Learning Goals
1.  A fast review of genocide’s long history and four key motives for genocide

2.  Proposing how to create a Culture of Prevention and Using Quiet Diplomacy

Intent: The Crucial Component of Genocide
•  The perpetrator’s calculated intent to destroy the group as a group (“as such” and “in whole or in part”) is the crucial component of the crime of genocide •  The four groups protected by the UN Genocide Convention are:
* Races * Religions * Ethnicities * Nationalities

I. Genocide in History
  The temptation of genocide perpetrators to pursue the total annihilation of an entire group of human beings has existed throughout recorded history. Early examples?   The genocide perpetrators define the boundaries around the members of the group and they decide who is a member of the targeted group   The group need not be “real” according to our own definitions of what is logical and rational.

Where do genocides come from?
•  Genocides don’t spring up from the earth like mushrooms after a rain •  Genocides are cultivated and nurtured •  Genocide have specific motives •  What are the conditions which lead to genocide?

The Four Major Motives of Perpetrators of Genocide
1.  Economic Gain
i.  The German Army’s annihilation of the Herero and the Nama peoples of German South West Africa, 1903-1907

2.  Elimination of a Real or Perceived Threat
i.  The genocide of the Tutsi of Rwanda in 1994

The Four Basic Motives of Perpetrators of Genocide
3.  Desire to create terror to aid the perpetrator in building an empire, sphere of influence, and hegemony
i.  Shaka Zulu expanding his kingdom in the early 19th century and destroying the Ndwandwe people

4.  Fulfillment of the Perpetrator’s Ideology, Theory, or Belief System
i.  The Nazis murder of the Jewish people of Europe, 1941-1945 ii.  Stalin’s destruction of the Tartars and the Ingush in 1944-45

Crimes Against Humanity which often precede genocides
•  •  •  •  •  •  Political Killings Torture Mutilation Rape Abduction Forced population movement •  Expropriation •  Denial of water/meds. •  Redirection of aid supplies •  Destruction of property •  Looting •  Denial of freedom of speech/press/assembly/religion •  Destruction of subsistence food supply •  Man-made famine

Modern Cases to Keep in Mind
•  •  •  •  •  •  •  Rwanda Cote d’Ivoire Liberia Sierra Leone Uganda Libya Democratic Republic of Congo •  Sudan •  Burundi •  Central African Republic •  Kenya •  Bosnia •  Kosovo •  East Pakistan (Bang.) •  Sri Lanka •  East Timor •  Guatemala

Risk Factors for Genocide
•  Identification of victims based on identity criteria such as race, color, descent, religion, ethnic or national origin, gender, sexual orientation, political opinion or group; •  Public hate speech •  Incitement to violence •  Humiliation of a group publically or in the media •  Exclusionary ideologies that justify discrimination •  A past history of violence against perceived groups •  A climate of impunity

Alternative View: Genocide is Caused by Men Who Lack Female Supervision

What is the difference between Knowledge and Wisdom?
•  Knowledge is knowing a tomato is a fruit. Wisdom is not putting it in a fruit salad.

Proven Approaches of Quiet Diplomacy
Aim of quiet diplomacy: “To create conditions in which parties feel comfortable to act, in particular allowing parties calmly to evaluate positions and interests, to weigh options and consider independent and impartial advice”

Characteristics/functions of quiet diplomacy: -  -  -  -  -  -  Pre-standing, pro-active and long-term; preventive rather than curative Engagement (neither interference nor intervention); access balanced by confidentiality Creating political space through dialogue, ‘saving face’ Problem-solving approach, based on international and other established or relevant norms Institutionalised prevention; professional support enabling timeliness ‘Honest broker’; disinterested, impartial, unquestionable integrity

Enlarging Political Space as a Means of Conflict Prevention
Civil Society groups Civil Society groups

Political Space*

*Political space
Regional cooperative institutions can facilitate political space where grievances can be heard and addressed, and disputes resolved, applying a problem-solving approach. Civil Society groups Enhances representative, participatory governance by promoting, inter alia: •  ad hoc or permanent consultative bodies & processes • open parliaments • ombudsperson institutions


Civil Society groups

Civil Society groups

Operational Conflict Prevention: Costs Comparison (USD)

Annual Global Military Expenditures $794,000,000,000

SFOR, Relief & Reconstruction in Bosnia $7,500,000,000
(per annum)

Global Military Expenditures 2002 figure ( SFOR, Relief & Reconstruction Based on total 1992-98 ( NATO Bombing & Reconstruction Total costs of war, aid, PKO & reconstruction per day of bombing (BBC/Jane’s – Oct. 1999) ICTY & ICTR Biennial budgets for 2004/5 combined and divided by 2 ( & HCNM Based on 2004 budget of Euro 2.5 million (

NATO Bombing & Reconstruction in Kosovo $670,000,000
(per DAY of bombing)

ICTY & ICTR $259,000,000
(per annum)

HCNM $3,000,000
(per annum)

Global Military Expenditure Comparison (Costs in USD)

2008 Global Military Expenditure $1.464 trillion

•  2008 NATO military expenditure in personnel and equipment: $486.878 b •  2009 ODA from DAC countries: $119.573 b

•  UNDPKO 2010-2011 budget: $8.4 b
•  NATO bombing & reconstruction in Kosovo: $670 m (per day of bombing)

•  ICTY biennium 2010-2011: $301.895
m •  ICTR biennium 2010-2011: $227.246 m

•  EuropeAid to AU 2009:
$125.5 m

•  HCNM 2010 Budget: $4.08 m

U.S. Disaster (Non-) Preparation
•  Netherlands 1953 storm surge: 2,000 dead •  The Delta Plan •  Billions of guilders invested in a network of dams and barriers, including seawalls •  US Hurricane Sandy, Hurricane Irene •  US underinvestment in public infrastructure

Disaster Public Infrastructure
•  $2.2 trillion needed in US (American Society of Civil Engineers) •  Power grid a disaster—avg. annual power outages in US last 4X longer than in France and 7X longer than in Netherlands •  Every dollar invested in infrastructure by government save US taxpayer $3.65 in costs

Building Capacity at the National Level

The Will to Intervene Project of the Montreal Institute for Genocide and Human Rights Studies (W2I)

W2I’s Key Message:

“Incorporate the prevention of mass atrocities into Canada’s definition of its “National Interest”—It’s about security and national interest, first, and doing the right thing, second.”

The  Ugly  Consequence  of  Mass  AtrociPes:       Crowded  Camps  for  IDPs  and  Refugees  

Drivers of Deadly Violence Today
•  •  •  •  •  •  Climate Change Nationalism Poverty and Inequality Population Growth and the Youth Bulge Epidemic Disease and Pandemics Local Disputes over Land, Water, Minerals and Other Resources

The Public Policy Implications of Genocide: The Costs of Inaction Threaten Our Security Today
•  The genocide and ethnic cleansing in Rwanda and the Balkans underlined the importance of Canada’s will to support international intervention, emphasizing peaceful means, and its need to improve its readiness to make its intervention effective

The Public Policy Implications of Genocide: The Costs of Inaction Threaten Our Domestic Security Today
•  Mass atrocities often create conditions that produce concrete threats from terrorism, piracy, and other forms of lawlessness on the land and sea. A new report from Geopolicity places the cost of piracy of Somalia’s coast at $8.3bn a year, heading for $13-15bn by 2015

The Public Policy Implications of Genocide: The Costs of Inaction Threaten Our Security Today
•  Mass atrocities engender the spread of warlordism, with attendant threats to secure access to vital raw materials and trade routes, and trigger enormous flows of refugees and internal displacements that accelerate the incidence and spread of infectious diseases, as well as xenophobia

The Public Policy Implications of Genocide: The Costs of Inaction Threaten Our Security Today
•  Mass atrocities cost UN member states enormous sums of money • The $ cost of failing to prevent: • Rwanda aid - $4.5 billion (1994-96) • ICTR - $1 billion (1996-2007) • Bosnia - $15 billion (1996-2007)

The Public Policy Implications of Genocide: The Costs of Inaction Threaten Our Security Today
• Canada, its diplomats, its development experts and its armed forces, have a long and proud tradition of foreign aid and participation in international efforts to restore peace and end conflict that must be sustained and updated in the face of new and unprecedented risks of mass atrocities

The Public Policy Implications of Genocide: The Costs of Inaction Threaten Our Security Today
•  Mobilizing the domestic Will to Intervene is an essential prelude to mounting the international cooperation necessary for preventing mass atrocities in our interdependent world •  Every city and province of Canada has a stake in Mobilizing the Will to Intervene to prevent mass atrocities

W2I’s Civic Dialogue Approach
•  In each major city, a lead NGO brings together about 40 local leaders from city and provincial governments, business, religious communities, universities and the media •  The W2I team summarizes its recommendations and answers questions •  The civic leaders register their concerns and announce what they are prepared to do to advance the adoption of W2I’s recommendations by the Government of Canada •  Mayors, Premiers, and city and provincial councils adopt resolutions or issue proclamations supporting the recommendations

Gen. Dallaire receives the Vancouver W2I proclamation from Mayor Gregor Robertson and Council Member Geoff Meigs, assisted by Elaine Hynes of The Simons Foundation and Barbara Buchanan of the British Columbia Bar

W2I’s Policy Recommendations
Four Priority Areas for Government: •  Enabling Leadership •  Enhancing Coordination •  Building Capacity •  Ensuring Knowledge
Our Recommendations:

Enabling Leadership
•  The President of the US and the PM of Canada issue Executive Orders establishing the prevention of mass atrocities as a policy priority •  The Parliament of Canada make the All-Party Parliamentary Committee for the Prevention of Genocide a standing committee •  The US Congress create a Caucus for the Prevention of Mass Atrocities •  The Governments of Canada and the United States foster public discussions on preventing mass atrocities

Enhancing Coordination
•  The President of the US and the PM of Canada create Atrocities Prevention Committees to coordinate interagency policy on the prevention of mass atrocities •  The US National Security Advisor create an Interagency Policy Committee on Preventing Mass Atrocities to coordinate policy across the executive branch and liase with the Atrocities Prevention Committee. Canada—the same •  The National Security Advisor create operating procedures for disseminating intelligence on the risks of genocide and other mass atrocities

Building Capacity
•  The Government of Canada and the Government of the US establish deployable Prevention Corps of experienced public servants •  The Government of Canada and the US increase their diplomatic and development presence in fragile countries •  The Government of Canada and the US continue enhancing the Canadian and American Forces’ specialized capabilities by increasing their force strength and developing operational concepts, doctrine, force structure, and training to support civilian protection

Ensuring Knowledge - 1
•  Canadian and American civil society organizations develop permanent domestic constituencies by forming national coalitions for R2P in Canada and the U.S. •  Canadian and American civil society organizations expand their advocacy by targeting local/municipal and state/provincial levels of government to support R2P •  Canadian and American civil society groups develop strategic, outcome-based proposals geared towards key decision makers in the government

Ensuring Knowledge - 2
•  Canadian and American civil society groups leverage new information and communications technologies to educate the public and government •  Canadian and American civil society groups initiate public discussions on the prevention of mass atrocities and related foreign policy issues •  Individual journalists, media owners, and managers in Canada and the United States commit themselves to “the responsibility to report”

Stage One of W2I Completed See:

Policymakers version of the W2I Report MIGS 2009

W2I  briefs  Members  of  Parliament     in  O1awa   1  October  2009  

Reaching decision makers

Launch of W2I at USIP, Washington, DC

Textbook version, McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2010

Converging movements: a) climate change, b) public health, c) human rights, and d) security from terrorism Progress made within the New US Government: The White House Public Support for W2I in Canada: The Angus Reid poll results and the rebuilding of Canadian foreign aid and the Canadian military New Arguments and Policies advanced by W2I New Technologies: Facebook, Google, Cell phone cameras and video, and SMS messaging all advance citizen lobbying

Will to Intervene
Information and Blogs about W2I are posted on: •  Facebook •  Twitter •  MIGS website ( •  USIP website •  Enough Project website •  CPAC •  Youtube

• W2I will organize partnerships and sign agreements with research institutes in: •  The Republic of South Africa •  Britain • Secure targeted funding • Share authority with research teams in South Africa and Britain to write and launch national reports on Mobilizing the Will to Intervene • Help research centres in both countries to organize civic dialogues supporting their recommendations to their governments

Why we must ensure “Mass Atrocity Prevention” becomes part of the public policy lexicon. We remember: RWANDA YUGOSLAVIA AND SREBRENICA, B-H DRC SUDAN CÔTE D’IVOIRE LIBYA and more . . . . We need to do the right thing, but it is especially about our security today

Since light travels faster than sound, some people appear bright until you hear them speak.

I hope that this was not me! KEEP UP YOUR FINE WORK (and get some sleep)!

Contact Information
Kyle Matthews, W2I Senior Deputy Director
E-mail: Web:

Frank Chalk, Project Director
E-mail: Web:

Any final questions?
(if there is time)

Non-United Nations Options
•  Inter-governmental organizations
–  Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe

•  Regional organizations
–  African Union –  Association of South-East Asian Nations –  Organization of American States

•  Sub-regional organizations
–  International Conference of the Great Lakes Region –  ECOWAS (and the SADC, IGAD, etc.)

A Culture of Prevention (CP)
•  The CP approach developed by John Packer, former Director of the Office of the High Commissioner on National Minorities (HCNM) for the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and others •  Slides courtesy of John Packer

What is the difference between research and plagiarism?
•  To steal ideas from one person is plagiarism. To steal from many is research.

Structural prevention
Stage and Tools
Addressing root causes

Operational prevention
Addressing root and proximate causes


Addressing reconciliation rehabilitation restitution Addressing new root and proximate causes

Addressing organized violence and armed conflict

Opr’l prevention


Relative Significance of Diplomacy LOW

What can/should IGOs do?

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