 912 918-22 929 f. cf. 931 1310 13201836 2370 progressive (pubbäpariya) 600 projected (parinipphanna) 91 127 proliferation (papafical-itd) 2350 n. 2506 cf. 2540 2553 n. prominence/-ent (ussada) 351 1169 1668 f. 1706 f. 2289 (ussanna) 2260 n. 2273 (hell) {-niraya) (the sixteen) 2264 prompted (sasankhärd) 627 681 2111 2122 2298 pTOper conduct (äcärd) 1586 1591 1635 ff. 1665 prostitute (vesiyä) 1667 1677 ff. protection {parittä) 2068 n, 2165 provide (upasamharati) 2052 proximate cause (basis) {padatthäna) cf. 181 187 371586 626 2286 proximity (anantara) 2039 2061 (condition) (-paccaya) 667 1761 (decisive-support condition) (-upanissayapaccaya) 667

339

prudence (nepakka) 1519 1587 cf. 1625 1710 pukkusa (outcaste) 2392 punnäga (fruit) 1112 1117 pure (pasanna) 1616 pure being (suddhasatta) 1440 2282 Pure Ennead (suddhikanavakd) 1838 purification (visuddhi) 129 2575 2597 n. 2602 (vodäna) 2017 purified (vippasanna) 1333 purpose (payojana) 670 f. (sättha) 854 861 purusa (Samkhya term) 430 n. pus ipubba) 308 1062 1098 1132 putting away (vinaya/vineyya) 1042 ff. 1212 putting on/put on (pärupana/pärupati) 1786 f. qualification (niyamaj-ita) 649 1603 (without) (a-) 649 quality (äkärä) 306-17 323 329 f. 347 642 898 901 1528 2291 f. 2330 (see mode) question (pucchä) 7 10 20 1054 2567 quote (äharati) 1563 f. 1570 f. 1576 2284 race (jäti) 1324 1336 radiance (obhäsä) 1734 cf. 2178 (see light) (pabhä)2m radiance element (äbhädhätu) 392 f. railing (vedikä) 1413 rains (vassa) 1736 2341 ram tetrad (elakacatukka) 2150 range (upacärd) cf. 1812 (of audibility) 50 rapture (happiness) (phi) cf. 1357 n.33 cf. 737 740 1145 1342 1410 1510 1525 f. 1537 f. 1717 1836 2498 (awakening/enlightenment factor) (-bojjhanga) 431 1342-54 1367 1513 1515 1525 1538 1542 (pervasion with) (-pharanata) 2117 f. (triad) 171 199 1994 ratana (measure of length) 1689 f. ratharenu (measure of length) 1689 f.

340

The Dispeller of Delusion (of the Buddha) 1725 red (lohitaka) 1154 reflection (cintana) 1008 (patisankhäna) 1256 1260 1263 1513 1772 1776 1784 1790 refuge (sarana) 1619 1917 ff. regaining (patiläbha) 1482 (see attainment) registration (taddrammana) 178 f. 69099 713 ff. 719-22 834 f. 2057 relationship of states (dhammatthitatä) 2082 (knowledge) 2131 f. relic (dhätu) 1411 2153 2168 2173 f. 2220 2223 relinquishing (patinissajjati) 1036 cf. 1595 1828 relinquishment (yossagga) 1548 f. 2328 remainder (sesa) (without) (a-) 1695 (with no) (nis-) 1695 removed (appita) 1211 (quite removed) (vy appita) 1211 renunciation (nekkhamma) 372 1228 2285 (element) (-dhätu) 372 381 392 395 renunciation (escape) (nissarana) 1544 ff. 1688 (liberation by) (-vimutti) 1238 repeated (kamma) (samäsevita) 743 repetition (punavacana) 862 repetition condition (äsevanapaccaya) 667 reproof (codaka) 2529 repulsive(ness)/repugnant (patikküla) cf. 1061 1070 1076 1089 1091 1094-1100 1142 ff. 1151 1155 f. 1175 1177 1186 ff. 1194 1198 1738 1785 requisite (paccaya) 1328 1591 1639 1649 1671 1680 2321 2340 2357 2366 ff. 2372 2378 f. (the four) 652 resistance (patigha) 183 521 986 resolution (abhinihära) 2189 2586 f. resolution/resolving (adhitthäna) 1686 1688 1858 (an-) 2330

ratiocination, made by (cintämaya) 1994 2076 ray (six-coloured) (usmi) 2174 razor-wheel (khuracakka) 407 n. reading (pätha) 1814 2549 realisation/realising (sacchikiriyä) 551 1458 148215312110 realise (sacchikaroti) 1510 1626 f. 1720 1846 1849 2110 2268 2399 2525 reappearance according to kamma, knowledge of (yathäkammüpaganäna) 1841 1848 1854 1863 1875 reason (kärana) 2010 2098 2138 f. 2185 22802310 2538 (see cause) (knowledge of) 2099 (thäna) 2012 2019 reasoning (takka) 2489 2533 rebirth (upapäta) 675 f. rebirth-linking (patisandhi) 23 27 92101 106 114 cf.' 407 452 f. 478 523 598 626 653 676 687 692 ff. 696 700-74 779-85 791 796 799 f. 805 ff. 812 815-22 835 862 902 90408 922 1335 2019 2057 n. 2058 2102 2158 2162 2168 2252 2265 2267 2293 2310 2428 2573 (consciousness) (citta) 95 105 116 119 700 702 713 ff. 719 ff. 732 736 786 815 899 rebirth-process (upapatti/uppatti) 962 cf. 2566 2570 2575 2577 2588 2596 (existence) (-bhava) 436 855 857 862-73 876 878 903 f. 908 963 1753 receptacle for digested food (pakkäsaya) 457 1128 1790 receptacle for undigested food (ämäsaya) 457 recital (of the Pätimokkha) (uddesa) 2145 ff. 2154 recital section (bhänavära) 2601 recitation/recital (sajjhäya) 1061 ff. 1072 1147-59 1175 1183 1191 1193 1765 2333 reciter (väcika) 1619 reckoning (sahkhyä) 384 403 1479 recluse (samana) 1055 1576 1585 recollection (anussati) 1343-49

Index of Words and Subjects
resolve (adhimutti) 2015 2019 2274 ff. 2279 2288 22912310 resolve {adhitthahati) 1330 1533 1735 1883 1932 resolved (adhimutta) 1299 1306 1310 1321 1324 1343 1356 1364 1373 1376 2285 cf. 2591 n. resort/proper resort (gocara) 223 229 1586 1591 1635 1666 f. 1677 1679 1706 1722 1894 2096 2098 (see domain) (clear comprehension of) (sampajafMa) 1715 1722-40 1749 1766 1771 1775 1781 1789 (improper) (a-) 1666 1674 1678 respiration (änäpänd) 1542 1547 (assäsapassäsa) 1034 restatement (patiniddesa) 1836 (section) (-vara) 1968 restrained (samvuta) 1633 restraining (niggahanata) 1364 1368 restraint (samvara) 1621 1629 1685 2196 (five kinds) 1623 f. (of the faculties) (indriya-) 591 1247 (Pätimokkha-) 1586 1591 1620 ff. 1633 f. 1686 2082 result (phala) 435 455 626 (see fruit) result(ant)/[kamma-J result (yipäkal paka) 42 ff. 57 63 67 71 f. 100 104 140 178 f. 226 393 403 410 f. 595 629 646 653 ff. 662 672 ff. 678-92 696 698 703 726 752-70 792-96 808-14 824 830 833 ff. 841 909 997 999 1005 f. 1008 1051 1388 1446 f. 1469 1554 1571 1581 1687 1753 1838 1902 1944 1969 f. 1981-86 1994 2012 2019 2023 2058 2060 2062 2119 2148 f. 2158 2193 f. 2203-19 2227 2243 224855 2287 2293 2310 2442 (see great resultant) (condition) (-paccaya) 796 808-12 822 830 834 (round of) (-vatta) 911 (subject to) (-dhamma) 628 retreat (patisalläna) 1588 1816 review (reflect on) (paccavekkhati) 203 205 f. 264 575 652 1150 575 1738

341

1757 1762 1944 ff. 1951 2079 f. 2124 reviewing (reflection) (paccavekkhana) 277-95 306-17 552 595 cf. 642 1256 1259 f. 1263 1310 1313 1320 1324-28 1334 ff. 1343 1346 ff. 1352 1364 1369 1377 f. 1785 1853 1977-86 2098 2400 2544 (knowledge) 2117 2124 2131 2137 (sign of) (-nimittd) 2117 f. revulsion (nibbindati) 1036 1227 2162 (nibbidä) 2103 ff. 2109 reward» supreme (paramassäsa) 587 right action {sammäkammantä) 431 439 539 ff. 546 560 569 1566 ff. 1573 right concentration (sammäsamädhi) 431 439 f. 538 ff. 550 565 ff. 592 1563 2118 2124 right effort {sammappadhäna) 431 541 563 1045 1212 1392-1472 1474 right effort (sammäväyäma) 431 439 f. 539 ff. 548 563 569 592 1563 right livelihood (sammä-äjlva) 431 439 539 ff. 547 561 f. 569 1566 ff. 1573 f. right mindfulness (sammäsati) 431 439 f. 539 ff. 549 f. 564 569 1563 2107 lightness {sammatta) 628 699 2294 right speech (sammäväcä) 431 439 539 n. 540 f. 545 f. 559 569 1566 ff. 1571 f. right thinking (sammäsankappa) 431 439 441 539-44 554 ff. 569 f. 1563 right view (sammäditthi) 431 439 441 484 538 ff. 551 "ff. 569 f. 1559 1563 1622 2019 rise (udayd) 227 (and fall) (-bbaya) 153 231 243 245 447 893 1319 2514 2597 n. rites andrituals(silabbata) 156 845 873 (clinging) (-upädäna) 844-51 867 873 (holding to) (parämäsa) 158 river current (nadisota) 116 1744 robber {cord) 536 1188 robe (civara) 1768 ff. 2367 ff. 2412 2470 2525 (see outer cloak)

342

The Dispeller of Delusion
scales (tulä) 656 scattered (vikkhitta) 1234 scene (vanna) 709 schedule (list; schema) (mätikä) cf. 20 Cf. 446 932-74 975 993 1585 1593 1603 1886 1907 1988-2020 2059 2281 2289 2315 scheming (kunanä) 2365-72 science (vijjä) 2068 ff. cf. 2156 scope (äsaya) 1186 (see habitat) seal impression (muddä) 745 search(ing) (esanä) 2383 2433 f. search(ing) (pariy esanä) 2383 2538 season (utu) 350 2484 secluded (vivitta) 1588 1799 f. 2369 (vivicc* eva) 1835 seclusion (viveka) 419 1559 1595 1806 1812 18162103 (the five) 1544 ff. sectarian (ford-maker) ([aflfla-]titthiya) 388 cf. 426 531 1671 ff. 2440 (sphere) (-äyatana) 2440 ff. 2588 section (pabba) 1261 1230 1240 1303 1383 section (link) (sahkhepa) 898 900 921 cf. 633 section (vara) 201 573 f. 933 ff. 94057 983 992 998 f. 1006 1934 1969 2496 2566 (see subsection; summary; explanation) (great) (mahä-) 170 173 574 seed (fot/a) 748 f. 924 seeing (dassana) 419 425 439 642 (to be abandoned by) 129 443 selective (range) (sappadesa) 969 self (attan) 388 426 444 676 845 871 f. 892 f. 915 1036 1204 1741 1750 1767 1772 1776 1782 1790 1885 2140 f. 2410 2478 2511 ff. 2533 2565 (see assertions about the self) (the four perversions) 229 405 420 430 435 676 893 1019 1385 (assuming/assumption) (-gäha) 130 135 137 849 (mortification) (-kilamatha) 430 531 570 1510 (substance) (sära) 145 (view) (-ditthi) 926 2140 2453 (what pertains to) (astaniya) 135 137

(tent) (-kuti) 1811 rock (pabbata) 1807 root (müla) 894 f. 933 ff. 1910 1915 1924 1929 2098 (see profitable, etc.) (word) (-pada) 933 f. root-cause (hetu) 103 407 419 575 594 661674 1471 1554 1992 2021 f. (four kinds) 2021 (condition) (-paccaya) 667 808 810 853 876 945 (dyad) 200 (not) (na) 1991 2021 f. 2059 (with / having / accompanied by) (sahetuka) 72 74 162 f. 172 629 678 693 703 740 996 f. 999 2022 (with two/double) (duhetuka) 69 72 74 629 740 2293 (with three/triple) (tihetuka) 69 72 74 629 740 2019 Toot-cause (müla) 642 (körana) 2055 root-causeless/without root-cause (ahetuka) 62 72 74 162 f. 177-79 629 678 687 690 692 698 703 740 758 997 999 1992 2022 2059 2293 Rooted in Dyads (dukamülaka) 168 170 f. Rooted in Triads (tikamülaka) 170 172 round (vatta) 102 678 891 909 ff. 1182 ff. 1328 1369 1525 2102 2517 (see process) (triple) (ri-) 898 911 round of (re)births (samsära) 215 422 617 675 f. 849 892 896 929 f. 1183 1191 1193 1432 1463 1600 2026 (suffering of) 215 387 661 674 rouse (utthäpeti) 1400 f. ruin (vyasana) 484 (loss) 510 rule (dhammatä) 228 (niyama) 118 ruler of a country (janapadasämika) 46 sacrifice (yaMa) 661 sage (isi) 648 1682 1997 salt (lona) 1317 1516 same (ekatta) (in bodyr767 (in perception) (saftflin) 767 f.

Index of Words and Subjects
self theory (attaväda) cf. 157 845 (clinging) (-upädäna) 844 f. 847 851 872 semen (sukka) 879 (and blood) (sonita) 2522 senior elder (mahäthera) 1766 2054 2238 f. 2390 (see elder) (of the order) (sanghatherd) 2231 2336 (-0 (the eighty) 1953 sense desire (käma) 368 430 662 868 f. 903 1590 1835 1906 2103 f. 2106 n. 2285 2303 2433 2453 2483 2489 2495 2501 (see cords of; thought of) (as defilement) (kilesa-) 368 1906 2453 2483 (bond of) (-yoga) 155 (canker of) (-äsava) 155 885 2018 (clinging) (-upädäna) 155 844-53 863 f. 869 976 (element) (-dhätu) 368 375 381 392 394 1849 2014 2429 2566 2569 2571 (flood of) (-ogha) 155 (greed for) (-räga) 589 2286 2433 f. 2518 (one who enjoys) (-bhogin) 1703 f. (perception) (saflhä) 140 2458 (sense desire as object/basis) (vatthu-) 368 845 851 885 1906 2106 n. 2453 2483 (amisa) 1525 2120 sense(-sphere/-desire) existence (kämabhava) 11 436 666 728 730 757-64 768 770 782 857-76 937 951 955 f. 1464 2428 2479 2569 sense sphere (kämävacara) 53 63 68 f. 72 f. 129 162 164 f. 182-88 194 197 207 249 260 382 414 417 552 590 592 596 666 681 699 758 760 762 834 f. 868 1538 f. 1846 1977 1983 2102 2271 f. 2287 2311 (being) (satta) 690 953 2434 (deity) (-deva) 2522 2590 2593 (functional) (-kiriya) 1981 1983 2060 f. 2064 (happy destiny) (sugati) 713 722 871

343

(impulsion) (-javana) 697 (kamma) 681 719 f. 722 753 1848 (perception) (-saflfid) 2588 (rebirth-linking) (-patisandhi) 712 739 (resultant) (-vipäka) 696 698 1981 1983 (state) (-dhamma) 203 368 543 575 594 697 f. 1982 (volition) (-cetanä) 649 f. 653 657 660 757 862 sensitivity (pasäda) 53 83 164 f. 528 n. 631 904 f. 908 2033 (see eye, etc.) sensual pleasure (kämasukhallika) 570 cf. 1510 separate (ävenika) 2147 septad (sattaka) 1996 2313 2516 ff. sequence of subject matter (anusandhi) 1435 service (adhikära) 2189 service (upatthana) 1486 f. 1490 n. sestad (chakka) 265-381 1996 2313 2700 ff. to set afoot (samärabhati) 1402 set up (establish) (upatthapeti) 1190 setting forth (nikkhepa) 1514 1810 2312 2314 sex (Mow*) 729fif.782 (decad) 94 96 97 780 (-less) (-abhäva) 779 sex (lihga) 2149 n. 2189 2191 (female) (itthi-) 2191 (male) (purisa~) 2191 sexless (napumsaka) 95 97 703 736 1668 sexual intercourse (methuna) 2485 shadow (chäyä) 655 745 1170 shame (ottappa) 1130 1888 shape (santhäna) 1060 1066 10911144 1147 1186 1201 2326 2435 2522 shrine (cetiya) 43 705 1350 1409 1412 ff. 1434 1650 1662 f. 1717 f. 1724 f. 1728 1736 1748 1956 2057 2153 2175 2196 2220 2223 2238 2331 2343 2359 2504 (of the body) (sarira-) 2153 (of what was made use of) (paribhoga-) 2153

344

The Dispeller of Delusion
sixth (base) (chatthäyatana) 804 808 ff. 816 ff. 822 825 ff. 934 ff. 940 946 951 ff. 970 979 997 skill (kosalla) 2378 (in bringing to mind) (manasikära-) 273 f. 1059 1071-87 1142 1191 (in learning) (uggaha-) 1059 f. 1070 f. 1087 (kusalata) 1364 1366 (three kinds) 2086 ff. skilled (kusala) 2299 skin {tacas) 280 1056 f. 1062 1104 ff. 1157 1163 1184 ff. 1188 (pentad) (-paficaka) 1062 1090 1148 slack (manda) 1313 cf. 2280 (see slow) sleep (niddä) 2056 2297 2506 sleep(ing) (sutta/supati) 1791 ff. 2048 2056 sleeping position (four kinds) (seyyä) 1703 ff. slight(est) (anu) 1586 (see atom) slow (dandha) 2112 2298 (see direct knowledge) slow (witted) (manda) 585 589 1018 1150 2161 f. sluggish(ness) (slack; limp) (Una) cf. 1086 1265 cf. 1367 1510 1515 f. 1742 2329 2364 2459 smartening (vibhüsanä) 2358 snake simile (see äsivisüpama) snot (sihghänikä) 315 1062 1139 some (ekacce) 867 (eke) 350 2488 (keci) 83 567 846 963 1502 n. 1717 n. sore (simile of anointing the) (vana) 1738 sorrow (soka) 446 484 ff. 502 510 512 521 623 f. 633 880-89 914 941 2496 f. sort (dhätu) 386 f. (see element) sorting out (vidhäna) 386 (see system) soul (jiva) 389 410 742 2439 n. sound (sadda) 37 39 107 189 f. 211 403 524 529 721 760 786 788 838 1813 1859 1971 1946 f. 1972 1977 f. 1981 1985 f. 2035 2126 2334 2538 (base) 226 830 1795 f. 2572

(tree) 1772 sick man (giläna) 140 sickness (vyädhi) 193 1369 2321 sickroom (gilänasäla) 140 sign (with the hand) (mudää) 2156 sign (nimitta) 1451 1545 1820 2056 2378 2380 2458 (see acquired sign; beautiful, sign of; counterpart sign; kamma sign) (i.e. at death) 480 f. (i.e. in meditation) 1018 1084 n. 1090 f. 1147 1196 1200 f. 1229 1363 1840 1868 n. 2103 2269 2349 2533 (grasping the) (-ggäha) 407 528 1269 f. 1275 (of rebirth) (uppatth) 2195 (of unity) (ekatta-) 57 (skill in the) (-kosalla) 1364 1366 sign (safiiiäna) 1076 (safifiä) 1730 2238 2241 signless (animitta) 425 533 1388 silent/silence (tunhibhäva) 1588 1796 similar/similarity (sabhaga) 135 f. 226 418 444 f. 1069 1093 1101-41 1721 2276 simile (up am älop am ma) 115 128 140 ff. 418 432 440 912 916 f. 1078 1080 1180 1183 1185 1188 1190 1192 1738 1888 2185 2249 simultaneously (apubbam acarimam) 2168 2178 ff. 2187 (pubbäpariyam) 1142 sindi (tree) 1111 sinew (nahära) 282 285 356 1034 1062 1109 1157 1165 singlefold (and so on) 418 435-43 601 627-32 singleness {ekatta) 550 (ekodibhäva) 2122 Singular (eka-vacana) 828 sitting (nisinna) 1791 f. 1797 sitting hall (äsanasäla) 83 1080 f. 1726 1729 sitting position (äsana) 1818 sixfold base (saläyatana) 606 623 626 631 803-30 900 905 911 914 ff. 922 935 940 949-57 970 979

Index of Words and Subjects (ennead) (-navaka) 107 786 788 space (sky) (äkäsa) 1093 1101 ff. 1107 1201 1689 2184 2579 (element) (-dhätu) 267 353-59 392 398 1784 space (kha) 420 space, boundless (see sphere of boundless space) span (vidatthi) 1689 f. 1802 specific characteristic (sabhävalakkhana) 676 (see characteristic) specific conditionally (idapaccayata) 638 f. 2282 specified (niyamita) 1994 speculate (vikappeti) 2489 speech (väcä) 489 545 f. (see right speech) speech door (vacidvara) 658 2156 spell (mantä) 2068 2072 sphere (äyatana) 2440 (see base) sphere-of-boundless-consciousness 685 712 1498 1850 1865 1877 (element) 392 sphere-of-boundless-space 70 72 75 685 769 1498 1841 1850 1865 1877 2522 2589 (element) 392 f. sphere of deliverance (vimuttäyatana) 1521 1795 sphere-of-neither-perception-noT-nonperception 70 72 75 566 685 712 1498 1850 1865 1877 2170 2595 2596 n. (element) 392 sphere of nothingness (äkiflcaflü'äyatanä) 206 576 595 685 1498 1850 1865 1877 (element) 392 sphere of work (kammäyatana) 2066 2075 2077 2407 spirit (yakkha) 2151 spittle (khela) 314 1062 1138 spoke (the twenty) (ara) 898 901 908 spleen (pihaka) 289 1062 1120 1157 square (singhätaka) 1626 1660 stain (mala) 2447 2536 stance (thäna) 2002 2010 standing (thita) 1791 f. 1797

345

standstill (vivatta) 503 551 856 2282 f. 2333 starting-point (nigamana) 361 366 state (d ham ma) 6 127 151 196 206 218 f. 236 440 447 543 f. 573 587 672 741 776 779 ff. 788 843 846 f. 854 859 f. 910 969 974 993 1041 1220 1292 f. 1304 f. 1309 1342 1393 ff. 1457 1480 f. 1484 1523 f. 1577 1602 1910 f. 1924 f. 2010 2043 2046 2141 2404 2566 (see Law; partaking of enlightenment; mental datum) (associated) (sampayutta-) 540 573 1481 (conascent) (sahqjäta-) 540 671 (formed) (sankhata-) 136 (immaterial) (arüpa) 114 f., etc. (internal) (ajjhatta-) 587 595 1537 (to be abandoned) (pahätabba) 129 state of bliss (sugati) (see destiny, happy) state of woe (duggati) (see destiny, unhappy) state of woe (loss) (apäyä) 456 703 868 cf. 930 1324 f. 1369 1464 1596 cf. 1620 1639 2146 2198 2206 2477 2591 station of consciousness (viflhänatthiti) 617 728 756 767-72 778 789 922 2514 stationariness (thitibhäginl) 2107 steady (avici) 470 cf. 1744 stiffness (thlna) 1826 (and torpor) (-middha) 1234 1265-76 1826 2285 stimulus (rasa) 914 stomach fire (udaraggi) 1127 f. story (vatthu) 82 1195 1313 1408 1426 1766 1948 2054 2196 2213 2219 2245 2335 2340 2376 2378 2380 2383 2402 2449 to strain (pagganhäti) 1403 straw, heap of (palälapufija) 1811 Stream Enterer (sotäpanna) 102 1061 1611 f. 1845 1917 ff. 2138 2268 2400 f. 2592 ff. 2596 n. (path) (-magga) 1302 Stream Entry (sotäpatti)

346

The Dispeller of Delusion (i.e. the first truth) 419 f. 422 430 433-36 446 ff. 455-64 473 f. 480 f. 487 f. 491 494 f. 497 500 n. 501 507 f. 511-19 530 f. 551 ff. 571 f. 587 591 608 617 625 635 643 f. 661 f. 674 846 903 993 1331 13691687 17312094 (i.e. one of the three characteristics) 232 237 239 ff. 1220 1243 1245 2074 f. (cessation of) (-nirodha) 422 f. 430 444 531 573 644 661 1558 2099 (of the round) (vatta-) 1328 (of the round of rebirths) (samsära-) 215 387 (origin of) (samudaya) 421 430 551 572 913 2099 (truth of) (sacca) 361 418 425 428 f. 431 f. 446 ff, 447 449 553 572 575 f. 636 643 993 1963 2099 2467 suffix (vyafijana) 1607 1947 suffuse (adhimuficati) 1892 suffusing rapture (pharanaplti) I 357 n.33 sugar-cane (ucchu) 406 suitable (sappäya) 169 1153 1174 1178 1221 1247 1250 1256 1262 f. 1269 1275 1281 1287 f. 1294 1300 f. 1357 1588 1718 ff. 1748 1765 1770 1774 1780 1799 1887 (clear comprehension of the) (sampajafiha) 1715 1718 ff. 1765 17701774 1780 1788 summit of existence (bhavagga) 553 1453 2479 2567 2596 n. sxxn(ätapa)9 161170 supanna 46 351 758 n. 1803 superior (panlta) 46 57 62 76 879 cf. 1780 1885 2274 2321 2335 2356 2367 2452 (see high) (element) 392 396 superior (ukkattha) 2067 2070 supernormal achievement (abhiflfla) 2060 n. 2103 ff. 2602 (five kinds) 1834 2170 2337 (knowledge of) (-hand) 699 2047 support (nissaya) 130 218 359 cf. 688 743

(fruition of) 72 (path of) 70 442 567 573 f. 850 1387 1463 f. 1469 1499 1610 f. 2008 2135 2394 2473 stretching (pasärita) 1763 ff. stretching (vijambhikä) 1265 f. cf. 2362 strong {balava) (insight) (-vipassanä) 699 1547 2047 (object) 690 699 strong drink (five kinds) (meraya) 1907 structure of conditions (paccayäkära) 598 909 cf. 931 932 939 950 f. 954 f. 977 984 993 1000 1004 1007 ff. 2132 (section) (-vara) 1962 1966 (wheel) (-cakka) 973 sublime (panlta) 91 589 1085 2107 f. 2119 2122 2137 subsection (vara) 168 171 ff. 180 subsided (atthahgata) 1211 (quite) (abbhahgata) 1211 substitution of/by opposite qualities (tadahga) 555 557 1042 1238 1544 ff. 1826 n. substratum (upadhi) 2012 2199 2203 2207 2212 f. 2218 2265 2267 (see essentials of existence) subtle (sukhuma) 56-76 83 91 111 468 851 857 1018 1106 1108 cf. 1770 2119 subtle materiality (sukhumarüpa) 47 50 263 (fifteen kinds) 48 49 (sixteen kinds) 403 success (iddhi) 1473 1475 1482 14911502 2324 (see miraculous power) success (the three) (sampadä) 570 success(ful) (good fortune) (sampatti) 36 1330 n. 1989 2005 2092 2189 2198-2250 2338 cf. 2589 succession (parivarta) 417 1009 1391 (see cycle) successive (pubbäpariya) 130 234 successive(ly) (anupubbato) 1179 f. (abidings) (-vihära) 2136 suffering (dukkha) 842 1209 1325 1886 2410 (see pain) (three kinds) 434 446 f. 662

Index of Words and Subjects
(condition) (-paccaya) 409 667 796 808 810 817 819 822 830 834 853 876 945 950 952 f. 1761 supporting (vitthambhanatä) 1202 f. suppressing/-ion (vikkhambhana) 557 1042 1238 1544 1547 1823 2102 2112 (non) (a-) 1449 1452 1454 (suppressed) iyikkhambhitd) 1349 2104 2401 (vikkhambheti)2\U 229% L supramundane (lokuttara) 56 64 127 207 260 414 417 430 443 445 552 567 ff. 590 592 595 f. 678 698 856 1001 f. 1231 1386 1391 1405 1467 1503 f. 1536-41 1548 1550 1557 1560 1571-75 1584 1710 f. 1840 f. 1851 1854 1866 1878 1880 1961 n. 1969 1987 2008 2100 2130 2294 23112370 (the nine states) 575 1179 1326 (concentration) (-samädhi) 2046 2111 f. (consciousness) (-citta) 1845 (feeling) (-vedanä) 62 f. 182 184 186 188 194 197 (law) (-dhamma) 1337 (path) 1022 1384 f. 1431 1443 1466 f. 1562 ff. 1568 ff. (produced) (nibbattita-) 1391 1470 1472 1506 1508 1538 f. 1557 1580 1584 (profitable) (-kusala) 68 993 1982 f. (resultant) (-vipäkä) 1981 1983 (state) (-dhamma) 699 1485-90 (understanding) (-pafiflä) 1834 2102 2587 surcease of bondage (yogakkhema) 1675 surgery (sallakattiya) 2068 surmounting (samatikkama) 180 184 189 191 195 1076 1186 1837 surpassed (sauttara) 1236 sustain (upatthambheti) 1403 2146 sustained thought (vicära) 545 737 740 1145 1195 2498 2507 sutta 64 238 f. 252 f. 259 359 392 598 648 799 921 1070 1225 1540 1563

347

1570 1575 ff. 1625 1968 2155 2167 2284 2419 2538 Suttanta (discourse) 274 776 1071 1083 1343 1352 1806 2565 Suttanta method (Suttantapariyäya; Suttantika-) 23 636 797 1806 2432 suvanna (gold coin) 299 2419 sweat (rafa) 310 1062 1134 1312 1637 sympathy (anukampä) 2411 n. synopsis (uddesa) 1046 f. 2553 (section of) (-vara) 384 634 881 1052 1397 2559 system (vidhäna) 273 329 347 cf. 386 tqjjärl (measure of length) 1689 f. taking (gäna) 2140 f. taking of what is not given (adinnyädäna) 1906 1913 ff. 1917 f. 1922 f. talk (patibhäna) 2407 (bnassa) 2506 talking (bhasita) 1795 tangible datum (photthabba) 39 81 191 f. 211 359 521'524 721 2119 2334 (base) 226 (element) 398 403 taste (rasa) 94 211 670 721 736 (see flavour) tasting (säyita) 1778-85 tavern (pänägära) 1670 tax (bali) 2207 teach (deseti) 1836 n. teachable (veneyya) 130 2016 2019 2398 teacher (äcariya) 38 64 181 251 273 551 598 1058 1088 1658 1688 1724 1727 1956 2077 2177 2274 2283 2310 2359 2370 2403 (of the commentary) 1511 1547 1726 2349 teaching (desana) 129 130 223 390 429 517 587 848 851 918 921 1384 f. 2019 2176 (see elegance of teaching) (division of) (-bheda) 601-16 775 ff. (knowledge) (-nana) 2006 2008 tears (awn) 312 1062 1136

348

The Dispeller of Delusion to be developed (bhävetabba) 428 445 587 1602 to be directly known (abhiflfleyya) 443 1531 1602 2566 2596 to be fully understood (pariflfleyya) 428 443 445 1602 2597 to be realised (sacchikätabba) 428 445 1602 to be seen (datthabba) 128 143 f. 210 227 ff. 384*405 ff. tongue (Jivhä) 191 f. 211 403 528 (decad)97 736 (door) 178 180 191 (faculty) (-indriya) 589 f. 594 tongue (the eighteen) (bhäsä) 1948 ff. tongue-consciousness (jiv häv ififiänä) 44 81 365 401 403 678 681 684 819 2050 too quickly (atisighato) 1071 1073 f. 1142 1180 too slowly (atisanikato) 1071 1074 1180 tooth (danta) 279 1062 1103 1130 1133 1154 1157 1162 1184 f. 1783 (stick) {-kattha) 1658 touch (samphassa) 45 1609 torpor (middha) 1826 cf. 2056 2484 (see stiffness) trainer (trainee) (sekha) 204 445 1614 1617 1953 1977 1979 2055 2060 training (sikkhä) 1586 1692 ff. 1905 1934 2505 (the three) 570 1594 1596 1614 1672 1739 2178 2482 2505 training precept/precept of training (sikkhäpada) 320 1586 1591 1620 1692 ff. 1905-37 tranquillisation (patipassaddhi) 154447 2122 tranquillised, to become (passambhati) 1526 f. tranquillity (passaddhi) 1313 1510 1526 1534 (awakening/enlightenment factor) (-bojjhanga) 431 1086 1355-62 1368 1513 1515 1526 (liberation by tranquillisation) 1238 tranquillity (samatha) 439 n. 570 1018 1045 1070 1146 1199 1212 1216 n.

temperament (carita) 1089 1117 1887 2019 2405 (see view; craving) temperature (utu) 28 38 106 f. 331 670 673 786 1136 f. 1139 (change) (-vikära) 1134 (originated) (samutthänika I samutthäna) 119 126 786 788 temporary (tävakälika) 1751 1756 tendency (dhammatd) 1586 termite (upacikä) 123 terrace (bhümi) 1413 tetrad (catukka) 418 433 556 933-71 983 992 998 f. 1003 1006 1469 1505 1723 1740 1995 2033 2150 f. 2297 ff. 2301 2313 2470 text (see Pali) text (ägama) 599 text/textual passage (tanti) 202 648 1058 1062 1150 1386 1554 1838 1950 1968 2082 ff. 2348 thing {dhamma) 277-95 387 507 511 1027 1031 (see state) thinking (sankappa) 555 557 f. 1563 (seerightthinking) (of non-cruelty) (avihimsä-) 554 557 (of non-ill-will) (avyäpäda-) 554 557 (of renunciation) (nekkhamma-) 541 554 557 f. thirst (pipäsä) 9 14 thought (takka) 376 394 1145 1194 thought (yitakka) (see applied thought; thinking) thought-arising (cittuppäda) cf. 178 692 ff. 1314 cf. 1685 1976 thought of immortality (amaravitakka) 2410 Three Jewels (tiratana) 1296 1298 1300 1352 1369 1409 thunderbolt (vajira) 1636 tie, bodily (knot) (käya-gantha) 155 ff. cf. 1020 tie (five kinds) (sanga) 2480 time (the three) (addhan) 1173 time (käla) 430 2123 2200 2204 2208 2214 2219 2227 2234 2243 f. (the three) 877 2131 to be abandoned {pahätabbä) 428 445 1602 2597

Index of Words and Subjects
1311 1363 1407 f. 1425 1430 1626 f. 2360 (pure) (suddha-) 2401 (way of) (-vithi) 1370 (samatta) 2601 transgression (vitikkama) 1638 1672 1909 1919 1922 1927 1931 2056 2082 2421 transmigration (sahkamana) 676 transmigration (transition) (sankanti) cf. 234 741 f. 747 915 922 treasure (ratand) 2181 (see Three Jewels) (of a cakkavatti) 45 2005 2190 tree (rukkha) 1458 f. 1644 ff. (root) 1804 1806 f. 1810 1817 2368 triad (tika) 32 58-63 116 167-74 199 ff. 556 647 659 1994 2313 2430 trial (anussävanä) 1618 true (bhüta) 1044 trunk (khandha) 491 trust (pasada) 994 n. 997 1351 1369 (without) (appasanna) 1674 trustful (pasanna) 1674 truth/true (sacca) 2511 (i.e. the noble truths) chap. IV 361 582 598 617 627 642 ff. 677 922 1205 1577 1711 2074 2094-99 2103 2115 2172 2178 2377 2399 2467 cf. 2597 (definition of) (-paricchedd) 2130 2310 (in conformity with) (-anulomika) 2074 2076 2093 (in the highest sense) (paramattha-) 1519 (section) (-vara) 1962 f. (source in) (-ppabhava) 912 f. (this is) (idam-) 157 turn (vara) 1658 2049 f. (of consciousness) (citta-) 690 2298 Twin Miracle iyamaka-päiihäriya) 1335 udumbaratig 1121 ükä (measure of length) I 356 n.15 1689 f. unaccomplished (unproduced) (anippha/ma) 127 484 1502

349

unarisen (anuppanna) 202 1393 ff. 1397 1406 f. 1432 1434 f. 1456 1465 f. 1834 uncalm (avüpasamd) 1211 f. uncertainty (vicikicchä) 183 987 992 1233 1290-1302 1457 1831 2286 2437 ff. cf. 2481 unconcentrated (asamähita) 1231 undefiled (asankilittha) 533 understand ipajändti) 1227 (see know) understanding (paflflä) chap. XVI 441 544 642 1041 1118 1149 f. 1207 cf. 1226 1310-20 1369 1485 1514 1518 ff. 1523 1587 1615 1625 1709 f. 1714 1739 1834 2350 2586 f. 2602 f. (eye of) (-cakkhu) 569 1126 cf. 2279 (faculty) (-indriyd) 431 579 586 590 1313 f. (group) {-kkhandha) 439 441 570 cf. 1615 (light of) irpajjota) 542 (made by ratiocination) (cintämaya) 1994 2076 (mundane) (lokiya-) 1834 (power) {-bald) 431 (supramundane) (lokuttara-) 1834 2102 2587 (temperament) (-carita) 1117 (weapon of) (sattha) 542 undertake (samädiyati\ samädäya) 1586 1591 1692 1695 f. 2046 undertaking (samädänd) 1924 1932 2211 undesirable (anitthd) 503 521 672 674 688 760 1718 2286 2501 (see disagreeable) (-neutral) (-majjhattd) 688 undetermined (avyäkatd) 177 f. 202 996 999 1004 uneven(ness) (visama) 2448 (behaviour) (-cariyä) 2456 unformed (asahkhatd) 127 251 262 419 425 443 445 1531 (element) (-dhätu) 392 399 403 407 438 unfortunate {durupetd) 1896 f. unhappy destiny (see destiny)

350

The Dispeller of Delusion unsuitable (asappäya) 140 1417 1718 ff. 17701774 1780 unsurpassed (anuttara) 697 1236 2100 unworldly (nirämisa) 1217 1228 1525 2120 up-going {uddhahgama) 336 347 uposatha 2092 2338 f. 2576 (house) (-agora) 1434 1439 2450 upright(ness) (ajjava) 2602 urgency, sense of (samvega) 429 591 887 1369 1429 urine (mutta) 317 1056 f. 1062 1077 1098 1126 f. 1141I356n.31 1142 1168 (sestad) (-chakka) 1062 1148 usabha (measure of length) 1689 f. 1731 usage (vohära) (perfect) (brahma-) 1950 (noble) (ariya-) 1950 useful everywhere (sabbatthaka) 1516 (see generally useful) vacillation (ifljita) 2539 f. valour (sürabhäva) 1486 1488 1490 n. vanity (mada) 2313 2315-27 vehicle (yäna) 1151 n. vein (network of) (dhamani-jäla) 340 1133 verb (äkhyäta) 1947 verbal (yact) (act/action) (-kamma) 573 1563 1916 1930 2046 2155 2378 2422 2434 2514 (bad conduct) (-duccarita) 1572 1575 1638 20912476 view (ditthi) 137 157 427 437 484 626 1457 1563 1593 ff. 1626 2075 (see right view; wrong view) (leading astray in) (-vipatti) 1678 (possessed of) (sampanna) 2138 2147 (purification) (-visuddhi) 2597 n. vile (kucchita) 1028 1056 Vinaya (Discipline) 598 1281 1284 1286 1288 1294 1297 1301 cf. 1576 1594 ff. 1599 ff. 1618 1806 2056 2155 2477 (knows by heart) (-dhara) 1739 2344

unincluded (apariyöpanna) 2026 2566 2570 2572 unit (vara) 115 unity (ekatta) 57 cf. 550 1021 1023 1145 n. unknowing (aflfiäna) 635-43 661 674 2510 unlawful behaviour (adhammacariyä) 2456 unloved, association with (appiyasampayoga) 446 503 ff. unlucky (duggata) 1896 f. unmixed (asambhinna) 381 (asammissa) 1029 f. unpleasing (disagreeable) (amanäpa) 35 36 46 39 cf. 229 unprepared (asahkhdrika) 65 f. 69 72 74 78 unprofitable (akusala) 130 202 372 397 445 484 584 626 628 642 667 724 762 956 1006 1945 1969 f. 1985 f. 2056 f. 2091 2139 2202 2204 f. 2208 2210 f. 2279 2291 2493 (consciousness) (-citta) 104 177 ff. 226 653 983 f. 123 Iff. 1969 (contact) 940 (feeling) (-vedanä) 56-67 77 f. (kamma) 36 37 140 657 659 684 726 876 1447 2012 2058 2194 2209 f. 2252 2434 (resultant) (-vipäka) 42 44 403 410 678 684 688 f. 692 703 824 913 997 1005 1008 (root) (-müla) 255 642 1005 1007 2313 2430 (side) (-pakkha) 2333 (state) (-dhamma) 563 571 671 862 975 984 993 f. 1008 1292 f. 1309 1393 1406 1432 1466 1597 1610 f. 1617 1701 1747 1770 1774 1780 1982 2043 f. 2046 2086 f. (thinking) (sankappa, etc.) 558 2430 2538 (volition) (-cetanä) 559 f. 619 f. 653 656 f. 704 760 2013 2442 unprojected (aparinipphanna) 127 unprompted (asafikhära) 627 unspecified {aniyamita) 1994

Index of Words and Subjects (method) (-pariyäya) 1806 virtue/virtuous conduct (slid) 138 181 183 193 273 431 439 484 569 1058 1259 1346 1591 1615 1620-30 1686 1888 1905 1917 ff. 1925 1931 f. 2080 ff. 2085 2092 2158 2172 2274 f. 2326 2340 2388 f. 2400 f. 2485 2602 (group) (-kkhandha) 439 570 (made by) {-maya) 69 650 ff. 2080 (of) (-vat) 2323 2343 (of the fourfold purity) 273 (purification of) 129 (recollection of) (-anussati) 1343 (talkon)(-*a//iä)129 (which has livelihood as eighth) (äjivatthamaka-)SAl 1632 1638 visible (sanidassana) 223 (triad) 171 visible datum (rüpa) 37 39 81 183 ff. 211213 224 228 f. 235 f. 250 359 365 383 385 391 401 409 416 524 529 652 cf. 670 673 688 696 721 760 827 836 ff. 847 1417 1755 1758 ff. 2028 2033 2035 f. 2042 f. 2056 2334 2494 2501 2507 2538 2598 (base) 208 222 f. 226 828 830 1759 2569 n. (element) 393 403 406 1760 visible form (rüpa) 670 2483 vision (vijjä) 570 visiting/visitor (ägantuka) 1751 1755 void (suMa) 233 266 277-95 306-17 329 f. 347 405 422 435 444 882 f. 893 922 1055 1159 1168 1175 1177 1200 1204 1576 1585 1800 2428 (see empty) void/voidness (suftflata) 418 435 574 882 f. 893 1051 1387 f. 1469 2370 volition (cetana) 5 86 111 f. 151 541 559 f. 562 619 f. 626 649-^0 704 757 760 762 764 776 859 862 902 f. 906 939 1000 1219 1569 f. 1575 1621 f. 1624 1772 1776 1793 1907-11 1925 1927 2013 2057 n. 2079 f. 2193 f. 2197 2264 2266 2287 2431 2436 n. 2442 2474 ff. 2491 volition (saflcetanä) (bodily) (käya-) 657 (mental) 157 (verbal) (vaci-) 658 \o\t(chanda) 1618 vote (saläka) 2155 (taking) (-ggäha) 2145 ff. 2154 vow (vata) 845 2407 2484

351

wakefulness (jägariya) 1587 16991710 waking (jägarita) 1794 walking (goto) 1791 f. 1797 walking (up and down) (cahkama) 1533 1701 1792 cf. 2278 cf. 2347 cf. 2434 wanderer (paribbäjaka) 2082 f. war (trouble) (bhaya) 484 cf. 2220 2224 2230 2241 warmth (unhatta) 1202 f. (see heat) (usumä) 1724 watch (yama) 1702 watch tower (atta) 1803 water element (äpodhätu) 266 f. 272 296 303-22 359 392 398 1134 1136 1138 1157 1168 1203 1742 1784 (body) (-käya) 1034 (essence) (-rasa) 1459 water (udaka) 149 (snake) (-sappa) 146 water (jäti) 299 wave (ümi) 150 waves, in (savlci) 470 f. way (patipada) 423 444 569 573 636 2013 2019 2112 2256 2263 f. (see middle way) (bare) (suddhika-) 1387 (desireless) (appanihita-) 574 1387 1469 (simple) (suddhika-) 574 1469 (void) (suhflatä-) 574 1387 1469 way (upäya) 20 (see means) way of going wrong (four kinds) (agatigamana) 2471 f. weak object (dubbalärammana) 699 wearing (dhärana) 1768-77 weighty (bhäriya) 2149 2151 2153 weighty (garu)

352

The Dispeller of Delusion (ämisäof) 1525 2120 (of beings) (satta-) 1885 (of formations) (sahkhära-) 2273 (of many elements) (bahudhätu-) 392 400 (of various/different elements) (nänädhätu-) 392 400 2273 (states of) (-dhamma) 2003 2526 world apex (lokathüpikä) 430 world sphere (cakkaväla) 1151 656 f. 659 1428 2143 2149 2165 2167 f. 2186 f. 2579 f. world system (lokadhätu) 2163 2165 n. 2178 2186 (ten thousandfold) (dasasahassi-) 1335 2163 f. 2174 2179 f. (two Buddhas in one ?) 2163-85 worldly (gchasita) 2408 f. 2411 2413 2501 2508 2526 (sämisa) \22% worm (kimi) 1125 ff. (maggots) 1777 (32 families) 1125 (80 families) 146 worry (kukkucca) 1289 1830 (see agitation and worry) writing (lekhä) 2067 2071 n. wrong action (micchäkammanta) 560 569 1566 wrong concentration (micchäsamädhi) 569 592 wrong deliverance (micchävimutti) 2544 wrong destiny (agati) 1020 wrong-doing, offence of (dukkata) 163916861691 wrong effort (micchäväyäma) 592 wrong knowledge (micchäfläna) 2544 wrong livelihood (micchä-äjiva) 561 f. 569 1566 1639 1663 1770 wrong mindfulness (micchäsati) 569 2107 wrong pride (micchämänd) 2407 wrong speech (i.e. an offence of) (dubbhäsita) 1686 1691 wrong speech (micchäväcä) 559 569 1566 wrong thinking (micchäsahkappa) 394 540 569

(kamma) 743 (things) (-dhamma) 1619 wheel (cakka) 2005 f. 2338 (of the Law) (dhamma-) 802 1335 2005 f. 2164 (Treasure) (-ratana) 2187 Wheel-Turning Monarch (cakkavattin) 45 46 1423 2082 f. 2143 2187 2190 2204 white (odäta) 1154 (kasina) 2586 widow (vidhavä) 1668 wieldy (kammaniya) 1084 wind (air) (väta) 9 16 118 cf. 149 460 1126 1682 1820 (sickness due to) (vätaroga) 16 cf. 1216 wish(es) (iccha) 446 513 ff. 521 2334 2365-71 wishing tree (kapparukkha) 709 720 2195 with hands held together (afijali) 1411 cf. 1921 wizardry (vijjä) 2407 (see science) woe (see state of) woe (upäyäsa) 446 498 ff. 521 623 cf. 845 884 cf. 886 2496 f. woman (itthi) (Buddha, etc.) 2188 ff. (Treasure) (-ratana) 2190 woman devotee (upäsikä) 1693 f. 1953 2082 2159 (prominent) (mahä-) 1329-33 womb (gabbha) 456 ff. 464 905 (conceived) (seyyaka) 92 94 96 100 456-57 779 787 896 937 951 2195 2573 womb (kucchi) 51 109 f. 452 457 461 2195 (yoni) 460 728 womb, born in a/womb-born (jaläbuja) 453 728 732 734 word (pävacana) 1594 f. 1603 work (kamma) 2066 f. 2069 f. 2506 2525 work (effort) (yoga) 1155 1158 1191 1554 f. 1589 19612411 world (loka) 430 922 1042 f. 1210 1590 1822 2014 2027 2273 2281 2286 2565 2601

Index of Words and Subjects
wrong view/view (micchäditthi) 43 183 540 845 f. 851 868 976*1399 2139 2279 2281 2285 f. 2407 2433 f. 2440 2453 2473 2478 2489 2506 2511 2514 2522 2533 2538 2546 f. 2549 2552 f. 2563 2565 (see self view; no-action view, etc.; view) (assured) (-niyata) 2019 2293 (canker of) (-dsava) 886 f. (clinging) (-upädäna) 844 f. 847 849 ff. 871 (connected with) (sampayutta) 66 78 (dissociated from) (-vippayutta) 66 985 2140 (field of) (-gata) 976 2410 (habit) (-carita) 896 1018 wrongness (micchatta) 628 699 (the eight) 255 (the ten) 2544 yatthi (measure of length) 1689 f. yeiiow(pJto[M)H54 yellow cloth (käsäva) 1681 cf. 1609 yogic (yoga) 1044 yogin 1079 1081 1087 1134 1136 1139 1546 1630 yogin (yogävacara) 1044 1079 1081 1193 (see meditator) yojana (measure of length) 1689 f. 1800 yoke (yoga) 642 zeal (chanda) 205 575 594 1390 1393 1398 ff. 1471 1474 ff. 1480 f. 1483 ff. 1487 1491 ff. 1502 1504 f. 1556 1583 1853 f. 1984 2189 cf. 2264 2294 2329 2406 2433 2471 f. 2501 2538 2553 2560 2586 f. (see natural zeal) (for the Law) (dhamma-) 1399 1485 1487 (road to power) (-iddhipöda) 431

INDEX OF PROPER NAMES
Abhaya(f/u?ra)1307 Abhayagiriväsins 1717 n. Abhidhamma see Index of Words and Subjects Abhidhamma (Pitaka) 2167 2171 Abhidhamma chapter see Abhidhamma Division Abhidhamma description (Abhidhammaniddesa) 23-25 Abhidhamma Division (Abhidhammabhäjanlya) see Table of Contents 168 201 932 1009 1388 1391 1508 1557 1584 1880 Adicca (clan) 2320 Aggivessana 1227 Äjivaka(väda) 430 a 2444 2533 Ala (country) 2224 Äjära2170 Älavakapucchä 2171 Alindakaväsin Mahäphussadeva (thera) ' 1733 Ananda (thera) 444 918 930 949 1603 1605 1739 1953 Ancient Elders (Poränakattherä) 1175 1537 Ancients (Poränä) 598 1032 1448 1998 2538 ancient comment(ary) (Poränatthakathä) 12601 Andhaka 1949-50 Anefijasappäya (sutta) 1225 Anguttara Nikäya 2171 Anguttarika (vi. Ekuttarika) 2348 AMäa-Kondaftfla (thera) 2008 Anuradhapura (city of) 1765 n. 2342 Anuruddha(fterfl) 1739 Ariyavamsa (sutta) 2334 Asälhi (full moon) 1736 Asitäbhü 2337 äsivisüpama (i.e. S iv 172 f.) 143 Assagutta (thera) 1261 Asubhakammika-Tissa (thera) 1249 Ätänätiya (sutta) 2165 Atappa (deity/heaven of the Pure Abodes) 2589 Avici (hell) 12 394 553 2146 2567 2591 n. Aviha (deity/heaven of the Pure Abodes) 2589 BäTüyaDärociriya (f/u?ra) 1739 Bälapandita (sutta) 456 Bhagavat (title of the Buddha) not listed Bhära(su//a) 143 Bhäradväja (clan) 2320 Bhärata (war) 1267 n. 83 2407 Bhätiya (King) 2203 Bhütapäla(rc///u)1681 Blessed One (tädin) 828 f. Bodhisatta 2052 2076 2082 f. 2168 2170 ('s mother) 2052 Bojjhanga Samyutta 10861358 n. 53 Brahma 736 760 802 892 2184 2191 2203 2443 2522 n. (Brahma's retinue) 781 2191 2583 (Court Chaplains) (-purohita) 2583 (Great) 892 2191 2434 2583 (Sahampati) 1734 (world) (-loka) 703 760 870 1440 1843 2174 2191 2252 2522 2590 2596 n. Brahma^ (sutta/suttanta) 2ll\ 2565 Brähmanageha (a probably fictitious town) 2530 Brahmanda Puräna 1267 n. 83 Buddha 2463 2526 Buddhagosa (thera) 2601 f. Cakkapeyyäla2171 Canda (name of a kinnart) 2337 Cätumahäräjika ([deity] of the Four Kings) 46 476 2266 2579 2591 n. (see King) Cetiyapabbata 2342 Ceylon (Tambapanni-dlpa) 1956 2174 2213 (Laflkä-dlpa) 2213 China cloth (Cinapata) 721 Citta (the householder) 1953 Citta (mahamatta) 1680 Cittalapabbata 1216 2220 2402 Cittalatä (grove) 2196 Cokkha (vll.) (brähmana) 2140

Index of proper names
Commentarial Section (Atthakathäkanda) 1860 Conqueror (Jina) 516 648 1336 Coolness (Sltibhävä) (sutta) 1083 1085 Coriyassara (placename) 2226 Cülanidäna (sutta) 1225 Cüiasiva (thera) 2221-24 Cülasudhamma (thera) 2245 Cülasumana (thera) 2402 Cüjatanhäsankhaya (sutta) 1225 Cüjavedalla (sutta) 1225 Dasuttara (suttanta) 2171 Dana 635 Death, King of (Maccuräja) 600 Deity of Limited Glory (Parittasubha) 2585 Deity of Limited Radiance (Parittäbha) 2584 Deity of the Four Kings (Cätummahäräjika) 46 476 2266 2579 2591 n. (see King) Deity of Unlimited Glory (AppamOnasubha) 2585 Deity of Unlimited Radiance (Appamänäbha) 2584 Deity Refulgent with Glory (subhakinha) 2585 Deity Streaming with Radiance (Abhassara)25M Deity who Delights in Creating (Nimmänarati) 2266 2581 2591 n. Deity who Wields Power over Others' Creations (Parnimittavasavattin) 394 2266 2495 2581 2591 n. Description Section (Nikkhepakanda) 20 6371698 2281 Devadatta 451 Dhajagga (sutta) 2165 Dhammadinna (thera) (VJUangaravasin [vll.]) 1958 2403 ff. Dhammarakkhita (thera) (Yonaka-) 1956 Dhammasahgaha 1398 2170 (commentary on) (-atthakathä) 202 493 1991 2065 2300 2318 2364 2574 (schedule) (-mOtikä) 1992

355

Dhammasangani 1 32 160 221 567 573 592 975 f.* 996 1207 1386 1468 1835 1838 1860 1901 f. 1934 1993 n. 1994 it DhammSsoka (King) 41 Dhammika (the layfollower)1953 Dhfitu Samyutta 2276 ff. Dhfltuvibhanga (sutta) 1070 1225 Dibba Monastery (Dibbavihära, vi. Divi-) 1686 n. Digha Nikfiya 1225 2171 2348 256S DIghabhfinaka Abhaya (thera) 413 DIpafikaTa (Buddha) 2007 Discourse (Veyyakarana) 2565 cf. 2602 Dispeller of Delusion (Sammohavinodanf)260lt Dukkhasaccavibhanga 448 Elephant Wall (HatthipäkOra) 1414 Eleven-Membered Section (ekädas'angikavära) 935 (see factor) Enlightened One (Buddha) 43 (recollection of) (-anussati) 1343 1725 (qualities of) (-gum) 1344 Enumeration of the Occurrence of Consciousness (Cittapavattiganand) 690 Exposition(s) (Pakarana) (method of) (-naya) 1021 n. Fair-seeing Deity (Sudassm) 2589 Fair-to-See (Sudassd) (deva) 2589 Fully Enlightened One (Sammäsambuddhd) 1 64 169 237 425 584 2082 Galambatittha (vihära) 1736 f. Ganges, Great (mahägahgä) 14 (wave) 2477 General of the Norm (dhammasenOpati) 253 Girigämakanna 2245 Gopaka Slvali 705 Gotama2384 GotamI 1595 1597 Great Monastery (Mahavihara) 1409 2222 f. 2233 2242 2602

356

The Dispeller of Delusion
Kotalaväpigäma 2207 Kupavena (vihära) 1418 n. Kusinära 2173 Kütakanna (King) 2245-48 Kutelitissa-mahävihära 1416 Lanka see Ceylon Last Fifty (Uparipannäsa) 1228 1571 Linga Puräna 1267 n. 83 Lord of Sages (Muninda) 584 Mägadhal949f. Mägandhiya (sutta) 1225 Mahäcattälisaka (sutta) 1570 Mahädatta (thera) 2402 Mahädeva (Malayaväsin) (thera) 1061 Mahädhammarakkhita (thera) 413 Mahähatthipadopama (sutta) 1070 Mahäkaccäyana (thera) 1953 Mahäkassapa (thera) 1274 1739 1953 2167 Mahäkotthita (thera) 1953 Mahämäyä (Queen) 1336 Mahämitta (thera) 1329 Mahämoggalläna (thera) 758 1739 1953 (see Moggalläna) Mahänäga (thera) 1735 1737 2402-05 Mahänidäna (suttanta) 937 949 1225 Mahäniddesa 2366 2368 Mahäpaccari2221 n. Mahäphussa(deva) (thera) 1733 Mahärähuloväda (sutta) 1070 Mahäroruva (niraya) 2591 n. Mahäsaläyatana (sutta) 1563 Mahäsammata (King) 41 1336 Mahäsatipatthäna (suttanta) 1034 1070 1225 Mahäslhanäda (sutta) 2001 Mahäsona 2219-33 Mahäsudassana (King) 41 Mahätanhäsankhaya (sutta) 1225 Mahätäpana (niraya) 2591 n. Mahätissa (thera) I 357 n. 44 1734 Mahätittha (pattana) 2230 Mahävagga (of the Samyutta) 1086 1622 Mahävedalla (sutta) 1225 Mahimsaka realm 11 Mahinda (wave) 2477

Great Shrine (Mahäcetiya) 1409 ff. 1416 1426 1765 2149 2174 2222 f. 2233 2242 Great Wisdom (Tree) (Mahäbodhi) 1409 1416 2233 2242 (see Wisdom Tree) (seat) (-pallanka) 2007 Greek (Yonaka) 1950 1956 Hankanakaväsin 2402 Higher Consciousness (Adhicitta) (sutta) 1083 f. Himalayas (Himavat) 1412 Indra (Inda) 1636 (see lord) Indriyabhävanä (sutta) 2171 Isäna (deva) 2266 n. Isidatta (thera) 2221-28 Island King (Diparäjan) 2213 Jain see Nigantha Jajjara (river) 2224 Jambukhädaka (sutta) 2521 Jambukola (pattana) 1956 2221 Jätaka (preacher of) (-bhänaka) 2380 Jivaka (the doctor) 2152 Kaccäyana (thera) 2281 Kälaka-gäma 2230-31 Kälakanjika(Ayura) 14 1325 Kälasutta (niraya) 2591 n. Kälavalli-mandapa-väsin Mahänäga (thera) 1735 1737 Kalyäni 1426 Kanädabhakkhu 430 n. Kapila 430 n. Kassakalena (Farmer's Grove) 1329 f. Kassapa see Mahäkassapa (former Buddha) 2171 f. 2338 (clan) (-gotta) 2320 Kassapa Samyutta 1406 Kathävatthu* 1577 Käyagatäsati (sutta) 1070 Khajjamya discourse (pariyäya) 143 Khandhaka 1724 2172 Khujjuttarä (upäsikä) 1953 Kiräta 1950 Kondaflfla (clan) (-gotta) 2320 Kosala (King of) 2052

Index of proper names
MajjhimaNikäya 1225 2171 2348 2350 Mälaka (vi. Malaya) 2339 Mälärama (vihära) 2245 Mandaläräma2230f. Mandhätu 2495 Mära802 Master {Satthar) 1 33 168 242 574 1011 1014 1502 1564 1594 f. 1603 2098 2146 2155 2174 2189 2338 24812504 2602 (greatness of) (-mahata) 1324 1335 (teacher) 2160 Materiality Section (Rüpakanda) 32 160 221 2021 2028 Mätikä 2172 (see schedule) Mätula(r/i67-a)1958 middle country (Majjhimadesa) 39 Milinda (i.e. King Menander) 2178 ff. Missaka (grove) 2196 Mitta 635 Mittavindaka 2338 Moggalläna (thera) 1337 2278 (see Mahämoggalläna) Moggaliputta-Tissa (thera) 2167 Mogharäja (thera) 1490 Moraparitta2165 Most Fruitful (Deity) (Vehapphala) 2569 n. 2589 f. 2596 n. Mülapariyäya (sutta) 2171 Multiple Section (bahuvidhavära) 170 174 Näga (mahävihära) 2054 Nägadipa 2174 2213 2221 2271 Nägasena (r/iera) 1957 2178-85 Nanda 1747 Nandaka (grove) 2196 Naräyana (thunderbolt) 2000 n. Nigantha 452 2442 2533 Nikäya 1061 (see Collection) Nihkaponna 2402 Not-Junior (Deity) (Akanittha) 2589 2596 n. Oghatarana (sutta) 2171 Okkäka (King) 1336 Otta 1950 Paccari2221 n.

357

Pacceka-Buddha 1327 1739 1846 2273 2463 (-hood) (-bodhi) 2047 Paceh(vU.)(W/u2ra)2196 Pajäpati (deva) 2266 n. 2443 Pakativädin 435 610 (see Samkhya) Parivära2172 Parivimamsana (sutta) 647 1225 Pätaliputta (city) 2530 Pätimokkha 652 1586 1591 1620-25 2085 2146 f. 2172 (see restraint) Patisambhidä(magga) 271 652 1034 ' 1036 1062 1621 1623 n. 1821 (method) (-naya) 1512 2251 Patthäna 800 2171 (discourse) (-kathä) 798 Phärusaka (grove) 2196 Phussa 478 Pitaka 1958 2171 f. 2602 Pitu (King) 2229 n. 2242 Piyanga cell 1409 (vll.) Punna Mantäniputta (thera) 1739 Puränas 1267 n. 83 Pure Abode (Suddhäväsa) 2569 n. 2590 2596 Questionnaire (paflhäpucchaka) (see Table of Contents) 261

RähuXa (thera) 1336 1739 Räjagaha (city) 2530 Räjäyatanacetiya 2174 Ramayana 1267 n. 83 Ratanaparittä 2165 Ratthapäla (thera) 1487 Ratthapäla (sutta) 1225 Razor Hall (Khuragga) 1958 Revata (thera) 1269 n. 108 1739 Rohana (region in Ceylon) 2054 2477 Roruva(mroya)2591 n. Rukkhupama (sutta) 1225 Sabbäsava($K/to)2514 Sabhiyapucchä2171 Sakka (deva) 1734 2162 2184 2191 2220-21 Sakkapanha (suttanta) 1225 Sämä (Queen) 2203 Samaväyavädin 435 (see Vaisesika)

46

358

The Dispeller of Delusion

Sambhüta (thera) 1489 Samkhya 430 n. 435 n. (1149-50) 610 Sammäditthi (sutta) 467 Samyutta (Nikäya) 1086 1225 1622 2171 Samyuttaka 2001 2348 (reciter) (-bhänaka) 2221 Sangharakkhita 1198 n. Sanghäta (niraya) 2591 n. Safijiva (niraya) 2591 n. Sankha (cakkavattin) 1849 Sarabhanga 242 n. Säriputta (thera) 252 f. 1337 1739 1953 2278 Satipatthäna (sutta) 1225 Saviour (nätha) 1 2601 Section of Double Succession 170 173 Section on Thought Arisings (Citt'uppädakanda) 567 975 f. 996 1207 1835 1838 1901 f. 1934 1969 Slhanäda (sutta) 2003 Sineru (mountain) 644 1690 f. 2184 2579 Sinhalese (Sihala) (see Ceylon) (Island of the) (-dipa) 1729 1765 n. Sita 1267 n. 83 2407 Skanda Puräna 1267 n. 83 Skill in the Enlightenment Factors (Bojjhahgakosalla) (sutta) 1083 1086 Somadatta451 Somära cloth (Somärapata) 721 Sona (thera) 1313 1488 2196 (see Mahäsona) Sonagiri (mountain) 2196 Southern land (dakkhinäpatha) 217 Subhadda 1576 Subsequent Lesser Division (Uttaracülabhäjaniya) 1502 1505 Suddhodana (King) 1336 Sudhamma (sämanera) 1958 Summa (thera) 1686 Summary Section (Sangahavära) 1962 Sunakhaväjika 2196 n. Sutta Pitaka 2167 2171 Suttanta Division (Suttantabhäjaniya) 2 25 580 932 939 950 1001 1009 1391 1508 1557 1584 1880 1904 (see Table of Contents)

'Taking by the hand* question (hatthagahitapahha)Att\\95 Talangaväsin (vi.) 2403 Tälapitthika (vihära) 705 Tamil 1949 f. Täpana (niraya) 2591 n. Tathagata 1997 mostly not listed (power) (-bala) 1997-2001 2009-19 2138-2311 (sleeping position) (seyya) 1703 1707 Tävatimsa 46 2266 2579 Thüpärama 2233 2242 Timbarüsaka 2478 Tipitaka 1061 2170 (of the) (tepitaka) 1435 2482 (knows by heart) (-dhara) 1975 2241 2345 Tipitaka Cüla-Abhaya (Cüla-) (thera) 42 64 2277 Tipitaka-Cülanäga (thera) 64 1686 2246 f. Tissa 478 1249 1636 2373 (Brähmanatissacora) 2220 f. 2227 2229 2235 (King)2342 (mahävihära) 2220 (Punabbasukutumbikaputta) 1956 (Reservoir) 2224 Tissabhüti (thera) 2231 f. Tissadatta (thera) 1307 1948 1957 1959 Tusita 2007 2266 2581 2591 n. Twelve-Membered Section (dvädas'ahgikavära) 935 Uccatalangaväsin (vll.) 2402 f. Uddaka2170 Upäli (thera) 1286 1739 2145 2155 2159 (the householder) 1953 Uppalaväpi 2245 Uttarakuru 92 2294 Uttara (vihära) 1502 n. Vaisesika430 n. 435 n. (1149-50) Vakkali(f/iera)1313 Valanjanaka (hall) 2233

Index of proper
Välika(W/u2ra)1956 Vanaväsin Mahätissa {thera) 1734 Varuna {deva) 2266 n. Väsudeva217 Vattabbaka-nigrodha {thera) 2235-42 Vedanä Samyutta 1225 Veläma2084 Venu (river) 2224 Vessantara 2084 Vibhajjavädin 598 Vibhanga (sutta) 647 Vibhangal2 2602 (Ubhato-) 2172 Vinaya (commentary) 1642 1803 Vinaya (Pitaka) 2167 2172 Vipassin (former Buddha) 1997 Visäkha439 621 Visäkhä452 Visuddhimagga 273 275 1058 1218 1623 1785 1809 1901 2307 Wisdom Seat (bodhipallahka) 2168 2173 f. Wisdom Seat house (äsanaghara) 2153 Wisdom Site (bodhimanda) 1948 Wisdom Tree (Bodki) 1350 1434 1717 f. 1724 f. 1736 2153 2196 2343 world interspace hell (lokantarikaniraya) 11 (lokantara) 464 Yäma (devas) 2266 2580 f. 2591 n. Yamaka (suttd) 143 Yasa(//iera)2167

PALI-ENGLISH GLOSSARY OF SOME SUBJECTS AND TECHNICAL TERMS
This Glossary includes (a) some technical terms; (b) meanings and words not in the Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary (PED) — these are indicated with an asterisk; (c) some less usual words. References are given for (b) and (c). akathankathin without doubt 1832 Akanittha Not-Junior (Deity) akiriyaditthi moral-inefficiency-ofaction view; no-action view akusala unprofitable akkosa(ka) abuse (abusive) akhanti impatience 2492 agati wrong destiny agatigamana way of going wrong •agaru aloe wood 1057 agäravatä disrespect agga acme; summit agha vacant 354 n. ahga factor; member angaria blemish aftgula finger-breadth acittikära lack of deference 2461 acelaka naked ascetic •accädhäya overlapping 1708 accäsarä exaggeration 2422 accuti deathlessness accharas nymph ajjava upright(ness) ajjhatta internal; one's own ajjhattika internal; personal ajjhäsaya inclination ajjhupekkhati to look on with equanimity ajjhupekkhan(at)ä looking on with equanimity ajjhosäna claiming 2538 •aficita proceed 2258 n. anjali with hands held together afinamafifia (paccaya) mutuality (condition) afifiä final knowledge anfiäna unknowing afifiätävin final knower atta watch tower atthaka octad atthakathä commentary atthahgika eightfold •atthapanä disposing; arranging 2371"72 2416 atthäna impossible atthärasaka octodecad atthi bone addhayoga half yoke arm (1) atom; (2) slight andaja egg-born; born in an egg atikkanta "exceeds" 1837 *atikhina blunt 2273 n. aticchatäVatticchatäyatricchatä excessive wishing atimanfiati to be over-proud 2396 atimäna haughtiness atisanikato too slowly atisighato too quickly atita past attaparibhava self-despising 2386 attan self attabhäva (1) person (i.e. body); (2) personality attavanflä self-contempt 2386 attufifiä self-depreciation 2386 attha (1) benefit; (2) meaning atthangata subsided atthacariyatä helpfulness atthavannanä comment on the meaning atthasiddhi good (accomplishment of benefit) atthi (paccaya) presence (condition) adukkhamasukkha neither-painful-norpleasant adosa non-hate addhan extent; time addhäna period adhikära service •adhikicca concerned with 651 n. adhikusala higher profitable •adhigaccha owing to 2079 2080 adhigama attainment

Pali-English Glossary
adhicitta higher consciousness adhiccasamuppannika fortuitous originist adhinhahati to resolve adhitthäna (1) directing 1475; (2) resolution adhititthati to ensure 914 adhipaftfiä higher understanding adhipati (paccaya) predominance (condition) adhimatta dominant 1742 adhimäna overestimation adhimuccana intent upon 2300 adhimuficati to suffuse adhimutta resolved adhimokkha determination adhivacana notional adhisfla higher virtue adhogama down-going 337 anajjava(tä) indirecmess anannätafifiassämltindriya (faculty of) I shall come to know finally the unknown •anatthitakiriyatä unfinishedness in action 2329 anatta no-self (non-self) anaddä/-äyanä/-äyitatta disregard, etc. 2461 ananuyoga non-devotion 2330 anantara (paccaya) proximity (condition) anabhippasäda distrust 2462 anabhirati dissatisfaction 2360 anabhiramanä being dissatisfied 2360 anariyavohära ignoble usage *anavakärim katvä without differentiating 2553 n. 2562 n. anavajja blameless anavajjatä indirectness 2425 anavafifiatti not being despised 2413 *anavaftftata not despised 2324 anäkinna not beset 1800 anägata future anägämin Non-Retumer anäcära improper conduct anätha(sälä) (refuge for the) helpless anädariya (1) disrespect 2359; (2) inconsiderateness 2461 anälaya non-adherence 532 f.

361

anävikamma veiling 2422 anicca impermanent, impermanence •anifija unperturbed 655 anittha disagreeable; undesirable anidassana invisible •anipphanna (1) unaccomplished 484 1502; (2) unproduced 127 animitta signless aniyamita unspecified anukampä sympathy; compassion anuggaha compassion •anuftftäta not disdained 2324 n. anuttara unsurpassed anuttänlkamma obscuring 2422 anuddaya(tä) fellow feeling anupanidhäya without comparison 2546 f. anupassanä contemplation anupädinna not clung to anupädinnaka not grasped at anupubba following the order; successive anuppanna unarisen anuppabandhanä continual linking up, anchoring 2416 anuppiyabhanitä ingratiating chatter 2377 anubodha discovery, wakening 430 642 anumodanä benediction anuloma (1) forwards, in forward order, (2) conformity anusandhi sequence of subject matter anusaya inherent tendency anusava hearsay anusamsandanä continual affliction 2416 anusävana persuasion anuseti to inhere 1540 anussati recollection anussävanä trial anünädhika neither less nor more anüpärambha/-anä7-itatta condemnation, etc. 2465 anokappanä unrelying 2462 anollnavutti unreluctance 1401 anta (1) bowels (entrails); (2) extreme antaguna entrails antaradhäna disappearance antavat (possessed of an) end

362

The Dispeller of Delusion
abhififtä direct knowledge; supernormal achievement abhififteyya to be directly known abhinipäta impact 1218 abhinivesa belief (misinterpreting/ adherence) •abhinivesa laying to heart 551 n. abhinihära resolution abhisamyühati to sum up 1479 •abhisamharati to bring together 18 abhisahkhata (kamma-)formed abhisankhära formation; formative process abhisamaya achievement abhisambodhi enlightenment abhiseka anointing amacca counsellor amata (1) deathless(ness); (2) ambrosia amaddava(tä) unsoftness 2426 amanäpa unpleasing (disagreeable) amanasikära not keeping in mind amaravitakka thought of immortality amudutä unsoftness 2331 amoha non-delusion •ambana a measure of capacity 2578 n. •ayatana extending 212 216 •ayita gone 378 n. 379 ayya noble one ara spoke •araniya to be served 1944 n. arati boredom arahat acomplished; Arahat ariya noble ariipa(bhava) immaterial (existence) arüpävacara immaterial sphere arüpin immaterial *aroga intact 2488 alobha non-greed •avakärim karitvä by differentiating 2560 2562 n. avakäsa ability 2138 •avacäreti extend 653 avaflflä contempt 2465 avannahäritä tale-bearing 2382 •avatthä occasion 920 avadafifiutä illiberality 2463 avayava constituent •avarodha inclusion 135 138

anna food anvaye fiana inferential knowledge anvävattanä continued advertence 2467 apacaya dispersal apatipatti omission •apatthata unfamed 2323 ?*apathamäna getting off its track 1037 (Ee has apatamäna) aparanta future (time) aparabhäga later stage apararatta (after the) night *aparinipphanna unprojected 127 apariyäpanna unincluded apalokana proposal of a resolution 2146 apäya (1) state of woe (loss); (2) detriment 2086-87 apiläpana non-superficiality apufifia demerit apubbam acarimam simultaneously appaccakkhakamma non-clarification 642 appaccaya dissatisfaction 2530 appativedha non-penetration apatinissagga non-re linquishment 2418 appatissavatä disobedience 2359 2461 appanihita desireless appatissa rebellious 2503 appanä absorption •appanä concluding, conclusion 993 2018 appamaftfia boundless state appamäna measureless (boundless) appamäda diligence appavatta non-process 533 appavatti non-occurrence appicchatä fewness of wishes appiya unloved appeti to fix appita removed abbuda (second stage) foetus abbokinna consecutive 2039 •abbhanga unguent 2382 abyäpajja free from distress 1886 1894 1895 abbhokäsa(väsa) (living) in the open abhikkanta moving forward abhijjhä covetousness

Pali-English Glossary
avigata (paccaya) non-disappearance (condition) avijjä ignorance •avisesa non-specific (Samkhya term) I 150 n. 11 avihimsä non-cruelty avlci steady avitikamma non-transgression avüpasama uncalm avera free from enmity 1886 1894-95 avyäkata (1) indeterminate; (2) undetermined avyäpäda non-ill-will avyäpära(naya) (method of) inactivity; inactive *avyävata uninvolved 1528 *asa (permanently) existent 2549 n. asakkaccakiriyatä carelessness in action 2329 asankilittha undefiled asankhata unformed *asankhära unprompted *asankhärika unprepared asanna(-in) non-percipient asaddhamma bad state asani lightning asantutthitä discontent 2460 cf. 2530 asappäya unsuitable asabhägavutti rude behaviour 2359 asamähita unconcentrated asamugghätita non-abolition asamudäcära non-frequenting asampatta non-contiguous asambhinna unmixed asammissa unmixed asammosa non-disappearance asammoha non-delusion asalllna tireless 1524 asllya unconcern 2461 asucikapallaka chamber pot? 2247 n. 2248 asubha foul asura demon asekha non-trainer asmimäna the pride that says 'I am* assaddhiya faithlessness assäda enjoyment assäsa (1) inhalation, respiration; (2) reward

363

•ahamkara I-making (Samkhya term) l i 5 0 n . 11 ahetuka root-causeless (with no/ without root-cause) ahetukaditthi no-cause view äkara mine äkära act(ion); mode; aspect (form); quality äkäravikära mode of alteration (alteration of mode) äkäsa space äkäsänancäyatana sphere of boundless consciousness äkincaftfläyatana sphere of nothingness äkhyäta verb ägantuka adventitious; visiting ägama text ägamana approach äghäta(vatthu) (base for) irritation äcaya accumulation äcayagämin leading to accumulation äcariya teacher •äcäma rice-scum 313 äcära proper conduct äcikkhati to say 1836 äjiva(ka) livelihood *ätaka a kind of metal 298 änäpäna respiration ätapa sun ätäpa ardour ädäya creed ädäsa mirror ädi beginning ädikammika beginner ädinava danger *ädhäraka parcel 2232 ädhipacca predominance änantariya (of) immediate effect änamanä bending forwards 2362 änisamsa benefit änuttariya Incomparable äneftja imperturbable •äpanika from a shop 2368 n. äpatti offence äpas water äpätha focus *äpädana accomplishment 483 n. äbhä radiance

364

The Dispeller of Delusion
indakhUa boundary post indaggi fire of heaven indriya faculty iriyäpatha posture; deportment isi sage issara creator; Lord *issaravata arrogance 1640 n. issä envy ukkattha superior ukkanthitä discontent 2360 ukkäcanä suggesting 2375-76 ukkhepanä snubbing 2381 uggahakosalla skill in learning uggahanimitta acquired sign uggahasandhi link-up of the lesson uccära evacuating uccheda annihilation uju(ka) erect 1819 ujucittatä mental rigidity 2331 2426 unna despising 2465 •uftnata disdained 2324 •uttanda granary 2370 unha heat utu climate; season; temperature •uttarana dipping 2056 uttarimanussadhamma higher than human state uttänikaroti to clarify 1836 uttinna passed over 1831 uträsa terror 2436 n. udaya(bbhaya) rise (and fall) udäna paean udäslnatä indifference •udähariyati to be uttered 211 uddesa (1) synopsis; (2) recital; (3) indication 10 1836 uddharigama up-going uddhacca agitation •uddharati (1) to assume 1542 1547; (2) to extract 1635 unnahanä persuading 2374 upakkilesa imperfection •upakuttha great pox 845 upacära (1) access; (2) metaphorical use; (3) range; haunts upajjhäya preceptor upatthäna (1) establishment (appearance); (2) service; (3) appearance

äbhujati to fold (the legs) äbhoga concern; inclination ämäsaya receptacle for undigested food arnisa (1) material; (2) worldly needs äya origin *äya improvement 2086-87 äyatana base •äyati to extend over 213 äyu life(-span) äyühana [kamma] accumulation •äraküta brass 298 arakkha guarding 2538 ärambhadhätu initiating element ärammana object aruppa immaterial (existence) arohana growth 2326 älapanä talking at 2373 älaya longing 2428 älasya/alasyäyanä/älasyäyitatta idleness, etc. 2361 *aloka shining 1829 äloka light älokita looking towards ävajjana adverting/advertence ävattanä interruption (advertence) ävatteti to interrupt (to cause to advert) ävarana obstruction ävenika separate äsana (1) sitting position; (2) altar; (3) seat äsanaghara Wisdom Seat house äsanasälä sitting hall äsanna near äsaya habitat; scope *äsarati to persist 2422 äsava (1) canker; (2) intoxicant äsevanä cultivation; repetition aharati to quote ähära nutriment icchä wish(es) injita vacillation ittha agreeable; desirable itaritara any 2334 itthindriya femininity faculty idapaccayatä specific conditionality iddhi miraculous power; success iddhipäda base of success inda Lord; Indra

Pali-English Glossary
*upattha sexual organ 1150 n. 11 upatthambheti sustain upadhi ewential(s) of existence; substratum upanayhanaV-itatta bearing enmity 2416 upanäha enmity upanidhäya with comparison 2546 2548 f. upanissaya decisive support; potentiality upapatti/uppatti rebirth (process) upaparikkhati to enquire 1220 upapäta rebirth upamä simile upayoga accusative upalakkhanä characterising I 356 n. upaladdhi belief upavicarati to think 2507 upasamharati to bring to bear (apply); provide upasamhära provision 2051-54 upasagga prefix upasama pacification upasamänussati (recollection of) peace upasampadä (1) acquisition 1482; (2) admission (to the Order) upädäna clinging •upädäna-kärana material cause 1150 n. 12 upädäniya to be clung to upädäya (1) through clinging; (2) derived upädärüpa derived materiality upädinna clung to upädinnaka grasped at; organised upäya means; way upäyäsa woe (despair) (misery) upärambha/-anä censoriousness, etc. 2465 upäsaka lay devotee upäsikä woman devotee upekkhä equanimity; indifferent *uppatipätiyä out of order 1964 1968 uppatti arising; rebirth-process uppanna arisen *uppalakaväta lotus wind 343 uppäda arising uppädin due to arise ubhatovaddhaka (-itaka) succession ummattaka madman ullapanä talking up 2373 usmiray ussada prominence/prominent

365
double

ekagga(tä) one-pointed(ness) ekacciyam in specific cases 1639 n. ekacce some ekatä identity ekatta(naya) (1) (method of) identity; (2) same; (3) singleness; unity ekabfjin one with a single seed 2162 ekavacana single ekavokära(bhava) one-constituent (existence) ekasesa comprehensively eke some ekodibhäva singleness etthi seeking 2383 esanä search(ing) okäsa (1) location (place); (2) opportunity okkanti descent ogha flood ojas nutritive essence ottappa shame odhiso (according to) limitation opapätika apparitional/apparitionally born opamma simile opäna solace (well) 1680 •obhagga looped 1122 obhäsa (1) light; radiance; (2) indication 2379 •obhujati to coil up 291 omafifianä/omafiftitatta taking pride in humility, etc. 2386 •omatta subordinate 1742 omäna pride of humility orimatira hither bank ollnavuttitä inertia of habit 2329 olanka gross •osäreti to drown 2162 n. •ohanati to engulf 642 n. ohilanä/ohllitatta self-detesting, etc. 2386

366

The Dispeller of Delusion
kämabhava sense existence (sensesphere; sense-desire) kama sukhallika sensual pleasure kämävacara sense-sphere käya body; bodily *käyadutthulla bodily inertia käyasakkhin personal example käraka maker karana (1) cause; reason; (2) instrument känififla compassion 1896 kälatime kalakiriyä dying •kälatthamba time pillar (sun-dial?) 1680 käsäva discoloured; yellow cloth kicca function kicchati to get troubled 1832 kificana owning kimi(kula) worm(s) (family of) kiriyä/kriyä (1) functional; (2) action kilesa defilement kukkucca worry kucchi womb kucchita vile •kucchivedikä inner railing 1413 (MA iii 245 reads: tucchivedikä0) kufija glen 1808 kutumbika landowner •kuppita excited 324 326 kummagga(sevanä) (cultivation of the) wrong path 2468 kula clan kusala profitable; skilled kuslta indolent kuhanäTkuhäyanä/kuhitatta scheming, etc. keci some kelanä pranking 2358 kesa head-hair kottha bowels *ko'ttha shoulderblade 1110 1112 kotthäsa part; portion kodha anger kolankola one who goes from clan to clan 2162 kolaputtiya being the son of a good family 2384 kosajja idleness

*ka water 1808 kakkaratä roughness 2423 kakkariya rough state 2423 kakkhaliya hardness 2331 2426 kankhä doubt •kaccha appointment 1180 *kacchakaranda (vl.) water bottle 1735 •kanduyati to become itchy 1130 kanhadark •katakaatypeofseedllll 1113 katikä agreement kathahkathä doubt 1832 kathävatthu base for discourse 1795 kandara torrent bed 1808 •kandarä glen 2220 n. kapimiddha ape's drowsing kappa aeon kapparukkha wishing tree kappiya allowed kabalinkärähära material nutriment kabba ballad 2407 kama order kamma (1) kamma; (2) act (i.e. of Vinaya); (3) work *kammakärana torture 448 kammatthäna meditation object kammaniya wieldy kammapatha course of action kammaväcä announcement of the act kammassakatä ownership of kamma kammäyatana sphere of work karajakäya physical body karana instrumental •karanasampatti mastery of syntax 2602 karisa dung (excrement) karunä compassion kalala embryonic stage (first) kalaha fighting 2538 kaläpa group kalyäna good kalyänamitta good friend •kasäva (1) acid 2273 n.; (2) astringent 2452 käma sense-desire kämaguna cords of sense-desire kämacchanda lust

Pali-English Glossary
kosalla skill kha space khana moment khanda breaking khanti (1) patience; (2) acceptance khandha (1) aggregate; (2) bundle; (3) group; (4) instalment; (5) mass; (6) trunk khaya destruction •kharigata rough 269 khiddäpadosika debauched by amusement khipanä ridicule 2381 khinäsava (one who has) destroyed the cankers Khuragga Razor Hall khetta field gananä counting 2067 2071 •ganthika hypocrite ? 2346 n. ganthitthäna difficulty •gandüsä mouthful 1735-37 gati destiny gatikotika the extremity of the aeon ? 22i4 gantha (1) tie (knot); (2) book gandha odour (smell) gandhabba musician •gandhayati to be smelt 211 gabbha (1) embryo; (2) womb gabbhapariharana gestation gabbhavipatti miscarriage gambhira profound/profundity garahanä reproaching 2381 garukamma weighty kamma garubhanda heavy goods •galavätaka base/nape of the neck 285 291 1093n. 1116 gavesanä searching for 2383 •gavetthi seeking for 2383 gäha demon gäha taking giddhikata7-tta greediness 2358 giläna(sälä) sick(room); sick man *guna modality 1149 n. 10 gumba clump 1804 1811 guhanä hiding 2422 guhäcave 1804 1809 gehasita worldly gocara domain; resort gotta clan gotrabhQ change of lineage gorasa product of the cow ghana compactness)

367

cakkavattin Wheel-Turning Monarch *cakkhati to relish 211 385 582 cakkaväla world sphere cakkhu eye cankama walking up and down cankama(na) ambulatory catukka tetrad caturatl cleverness 2355 catta given up 1827-28 catuvokära(bhava) four-constituent (existence) *capalaka a kind of metal 298 camma inner skin carana (1) conduct; (2) foot carita (1) temperament; (2) conduct cariyä habit cavati to pass away cäga generosity; giving up cätukamyatä flattery •cäpalya vanity 2357-58 •cäraka prison 141 422 citta consciousness; mind cittasankhära mental formation cittuppada thought arising (consciousness) cintana reflection cintä ratiocination civara robe cuti death (passing) cülasotäpanna Lesser Stream-Enterer cetasmind cetanä volition cetasika (1) conscious concomitant; (2) mental cetiya shrine cetokhila barren waste cetopariya penetration of others* minds cetovimutti mind deliverance codaka reproof chakkasestad chatthäyatana sixth base chanda (1) zeal; (2) vote chambhitatta quaking 2436

368
chavi outer skin/cuticle chädanä covering 2422 chäyä shadow

The Dispeller of Delusion
tävakälika temporary tävatva just so much *ti-anukatriadI150n. 11 tika triad tikkha keen (quick-witted) tinna passed beyond 1831 titthakara ford-maker titthiya sectarian (ford-maker) tintina/tmtinäyanä7tintinäyitattam possessiveness, etc. 2356 tiracchäna animal tiracchänakathä low talk tiratana Three Jewels tiriyam around 1885 1891 •turi shuttle I 150 n. 12 tuvamtuva insolence 2538 tejas fire thaddhatta hardness thambha obduracy thambhitatta (1) supportedness 335; (2) stiffened 2331 thlna stiffness *thullakumän old maid 1668 thöpa monument thula course thera elder theravamsa lineage of the elders •dakasltalika edible white water-lily 1123 dakkhinä offering datthabba to be seen dandha slow *darita cleft 1808 dalhi athletics dalhikamma making firm 2416 dasakadecad dassana seeing däna giving (gift) däyajja heritage ditthi (wrong) view dibbacakkha divine eye dibbati sport with/shine 2261 dibbasota divine ear disä direction dipa (1) lamp; (2) continent; island dukadyad dukkata wrong-doing dukkha pain(ful); suffering

jahghapesanika going on errands on foot •jappeti to work up 2384-86 jarä (1) old age; (2) fever jaläbuja (bom in a) womb/womb-born *jallaka water 149 javana impulsion jägarita waking jäti (1) birth; (2) kind; (3) race; (4) water (of gems) Jina Conqueror jimhatä twistedness 2425 jiva soul jivita life •juttha cultivated 583 n. fiatti enactment fiäna knowledge näyapativedha penetration of the right path thapanä posing; placing 2372 2416 thäna (1) place; (2) stance; (3) (the) possible; (4) reason •thänantara post 1486-90 2210 224950 2266 thiti (thäna) (1) basis; (2) presence; (3) maintenance thitibhägini (partaking of) stationariness takka (1) thought; (2) reasoning tanhä craving tadahga substitution of/by opposite qualities tadärammana registration •tanana range 212 216 tanti text/textual passage tandi/tandiyanä/tandimanatä languor, etc. tapas mortification tama darkness •tammattä = tanmäträ 1150 n. 11 tädin Blessed One täpasa ascetic

Pali-English Glossary
duggata unlucky duccarita bad conduct dubbalärammana weak object dubbhäsita (offence of) wrong speech dubbhikkhä famine durabhiyäna hard to leave behind 929 n. durabhisambhava hard to endure 1812 durupeta unfortunate dussllya misconduct dura far •düsiloha a kind of metal 298 deva (1) deity; (2) divine devatä deity devaputta (son of) heaven devorohana descended (i.e. descent) from the gods •desana confession 2530 desana teaching (discourse) desanäviläsa elegance in teaching deseti to teach domanassa grief (mental pain) dovacassatä bad-spokenness dosa (1) hate; (2) humour; (3) blemish dvädasangikavära Twelve-Membered Section dvära door dvärapälaka doorkeeper *dvi-anuka dyad 435 dhamani vein •dhamani rat snake 291 dhamma (1) Law; (2) state; (3) mental datum, mental object; (4) thing dhammakkhandha (1) item of dhamma; (2) aggregate(s) of state(s) dhammacakka wheel of the Law dhammachanda zeal for the Law dhammatthitatä relationship of states dhammatä nature; rule; tendency dhammavicaya investigation of states dhammäsana preaching seat dhätu (1) element; sort; (2) relic dhärana wearing dhutanga ascetic practice dhura (1) duty 2329; (2) charge 241819 •dhüpana seasoning 1516 nakkhatta festival; constellation natthi-paccaya absence condition

369

napumsaka sexless nay a (1) method; (2) indication; (3) conclusion •nayana leading on 212 216 •nara ray 2000 n. narakahell navaka ennead navakamma building na vattabba not to be said to be •nägabalä (leaf) 1131 nätha Saviour nänatä otherness nänatta different; diversity nänattanaya (method of) diversity nänä multiple näma(rupa) (1) mentality (-materiality); (2) name; (3) noun nämakäya mental body näyaka Guide *nära ray 2000 n. •näsika a kind of metal 298 nikati trickery 2422 nikanti attachment nikäya (1) collection; (2) group; (3) order nikkamadhätu launching element Nikkhepakanda Description Sectic.i •nikkhepa(pajoyana) (linking by) setting forth 1514 •nigamana starting point 361 366 nigamana conclusion niggahanatä restraining nigghosa voices 1813 nicca permanent/permanence nijigimsanatä pursuing 2383 nijjhäna study •nitthuriya scorn 2417 •nidahati burn 480 nitamba gully 1808 nitinna got beyond 1831 nidassana example (illustration) niddä sleep niddesa description (explanation) nipaccäkära humility nipäta particle •nipufichati to wipe off 2382 •nippadesa comprehensively); with comprehensive range 571 969 n. 1968 n. 2273

370

The Dispeller of Delusion
nevasaftflänäsaflfläbhava neither-percipient-nor-non-percipient existence nevasafiänäsaftäyatana sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception pakatafifiu (knowledge of its) nature pakati normal *pakati primal nature 435 *pakativädin those who assert the existence of pakati 435 610 pakarana Exposition pakäseti to explain 1837 pakinnaka general (method) pakkäsaya receptacle for digested food pakkhandana entering into paguna familiar paggaha exerting paccatta nominative paccaya (1) condition; (2) requisite paccayäkära structure of conditions paccavekkhanä reviewing (reflection) paccavekkhati to review paccaropeti to counter-accuse 2530 paccäharati to carry back •paccuttarana coming up (from) 1420 paccupatthäna manifestation (manifests as) paccupatthambheti to retain 1403 paccuppanna present pacchäjäta(paccaya) postnascence (condition) paflcangika fivefold paficadvära (-ika) five door pancaviiinana five(fold) consciousness paficavokarabhava five-constituent existence *pafijara frame 1112 paftfiatti (-nn-) (1) concept; (2) observance^); calling; (3) making known panfiäpeti to make known 1836 pahnä understanding paAhäpucchaka Questionnaire *patapatayamänä crackling 11 patikuttha condemned patikkanta moving backward patikküla repulsive(ness) (repugnant) patigha (1) annoynace; resistance; (2) impact

nippariyäya literal (non-metaphorical) •nippimsati to grind 2382 nippesikatä pressure •nippeseti to remove 2382 nipphanna accomplished (produced) *nibbacana (word-) derivation 418 420 f. nibbatti production nibbattitalokuttara produced supramundane nibbidä revulsion nibbindati (to feel) revulsion nibbuti peace nibbedha(bhägiya) (partaking of) penetration nimitta sign *nimittakarana efficient cause I 150 n. 12 nimmäna creation Nimmänarati Deity who Delights in Creating niyata assured niyataväda (theory of) determinism niyati predetermination niyama (1) Law; rule; (2) qualification niyamita specified ni> ^ a certainty niyäiii.ti to assure niyyätanatthäna place of [the concluding] designation 47 n. niyyäna outlet niraya hell nirämisa unworldly niriha inactive 228 nirutti language nirodha cessation nivatti non-occurrence (no recession) niväsana dressing in nisevati to occupy 1805 *nissari renouncing 1545 nissaya support nissarana(vimutti) (1) (liberation by) renunciation; (2) escape nita explicit nivarana hindrance nekkhamma renunciation nepakka prudence nemittikatä hinting 2378

Pali-English Glossary
patighäta disturbance 2526 paticarati to prevaricate 2530 •paticca dueness 2315 n. paticcasamuppäda dependent origination paticcasamuppanna conditionally arisen; dependently arisen patinnä claim 1605 pariniddesa restatement patinissajjati to relinquish patipatti practice patipadä (1) practice (progress); (2) way patipassaddhi tranquillisation paribimba mirror-image patibhäganimitta counterpart sign patibhäna (1) intelligence; (2) talk patimä image patiläbha attainmentAegaining patiloma backwards pativijjhati to penetrate •pativinnatti recognition 2043 pativirodha dismay 2526 pativedha penetration patisamvedeti to experience 2441 patisankhäna reflection patisanthära friendliness patisandhi rebirth-linking patisambhidä discrimination patisalläna retreat patisärambha(nä) counter-presumption '2332 •patisiddha prohibited 1663 *patisiddha(tta) exclusion/excluded 749 2191 patthäna foundation pathamakappika (person at the beginning of the) aeon pathavi earth panidhäna aspiration panlta good; high; sublime; superior pandaka eunuch patitthä establishment *patitthäna staticity 1510 •patissaya refuge 1803 n. pada expression padakkhina circumambulation padatthäna proximate cause (basis)

371

padabhäjana (°bhäjaniya) classification of words padesaräja regional prince 46 (see corrigenda) padosa hatred padhäna (1) basic; basic factor; (2) effort; endeavour •padhäna primal ground/first cause 430 •padhäna eminent 2016 n. padhänaghara meditation house 2402 panta remote 2360 papaAca proliferation pabba section pabbajjä going forth pabhassara bright •pabheda consonant ? 2071 n. pamäda negligence payirupäsati to keep company with 2274 payoga (1) momentum; (2) means payoj ana purpose parakkamadhätu furthering element parato (hearing) from another Paranimmitavasavattin Deity who Wields Power over Others* Creations parapitthimamsikatä backbiting 2382 parama highest paramattha highest sense (ultimate sense) paravädin other speaker parämäsa adhering parikathä roundabout talk 2380 parikamma preliminary work parikelanä prinking 2358 parikhattatä esconcedness 2355 2423 pariguhanä hiding away 2422 pariggaha laying hold paricäreti to go about 2494 paricca having accomplished 2100 parichädanä covering over 2422 pariccheda delimitation (limit) pariftfiä full understanding parififieyya to be fully understood parinäha girth 2326 paritassitä fretting 2360 paritta limited parittä protection parideva lamentation

372

The Dispeller of Delusion
passambhati to become tranquillised passava making water passasa exhalation pahätabba to be abandoned pahana abandoning pätihäriya miracle pätha reading päna living thing pänaka creature pänin breathing thing pätabyatä downfall 2453 •pädapitthikapanti (vi. -pithikä-) footrail (of a stüpa) ? 1413 päpa evil *päpanä denigration 2381 päpamittatfl evil friendship päpicchatä evilness of wishes pämokkha principal *päyu excretion 1150 n. 11 para the other side 1831 pärami perfection päräjika defeat päripöri perfection päribhattyatä fondling pärupana putting on *päli embankment 2224 n. pävacana word päsäda palace •päsädavijjä science of buildings 1626 n. pindapäta almsfood •pitimatta father's relatives 2359 pitta bile piya(vippayoga) (dissociation for the) loved piya(rüpa) dear pisäcanagara goblin city pisunaväcä malicious speech pitha chair piti rapture puggala person puggalädhitthänä desana discourse concerned with a person puggalika personal; personally-owned pucchahjikatä dithering 2356 pucchä question punfta merit puflflakiriyavatthu instance of meritmaking

paiinipphanna projected parinibbäna complete extinction parinibbäyati complete extinction, to attain paripucchakatä asking questions paripucchä being questioned paribbäjaka wanderer paribhava scorn 2465 parimukham in front pariyatti competency pariyanta remote 1812 pariyäpanna included pariyäya (sapariyäya) (1) figurative(ly) (relative); (2) (way of) presentation; (3) method; (4) manner pariyutthäna besetting pariyetthi seeking out 2383 pariyesanä searching out) pariyogähanä comprehending pariyodäta limpid 1829 parivarta cycle; succession parivimamsä scrutiny 1523 parivena cell parisatha a complete fraud 2423 parisä community parisuddha purified p -^odheti to completely purify 1824 parii-^ranä misleading 2422 parihäniya productive of loss 2506 •parihäravacana explanation 671 n. paläsaAäyanä domineering 2418 •paläsati to domineer 2418 paläla straw palibodha obstruction pallanka crosswise pallatthika clasping in front of the bent knees 2504 pavatta course (of existence) pavatti occurrence; course of existence; process pavicaya investigation pavicarari examine 1523 pavicinati investigate pasanna (1) pure; (2) trustful pasäda (1) sensitivity; (2) trust pasarita stretching pasüti bringing forth 452 (see corrigenda) passaddhi tranquillity

Pali-English Glossary
•puthuka a kind of metal 298 puthujjana ordinary man/person punabbhava further becoming punavacana repetition pubbanimitta portent pubbanta past (time) pubbabhäga prior stage pubbäcariya former teacher pubbäpara order of succession pubbäpariya progressive; successive; simultaneous pubbe katahetu due to [kamma] done in the past 2442 pubbeniväsa former lives purisadosa fault in a man purisindriya masculinity faculty purejäta prenascent/prenascence püjä offering pekkha observance 2075 peta ghost pettivisaya ghosts, realm of potthaka (clay) mould poräna ancient pharati pervade 1892 phala fruit(ion); result phassa contact; impression *phätikamma compensation work 1640-41 phärusiya harshness 2331 2426 phu-dhamanaka blowing "phu" 2068 photthabba tangible datum bala power bali tax bahiddhä extemal(ly) bahulflcamma (frequent) practice bahulikaroti to (repeatedly) practise bahussuta(tä) learned bähira external bimbohana pillow bija seed bujjhari to awaken Buddha Enlightened One Buddhavacana Buddha's word *buddhi intellect (Samkhya term) 1150 n. 11 bojjhahga enlightenment factor/ awakening factor

373

•bodhin one (who is) awakened 1509 1511 bodhi (1) Wisdom Tree; (2) awakening bodhipakkhika (-iya) partaking of enlightenment bodhimanda Wisdom Site brahma matchless brahmacariya life of purity Brahmavaccasadisa radiant like Brahma 2203 2218 n. Brahmavihära Divine Abode bhariga dissolution bhajati to frequent bhatti devotion bhadra auspicious bhabba able 2293 bhaya fear, war bhava existence (becoming) bhavagga summit of existence bhavanga life-continuum bhäkutitä, etc. grimacing, etc. bhäjaniya classification; division bhänaka preacher bhänavära recital section bhäriya weighty bhäva sex bhävanä development (developing bhävetabba to be developed bhäsä tongue bhikkhaka/bhikkhuka beggar bhikkhati to beg bhikkhäcariya almsround bhiyyokamyatä desire for more 2334 bhisi cushion bhumma locative bhummadeva earth deity bhüta (1) primary (element); (2) true bhümi (1) plane; (2) terrace bheda analysis bheda utterance ? 380 n. bhedabheda divided and undivided bhesajja medicine bhojaka headman bhojana food bhojane mattafifiutä knowledge of the right amount in eating mamsa flesh makara monster

374

The Dispeller of Delusion
mahäsävaka Great Disciple mahicchatä greamess of wishes •mätikä vowels 2071 n. mätikä schedule (list) •mätimatta mother's relatives 2359 mäna pride; conceit mänasa intellect mäyä (1) illusion; (2) deceit mäyävitä deception 2422 mala hall mäsäcita a sack of beans 2525 n. micchatta wrongness micchä(-äjiva, etc.) wrong (livelihood, etc.) micchäeära misconduct micchäpatipatti mistake micchämäna wrong pride middha torpor mukha (1) mouth; foremost; (2) heading muggasüpyatä bean-soupery muncana leaving (release) *mutthi measure of length 1650 n. muti sensing 2075 mutta left 1828 muditä altruistic joy mudu(tä) (1) gentle(ness); malleable; (2) dull muddä (1) seal impression; (2) reckoning 2067 2071; (3) sign Muninda Lord of Sages musäväda false speech müla(pada) root (word); root-cause mülaparinfiä full understanding of the root mettä amity mettäyati to feel amity 1889 mettäyanä amicableness 1890 metti amiability 1890 methuna sexual intercourse meraya strong drink mokkha liberation moceti to free 1824 moha delusion yakkha spirit yanfia sacrifice yathäkammüpaga reappearance according to kamma

makkha disparaging magga path maccu Death macchariya avarice majja intoxicant majjanä intoxication 2317 2319 majjhatta middle; neutrality majjhima medium maficabed mafifianä imagining 2318 mannita imagining 2540 •manisappa gem snake 1765 n. manda cream mandanä embellishment mandapa pavilion mandala circle matthaka conclusion mada vanity madayamäna pressing 57 *manayati to cause to think 211 manasmind manasikära bringing to mind manäpa beloved 1888 1898-1900 manussa human manopadosika debauched by hate manta counsel rru f"i spell *ma„ j?ri to churn 644 n. manda (1) slack (lax); (2) slow(-witted) marana death marie i(kä) mirage mala stain masäragalla opal mahaggata expanded *mahanta i.e. the Samkhya mahat 1149 n. 101150 n. 11* mahäthera senior elder mahäniraya Great Hell mahäpadesa principal authority mahäpadhäna Great Struggle mahäbhüta great primary mahäpurisa Great Man mahäbhümaka having a large plane 2287 mahämatta minister mahämaha great festival mahävipäka great resultant mahäsatta great being •mahäsäla of great substance 2577 f.

Pali-English Glossary
yanta marionette yantaka contrivance yamakapäühäriya Twin Miracle yäthävaka exact 2059 yäna vehicle yäma watch yugaggäha interfering 2418 yuganaddha coupled together yutti justification; logic yeväpanaka "or whatever" yoga (1) bond; (2) work (effort); (3) yogic; (4) yoke; (5) ingenuity 2066 yogakkhema surcease of bondage *yogapatha course of practice 1799 yogavacara meditator, yogin yogin meditator; yogin yoni (kind of) generation; womb yoniso wise 1392 •rajana-nipakka (vl.) dye infusion 1657 •ratthiya governor 2391 n. ratana (1) treasure; (2) Jewel; (3) a measure of length *rattannu chronological knowledge 2324 n. randha weak spot 2465 rasa (1) brilliance (of gem); (2) essence; juice; (3) flavour; taste; (4) nature (function); (5) stimulus •rasada candy 528 *rasayati to taste 211 rasayana elixir räga greed; lust rähaseyyaka lying concealed 1815 ruci choice ruppana (being) molested 922 rupa (1) materiality; matter; (2) finematerial; (3) visible datum (visible form); (4) picture •rüpayati to make visible 211 385 rupin fine-material rüpävacara fine-material (sphere) roga disease lakkhana characteristic (character) lapanä talking 2373-77 lasikä oil-of-the-joints läbha gain linga sex

375

lingavipariyftya reversal of gender lina sluggish (limp; slack) linatta lassitude lekha writing lena grotto 1804 loka world lokathüpikä world apex lokadhätu world system lokantaraniraya (-ika) world interspace hell lokiya mundane lokuttara supramundane lobha greed loma body-hair loma-hamsa hair-raising loluppa gluttony 2356 loha metal vamsa lineage vagga faction 2472 vaci speech vacikamma verbal act vajira thunderbolt vajja fault vancanä cheating 2422 vatta (1) round; process; (2) almsfood "2220 •vattaloha alloy of lead and copper 298 n. vaddheti increase vanna colour, appearance; scene vannanä commentary vata vow vatta duty •vatthikosa abdomen 453 n. vatthu (1) basis; object; (physical base); (2) story *vatthujjhäcära material transgression 1830 •vatthupüjä offering in kind 1652 n. vatthuvijjä science of sites vanapattha jungle thicket vanta vomited 1828 vambhanä disparaging 2381 vaya fall vara boon valanjaline 1794 vavatthäna definition; defining vasavattin (exercise o 0 power

376

The Dispeller of Delusion
vidhä mode 2435 vidhäna formulation 747; sorting out; system Vinaya (1) putting away; (2) discipline vinicchaya definition; discernment •viniddhunaka shakes off 569 n. vinipäta perdition vinibandha bond vipaccamkasätatä pleasure in opposing 2359 vipatti failure vipariyesa mistake vipariyesagäha perverted (perverse) assumption viparita perverted vipalläsa perversion vipassanä insight vipäka (päka) result/kamma-result/ resultant vipula abundant 1886 1894 •vippatikulagähitä improper treatment 2359 •vippatipatti mistaken theory vippayutta dissociation vippasanna purified vibhanga classification vibhava non-existence vibhäga class vibhävanä explaining vibhösanä smartening vimäna palace vimuttäyatana sphere of deliverance vimutti liberation vimokkha liberation virati abstention; refraining viräga fading away viriya energy viruddha opposed virodha opposition 2502; dismay 2526 vilokita looking away vivata unveiled 1829 vivatta standstill vivarati to reveal 1836 viväda dispute vivitta isolated viveka seclusion visabhäga dissimilarity) visama unevenness •visamanissita usurper 2471 n.

vasin mastery vasibhäva mastery vassa rains väcä speech väcika reciter vätawind väda assertion väna (-n-) lust väyodhätu air element vara (1) section; subsection; (2) turn; (3) unit •vävata involved 2350 •vähanika float 789 vikappa alternative (meaning of v5) 2511 vikappeti to figure; speculate vikära alteration; mode vikiranä prevarication 2422 vikubbati to transfonn 2310 vikkhambhana suppressing/suppression vikkhitta scattered vikkhepa distraction vigata disappearance viggaha struggling 2538 vicära sustained thought v. '^cha uncertainty vijaii^.'ätam without the breeze of people 1814 vijanavädam without the talk of people 1814 vijambhikä stretching vijambhitä7vijambhanä shaking 2362 vijjä (1) vision; (2) science; wizardry viflftatti intimation vififtäna consciousness vinnänaflcäyatana sphere of boundless consciousness viftftänatthiti station of consciousness vitakka thought; applied thought vitandavädin disputatious speaker (controversialist) vitarati to remove 1173 *vitthambhana distension 266 *vitthambhanatä supporting vitthära full; in detail vidatthi span vidisam intermediate direction vidhavä widow

Pali-English Glossary
visamkkha poison tree visaya object/objective field visuddhi purification visesa distinction *visesa specific (Samkhya term) I 150 n. 11 visodheti to purify 1824 vihära monastery vihimsä cruelty viheseti to vex 2531 vlci wave vlnä lute vltikkama transgression vithi cognitive series vitikkanta "surpasses*' 1837 vibhaccha unsightly 2207 vimamsä investigation vutthäna emergence vuddhasevitatä cultivation of seniors vupasama calm *vekantaka mercury 298 n. vedanä feeling vedikä railing veneyya teachable vepulla increase veyyäkarana Discourse veramanl abstention verambhaväta high altitude wind •veludüsikä [a plant pest that] spoils the bamboo 1643 n. vesärajja confidence vesiyä prostitute Vehapphala Most Fruitful (deity) vocchädanä completely covering 2422 votthapana determining vodäna purification vossagga relinquishment vohära (1) appellation; (2) usage vyafijana (1) suffix; (2) detail; (3) letter •vyasati to ruin 484 vyasana ruin vyakarana reply 2567 vyädhiyaka shivering 2362 vyäpäda (byäpäda) ill-will *vyävata attack 11 samyama curb samyojana festival samvannanä commentary

377

samvara restraint samvega (sense of) urgency samvejeti to stir 1415 •samvohänka normal 2056 samsagga contact samsattha in company samsära round of (re)births samseda(ja) moisture(-born) samsevati to cultivate well 1805 sakadägämin Once Returner sakkäyaditthi personality view sankanti transmigration (transition) sankappa thinking sahkamana transmigration sahkilittha defiled sankiles(ika) (causing) defilement sahkhata formed sankhära formation sankhärika prepared sankhitta cramped sankhipanä continual ridicule 2381 sankhepa (1) in brief (brief); (2) inertia 1041; (3) section (link) sahkhyä reckoning sanga tie saiiganikä company 2506 sangaha combination; inclusion sahgahavacana comprehensive term *sangähanä prehending 642 sahglti council sangha Order sanghathera senior elder of the Order sanghati outer cloak; outer robe sanghäräma monastery of the Order sanghika belonging to the Order sacca truth sacchikaroti to realise sacchikätabba to be realised sacchüdriyä realisation sajjhäya recitation (recital; reciting) sarlcetanä volition saftftä perception saftftäna sign safifläbhava percipient existence satha(tä) fraud, etc. 2423 santhapanä composing; setting 2372 "2416 santhänä shape *sata impermanent (?) 2549 n.

378

The Dispeller of Delusion
samaya (1) occasion; period; (2) opinion; (3) doctrine *samaväya inherence 435 *samaväyavädin one who asserts Inherence 435 samasisin Equal-Headed One samädiyati to undertake samädhi concentration samäpatti attainment samäpekkhanä consideration 642 samäsa composition samäsevita repeated samita quelled 1211 samiddhi full success samukkäcanä continually suggesting 2376 *samukkhepana continual snubbing 2381 samuggama coming into being samuccheda cutting off samutthäna origination samudaya origin(ation) (arising) samudäcära behaviour *samunnahanä continually persuading 2374 *samullapanä continually talking up 2373 samüha collection sampajaflfta clear comprehension sampaticchana acceptance sampatta contiguous sampatti comfort; success; good fortune sampadä success sampayutta association sampasSdana calm sampahamsanatä gladdening *sampäpanä continual denigration 2381 sampindana abbreviation 411 2044 samphassa impression; contact; touch sambodha awakening sambhajati to keep to 1805 sammasana comprehension; comprehending sammatta lightness sammä(-äjlva, etc.) right (livelihood, etc.) Sammäsambuddha Fully Enlightened One

sati mindfulness sattäväsa abode of beings Satthar Master sadisalike sadda prefix saddhamma good Dhamma/Law saddhä faith sanidassana visible santa peace(ful); (pacified) santati continuity santäna continuity santi peace santike near sanrlrana investigation/investigating santutthi contentment sanditthiparämasitä holding to one's own view 2500 n. sandhi (1) joint; (2) link; (3) liaison •sappati to be emitted 211 sappadesa (with) selective (range) sappäya suitable sabbafifiu omniscient sabbattatäya equally 1885 *sabbatthaka generally useful/useful everywhere sabbatthapädaka basis for all benefit * ' ntthika (1) all-helpful; (2) omni-nt r sab^adhi everywhere 1885 1893 sabbasahgähika all-inclusive sabbäv at entire 1885 •sabbhäva presence 140 n. 2302 n. sabrahmacann companion in the life of purity abhäga similar/similarity saohava (intrinsic) nature; specific samagga agreement samahgi(n) possessed of samafina designation samana recluse samatikkanta "surmounts" 1837 samatikkama surmounting samatha tranquillity samanantara contiguity samatä equalising samatta evenness samannäharati bring to bear samappita fully furnished with 2494

Pali-English Glossary
sammifijita bending sammuti conventional sammoha delusion sarana refuge sarasa essential (nature) sarita one who recalls 1521 sarira material body saläka vote salladart sallakattiya surgery sallakkheti to discern *sallapanä talking around 2373 sallekha effacement saläyatana sixfold base savana learning sasahkhära prompted sassata eternity; eternal(ness) sahajäta conascent; conascence sahavyatä (in) the company of 2578 sätheyya fraudulence sätacca perseverance sätarüpa agreeable sättha purpose sätthaka benefit sädhärana (1) general; (2) common sädhukamyatä wanting things nice 2356 sämaggi concurrence sämannalakkhana general characteristic sämantajappana indirect talk sämivacana genitive sämisa worldly sära core särajja timidity 2404; embarrassment 2493 särambha presumption särambhanä presuming 2332 säräga infatuation 2526 säläkiya eye treatment 2068 sävaka disciple sävajja blame, to blame säsana dispensation sikkhamäna probationer sikkhä(pada) training (precept) *singa dandyism 2355 singäratä smartness 2355 singhätaka square *sittha prepared 583 n. sinäna bathing powder

379

sippa craft *sippikäbag315n. sirimsapa creeping thing •silesa cement 279 •silesika riddle 1418 n. simä boundary sila (1) nature; (2) virtue; virtuous conduct; (3) precept; (4) asceticism süakkhandha good conduct group süabbata rites and rituals sisa heading sukka (1) bright; (2) seed sukha (1) happiness; pleasure; (2) pleasant sukhuma subtle sucarita good conduct sufffia void (devoid) suftnagäma empty village suflftatä void(ness) suta learning sutta sleeping suttanta discourse Suttantapariyäya/Suttantikapariyäya Suttanta method Suttantabhäjaniya Suttanta Division Sudassa Fair-to-See (deity) Sudassin Fair-seeing (deity) suddhasatta pure being Suddhäväsa Pure Abode supatthita well-founded (well-established) 1820 supina dream subha (1) beauty; beautiful; (2) glory surä liquor susukä shark 2477 •suhajja companion 482 n. •sücayati to betray 211 sütighara maternity home sörabhäva valour sekha trainee seni guild senäsana abode semha phlegm seyyä sleeping position sevati to cultivate soka sorrow sota ear sotäpatti Stream Entry sotäpanna Stream Enterer

380

The Dispeller of Delusion

sodheti to cleanse 1824 somanassa joy(ful); mental pleasure sosita dried up hattha hand (i.e. measure of distance) hadaya heart harati to carry (forth) hänabhägiya (partaking of) diminution hikkära hiccups hiri conscience hina inferior, low hetu cause; root-cause hilanä self-loathing 2386 •hetthämäna pride in baseness 2386 •hontam 50 n.

CORRIGENDA TO PART ONE
p. viii 1. -6 worthwhile p. ix 1. 5 add closing bracket p. x 1. 8 add footnote: commentary.3 bottom mt p. xi 1. 18 Dt Tlkä to the Digha-nikäya. 1. 19 script § 46 1. 14 Insert missing sentence: Theirs also is inferior; compared with that the materiality of regional princes (padesaräja) is called superior, p. 31 1. 5 And mind-originated 1.8 with §1191.6 rebirth-linking § 185 1. 4 Translate: dependent upon the elements § 252 1. 1 controversialist § 360 1. 3 mental-datum element § 411 The order is reversed: determining should be before impulsion. § 437 Insert missing phrase: it is of five kinds as divided into delighting in visible data, etc. p. 109 Insert missing paragraph: §438 Also cessation is of one kind as the state of the unformed element; but figuratively it is of two kinds as accompanied by remainder of base and without remainder of base; it is of three kinds as the pacification of the three kinds of existence; it is of four kinds as approachable by the four paths; it is of five kinds as the pacification of the five kinds of delighting; it is of six kinds as divided into the destruction of the six groups of craving. § 452 1. 10 Insert missing sentence: In the passage: 'When he is just born, Ananda, the Bodhisatta ... ' (M iii 123), it is bringing forth. § 530 1. 7 the root remains p. 150 1. 1 in Samkhya thought § 677 1. 1 a blind man p. 207 1. 12 Perhaps cittassa thiti should be rendered as 'maintenance of consciousness'. It and äyu here signify the two missing universals of concentration and jivitindriya. § 788 1. 6 with the three immaterial aggregates p. 215 1. 1 The heading should read: 2. Materiality as Condition § 832 1. 1 By the words "eye-contact-born feeling" § 836 Rearrange. The first two lines of verse should be set out as prose and the line of prose should be set out as two lines of verse.

382
§ 8401. 3 p. 244 bottom § 951 L 8 § 1043 1. 3 p. 308 1. 4 p. 3121. 13 p. 355 bottom

The Dispeller of Delusion perfumers Mutuality as condition, the six bases which is called the "world"; at last he surmounts the concept: just as like a house-snake rolled up mt