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1 CHEM 15.

1 Notes by F5XS  the curved surface of the water is called the meniscus  to read the volume of a liquid, keep your eye on the same level with the lowest point of the meniscus Fundamentals of Chemistry: Laboratory Note: Graduated glassware can only accurately measure liquids of 10% to 100% of its volume. Note: Use the forefinger in using a pipette. Note: A parallel-oriented plug gives a voltage of 220V while a straight plug gives a voltage of 110V.

 decantation is a process of separating a liquid from a dense insoluble substance by pouring off the liquid  the liquid that is poured off during decantation is called the supernatant liquid

 the separation of a solid from a liquid by passing the liquid through a membrane is called filtration  the liquid that passes the membrane is called the filtrate while the remaining solid is called the residue

 trailing zeros (zeros at the end after the decimal point) are significant  captive zeros (zeros within non-zeros) are significant  leading zeros before a decimal point are not significant but significant after the decimal point  final zeros that denote exact numbers are significant; not significant if the number is only an approximation  an exact number has an infinite number of significant figures  add or subtract decimals then round it off to the nearest least number of digits  multiply or divide decimals and reduce it to the least number of significant figures in one of the dividend/divisor/factor

Measurements  quantitative observation  to be meaningful it must consist of a number and a scale  expands by what our senses can perceive SI System of Measurement  organized to standard systems of measurement in the world  made to avoid confusion created by the existence of metric and English system SI Prefixes Common to Chemistry Physical Quantity Unit Prefix Unit Abbr. Exponent Length meter (𝑚) kilo 103 Mass kilogram (𝑘𝑔) 𝑘 deci 10-1 Time second (𝑠) 𝑑 centi 10-2 Temperature Kelvin (𝐾 ) 𝑐 milli 10-3 Luminous intensity candela (𝑐𝑑) 𝑚 micro 10-6 Electric current Ampere (𝐴) 𝜇 Amount of substance mole (𝑚𝑜𝑙) Metric conversions – conversions in

2 CHEM 15.1 Notes by F5XS Fundamentals of Chemistry: Laboratory

the metric system are merely a matter of moving a decimal point. The “base unit” means that you have a quantity without a prefix. Uncertainty in measurements  a digit that must be estimated is called uncertain  a measurement always has some degree of uncertainty  calibration is the difference among the smallest division Precision and Accuracy  accuracy refers to the agreement of the measured value with the true value  expressed in % error  %𝐸 =
measured-true true

× 100%

 a lower value means greater accuracy  depends on the capacity of the instrument and its calibration as well as on the person determining the instrument  precision is the agreement among values  expressed in terms of average deviation  𝑛  a lower value means greater precision  depends on the person making the measurement
measured-average

Importance of the following steps  addition of water – to dissolve the water-soluble component in the mixture  boiling the water – to further dissolve the water-soluble component  filtration – to separate the residue (water-insoluble component) from the filtrate (water-soluble component)  washing the residue with hot water – to ensure that all water-soluble component will be separated from the residue and transferred to the filtrate  evaporation – as water evaporates, the residue (water-soluble component) is left behind, returns to its original state and thus capable of being weighed for subsequent calculations Reminders during the experiment  use low blue flame when evaporating  to avoid splattering which could result to loss in mass of water-soluble component  further consequence is lower percentage of water-soluble component  weigh evaporating dish only when it is already cooled at room temperature  weighing while hot results in lower mass of water-soluble component Errors in the experiment  low sensitivity of some instruments resulting in probable inaccurate measurements  basic assumptions like all water-soluble component are soluble and waterinsoluble component remains insoluble in water  errors due to splattering and weighing of evaporating dish while hot  human errors

3 CHEM 15.1 Notes by F5XS Fundamentals of Chemistry: Laboratory

Graphs  quick way to represent data visually in a compact and convincing way  especially useful in analyzing huge amounts of data  can be pie, linear, bar, cone, etc. Reminders in making a good graph 1] figure titles  should be appropriate with the data it represents  located below the graph  should have a period at the end  order of graphs is usually indicated by a number 2] labels of axes  𝑥 -axis goes with the independent variable  𝑦-axis goes with the dependent variable  units of variables are also included and are enclosed in parentheses 3] proper scaling observation  scales within each axis should be consistent; if differences in scaling is 5 units, then use 5 all throughout, not 10 nor 2 in some parts of the axis  start your scale with a number slightly lower than the smallest data; similarly, end your scale with a number slightly higher than the largest data  use the lightning-like figure in axis when dealing with data that are enormously large; this will save up space and will make scaling relatively easy 4] best-fit curve  this is the line that goes through almost all data points  an advantage of using this line is that it excludes the errors of the data Slope ∆𝑦  ∆𝑥  indicates the relative steepness of the line  the larger the slope value, the steeper the line Interpolation  process of locating points within the graph  usually the dependent variable is the one missing or to be calculated  only reliable if data projects a trend or set of data has minimum errors  starting from the 𝑥 -axis, a broken line is written until it reaches the line graph and then projected into the 𝑦-axis  the data on the 𝑦-axis is the corresponding data for the 𝑥 -value in question On preparing the graph 1] indent the axes from the edge of the graphing paper 2] write the appropriate figure number and title of the graph below it 3] identify the independent and dependent variables 4] label each axis and indicate the units used 5] choose an appropriate scale 6] plot the points in the graph 7] draw the (best-fit) curve

4 CHEM 15.1 Notes by F5XS Fundamentals of Chemistry: Laboratory

Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. Composition refers to parts or components of a sample of matter and their relative proportions. Composition is seen through the models, properties, similarity among elements/compounds) and differences among elements/compounds. Properties refer to qualities or attributes that can be used to distinguish one sample of matter from the other. This is usually established visually. Physical Property is a property that a sample displays without changing its composition. Physical change refers to the change of physical appearance of a substance. Some of the physical properties of a sample of a matter may change, but its composition remains unchanged. Phase change is also an example of physical change. Chemical property refers to the ability (or inability) of a sample of a matter to undergo a change in composition. Chemical change happens when a sample of matter is converted into a new sample with different composition. It can occur even without addition of a chemical or a reagent. Indications of chemical change include evolution of gas, increase in temperature, change in color, and formation of precipitates. Elements are homogenous pure substances that are made up of only one atom. They cannot be broken down into simpler substances. Compounds are homogenous pure substances that are made up of two or more atoms. They can be broken down into simpler substances through appropriate chemical means. Homogenous pure substances have uniform composition and properties throughout a given sample. Homogenous mixtures have uniform composition ad properties throughout a given sample, but the composition and properties may vary from one sample to another. Heterogeneous mixtures have components that are separated into distinct regions, making the composition and property vary from one mixture to another. Homogenous substances cannot be easily identified as a mixture and therefore needs a device like a microscope. Mixtures can be separated into its components by appropriate chemical changes. Boiling point  temperature at which the vapor pressure equals the standard atmospheric pressure  temperature at which liquid converts to a gas  the boiling point of pure substances is constant and straight; the boiling point of mixtures varies across time Intensive properties are independent of the quantity of matter under observation. Extensive properties are, by contrast, dependent of the quantity of matter

Electrons  located outside the nucleus and has a negative charge

5 CHEM 15.1 Notes by F5XS Fundamentals of Chemistry: Laboratory

 discovered by Eugene Goldstein  can probably be located 90% of the time in one of the orbitals Quantum numbers  describe the orbitals  have discrete quantities (either an integer or half-integer  has four kinds  principal quantum number, 𝒏  refers to the main energy levels which describes the probable distance of the electron from the nucleus  can take positive integer values starting from 0  angular momentum / azimuthal quantum number, 𝓵  refers to the shape of the orbitals which is the surface that contains 90% of the total electron probability  can take positive integer values from 0 to 𝑛 − 1 o the 𝑠 orbital has a spherical shape centered around the origin of the three axes in space o there are three dumbbell-shaped 𝑝 orbitals in each energy level above 𝑛 = 1, each assigned to its own axis in space o things get a bit more complicated with the five 𝑑 orbitals that are found in the 𝑑 sublevels beginning with 𝑛 = 3  magnetic quantum number, 𝒎𝓵  refers to the spatial orientation of the electrons  can take integer values from −ℓ to ℓ, including 0  spin quantum number, 𝒎𝒔  refers to the electron spin which describes the behavior of an electron within a magnetic field  can take either + 1 2 or − 1 2 An orbital is a region in the atomic space where the electron is most likely to be found. It is characterized by a set of quantum numbers. Pauli’s Exclusion Principle states that in a given atom, no two electrons can have the same set of four quantum numbers. Aufbau Principle states that electrons would most likely occupy the lower energy orbitals first before continuing to the next orbitals. Identifying the lower level orbitals is determined by the (𝒏 + 𝓵) rule, which states that the lower the (𝑛 + ℓ) value, the lower the energy of the orbital. In case of equal 𝑛 + ℓ , the orbital with the lower 𝑛 has the lower the energy. Hund’s Rule states that every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in degenerate orbitals have the same spin. To get the valence electron configuration of an atom, identify the corresponding orbitals of a given principal quantum number. Only the corresponding orbitals of the last principal quantum number will be used for the valence electron configuration. To get the noble gas configuration of an atom, identify the electron configuration of the highest possible noble gas that is lower than the given atom. Then replace that part of the configuration found in the electron configuration of the atom with the chemical symbol of the noble gas enclosed in braces.

6 CHEM 15.1 Notes by F5XS Fundamentals of Chemistry: Laboratory

The effective nuclear charge, denoted as Zeff, is the net positive charge experienced by an electron in a many-electron atom. 𝑍𝑒𝑓𝑓 = 𝑍 − 𝜎 where 𝜎 is the shielding constant exerted by the electrons. Atomic Property Trends Greater at lower-left Greater at upper-right Atomic Size First Ionization Energy Cation Formation Tendency* Anion Formation Tendency* Electron Affinity* Electronegativity * doesn’t apply with noble gases

Rules for naming binary compounds: 1] identify the elements present in the compound given by the chemical formula 2] change the suffix of the less metallic element to –ide* 3] use the prefix corresponding to the number of atoms present in the compound * In accordance with established practice, the elements in a covalent compound are placed and named first in the sequence: Rn – Xe – Kr – Si – Sb – B – As – P – H – Te – At – Se – C – I – Br – N – Cl – O – F Rules for writing chemical formulas of binary compounds: 1] represent each kind of element in a compound 2] indicate by a subscript the number of atoms of each element in a molecule of that compound 3] write the symbol of the more metallic element first (H is an exception) Rules for naming ionic compounds: 1] write the name of the cation first, followed by the name of the anion 2] write the suffix of the cation depending on the charge (refer to a table) and replace the suffix of the anion with –ide Rules for writing chemical formulas of ionic compounds: 1] write the symbol of the cation followed by the symbol of the anion 2] balance the charge of the ions to have a net charge of 0 by adding or removing instances of ions 3] for hydrates, follow the chemical formula with a central dot and the correct amount of water molecules Rules for naming binary acids  if a binary acid, fill the prefix of the anion to hydro_____ic  if an oxyacid…  if the anion ends in –ate, fill the prefix of the anion to _____ic acid  if the anion ends in –ite, fill the prefix of the anion to _____ous acid A mole is a quantity that contains approximately 6.02×1023 particles. It is defined as the quantity of a substance that contains the same number of particles as are contained in precisely 12.00g of a particular isotope of Carbon, 12C.

7 CHEM 15.1 Notes by F5XS 𝑚𝑜𝑙 = Fundamentals of Chemistry: Laboratory 𝑚 no.of particles = 𝑀𝑀 𝑁𝐴

Boyle’s Law states that at constant temperature, the pressure of a given amount of gas is inversely proportional to its volume. The product of pressure and volume is equal to a constant. 𝑃𝑉 = 𝑘1 Charles’ Law states that at constant pressure, the volume of a given amount of gas is directly proportional to its absolute or Kelvin temperature. The ratio of volume to the temperature is equal to a constant. 𝑉 𝑇 = 𝑘2 Avogadro’s Law states that at a give temperature and pressure, the volume of gas is directly proportional to the quantity of gas, in moles. The ratio of volume to the amount of gas in moles is equal to a constant. 𝑉 𝑛 = 𝑘3 Using all three laws, the result can be expressed in the terms of 𝑃𝑉 = 𝑛𝑅𝑇, which is the ideal gas law, where 𝑃 is the pressure of gas (in atm), 𝑉 is the volume of gas (in L), 𝑛 is the number of moles of gas, 𝑇 is the temperature (in 𝐿∙𝑎𝑡𝑚 Kelvin), and 𝑅 is the ideal gas constant, which is equal to 0.0821 . 𝑚𝑜𝑙
∙𝐾

In 1916, Gilbert Newton Lewis represented the structure of elements and compounds by using the symbol of the elements, and dots representing valence electrons. This is later on referred to as the Lewis structure. The Lewis structure of ionic compounds usually has the cation permanently transferring electrons to the anion, instead of atoms bonding. The Lewis structure of covalent compounds usually has bonds that hold the atoms together in a molecule which are called covalent bonds, unlike in ionic compounds. The octet rule states that an atom other than hydrogen tends to form bond/s until it is surrounded by eight valence electrons. General guidelines for writing Lewis structure of simple molecules  determine the number of valence electrons to be distributed in the Lewis structure  write a skeletal structure for the molecule indicating the arrangement of the atoms and which ones are bonded to one another  place one pair of electrons between each bonded atom to make a single bond between each pair of bonded atoms  use the remaining electrons, place lone pair around the terminal atoms to satisfy the octet rule  if there are still remaining electrons, place them around the central atom as lone pairs  move the electrons to form double or triple bonds in order to satisfy the octet rule for the central atom Resonance structures are Lewis structures of the same molecule that are same in structure but have different electron and bond placement. Three exceptions to the octet rule  incomplete octet have less than eight electrons surrounding the central atom

8 CHEM 15.1 Notes by F5XS Fundamentals of Chemistry: Laboratory

 expanded octet have more than eight electrons surrounding the atom (by using the d orbitals)  odd electron species or free radicals are species that have an unpaired electron The formal charges of atoms are apparent charges on atoms in a Lewis structure. It is calculated using this: ½ of the total number of number of formal number of non-bonded = valence electrons − − charge bonding in the free atom electrons electrons There are guidelines in selecting the most plausible resonance structure using the formal charges:  for neutral molecules, the Lewis structure with atoms bearing the lowest formal charges (closest to zero) is most preferred  the most electronegative atoms in a Lewis structure should bear negative formal charges while the least electronegative atoms should bear positive formal charges  adjacent atoms in a Lewis structure should not have formal charges of the same sign

Molecules are stable units formed by sharing electrons through intermolecular bonding. They don’t exist in metals, ionic compounds or covalent network substances. Intermolecular Forces of Attraction  forces causing aggregation of compounds of a substance to form a liquid or solid  occurs between rather than within molecules  responsible for changes in physical states  affects boiling point, vapor pressure, viscosity, and surface tension Types of IMFA  London dispersion forces are weak and short-lived forces of attraction that exists in all molecules  Dipole-dipole interaction exists in polar molecules which exhibit dipole moment  Hydrogen bonding  strong dipole-dipole forces  seen in molecules where it is covalently bound to any of highly electronegative elements N, O, or F  objects are electrically charged by rubbing  electrical charges of opposite signs attract each other Surface tension is a property possessed by liquid surface whereby they appear to be covered by a thin elastic membrane in a state of tension. For a given volume of a substance, the shape with the least surface area is a sphere.

9 CHEM 15.1 Notes by F5XS Fundamentals of Chemistry: Laboratory

Solids are substances that have definite volume and shape. Pure solid substances are classified into four different types:  metallic substances  ionic solid  covalent molecular  covalent network Electrical conductivity  ability to conduct electric current which requires movement of charged particles  differences in conductivity lie mainly on  the kind of particles present  forces of attraction existing between particles Metals  structural unit is composed of positive ions, metal atoms, surrounded by sea of delocalized electrons  force of attraction that holds the metal atoms together is the metallic bonding, joined by extreme delocalized bonds  metals conduct electricity in their solid and molten state but in aqueous state, which are insoluble except for some which react  electron sea model is composed of…  cations – particles which form the crystal lattice; occupy fixed positions in a lattice or array  sea of electrons – electrons list by metal atoms; electrons move freely in the lattice The introduction of an electric field to the metal in its solid or molten states causes these electrons to flow, producing electric current. Ionic substances  structural unit is composed of ions bound by ionic bonding  ionic substances conduct electricity in their molten and aqueous state but not in solid state  electrolytic conduction occurs in ionic substances in the molten or aqueous state. Covalent molecular compounds  structural unit is composed of atoms or molecules bonded by covalent bonding and interacts using IMFA  covalent molecular substances do not conduct electricity in any state except for some when dissolved in water  molecular compounds do not conduct electricity unless they react with H2O (ex. HCl) to form ions; the molecules are electrically neutral and there are no charged carriers Covalent Network  structural unit is composed of atoms joined together by covalent bonding  covalent network substances do not conduct electricity in any state and are insoluble in water

10 CHEM 15.1 Notes by F5XS Fundamentals of Chemistry: Laboratory

 graphite is an exception as each carbon is bonded to three other carbon and one electron is delocalized; diamond does not conduct electricity since each carbon atom is bonded to four other carbon atoms

Energy is the capacity to do work. The law of conservation of energy states that energy can be converted from one form to another but can neither be created nor destroyed. Potential energy is the energy due to the position or composition of the substance while kinetic energy is the energy due to motion. Temperature is a property of substances that reflects the random motion of particles in a particular substance while heat is the transfer of energy between two objects due to temperature difference. Temperature reflects the intensity of the random kinetic energy in matter while heat is the amount of energy available for heat flows depends on quantity of matter at a given temperature. A cooling curve is a graphical representation of the changes of states with uniform removal of heat from a substance.

At 𝑡0 to 𝑡1 , as heat is removed from the gas, the average kinetic energy of the particles of the gas decreases and the temperature drops until the temperature is reached at 𝑡1 where the gas starts to liquefy. The temperature at which the gas and liquid coexist is the liquefaction or condensation point of the substance. The liquefaction point and the boiling point of a substance are, therefore, equivalent. At 𝑡1 to 𝑡2 , also known as the liquefaction/condensation point, there is no change in the average kinetic energy of the particles and so the temperature of the substance stays constant. The heat removed is, therefore, compensated for by the release of the stored potential energy, decreasing the potential energy of the substance. The amount of gas naturally decreases and the amount of liquid increases. Eventually, at 𝑡2 , sufficient heat has been removed to convert all the gas to liquid.

11 CHEM 15.1 Notes by F5XS Fundamentals of Chemistry: Laboratory

At 𝑡2 to 𝑡3 , as heat is removed, the average kinetic energy of the particles of the liquid decreases and the temperature drops until the temperature at 𝑡3 is reached where the liquid starts to solidify. The temperature at which the liquid and solid coexist is the freezing or crystallization point of the substance. The freezing point and the melting point of a substance are, therefore, equivalent. At 𝑡3 to 𝑡4 , also known as the freezing point, there is no chance in the average kinetic energy of the particles and so the temperature of the substance stays constant. The heat removed is compensated for by the release of stored potential energy, decreasing the potential energy of the substance, as the liquid particles are converted to solid. The amount of liquid gradually decreases and the amount of solid increases. Eventually, at 𝑡4 , sufficient heat has been removed to convert all the liquid to solid. The Phenomenon of Supercooling At the expected freezing point of a substance, the particles may not be oriented properly to fit the crystalline lattice. When heat continues to be removed from the substance in the absence of crystallization, the temperature of the liquid drops down below its expected freezing point and the liquid is said to be supercooled. Once the correct pattern has been built up to sufficient size, additional particles may rapidly accumulate. Potential energy is suddenly released and the energy that is evolved increases the average kinetic energy of the particles and the temperature rises until it coincides with the freezing point after which the substance behaves normally. Supercooling may be reduced by the introduction of a seed crystal, on which crystallization can occur, thereby initiating the proper structure. As some substances like glass, rubber and many plastics are cooled, their molecules move so slowly that they never find the proper orientation to form the crystalline solid and an amorphous solid results instead. Amorphous solids are actually supercooled liquids which do not have a sharp, well-defined melting point, but instead gradually soften when heated. A heating curve (see next page) is essentially the opposite of a cooling curve. It graphically illustrates the changes of states with uniform addition of heat to a substance. The distance of the time axis is a measure of the amount of heat added at a constant rate. At 𝑡0 to 𝑡1 , as heat is added to the solid, the motion (kinetic energy) of the particles of the solid increases and the solid progressively becomes slightly less ordered. Since temperature measures kinetic energy, the temperature rises until the temperature is reached at 𝑡1 where the solid starts to melt. The temperature at which solid and liquid coexist is the melting point of the substance. At 𝑡1 to 𝑡2 , also known as the melting point, there is no change in the average kinetic energy of the particles and so the temperature of the substances stays constant. The added heat is used to overcome the forces of attraction between the particles of the solid and is thereafter stored as potential energy, increasing the potential energy of the substance. The amount of solid gradually decreases and the amount of liquid increases at this point. Eventually, at 𝑡2 , sufficient heat has ben added to convert all the solid to liquid.

12 CHEM 15.1 Notes by F5XS Fundamentals of Chemistry: Laboratory

At 𝑡2 to 𝑡3 , as heat is added, the average kinetic energy of the particles of the liquid increases and the temperature rises until the temperature at 𝑡3 is reached where the liquid starts to evaporate. The temperature at which liquid and gas coexist is the boiling point of the substance. At 𝑡3 to 𝑡4 , also known as the boiling point, there is no change in the average kinetic energy of the particles and so the temperature of the substance stays constant. The added heat is used to overcome the forces of attraction between the particles of the liquid and is stored as potential energy, increasing the potential energy of the substance. The amount of liquid gradually decreases and the amount of gas increases. Eventually, at 𝑡4 , sufficient heat has been added to convert all the liquid to gas. The Phenomenon of Superheating The bubbles formed at the boiling point provide internal space at which the liquid can evaporate. Bubbles form easily in a vessel with irregular inner surface. In a vessel with smooth inner surface, bubbles may not form easily so that the liquid is heated to a temperature above the boiling point without evaporation. This process is known as superheating.

At the first and second graphs of the cooling curve, the melting point range is obtained. This usually occurs when the substance contains impurities. At the third graph, the temperature rise denotes that a substance has supercooled.

13 CHEM 15.1 Notes by F5XS Fundamentals of Chemistry: Laboratory

Types of chemical reactions  combination [A + B + ⋯ → C] reactions involve two or more elements or compounds reacting to form a bigger compound  in a decomposition [A → B + C + D + ⋯] reaction, a single compound is broken down into two or more simpler substances; usually requires heat when solid is being decomposed  in a single displacement [AB + C → AC + B] reaction, either the cation or anion of an ionic compound is replaced by an uncombined element  double displacement [AB + CD → AD + CB] reaction  a precipitation reaction is a type of double displacement reaction where two ionic compounds dissolved in water are combined to form two new ones by exchanging cations and anions with one another, with one of the resulting compounds soluble in water while the other is insoluble  a neutralization reaction involves the reaction between an acid and a base to form water and a salt  combustion is a special type of reaction which involves the reaction of a substance with oxygen and evolution of heat Rules on solubility  most nitrates (NO3 ) are soluble  most salts containing alkali metal ions (Li+, Na+, K+, Cs+, Rb+) and the ammonium ion (NH+ 4 ) are soluble  most chlorides (Cl-), bromides (Br-), and iodides (I-) are soluble except Ag+, Pb2+, and Hg2+ 2  most sulfate salts are soluble except BaSO4, PbSO4, HgSO4, and CaSO4  most hydroxide salts are only slightly soluble while Ba(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, and Ca(OH)2 are marginally soluble  most sulfide, carbonate, and phosphate salts are only slightly soluble
-

Chemical Equations represents the changes that take place during chemical reactions. Balancing chemical equations show substances that reacted and substances produced and the amount of each substance on both sides. The coefficients before the substance denotes the relative amounts of substances involved. 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O reactants products Physical states of substances when balancing chemical equations include solid, liquid, gas, and aqueous state.

Chemical Stoichiometry  quantitative relationship of the amounts of reactants and amount of products formed  mass relationship expressed in a balanced reaction

14 CHEM 15.1 Notes by F5XS Fundamentals of Chemistry: Laboratory

 factors that limit the yield of products in a reaction are…  amount of starting reaction  percent yield of reaction which are affected by changes in pressure and temperature  chemicals react according to fixed mole ratios  only a limited amount of product is formed from a given amount of starting materials  the limiting reactant is complete consumed and determines the amount of product formed while the excess reactant does not completely get used up in a reaction

A solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of a solute and a solvent. The solvent is the component that retains its state when solution is formed and dissolves the other component. When both components are liquid, the substance with higher amount is chosen as solvent. The solute is the component being dissolved by the solvent. A solute is said to be soluble if it is a solid dissolved in the solvent while it is said to be miscible if it is a liquid dissolved in the solvent. A dissolution process is said to be exothermic if the process involves releasing of heat while it is said to be endothermic if the process involves absorption of heat. Solubility refers to the maximum amount of solute that is dissolved in a given amount of solvent at a given temperature. There are three factors affecting solubility:  pressure  as pressure is increased, the number of collisions of gas particles with the surface of the liquid increases, thus the rate of capture of gas molecules by the liquid also increases  temperature  solubility of gases in liquids  as temperature is increased, there results in an increase in kinetic energy of the gas molecules, thus a large fraction of gas molecules will possess the kinetic energy required enabling them to escape from the liquid  solubility of solids in liquids  may either increase or decrease with the change in temperature depending on whether the solution process is endothermic or exothermic  if a dissolution is exothermic, then an increase in temperature will increase the solubility of the liquid  if a dissolution is endothermic, then an increase in temperature will decrease the solubility of the liquid  as temperature is increased, entropy is also increased; the dissolution of solids in liquid is thus favored because the liquid state is more disorderly than the solid state  nature of solute and solvent

15 CHEM 15.1 Notes by F5XS Fundamentals of Chemistry: Laboratory

Types of solutions based on the relative amount of dissolved and undissolved solute:  saturated, if a solution that contains the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in a given volume of solvent and has a concentration equal to the solubility of the solute  unsaturated, if a solution contains an amount of solute less than its solubility  supersaturated, if the solution may contain an amount of solute greater than its solubility under special conditions There are three important interactions that operate in the solution process:  solute-solute interactions  attraction between the solute particles  in overcoming these forces of attraction that bind solute particles together, energy must be supplied to the system  solvent-solvent interactions  attraction between solvent particles  this is energy-requiring since you are pushing apart the solvent to provide space to accommodate solute particles  solute-solvent interactions  attraction between the solvent and solute particles  the formation of these forces of attraction should provide the energy required to overcome both the solute-solute and solvent-solvent interactions  the stronger the attractive forces between unlike molecules of particles, the greater the solubility  a polar substance will most likely dissolve a polar substance while a nonpolar substance will most likely dissolve a nonpolar substance

A reduction-oxidation reaction, or simply redox reaction, is a reaction which involves the transfer of electrons from one substance to another. Oxidation is a half reaction that involves the loss of electrons while reduction is a half reaction that involves the gain of electrons. The oxidizing agent is a reactant which oxidizes the other reactant and which undergoes reduction. The reducing agent is a reactant which reduces the other reactant and which undergoes oxidation. The standard reducing potential table is a list of oxidizing agents, in order of increasing strengths with corresponding potentials, denoted by 𝐸°. 𝐸° is determined by comparing with the potential of standard hydrogen electrode (one mole in aqueous solution or 1 𝑎𝑡𝑚 for gases at 25°𝐶 ) Identifying half reactions  reduction half-reaction (RHR) involves the gain of electrons; electrons appear on the reactant side  oxidation half-reaction (OHR) involves the loss of electrons; electrons appear on the product side On determining the reducing agent, oxidizing agent and their relative strengths  potential, also called voltage or electromotive force, unit: volts, is the measure of the tendency of the half reaction to occur

16 CHEM 15.1 Notes by F5XS Fundamentals of Chemistry: Laboratory

 reduction potential is the tendency of species to acquire electrons; the more positive the reaction, the greater is the tendency to occur  oxidation potential is the tendency of species to lose electrons Voltaic/Galvanic Cell  named after Luigi Galvani and Alessandro Volta  an electrochemical device where a spontaneous oxidation reduction takes place and generates electrical energy  salt bridge contains a concentrated solution of a strong electrolyte; thus ions diffuse out of the solution  the cation and the anion to be used should be about the same size and of the same magnitude so that they diffuse at the same rate; they must also be inert towards the solutions and towards the electrons Cell Potential is the potential of overall reaction of the redox reaction. It is computed by getting the sum of the potentials of the two reactions.

The sodium hydroxide pellets should increase in mass after standing because it is hygroscopic. Thus, there is a need to standardize the sodium hydroxide solution because its concentration would not be exactly 0.1M because its mass increased. Rates of Reaction  change in concentration of a reactant on a per unit time  expressed in terms of the increase in the concentration of a product per unit time, or the decrease in concentration of reactant per unit time Factors affecting rate of reaction  nature of reacting species  concentration  temperature  presence of a catalyst Collision Theory of reaction rates  for a chemical reaction to occur, the reacting species should collide with each other  the collision may or may not be effective; a collision is effective when it results in a chemical reaction  for an effective collision to occur…  reacting species must have a particular orientation during collision  the collision must occur with enough energy, called activation energy

17 CHEM 15.1 Notes by F5XS Reaction Pathways Fundamentals of Chemistry: Laboratory

Reaction pathway for an exothermic reaction Effect of concentration on rate of reaction

Reaction pathway for an endothermic reaction

Reaction pathway for an uncatalyzed Reaction pathway for an catalyzed reaction reaction  the catalyst lowers the energy barrier but does not affect the actual energy of products or reactants

 state of equilibrium exists not only in gaseous systems but also in reactions occurring in solutions  a chemical equilibrium is a state where the concentrations of all the reactants and products remain constant with time The following conditions exist when a process has reached a state of equilibrium:  a dynamic situation in which the forward and reverse processes continue to take place though the reaction appears to have stopped  a balance in which the rate of formation of the products is just equal to the rate at which they are being decomposed  a definite mathematical relationship

18 CHEM 15.1 Notes by F5XS Fundamentals of Chemistry: Laboratory

 if 𝐾𝑒𝑞 > 1, more of the product is formed, and the direction of the reaction is forward  if 𝐾𝑒𝑞 < 1, more of the reactant is formed, and the direction of the reaction is backward  if 𝐾𝑒𝑞 = 1, the reaction is in a state of chemical equilibrium Effect of concentration (Fe3+ + SCN − ⇔ FeSCN2+)  increase of Fe3+ from Fe NO3 3  increases the rate of forward reaction  increases in collisions to form more FeSCN2+ until another equilibrium is reacted  equilibrium shifts forward  a darker solution was observed because of the increase in FeSCN 2+  increase of SCN from KSCN −  increases the rate of forward reaction  increases in collisions to form FeSCN 2+ until another equilibrium is reached  increase in H2 PO− 4  decreases the concentration of free Fe3+ because of the reaction: Fe3+ + 2+ H2 PO− 4 ⇔ FeH2 PO4 (colorless) Generalization: Increasing the concentration of a substance in equilibrium mixture displaces the equilibrium in the direction which consumes some of the added materials. Conversely, decreasing the concentration of a substance favors the reaction which produces it. Effect of pressure (2NO2 ⇔ N2 O4 )  the gaseous equilibrium is initially brown; initially after pushing the plunger…  brown color intensified because of the sudden compression of the gas molecules  increase in gas pressure by sudden decrease in volume increases the concentrations of both NO2 and N2 O4 to the same degree thus the brown color intensified  after few seconds, the color of the gas became light brown  when equilibrium has been reestablished, the resulting mixture is lighter in color than the original  the rate of decomposition of N2 O4 is not appreciably affected by change in its concentration upon the sudden compression but the rate of reaction of NO2 molecules to form N2 O4 is increased because it increased in number of molecules Generalization: Increasing the pressure of the system by decreasing the volume of container favors the reaction which produces the less number of molecules. On the other hand, decreasing the pressure by increasing the volume favors the reaction which increases the total number of molecules.

Reaction Quotient (𝐐)  similar to K but uses initial concentration  if Q < 𝐾 , the equilibrium shifts forward  if Q > 𝐾 , the equilibrium shifts backward

19 CHEM 15.1 Notes by F5XS Fundamentals of Chemistry: Laboratory

 if Q = K, there is no shift and the system is at equilibrium

Electrolytes are substances whose solutions in a given liquid contain positive and negative ions regardless whether these ions existed in the pure solute or were formed in the process of solutions and are capable of conducting electricity. Non-electrolytes are solutes whose solutions in a given liquid contain molecules and thus are non-conductors of electricity. Covalent electrolytes are compounds which are not ionic but behave like typical electrolytes when dissolved in water; thus they give solutions that contain ions. Weak electrolytes do not dissociate completely in a solution while strong electrolytes dissociate completely in a solution. Strong acids; like HCl, H2 SO4 , HClO4 , HI, HBr, and HNO3 ; and strong bases, which includes all hydroxides of Group 1 and 2 elements, are also strong electrolytes. Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases identify acids (a proton donor) and bases (proton acceptor) and their corresponding conjugate base and conjugate acid in a dissolution process. Calculations of pH of strong and weak acids and bases  pH = − log H3 O+  H3 O+ = 10−pH  pOH = − log OH−  OH− = 10−pOH  pH + pOH = 14

A buffer solution is a solution whose pH remains almost constant despite dilution or addition of small amounts of either an acid or a base After the dissociation of a weak acid/base into water, a conjugate base/acid and a conjugate acid/base will be formed. If a weak acid is dissociated into water, the ion from the acid becomes a conjugate base while water becomes hydronium and a conjugate acid. If an acid is added to the (acid) buffer solution, the conjugate base neutralizes it. If a base is added to the (acid) buffer solution, the acid neutralizes it.

Radioactivity is a phenomenon in which an unstable nuclei spontaneously emits various particles and/or electromagnetic radiation. Rules in balancing chemical reactions:  the total number of nucleons in the products must be equal as that in the reactants  the total number of nuclear charges in the products and the reactants must be the same

20 CHEM 15.1 Notes by F5XS Fundamentals of Chemistry: Laboratory

Types of radioactive decay:  alpha emission involves the emission of a 4 2 He or an α particle from an unstable nucleus, resulting in a daughter nuclide with a mass number four less A −4 4 and atomic number two less than the parent nuclide: A Z X → Z −2 J + 2 He  beta (electron) emission is the emission of a high speed electron from an unstable nucleus and can be thought of as the conversion of a neutron to a 1 1 proton and electron with the emission of the electron: 1 0 n → 1 H + −1 e  positron emission results in a daughter nuclide that has the same mass 1 0 number, but an atomic number one less than the parent nuclide: 1 1p → 0n + 1e  electron capture occurs when an unstable nucleus captures an electron from 1 1 a core atomic orbital of an atom: 1 1 p + −1 e → 0 n + γ  gamma emission results from the loss of energy from an excited state of a A nucleus: A 𝑚 ZX → ZX + γ Rate of radioactive decay: The half-life for a radioactive decay is given by ln 2 over the decay constant, 𝑘 . ln 2 𝑡1 = 𝑘 2 𝑁 The relationship between the fraction of radioactive nuclei, 𝑡 , and time, 𝑡, is 𝑁
0

given by: ln 𝑁𝑡 = −𝑘𝑡 𝑁0