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# Wingeom 2D Introductory Activities 0. Start Wingeom by double-clicking its icon.

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Wingeom 2D Introductory Activities 5. Not only does the program assign labels to new points, it also centers the labels directly over the points, and it puts measurements in the upper left corner of the drawing window. You can override these choices. First click Btns|Text to put the mouse into a new mode. Point at label A and press the right button. A new dialog box allows to change the label. Type P into the box and press Enter. You will see label A change to P . In the same way, change label B to Q. Notice that the displayed ratio AD/AB is now “undeﬁned”, so click Meas, select AD/AB in the list box, and click delete. Type P D/P Q, press Enter, and press Escape . Next point at any label in the ﬁgure, hold down the left button, slide the mouse a short distance, and release the button. The point does not move but the label does. Notice that the point is marked by a small circle, usually hidden by the label. Click Edit|Labels|Oﬀset to move all the labels (this seldom places every label satisfactorily, however). Click Edit|Labels|Home to recenter all the labels. To choose a diﬀerent font for the labels, click Edit|Labels|Font. 6. When the mouse is in Btns|Text mode, the right button is used to insert new text or edit old text anywhere on the screen, and the left button is used to drag (reposition) text. For example, drag the measurement to a spot that is closer to segment P Q. To send all calculations back to their default positions, click Other|Measurements|Home. 7. Click File|New to start anew. When asked to save your work, respond no. 8. Put the mouse into Btns|Segments mode, right-click four new points, then use the left button to create segments AB and CD. Put the mouse into Btns|Drag vertices mode, and drag some of the points so that the segments intersect. Here is a new way of labeling the intersection that is occasionally useful: Click Point|Intersection|Line-line, type AB into one edit box, CD into the other, and press Enter. Label E should appear. Press Escape to close the box. 9. Make sure that Other|Autoextend does not have a check mark. (If necessary, click it to remove the check.) Drag B somewhere so that segments AB and CD no longer intersect, and watch E disappear. Now activate the Other|Autoextend feature by clicking it. Notice that the segments are now extended as much as necessary to show their intersection, regardless of where the points are dragged.
. • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . •

C

D

A

B

E

10. Click Edit|Undo (or press Ctrl+Z ). This undoes the most recent construction step, so intersection E is no longer labeled. Click Edit|Redo (or press Ctrl+Y ) to redo the last step. You can always click Other|Lists|History to see a step-by-step description of the current ﬁgure. (The text display does not change if you do anything to the drawing, however. To update the contents, you must click close and re-open the window.) 11. Make a fresh start by clicking File|New, then click Point|Coordinates to open a coordinate-entry dialog box. Type 3 into the x box, 1 into the y box, and press Enter (or click mark). Point A = (3, 1) should appear. In the same way, label the points B = (5, 2) and C = (6, −5). Close this dialog box. Click View|Axes|Axes (or press Ctrl+A) to make the coordinate axes disappear. Make them reappear in the same way. 2

. . . . . constructed so that D is on segment BC and angle ADB is a right angle. . . . . To deselect the highlighted perimeter in the dialog’s list box. . . . . . The inequality symbol tells the program that an angle size is requested. click it. . . Put the mouse into Drag vertices mode. . . . . the menu item Other|Measurements|Units must be checked. . . . . . Then click the angle measurement to select it. . . . This is because the points were deﬁned to keep them in one place. A . . . • . . . . . . . . . type < ADB and press Enter. movable dialog box displays the current mouse function. . . as well as its slope. . . . area. Click open the Meas dialog box. . . . . . . If you try to describe the same angle as just < B . . . . . . . . . . dragging any of the labeled points simply slides the sheet of graph paper across the screen. . . . . . . . . . Type < ABC into the edit box and press Enter. 17. 3 . . . . . . and angles). . . . . . . . . the program will not understand. . . To conﬁrm that AD does intersect BC perpendicularly. . . . Notice that you cannot drag any of the points without moving the whole sheet of graph paper. so that all of its parts are visible. . . 13. . 14. This also repositions any measurements. . Now put the mouse into Btns|Segments mode and ﬁnish drawing triangle ABC . . Press Escape to close the dialog box. . . . . . type BC into the “perp to line” box. . . If you want dimensional information appended to displayed measurements (to designate length. . . As you noticed earlier. . . • . Clicking the hide button makes the measurement disappear from the screen. . Do so now. . . . C 16. . If the coordinate axes are showing. . . . . .3). . . . This small. . . . Type AB + BC + CA and press Enter to see the perimeter of triangle ABC . . . . . click Btns|Toolbar. . . . . . .. Until the screen is forced to refresh itself. . . . a Cartesian equation is displayed for each line. Type ABC into the edit box and press Enter to see the area of triangle ABC . The size of angle ABC is displayed. . . . . . Press Escape to close the dialog box. . . . . . . . . . .Wingeom 2D Introductory Activities 12. . . . . To quickly restore any ﬁgure to the center of the screen. . . nothing happens after you change the status of this item. . . Open the Meas dialog box again. . . . click View|Window (or press Ctrl+W ). .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and try to make some of its vertices disappear from view (if your drawing window does not ﬁll the screen. . . . . . . . and clicking show makes it reappear. . . Click close to hide this text window. . You should see that the coordinates of D are (5. . Click Other|Lists|Lines to open a text window that enumerates all combinations of collinear points in the ﬁgure. If you would prefer to have the mouse functions more visible (instead of hidden in a menu). Segment AD appears. . . . . Type D and press Enter. . . . . . . • . . . 15. . . . . . . . . . . and click draw. . . . . . for it wants a three-label description. . . . . . • B D . Press Escape to close the dialog. . . . you can make the entire triangle disappear). . . . . 1. A into the “from point” box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and it gives you another way to alter it. . . The mouse is probably still in Btns|Drag vertices mode. . Click Line|Perpendiculars|Altitude.

. . . . . . 22. . . . . CI into the box. . . . so that one corner (C ) is matched with a point (E ) on another edge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . type F G into the box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with H on BC and I on CD. . type EHI into the adjacent box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . closer to B than C is. . . . . . Because it is three times as wide as it is tall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Click File|New to begin a new ﬁgure. Click Edit|Highlights|Fill. . . . . . . . . open the color window. . . . . . . .) 21. . . . and press Enter. . . . . . . The dotted segments mark where the paper used to be. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Escape from the dialog box. . . . . Then use the left button to draw the segment CE . . . . . . . .Wingeom 2D Introductory Activities 18. Notice that the equality of these two measurements is unaﬀected by moving E along AB . CH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I . a rectangle ABCD should appear. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explain why this should be expected. . . . This construction is meant to simulate the folding of a rectangular sheet of paper. . . . . . . . . . type the list CE. . . . type the list CH. . . . . . . . . . . If the coordinate axes are still showing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 . . Points F and G are no longer needed. . . click the red cell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The bisector F G goes through the midpoint F of segment CE . . . . . . . . . . because H has to be on side BC . and click apply. . . . . . . . . . . . Put the mouse into Btns|Segments mode and right-click a point E onto the segment AB . . . . . . . . 19. . . . . . . . . . I C H B E 23. IH . Click Edit|Highlights|Line attributes. . Because the program was told to forget that C . . . Use the left button to slide E along side AB . . . . . . before it was folded over. . . . . click polygon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Close this dialog box. and press Enter. . . . . pressing Enter after each). . . . . . . . . . . and press Ctrl+W to center the drawing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . type CE into the edit box. . . . . . . . . Then use the left button to draw segments EH and EI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . but you can change the size and shape of a window by dragging its border. . . . . . . . . . . . 20. . . CI into the edit box. . . . . and click ﬁll. . Triangle EHI should now be red. . type 12 into the ﬁrst “side” box. . Rays can be turned on in the same fashion. . . and I has to be on side CD. . . . . . . and press Enter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Move the mouse slowly! If you slide E too close to B or too far from B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and the red color is found on the underside of the sheet. . . . . . . . . . . and HB . . . . . . . it might not ﬁt well in the current window. . . . . . . . . . . Use the left button to reconnect segments DI . . . type the list HI. . . 24. . . . . . . . . . . Click Line|Perpendiculars|Bisector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the construction will collapse. . press Ctrl+A to turn them oﬀ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . click style until “dotted” appears. . . . . and D are collinear (this was the reason for erasing segment CD and then redrawing it in two pieces). . . . . which should now look like the illustration below. and it should also intersect sides BC and CD. . (The rays HI and IH are thereby turned oﬀ. . . . . . . IC . . . . . . . . . . . . Click Edit|Delete|Line. . . . . Put the mouse into Btns|Drag vertices mode and make sure that the menu item Other|Autoextend is checked. . so click Edit|Delete|Point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and change the second “side” to 4. . . . . . . . . Click Units|Polygon|Parallelogram. . . . . . . change the “angle” to 90. . . open the dialog box Line|Extensions. . . . . . . . CH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Open the Meas dialog and ask for < BHE and 2 < HIC (one at a time. . . . the dotted style does not apply to DI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The reason for this strange move will be explained next. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . When you press Enter (or click ok). . . . . . . . . . . To turn the bisector HI into a segment. . . . . . . . . . . . and press Enter. . . . . Close the dialog box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Time to clean up. . . . . Use the right button to label these intersections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . diagonal crosses. A . .. . The ﬁgure should now look like the illustration. . . . . . .. . .) Click Units|Random|Triangle. . . . . . . . . . . and thirty-six labels. .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . . . B . . . . . . . The four . . . . . The program constructs the circle that goes through all three vertices of the triangle. nine circles and their centers. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . B . . closed circles. . . . . . . . . . . . • .. . . . . . .. . • . . . . . . and eight vertices. . . . . Press Enter. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . horizontal crosses. . A . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . but you may prefer a diﬀerent size (and the program will remember).. . .. the eﬀect is quite diﬀerent if you drag B around the screen instead. . . .. . . sliding the whole ﬁgure twice the length of vector . . . . . . . . . The same message would result if you tried . The default size for the circles is 2... . . The program labels transformed vertices by using subscripts and primes. . . With the open circles on the screen. type 2 into the “by D . . . . . ... .. . B . • . . . . .. C .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . • .. .. . . . . .. Leave the “vertices” box . . and notice what happens to all the images.. .. . . . .• . . . . . ... Also notice that you can not drag points other than A. Click Transf|Translate. . . .. .. .. . D . . . .. . . . .. . . . . and press Enter. . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . To see the result of . . . • . . ... . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . type AC into the “of vector” box. . . . . . . . .... C . and AB into the “of vector” box . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . ..) With the labels oﬀ. . .. . . . . . and leave the “vertices” box ﬁlled with the default list of all vertices. . . . 26. . . . .. . . ... (It is possible to have several drawings open at the same time — just click 2-dim again on the main menu bar — but this is not necessary for this tour.. . . . . . . and press Enter. for it lists all the vertices currently in the . . . . .Wingeom 2D Introductory Activities 25. . .. . B . triangles. . . . the multiple” box.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . The program keeps track of each circle by recording its center and at least one point on the circle. . Why is this to be expected? 29. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . • . . . . .. . . . . . The resulting dialog box probably already has ABC highlighted in the edit box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • C . . . . . . . . . . . . ﬁgure. To safeguard against this happening inadvertently. . . . . . . Having this many labels on the screen at the same time can be confusing.. . . . . . . alone. . . . . . . type D into the edit box. to delete a point that was the only point marked on a circle. This applies the current transformation to its most recent images.. and that is the plan. . . . Click Transf|Last repeat (or press F7 ). . . . . press Enter.. two circles. . . . . . AB . . . . . . . . . .. . then press F7. . . . .. . . . Notice that points are marked by open circles. . . Deleting the center of a circle would therefore require that the circle itself be deleted. . . .. . . .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . Click Circle|Circumcircle. .. . . . . . . . . or C without dragging the entire ﬁgure rigidly. . ... so just press Enter. type a one-digit number into the box. . . . . .. . . . . . . . Click File|New to begin a new ﬁgure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. • . . . . . Click ok to close the error-message box. .. . . the program will not let you do it: Click Edit|Delete|Point.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . You should now see nine triangles. . This is a one-click method of putting three random points on the screen and connecting them with segments. . . .. . . . . . .. . . (if it is not already there).. The center of the circle is labeled D. press Ctrl+D (the shortcut for Edit|Labels|Dot mode) several times. . . Because the translation is deﬁned in terms of segment AB . . . .. . Try it. .. . . or nothing at all. . With the mouse in Btns|Drag vertices mode. . . . . . . click Edit|Labels|Bullet size. .. .. . .. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . drag vertex C around the screen. .. . . . . . . . 27.. Click Transf|Translation again. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. ... . type 2 into the “by the multiple” box. . . (They can be turned on in the same way. . . .. . . . • A new vertices have been labeled by attaching primes to the original labels.. .. .. . . . . . . 28. .. . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . so press Ctrl+L (the shortcut for Edit|Labels|Hide) to turn all the labels oﬀ.. . D . . . . . ... . .. . . . .. . . . The new ﬁgure consists of two . . • 5 . . . . .. . . . .

. . . and DC . . . . . . . . . . . Type D into the “center” box. . . . . . . . . . 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . click Transf|Save labels to turn this feature back on. . . . . . B . . . . . . . . . ABC into the “verB tices” box. . the program has assigned a new label to what is really the same point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . you know that these points are collinear. Use the left button to draw segments DA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Click File|New to begin a new ﬁgure. . . . . . . and press Enter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and D) around the screen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The ﬁgure should resemble the illustration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . It is now conﬁgured for a simple dilation. . To see evidence of this. . A B 6 . right-click a random point D onto the screen. . points A0 and B have to coincide. . . . . . anyway). . . . click it to remove the check.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . type AA into the box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DB . . . . Try it — the triangle moves rigidly as a unit. . . . . . which is used to deﬁne both rotations and dilations (or combinations of the two). . . Click Transf|Translation. . . . . . . . . Nevertheless. . . and the program does not know any theorems of geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D• . . . . . . . . . Put the mouse into Btns|Drag vertices mode. . . . . . Even though the vertices of this ﬁgure are randomly generated. . . . . Notice that nothing disappears from the ﬁgure. . . . . . . . . According to the deﬁnition of vector translation. . . . C . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . The program has been given permission to regard the nearness of A0 and B as suﬃcient reason to identify these points in its records. . . . . it might actually diﬀer from B in the twentieth decimal place! This is a situation when you might feel obliged to override the program’s lack of understanding. . . . . . . . . . . . With the mouse in Btns|Segments mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . • . . . . ABC into the “vertices” box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . • . . . . . they can not be dragged independently of each other. . . . . and you can: Click Edit|Undo (or press Ctrl+Z ) to undo the translation. . . . . . . . . . . . Because this property is indeed built into the deﬁnition of a dilation. . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Points A and A will look like they also lie on segment DA. . . . . . . . Open the Transf|Dilate dialog box. . . . . . Notice that the response of the ﬁgure when D is moved is quite diﬀerent from the response of the ﬁgure when A is moved. . . . . . . . . . and drag the primary vertices (A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . so it does not recognize that A and A are in fact on DA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . because A0 had to be calculated. . . . . .0 shows in the “angle” box. . . . . . . then click Edit|Undo undo (or press Ctrl+Y to redo the translation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Press F7 once to apply the dilation again. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . type AB into the “of vector” box. • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A new triangle appears. . . . . . . . Click Units|Random|Right triangle (notice the word right). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nevertheless. . . . . . . . . .Wingeom 2D Introductory Activities 30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . click Edit|Delete|Line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Click Units|Random|Triangle again. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . This is because the program has been taught to respect the right-angle deﬁnition. . . the points were not marked on the segment (which appeared later in the construction. . . . . 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and press Enter. and press Enter. . . 34. . . . . . . which means that 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The program thinks that the points are diﬀerent — indeed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Click File|New to begin a new ﬁgure. . . . . well away from triangle ABC . . . . . . . Notice that label A0 does not appear this time. . . . . . . . . A probably named A0 B0 C0 . . . . • C C A B C 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . If the menu item Transf|Save labels is checked. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. type BDB into the edit box. . Type < BDB and press Enter. . . . type AB into the “initial ray” box. . . . Click File|New to begin a new ﬁgure. . • . Watch for a while. . . . . . . . . . . .. and press Enter. . . . . . . . . . . . . Point at the arrow at one end of the scroll bar. . Close the dialog. . . . . . . . . .0 (meaning no dilation). . 38. . . . . . . and press Enter. . . . type D into the “using center” box. . . . .Wingeom 2D Introductory Activities 35.. . Use the #-slider to vary the value of #. • . type D into the “using center” box. . . . . . . . .5 into the edit box and press Enter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . centered at D. . Open the Animate|# slider dialog box. . Click Edit|Highlights|Line attributes. .. . . Explain why there are now only six triangles on the screen. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . which tells you to press the Q key to stop this animation. . . . Triangle A B C should appear. . . . . . . There should now be seven triangles on the screen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Notice the caption on the drawing window. 36. . . . . . . . . . . Notice the use of a negative sign to describe the second angle. Press F7 four times. . . . . . . . . . . . 75 into the “angle size” box. . . Click Transf|Rotation. A B C into the “vertices” box. . . 37. . . . If you click autoreverse. . Type # and press Enter. which displays the current value of #. . . . . .. . . . . as well as the size 90# of the rotation angle. . . One way to change that value is to type a new value for the highlighted text. . . the last one being A3 B3 C3 . . . . . . . . . . . . Now type BA into the “initial ray” box and −60 into the “angle size” box. . . . The size of the rotation angle depends on the value of the number #. . •. . . . What positive angle would also have produced ray BD? 7 . click style until “dotted” appears. .• . . . . estimate it by examining your ﬁgure. Type 2/3 into the edit box that displays the current value of #. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40. . • . . . The control will slide slowly. . . . and press Enter. . . 41. and hold down the left button. . . . . Open the Meas dialog box. . . . . . to triangle ABC . . and press Enter twice. . Before discovering its value in the next paragraph. . . . . . . . . . Press Enter to see the result of rotating triangle ABC around the pivot point D. . . . . . . A horizontal segment whose length is 1 (on the underlying graph paper) appears. . . . Where did A3 B3 C3 go? If you need a hint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . type BDB into the edit box. . Ray AC appears. . Click the Transf|Save labels item to enable it.. . . . Ray BD appears. . . . . . . Click Line|Segments. . . Notice that the ﬁgure changes as well. . You now see the result of applying a 45-degree rotation. . Your ﬁgure should now resemble the illustration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Click Transf|Rotation. . . . changing the value of #. . . . . . . so type 0. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . somewhere outside triangle ABC . . . . . Type 90# and press Enter. . and click draw again. Press Escape to close this dialog box. . type 0. type ABC into the “vertices” box. . 90# into the “angle size” box. . . . . . . . . . and notice the changing screen display. then press Enter. . . .6 into the edit box and press Enter.. . . . . . Explain the coincidence of displayed values. . . the dialog box disappears but the bar moves back and forth invisibly.. .. . . . notice that the “dilation factor” is 1. . and click draw. . and type 90# into the “angle” box (you must include the symbol #). . . then press Q. . . . . . . . . Click Line|Angles|New.. . . . . . . . . . You can also slide the control by dragging it. The segments BD and DB appear. A• . . . . • C A D B B C 39. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Put the mouse into Btns|Segments mode and right-click a random point D onto the screen. . Click Units|Segment. . . .

D . .. .. ... point D appears on segment BE .... . . . . . ... . . . .. .. .. . . . .. . . .. ... . .. . .. ... . . . . . . . . . . ... . Set # equal to 0.. . . . . . . .. . press Ctrl+D a couple of times to turn oﬀ the vertex markers. . open the dialog box Edit|Decimals... .. . Press Escape to close the dialog box. .Wingeom 2D Introductory Activities 42... . . .... type the list AB.. . ... . . Put the mouse into Btns|Segments mode and use the left button to connect the vertices of triangle CDF . . 48. Open the Meas dialog box.. Close the dialog box. . ... .. . .. ... ... . .. . . 43. . .. . ....... .. . .. . .. . . . . . ... ... ... . The new format will become apparent as soon as any numerical display is refreshed. . . . . . .. .. .28 . . EA into the “relative to segment” box.. .. 60% of the way from E to A. .. . .. . .. . .. . . ... . .. . . .. .. . . . .. which you know stands for the value 0.. . ... .. . . . . . . .. . .. . .. .... ... .. .. . The ﬁgure should look like the illustration..... .. .. .5 in the “coordinate” box. . . . .... . .. ... . and press Enter. . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . . . ....... ... . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. .. .. . . .. . . . ... . . . .. by the way. . . . . .. . . .. ... . . . If you were to click mark now.. . . ask for the ratio of areas CDF/ABE (remember that it is all right to use lower case).. . . . . . . ..6 into the edit box that displays the current value of #.. . . . . .. ... .. . . . . . This way of marking points on segments oﬀers unlimited possiblilities for animation and control. . you would see all three midpoints of the sides of triangle ABE appear. . . . . . . . . . . . The display should show that the area of triangle CDF is 28% of the area of triangle ABE . . . . .. . . . . ... .. . . type the list AE. . . . . . .. and F are the midpoints of their respective sides. . . ... . .. and press Enter.. type CD into the box.. . . . .. .. .. . Triangle ABE has been constructed so that its angles are 75. . .. .. .. . . .. . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . ... .. ... . .. ... . . . . . .. . . . . Click Line|Extensions. . ... . . . . . . type a nonnegative integer less than 16. . . . . . Point C appears on segment AB .. .. . . . . . . . . . . .5 by the symbol #. .. . .. . .. . . . . E . . .. . . .. . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . ... .. .... .. and click mark... .. . • . .. .. . . . .. D. . . . . .. One way to label this (perhaps invisible) point is to click Point|Intersection|Line-line.. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . .. . ... . . . . . . .. . .. . ... . . . which will happen when you change the value of # in the next paragraph... . . ... . .... . . . . . . . .. .. ... . . . .. then click autoreverse in the parameter dialog. . .. . . . 60. Type CDF into the edit box. .. . . . .. . ... . .. . . . . .... . . . .. . . . .. .. . 60% of the way from B to E .. . .. . .. . . . . . . and close the dialog. . and point F appears on segment EA. ... . . .. . 8 . Remember that you have to press the Q key to stop the animation. . .... . ..5 to see whether you were right. . . . . .. 45. press Ctrl+L to turn oﬀ the labels. . . and press Enter. .. . .. type AC and BD into the boxes. with 0... .. The large triangle now has a yellow interior. . . Type 0. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. type ABE into the “polygon” box. . . . . .. . . . . .. To change the number of decimal places in displayed calculations. . 60% of the way from A to B . . . .. . The intersection E should now be visible. . . 44. . . . . . . .. . .. . . .. .. . . .. . .. . ... . . . . . .. .. .. . . .. .. . .. .... . .. Notice that it was necessary to color the large triangle ﬁrst.. . .. .. . . . . Instead. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... ... . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. ... . . .6.. . . . . . ... ..... . . . . . . .. and click ﬁll. . . . . . . . • .. . . . . . . .. and click ﬁll again. . . .. . .. . . . . .. CDF/ABE = 0. . . . Notice that the program has reused the discarded labels C and D... . . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . . .. . .. Click Edit|Highlights|Fill.. . . . . . . .. .. . . . • . . . . . . . . .. . . . • • • F A C B 46. .. .. . . .. click the red cell.. . . click Edit|Delete|Point. . . .. . . Then click the menu item Point|on Segment. . . .... . click the yellow cell in the ﬁll-color window.. ... .. and press Enter. . . . Can the area of CDF be exactly 50% of the area of ABE ? 49. .. . . . . .. . . .. and press Enter.. . . . . . . . . . . .. ... . . ... .. . . . and 45 degrees. . . . . ... . .. . . To ﬁnish the job. . . replace the 0.. . . .. . . . . Make the drawing window the active window (by clicking its title. .. . . . . .. . Predict the value of the area ratio when C . . . .. . . . . . . . .. .. . .... . For example. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . .. . .. .. BE into the box. .. for example).. . . The intersection of these rays may well be outside the drawing window. . 47. ... . . . .. . . .. . . BE. . .. .

H F E D B 7. The program ﬁrst marks E at the midpoint of CD. . . . . . 3. put the mouse into Btns|Drag vertices mode and try to drag D. Right-click a random point D onto segment AB . . . For inventory purposes. . . . . . Put the mouse into Btns|Segments mode and right-click three points onto the drawing surface. . . 6. . 1. . . however. . . . . • • . . . so it introduces F as well as E . . . . . . . Put the mouse into Btns|Drag vertices mode. Click the Wingeom menu item Window|2-dim to create a small drawing window. . . Click draw to see the line DG. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Another way is to click Point|Intersection|Line-line. . . . . . . . . . . . Segment AB appears. .) The ﬁgure should now resemble the illustration. . and C near the center of the window. G• C A• . . B near the bottom on the right. . . . . . .Parabola Lab 0. . . . . and release. No matter what position D has on line AB . . . . 2. you need a directrix and a focus. click Line|Perpendiculars|Bisector. . . . . . . . 8. . The view will probably be adjusted because of these new points. . Type AB into the “perpendicular to” box (it might already be there) and D into the “through point” box. . for adjustments will be made later. • . . what can you say about the distances from H to the focal point C and from H to the directrix AB ? 9 . . . give it one by clicking it. . • . . . and press Enter (or click ok). It should only slide along AB . . . with A near the bottom on the left. . . . All the points on line EF have a special property — what is it? 5. . . . . . . . . Put the mouse into Btns|Segments mode and use the left button to connect C to D. Exact placement is not important. . Click Line|Perpendiculars|General to draw the line that is perpendicular at D to segment AB . This feature enables you to slide D past the ends of segment AB . . . • . . . . To perpendicularly bisect segment CD. . drag the pointer to the other vertex. . . . . you can be certain that D is the point on to H . . . type CD into the edit box. Press Escape to close the dialog box. . then draws the perpendicular line EF . . . To construct a parabola. . To check that D really is on the segment. the program needs to maintain at least two points on every line. . hold down the left button. . (If the intersection does not lie within the window. . . No matter what position D has on AB that is line AB . . . 4. type DG and EF into the two edit boxes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Now use the left button to connect A to B : Point at either vertex. . . . Then use the left button to drag D back and forth along segment AB . . If the menu item Other|Autoextend does not have a check mark. . this method will not work. • . and press Enter. The simplest way to label the intersection H of lines DG and EF is to point at it and click the right button.

• . . . .. . Click View|Window (or press Ctrl+W ) to reposition the ﬁgure in the window. .. . as in the diagram. . . Here is an easy way of making this path appear: Click Animate|Temporary tracing. . . and “high” . . . 11. . . type F G into the edit box. . . The program plots . . .. . . . . . for example). ﬁrst drag C to a new position and then regenerate the path by sliding D along AB again.. . . . . . each identiﬁed by a solid circle. tracing is generated by dragging vertex D. . . . If this item is not checked. . . . . . . . They are no longer needed. . . . . • . necessary to close the tracing inventory dialog box.0) as they are. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . type H into the edit box. . . (1. . . . . . . . . . . . permanent tracing. As you slide D along AB . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . When you slide D along AB now. .. 15. . .. . . Click pen on vertex. . and H should become visible. . The perpendicular bisector EH has been left in the ﬁgure for a reason — it bears a special relationship to the parabola traced by H . When you now click apply. Press Ctrl+L to turn oﬀ the labels. It is now . . empty the list in the edit box. . . . . . and press Enter. . . . Open the dialog box Edit|Labels|Individual. . . the three vertices C . . Click Animate|Temporary trace. . . . . . . . . . . . dialog box. This disables the temporary trace path (and unchecks the menu item). . . points F and G are no longer needed. . . . Close the dialog box. then click new in the . . . . and press Enter. . . type H into the . . . . . . . . .. As you slide D along AB . . . . Press Ctrl+D until all the vertices disappear. . . . . . . . . . . 12. it is necessary to click Animate|Retrace to redraw tracings. . . . This tells the program that the . . think of some . . . . . click Animate|Tracing. so click Edit|Delete|Point. . . . . and connects the dots. . . . . . . . . . . edit box. . ... . . .Parabola Lab 9. . . the default values for “steps” (100).. . What would the path look like if C were closer to AB ? What would the path look like if C were further from AB ? To explore such questions. . . . . . . . to highlight speciﬁc vertices: Type CDH into the edit box. . . . .. . . 14. . . Lines DH and CD have also served their purposes. If you want the tracing to respond immediately when the vertices of the diagram are moved (C . . . . . . This is only a temporary display (it disappears as soon as the screen is refreshed). . CD into the edit box. . . .. . . . . uncheck show label. . . . . check the menu item Animate|Monitor tracings. . .. . . .. and check bullet. . words to describe this relationship: 16. . . . 13. . . . . . . . . H for 100 positions of D. . . . and press Enter. . . . . . . . . . . . It is better to move D slowly. . so click Edit|Delete|Line. . . You can leave . . . . . . type the list DH. into the adjacent edit box. Now that point H has been constructed. . . “low” (0. . .. . . . . . . . • . and press Enter. and press Enter (or click ok). . . . Click the control vertex button and type D . . For a smooth. . . .. . 10. . try to visualize the path that H is following. . .0). . 10 . . . the program retains all of the corresponding positions for H in the ﬁgure. . . .

In the same way. . . . 0) onto the screen. . 1. record the two values displayed in and EC/10 + ED/20 = . . . EC/10 + ED/10 = 7. . . . . . open the Meas dialog. . . . Begin by using the Meas dialog to delete EC/10 + ED/20 and replace it by and EC/10 + ED/10. your search would not have led you to the same point E . . . . . . . . ask for the length of AE . . . . Press Ctrl+A to remove the axes. . . . . C• . . Notice Record your ﬁndings: AE = that segment EC is longer than it was in either of the two preceding solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Press Enter (or click mark) to put A = (0. . . . . and press Escape to close the dialog box. then check your guess by doing the search. . . . . then use the left button to draw the segment AB . Type 12 into the “x” box and press Enter again to make B = (12. . . type the list AC. . . . . . In the dialog box. . With the mouse in Btns|Drag vertices mode. The ﬁgure represents an interface AB between two media. . . EC/10 + ED/20 = 1. . . . Segments AC and BD should appear. . New example: Search for the point E that makes EC/20+ ED/10 as small as possible. . 8) and D = (12. . . Finish this example by recording your ﬁndings: AE = . . type 0 into the x and y edit boxes. . Guess which point on segment AB would have been the optimal choice for E . . . . . Click the Wingeom menu item Window|2-dim to create a small drawing window. . . . . . . . . . Use the right button to click a point E onto segment AB . Press Escape to close the dialog box. • • • . . . . . . . Before moving on. . 5. . . what happens to the sizes of angles ACE and BDE ? Are they ever the same size? 11 .Snell’s Law Lab 0. Use the mouse to drag E along segment AB . . . . If the objective had been to make the value of the sum EC/10 + ED/10 as small as possible. . −3). . . . . . Press Escape to close the dialog box. The displayed measurement is the total time needed to traverse the path. . slide E back and forth along segment AB . . . . . . . • 3. . . Click Point|Coordinates. . . . . . . . . 0) appear. . . . BD into the edit box. . . . . . Once E is in its optimal position. . . and EC/20 + ED/10 = . . . Click Line|Segments. . . . . 8. . . . . . the ﬁgure: AE = 6. . . Explain why this could have been predicted. and press Enter. 2. . . . . . . Check that the mouse is in Btns|Segments mode.32876 . A E and CED is a path followed by an object whose speed is 10 in the upper medium and 20 in the lower medium. Uncheck Other|Measurement|Units. . Open the Meas dialog box and put the sum EC/10 + ED/20 on display. . As E moves from A to B . . . . . . . Click View|Window (or press Ctrl+W ) to center the ﬁgure within the window. . . . . . . trying to make the displayed measurement as small as possible. . . . Then use the left button to draw segments EC and ED. mark points C = (0. . . B D 4. .

Fill in the missing entries of the table below. It can be inferred by examining the table. 12 . rC 10 10 10 40 20 30 rD 30 20 10 30 10 10 EA EC/rC + ED/rD EA/EC EB/ED 10. A few more examples and measurements will help to reveal a pattern. Write a trigonometric description of Snell’s Law that relates the rates rC and rD to the angles ACE and BDE . Express this relationship in words. Express it in symbols. and EB/ED. EA/EC . You have now explored three problems of the same general form: Find the point E that minimizes the value of the expression EC/rC + ED/rD . because the numerators of the fractions represent distances and the denominators represent rates. The simple pattern known as Snell’s Law relates rC . and notice that there are two new quantities of interest. As the rate rD decreases. rD . Remember that each row requires a separate search.Snell’s Law Lab 9. The expression represents time. what happens to the optimal position of the point E ? What happens to the length of segment ED? What happens to the size of angle BDE ? Is it correct to say that rD and angle BDE linearly related? 11. 12.

. . . . 2. . . . . . . Press Escape to close the dialog box. . . . . . point at D. . . . . . . . . As you answer the following questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D E G C B A 6. . . . . . . . . . . F . . . . . . . . . Notice that the program marked midpoint E on segment BD when it drew the bisector EF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mark points B = (−9. . . . To see this. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and hold it down while you slide the mouse. Click Point|Coordinates. . . . 0) appears on the screen. . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . (a) How do the lengths GB and GD compare? (b) What must always be true about the sum of the distances GB and GA. . . . . . . . . click circle through. . . Right-click the point where line EF intersects segment AD. . . . . . . . . 13 . . . . . . . . (c) Describe what the trace of point G will look like as point D moves around the circle. . . . . . . . . . • . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The ﬁgure should now resemble the illustration. . . . . press the left button. . . .. . no matter what the position of point D? Explain. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . point anywhere on the circle and right-click to mark D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . but can be slid along it.. . . . . . . . . . . and click draw. . . . . . . . Click Circle|Radius-center. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . • • • . . .Ellipse Lab I 0. . . . . . . . . . . Click the Wingeom menu item Window|2-dim to create a small drawing window. . . With the mouse in Btns|Segments mode. . . . . . . . . 0). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . especially point G. . . . type BD into the edit box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Use the left button to draw segments AD and BD. . . . . . . . Use the left button to connect G to B . . . . . . type C into the adjacent box. . and press Enter (or click mark). . . . . . put the mouse into Btns|Drag vertices mode. . . . . . . . you may wish to move D around the circle (ﬁrst put the mouse back into Btns|Drag vertices mode) and observe what happens to the constructions. . . . . Open the Line|Perpendiculars|Bisector dialog. . . . . . . . . . . You should now see the circle centered at A that goes through C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . In the same way. . . . . . . . Press Escape to close the dialog box. . . and press Enter. . . Type 9 into the x box and 0 into the y box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The intersection point should now be labeled G. Point A = (9. . . Put the mouse into Btns|Segments mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . type A into the “centered at” box. . . . . 0) and C = (−21. . . The Meas dialog box may also be useful. . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . The point D is conﬁned to the circle. . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unlike the speciﬁc points in part I. . . . . . . . . . . the eccentricity was 3/5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Drag B close to the center A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . When you move points A. . . . . . . . . . . . Check the menu item Animate|Monitor tracings. . . . for any point G on that ellipse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What is the range of values of the eccentricity? What words would you use to describe the shape of the ellipse when the eccentricity has (a) a value near zero? (b) a value near one? 19. . . . . . . . Keep in mind that the sum GA + GB of the circle. . . drag the mouse to C .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The eccentricity AB/AD describes the shape of the ellipse. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B . These lines should of course change whenever you change the ellipse by moving A. . . . . . . . . . . In the part I example. . . . . Notice that the construction falls apart if B is outside the circle. . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recall that. . . Left-click A. . drag it inside before proceeding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and release. . . . . . . put 300 into the “steps” box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The sum GA + GB is equal to what dimension always equals the of the ellipse itself? (see step 11 of part I) 18. . . . . . . put the mouse into Btns|Circles mode. . .) Put the mouse into Btns|Segments mode and continue with the rest of the construction of G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (If B is not inside the circle. . . . • . . . Notice that the shape of the ellipse is diﬀerent this time. . . . . . . . B . . . . . . . . . . This creates the circle in step 2 of part I. . . Instead of plotting three speciﬁc points as in part I. . For a more accurate tracing. . . . . . . . . . . B A G D 17. . . . . A Challenge : In part I. . . . . . . File|Save the ﬁgure before proceeding. . . . . . . . . . . . by dragging C . . . . . the distance from G to the focus A was three ﬁfths of the distance from G to the corresponding directrix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . You can also experiment with changing the size of the circle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . points A. . the lines x = 25 and x = −25 were the directrices for the ellipse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with B closer to A than C is. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Now drag B close to the circle and notice the new shape. • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Use the Meas dialog to display the value of AB/AD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the eccentricity will change. . and C can be dragged around the screen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . This should help you construct the directrices for the generic ellipse in your ﬁgure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B . . . . . . or C . . . . . . . . . . .Ellipse Lab II 16. . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . It is interesting to see the eﬀect that diﬀerent positions have on the appearance of the elliptical path of point G. . . . . . . . or C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 . . . . . . . . B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and use the right button to mark three random points A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Click Animate|Tracing and repeat step 9 of part I. . . . . . . . Click File|New to start a new sketch. . . . . . . . . . . so that this tracing will respond when you drag points other than D. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ellipse Lab III 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . then measure the angles F GB and HGA. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slide D around the circle so that G slides around the ellipse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Now slide H along the line EF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Notice that HA + HB .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The displayed measurements should conﬁrm that GA + GB is constant for all points G on the ellipse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Put the mouse back into Btns|Drag vertices mode and slide D around the circle. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B A G D H 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . then Escape from the dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . thereby driving G around the ellipse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slide point H so that G is between F and H . . . . . . . . . . . . . right-click a new point H onto the line EF (the only line visible in the ﬁgure). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . which than the sum GA + GB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and watch the angle measurements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Use File|Old to retrieve the ﬁgure saved in step 17 above. . . . . . . . This constant is equal to the of the circle. . ask for the values of GA + GB and HA + HB (one at a time). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . is never tell us about the relationship between the ellipse and the line? 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . With the mouse in Btns|Segment mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . Use the left button to draw segments HA and HB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. What does this is evidently not constant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . Press Ctrl+L to turn on all the vertex labels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Click open the Meas dialog. . What important property of the ellipse does this illustrate? Explain how this property ensures that the minimum value of HA + HB for a point H on the line F G must indeed occur when H coincides with G. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Watch what happens when you drag A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Now put the mouse into Btns|Drag vertices mode. . . . . . . . . rightclick three points A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . This can be done in just two steps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and click Edit|Delete|Point to remove point D. . . . . . . . . . Put the mouse in Btns|Segments mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . type C into the “through point” box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and C onto the screen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . click Edit|Delete|Line to remove CD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and use the left button to draw segments AC and BC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and that C is a point on that ellipse. Escape from the dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Next click Line|Perpendiculars|General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Because the sum of lengths AC + BC is not being kept constant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C E A B 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . each line CE is tangent to a diﬀerent ellipse. . . . . 25. . . . . . Tangent line CE appears. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Click ellipse. . . . . . . and click draw. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and C around the screen. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24. . . . . Escape from the dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The problem is to construct the line that is tangent to the ellipse at C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . type AB into the “focal points” box. • . . . . . . . . . . . . and press Enter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . type C into the “point on conic” box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The ellipse is added to the conic inventory. . . To see the ellipses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . The bisecting ray CD should appear. . . . . . Suppose that points A and B represent the focal points of an ellipse. . . . . . . . and click draw. . . . . . . . open the Units|3-Point conics dialog box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Because there is no longer a need for the bisecting ray. . . . . .Ellipse Lab IV 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . B . . . . Drag C around the screen and notice how the line CE reacts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . First click Line|Angles|Bisect old. . . . . . . . . . . . type ACB into the edit box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . type CD into the “perpendicular to” box. . . . . Click File|New to make a fresh start. . . and the curve appears on the screen. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . type F and press Enter. . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Another special case occurs when the is 5. . . . . . . . . • •. . . . . . Click the Wingeom menu item Window|2-dim to create a small drawing window. . Click Circle|Radius-center. . . . . . . . . . . . More points are plotted when you move C slowly. . . . D E A C B F 5. . . . . . . . . . the program accumulates all of the corresponding positions for E and F in the ﬁgure. . With the mouse in Btns|Segments mode. . Right-click either point. . however — it disappears as soon as the screen is refreshed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The labels E and F will be applied to the intersections. . . . . Drag point C (which is actually the only point that can be dragged). . . This is only a temporary display. . . . . the circles you just drew should intersect in two places. . . . . . . . Unless C is too close to B . . . . . type 2+ BC into the adjacent box. . . . . . . . . When you drag C around the screen now. . . . . . . . . 4. A more permanent display is obtained next. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . The curve is called a hyperbola. . . . . . . . . then press Enter to make A = (−2. . . . The y -coordinate of one of these intersection points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Put the mouse into Btns|Drag points mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . type C into the adjacent box. You will see the coordinates for many points that are 2 units closer to B than they are to A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0) appear on the screen. Open the Point|Coordinates dialog box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . click circle radius. . . . . . Press Escape to close the dialog box. . . . . Click Animate|Temporary trace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Type −2 into the x box and 0 into the y box.. . . . . intersection points merge. . . . . . . 2. . right-click a random point C onto the screen approximately midway between A and B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The coordinates of E and F can be displayed: Open the Meas dialog box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and press Enter. . . . . . type E and press Enter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the resulting x-coordinate is 7. . . . Now type A into the “centered at” box. 18 . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Hyperbola Lab I 0. type B into the “centered at” box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . type EF into the edit box. . . . 1. . . . its x-coordinate is approximately . . . . In a similar fashion. . . . . and click draw. . . .. . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . then press Escape . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . click circle through. . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . and click draw. . . . . . . . . . . . . 0) appear. Escape from the dialog box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . make B = (2. . . . . . 6. .

. . . . . . . . Then use the left button to draw the segments AD and BD. . leave D roughly between A and B . . 20. . . . . . . . . type EF into one box and AD into the other. . . . . . . . . check the menu item Other|Autoextend by clicking it. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . G D E B A F 23. . . . Open the dialog Point|Intersection|Line-line. . . . .. . . . . . The Meas dialog box may also be useful. . . . . . . . . . Notice that the program marked midpoint E on segment BD when it drew the bisector EF . . . . . . . . . . . (c) Describe what the trace of point G will look like as point D moves around the circle. . . . . and hold it down while you slide the mouse. . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and click draw. . . . . . .. . Click Line|Perpendiculars|Bisector. Use the right button to mark two random points A and B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . So that the next label will appear. . . . . . . . . . . . Click File|New to start a new sketch. Press Escape to close the dialog box. Put the mouse into Btns|Segments mode. . . . . . . . . The ﬁgure should now resemble the illustration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . Point anywhere on the circle and click the right button to mark D. . . . . . . and use the left button to draw BG. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . type BD into the edit box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and a third random point C that is closer to A than B is. . . The point D is conﬁned to the circle. . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19. . • . . and press Enter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . point at D. . As you answer the following questions. . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . Observe what happens to the constructions. . . . . . . no matter what the position of point D? Respond carefully — this diﬀerence is not always positive. . . . . . . . and put the mouse into Btns|Segments mode. . . . . you may wish to move D around the circle (ﬁrst put the mouse back into Btns|Drag vertices mode). . You should now see the circle centered at A that goes through C . Press Escape to close the dialog box. . . 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . but can be slid along it. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and click mark. especially point G. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 . When you are done. . . . . . . press Ctrl+A to remove them. To see this. . . . . . . . . . . . . type C into the adjacent box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Hyperbola Lab III 16. (a) How do the lengths GB and GD compare? (b) What must always be true about the diﬀerence GA − GB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . click circle through. . . . . . . . . . . . type A into the “centered at” box. . . . . put the mouse into Btns|Drag vertices mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Click Circle|Radius-center. . . . If the coordinate axes are still on the screen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Label G should now mark the intersection of line EF and ray AD. . . . . . . . . press the left button. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Click Edit|Labels|Individual. . . . . . 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . With the mouse in Btns|Drag points mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . .. . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . .. B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Before proceeding further. . . . Click Edit|Delete|Line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and “high” (1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . open the inventory dialog box Animate|Tracing and click new. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Hyperbola Lab III 24. . . . . . . . . radius AC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and line EF in the construction of this hyperbola. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . To make this tracing respond when you drag points other than D. . . . . . . . G D B A 27. . . . . . . . . . .. It is time to clean up a bit. . . . . . . . . . . check the menu item Animate|Monitor tracings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . type DB into the box. . . . . . . . . Press Enter. . . . . . you can drag A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0). . . . . . . . . Summarize the roles played by point A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Press Escape to close this dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . File|Save the ﬁgure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Your ﬁgure should now resemble the illustration. . . . . . . . .0). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and press Enter. . . . . It is interesting to see what happens to the trace when B is closer to A than C is — the hyperbola turns into an ellipse! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The program will plot 100 diﬀerent positions for G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Click pen on vertex and type G into the adjacent box. . . . . . . . . type EF into the “vertices” box. . . . and connect the dots to form a curve called a hyperbola. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and C around the screen and see the eﬀect that this has on the tracing. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . “low” (0. . . . . . . . . . Click control vertex and type D into the adjacent box (this tells the program to produce the tracing by sliding D). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . Use the default values for “steps” (100). . . . . . . . . . . . . . To see a picture of the path of G. . . . . and click apply. . . . . . . . . click show label to uncheck it. . . . . The construction is superimposed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . point D. . 26. . . . 21 . .. . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . B . . . . . . . . . . . . Drag C around the screen and notice how the line CD reacts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and press Enter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . This can be done very quickly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . each line CD is tangent to a diﬀerent hyperbola. . . . 29. . . C B A D 22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and C around the screen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Notice what happens when you drag A. Now put the mouse into Btns|Drag vertices mode. . . . . . . . . . . The problem is to construct the line that is tangent to the hyperbola at C . . and C onto the screen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . To see the hyperbolas. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Click File|New to make a fresh start. . . . . . To make it into a tangent line. . . . . . . . Bisecting ray CD should appear. . . click Line|Extensions. . . . . . .Hyperbola Lab IV 28. . • . . . . . . . . open the Units|3-Point conics dialog box. . . . . . . . . . . . . type DC into the edit box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The hyperbola is added to the conic inventory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . First click Line|Angles|Bisect old.. Suppose that points A and B represent the focal points of a hyperbola. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . Escape from the dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . and press Enter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . Click hyperbola. . . . . . . . Because the diﬀerence of lengths AC − BC is not being kept constant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and click draw. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Put the mouse in Btns|Segments mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and the curve appears on the screen. type C into the “point on conic” box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and that C is a point on that hyperbola. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and use the left button to draw segments AC and BC . .. . . . . . . type ACB into the edit box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 30. . . . . . . rightclick three points A. . . . . . . . . . . type AB into the “focal points” box. . B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .