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Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(9): 729-737, 2011 ISSN 1991-8178

Impact of Algal Addition to Mature Compost as Affected by Different Moisture Levels
Manal A. H. El-Gamal Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Soils, Water & Environment Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt
Abstract: According to the potentiality of cyanobacteria to fix atmospheric nitrogen and excrete a great number of substances that improve plant growth and productivity, the current study was conducted to use cyanobacteria as compost supplier; especially nitrogen element and to encourage the compost microorganisms activities in the purpose to increase the decomposition rate of mature compost and consequently the availability of many nutrients, that in turn help in plant growth. Changes in compost properties, including total and available (NH4-N & NO3-N) nitrogen content, organic matter content, C: N ratio and total microbial activity were examined due to the addition of two species of cyanobacteria (Spirulina maxima Nostoc muscorum); which applied either alone and mixed in two rates (5 or 10 ml / 100 g compost); during two months of incubation, using three rates of moisture content in the form of liquid : solid ratios (1: 4, 1: 2 and 1: 1). Compost microbial activities, in terms of dehydrogenase enzyme activity, were enhanced due to applying cyanobacteria. These activities led to accelerating the decomposition rate of compost and increasing the availability of inorganic forms of nitrogen content (NH4-N & NO3-N) to high extent in some treatments. C: N ratio of compost treated with algae was reduced due to increase in total nitrogen content of compost, compared with the non treated compost (control). In this study, moisture content proved to be a dominant factor impacting both algal and microbial activity of the compost. Liquid: solid ratio of 1: 2 could be considered as the optimal ratio for algal activity, which affected positively all tested parameters. Key words: Mature compost, cyanobacteria, moisture levels, algal biomass, microbial activity, decomposition rate and mineralization. INTRODUCTION The application of compost is a current environmental and agricultural practice for maintaining soil organic matter, reclaiming degraded soils and supplying plant nutrients. Using compost improves soil structure, texture, and aeration as well as increasing the soil's water-holding capacity. Adding compost improves soil fertility and stimulates healthy root development in plants. The organic matter in compost provides nutrients for microorganisms, which keeps the soil in a healthy, balanced condition (Bernal et al., 1998) and also to control the environmental pollution from debris (Sarwar et al., 2009). Algae especially nitrogen fixer cyanobacteria have been used in agriculture for many years, and their ability to carry out both photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation confers on them an ecological and agricultural advantage as a renewable natural resource of biological nitrogen. Researches have clearly shown that one of the most effective nitrogen-fixing biological systems in the rice fields are certain blue-green algae that contribute about 25-30 kg N/ha/season (Venkataraman, 1979). Moreover, blue-green algae excrete many types of substances (growth promoting regulators, vitamins, amino acids, polypeptides, antibacterial and antifungal substances and polymers, especially exopolysaccharides) that improve plant growth and productivity (De-Mule et al., 1999). Bio-fertilization techniques, which using algal extract are recommended for increasing the growth parameters of many plants (Adam, 1999). Also, Abd El-Moniem et al. (2008) found that organic fertilization accompanied with algal extract gave the best results with regard to chemical properties of banana fruit. Algalization also increases the organic matter content of the soil thereby enhancing its fertility and protect the environments (Cresswell et al., 1989). Moisture content is an important environmental variable as it provides a medium for the transport of dissolved nutrients required for the metabolic and physiological activities of microorganisms in compost
Corresponding Author: Manal A. H. El-Gamal, Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Soils, Water & Environment Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt

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B. Spirulina maxima and Nostoc muscorum.. Moisture EC dS m-1 pH OM % TNg kg-1 OC % C:N ratio Total available nitrogen content % (1:10 H2O) (1:10H2O) (NH4-N & NO3-N) mg 100g-1 10. and improving the efficiency of this process.00 14. the changes in microbial activities were strongly affected by moisture content of compost.88 Chlorophyll a & b µg/g 9. Microbial Determinations: Algal growth was followed by the changes of chlorophyll a&b concentrations. and it had a significant effect on the growth rate of Fischerella sp. which measured using the colorimetric method described by Tabatabai (1994). 2011 (Stentiford. Also..01 4. Much of the researches have been focused on the changes in physico-chemical of composting process. Dept. Total organic carbon was calculated from the organic matter value using the conventional 730 . but also to evaluate the effect of different moisture contents on algal and microbial activities. Table 1: Bio-chemical characteristics of the tested compost (on dry wt.Nitrogen availability was followed by determination of both NH4-N and NO3-N in sample as described by Page et al. expressed as dehydrogenase enzymes activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS 1.72 13.97 19. Agric. except the mixed culture that applied at rate (10 % v/w) only. resulted from the interaction between two rates of the two algal species and the tested compost under three ratios of liquid: solid mixture was conducted. 1998). 1996 & McCartney and Tingley.22 Dehydrogenase enzyme activity (mg TPF/ g dry compost/ day) 1. whereas Nostoc muscorum was cultivated on BG-11 free nitrogen medim (Rippka et al.15 144. the present study aims not only to investigate the changes in compost properties due to the addition of algae and to relate these changes to compost quality. while total nitrogen content was determined by micro-Kjeldahl method described by Bremmer (1996). Measurments: A. Soils. 2. where each one ml of each algal culture contained 5 mg (as dry wt algae). Spirulina maxima was grown on Zarrouk medium as described by Zarrouk (1966). Chemical analyses: . Center. 1: 2 & 1: 1) on dry basis.. 5(9): 729-737. Giza. in compost material. All the cultures were incubated at 30±2oC under continuous fluorescent illumination (5000 lux) and air bubbled by a commercial aquarium pump. However. (2007) found that moisture content is an important factor for algae. basis). Bio-chemical properties of the used compost are shown in Table (1). Inst.00 3. Microbiol.Subsamples were taken to determine the microbial activity. very little information is available on the addition of any microbiota to compost after maturation in order to accelerate the decomposition rate and availability of nutrients for plant growth. Res. . employed throughout the current study were obtained from Agric. Res. For this reason. which determined spectrophotometrically after extraction by acetone as described by Holden (1965). Basic & Appl. Baftehchi et al. since water availability is directly related to oxygen supply. Water & Environ. 4.Aust. Sci. All treatments and control were run in triplicates in a completely randomized design and incubated for two months under laboratory conditions. Algal Source and Growth Conditions: The algal species (filamentous cyanobacteria). Each of these treatments was exposed to three moisture levels in the form of liquid: solid ratios (1: 4. Algal cultures were applied to the tested compost in two rates 5 and 10 % v/w (5 or 10 ml of each algal culture was added to 100 g of mature compost). So. 1979). which adjusted immediately after algal culture addition and every two days till the end of experiment.78 34. Organic matter was determined by loss on ignition (550oC for 5 h) as described by Nelson and Sommers (1996).50 7. and maintained till the logarithmic phase to be used. (1982).. Compost: Compost in mature state provided from compost plant was used. in transparent glass bottles with a capacity of 500 ml. J. Res. Compost samples were taken weekly during the incubation period for analysis. Experiment: A laboratory incubation experiment included 18 treatments.

09 0.039 0.128 0.089 0.122 0.121 0.166 0.115 0. Basic & Appl.132a 1:1 0. 1965).0039 B = 0.131 0.083i Compost without algae 1:4 0. where the algal biomass was parallel with increasing moisture content of compost up to 1: 2 (liquid: solid ratio).035 0.139 0.07 0.079 0.084 0.116 0.064 0.097 0.14 0.+ Nostoc muscorum) 10 1:4 0.102 0.108 0.038i Mean B 0. then turned to be constant and declined as a normal pattern of cyanobacteria growth as reported by Stal (1995).03 0. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 2. and consequently may be a good indicator of microbiological activity as stated by Tabatabai (1994).079f ----Values within the same column followed by the same letters are not significantly different. (2007) who found that moisture content had a significant effect on the growth rate of Fischerella sp.108e 1:1 0. Algal biomass: The algal biomass.093 0.083 0.114 0. and the highest algal growth was observed nearly after three weeks from the beginning.025 0.106c 0.092 0.026l 1:2 0.072 0.017 0.121 0.134 0.034 0.095 0.155 0.116c 1:1 0.139 0.089 0.141 0.121 0. Our results are in agreement with those obtained by Baftehchi et al.116 0.107 0.031 0. (2007) found that the cyanobacteria Fischerella sp.Microbial activity: Dehydrogenase activity is thought to reflect the total range of oxidative activity of soil and compost microflora.116b 0.05 0.031 0.035 0.119 0.048 0.044 0.097 0. 5(9): 729-737.112cd 1:2 0.D.16 0.095 0.11 0. C-Statistical analyses: The obtained data were statistically analyzed according to procedure outlined by Snedecor and Cochran (1980) and least significant differences (L. in terms of chlorophyll a & b contents of both algal species was carried out to follow the viability of them in compost (Table 2). Results showed that it was alive during the incubation period.098f Compost + Nostoc muscorum 5 1:4 0. respectively.086e 0. Also.090h 1:2 0.128 0.109 0.083 0.103 0.031 0.039 0. 0. Also.D.027 0.042 0.015 0.143 0.101 0.131a 1:1 0.148 0.121 0.094 0. data revealed that there was a highly significant difference between the treatments and periods.119 0.082 0.135 0.054 0.095 0.028 0. (a & b) g-1 compost.094fg 10 1:4 0.122 0.132 0.071 0.108 0.121 0.081i 10 1:4 0.161 0.083 0.11 0.133 0.000034871 L.124 0.S.135 0.0026 A x B =0.093gh 1:2 0.07 0. Electric conductivity (EC) was measured in 1:10 compost water extract using glass electrode conductivity meter Model jenway 4310. 2011 Van Bemmelem factor of 1.022 0.041 0.724 (Allison.061 0.133 0. when added to urban garbage compost.124 0.119 0. 731 .163 0.126 0.141 0.079 0. Table 2: Algal biomass of compost treated by algae under different liquid: solid ratio.108 0.05 However.05 0.057 0.036 0.104c 0.119 0.011 0.122b 1:1 0.128 0.04 0. Compost reaction (pH) was also measured in 1:10 compost water extract using glass electrode pH meter Model (955).112d 1:2 0.03 0.08 0. A = 0.134 0. when it was added to the urban garbage compost.056 0. 0.144 0. expressed as chlorophyll a + b (mg /g) Periods (week) Treatments --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Mean A Inoculum size (ml) Liquid:Solidratio Compost + Spirulina maxima 5 1:4 0.06 0.033 0.118 0.072 0. 2.137 0. J.) test was run to compare the treatment means using SAS program (SAS Institute.S.114a 0. 1994). have its maximum physiological activity in the first month.042 0.133 0.14 0. more increasing up to 1: 1 led to low level of algal biomass in all treatments.088 0.13 0. attained the highest significant difference in algal biomass compared to control and other treatments being 0.093d 0.063 0.139 0. after three weeks of incubation.160 and 0.049 0. meanwhile.071 0.147 0.118 0.166.087 0.122 0.Aust.156 0.155 mg Chl.009 0. Sci.114 0.073 0.082i Compost + Mixed culture (Spirulina sp.065 0.035g 0.109 0.039 0.089h 1:2 0.123 0.12 0.135 0.101 0.081 0.099 0.027 0.117 0.065 0.041 0.089 0. the treatments that involved applying of 10 % (v/w) algal inoculum of mixed culture (Spirulina maxima and Nostoc muscorum) under the effect of 1: 2 liquid: solid ratio.045j 1:1 0..093 0.016 0. Baftehchi et al.079 0.

application of algal culture to compost at liquid: solid ratio of 1: 2 and 1: 1 significantly was accompanied with improving the microbial activity.99 8. data revealed that a significant difference between the treatments due to the addition of either two algal species to compost materials.35 3.35 5.19 4.19 1. respectively.24 9.37d 4. 5(9): 729-737.03.39 3.72 5.46a 3.88f 2. 0. De-Mule et al.34 3. Nostoc muscorum and mixed culture were 4. In the current study.86 11.85b 4. Sci.07 2.94 9.2 5.51 4.19 3.83p 2.18 3.75 8.55 3.75c 4. compared with the non treated compost with algae under the same conditions (after three weeks of incubation). Also.13 1.19 1:02 3. Basic & Appl.89 4.83 2.19974 L.63 2.69 2.37 4. nitrogen is considered the prime nutrient for plant growth.48 7.05 2.55e 10 1:04 1.57 3. Table 3: Microbial activity.98h 8.16 6. 2011 Alef (1995) and Tiquia et al.23 Mean B 3.49 8. Tiquia et al.73 1.23 3.95 3.54j 6.46m 4.15 4.28 3.98 % compared to control at the same moisture level.25 4. especially moisture content.38 8.87 4. where these ratio is higher than obtained by using the lower dose of both algae.95 6.87 2.16 4. Results also revealed that moisture content and microbial activity are closely related. Data in Table (4) indicated that enrichment of compost material by algae significantly was beneficial for improving the nitrogen content. then increased till reached the maximum after three weeks.19 2 1.. Moreover.30f 9. 4.32 2. (1996) stated that the changes in microbial activities of compost are affected by many environmental factors.09 2.41 4.88 3.74 6.99 4.12 2.96 2.99 2.51 3.9 Compost without algae 1:04 1.63 4.45 3. These rates were significantly 732 .16 3. (2000) indicated that blue-green algae excrete many of substances (growth promoting regulators.97 4.+ Nostoc muscorum) 10 1:04 2.02 3. a highly significant difference was observed due to applying Nostoc muscorum to compost with a rate of 10 % under 1: 1 liquid: solid ratio (11.94 3.95 2. while a range of 60–70% provided maximum activities.28 8.15 11. A = 0.34 3.48 1:02 2. In this context. compared to the control treatments. In this connection.1 3.03 9.66i 1:01 5.42 mg TPF g-1 day-1). In conclusion.53 1.35 2.23 6.81 4. vitamins.85 8.65 2. The decrease in dehydrogenase activity to low levels towards the end of incubation indicated that there was no more microbial activity going on.17 8. which represent an increasing rate of 169.56 3.96 %.32 2.29 3.45 2.0470 A x B = 0.38 4.6 2.14 1.1 6.4 Compost + Mixed culture (Spirulina sp. (2003) found that fifty percent moisture content seems to be the minimal requirement for rapid increase in microbial activity.42 10. J.50j 1:01 5.23 3. then the enzyme activity began to leveloff towards the end of incubation.11d Compost + Nostoc muscorum 1.17k 3.46m 1:02 2.40b 1.02 6. which induced a growth promotion of other microorganisms and increased the enzymes activities.05e Values within the same column followed by the same letters are not significantly different.6 3. compared with the treatments under 1: 4 liquid: solid ratio.49 2.67c 3.85f 5.75 3.56 4.20g ----- 3.04 3.94 6.11 3.18 3.0705 B = 0.03 5. expressed as dehydrogenase enzyme activity (mg TPF /g compost /day) of compost treated with algae under different liquid: solid ratio Periods (week) Treatments -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Mean A Inoculum size (ml) Liquid:Solid ratio Compost + Spirulina maxima 5 1:04 1.22 1:01 3.39 3. Total Nitrogen Content: Among the plant nutrients.29 2. These results revealed that the low moisture content would cause compost dehydration which would arrest the biological process. (1996). Liang et al.25 3.81 4. after three weeks of incubation.21 5. As expected.14 3.98 5.93 2.96 4. Microbial activity stimulation could be attributed to the great benefits of algal culture.21 3.26 3. dehydrogenase enzyme activity of all compost treatments (Table 3) was low at the beginning of incubation period.85 2. the time which recorded the highest algal activity.25 3.13 2.91 3.45 4.09 3.37 1:01 6.21 3.99 3.98 2.49 3. (1999) and De-Caire et al.67 4.23 5.63 2.71 3.45 6.24 5.13a 4.19 2.15 2. which led to a remarkable increase in the dehydrogenase enzyme activity. antibacterial and polymers.11o 1:02 2.39 6.89 2.95 and 3.81 4.35 7.59 2.14 5.06l 4. The increasing rates of compost total nitrogen under 1: 4 liquid: solid ratio with applying high dose of each Spirulina maxima. polypeptides.23g 3.S. since water availability is directly related to oxygen supply.18 3.67 5.35n 3.84 3. amino acids.38 10 2.Aust.22 9.05 5 1:04 1:02 1:01 1:04 1:02 1:01 1.D.73 4. especially exopolysaccharides).44 2.63 4.93 10.93 3.03 5.

37 15.49 12. had no significant effect on nitrogen content of urban garbage compost.9 16.14 12.56 15.52 15. the combination of both algal species resulted in the highest significant increasing in available nitrogen.53 13. 29. Available nitrogen (NH4-N & NO3-N): Most of the nitrogen absorbed by plant is in the inorganic forms.75 15.64 13.81 15. which recorded (27.22 13. Generally.05a 14.67 15. nitrogen fixation capability) as well as the total microbial activity.14 15.77 15.44 15.13.51 and 5. 14.62 15.Aust.66e 1:02 15.38g 1:02 15.03 15.21 14.24 13.99 16.36 15.07i 1:02 15.14l Compost without algae 1:04 15. which recorded 5.35k Compost + Mixed culture (Spirulina maxima+ Nostoc muscorum) 10 1:04 15.91 16.35 15.21 16.1 15.06 15.49 15.11 12.61 15.58 15. This stabilization reduces the rate at which this organic N will be mineralized by soil microorganisms to NH4 and NO3 following compost incorporation.75 15.23 12.95 14.01 15.62 15.12 15. Basic & Appl.94b 14.73d 1:01 13.S.34 13.23h 1:01 14. J.07 15.61 13. 2011 increased more by increasing the moisture content by using liquid: solid ratio of 1: 2.6 15. Applying high dose of each Spirulina maxima.53 12.49 15.92b 15.27 16.06 13. at the same period.48 15. which recorded 7.9 13.42f ------Values within the same column followed by the same letters are not significantly different.83 15.18 15.93 16.72d 1:01 14.87c 14.63 15.39 %.92 13. L.7 13.68 and 82.95 15.95c 1:01 13. which may be due to high algal activity (especially.47 15.6 12.35 13.8 15.69 15..52 15.39 15.21 13.67 12.09 15.7 15. Sci.51 15. These forms of N result from the conversion of more complex organic N compounds in soil organic matter and plant/animal residues to these simpler inorganic forms (a process called “mineralization”) (CIWMB. the phenomenon of nitrogen excretion is not confined to the nitrogenfixing blue-greens.15 16.37 16. Increasing in nitrogen availability could be referring to high activity of algae. 6.08 15.09 16 16.17 15. the highest significant difference was detected due to apply of Nostoc muscorum at 10 % concentration under 1: 2 liquid: solid ratio.89 13. more increasing in moisture content (1: 1 liquid: solid ratio) resulted in obvious decreasing in nitrogen content.38 16.73 15.61 15.81 11. 0. Raising the moisture content up to 1: 2 was parallel to the nitrogen availability.42 12.81 15. Conversely.41 16.85 12.91 15.14a 1:01 13.57e 14. 1965).65 15.06b 1:01 13.19 15.96 16.25 11.86 %.84 13. Data in Table (5) showed a significant difference between treatments in availability of compost nitrogen due to addition of cyanobacteria species to compost.58 15.19 12.74 15. 5(9): 729-737.65ef 1:02 15.73m 10 1:04 15.). Nostoc muscorum and mixed culture at liquid: solid ratio of 1: 4 (after three weeks of incubation) resulted in an increasing percentage (16.60 f 1:02 15.66 13.71m Compost + Nostoc muscorum 5 1:04 15. which may due to the high microbial activity and decomposition rate of compost and more loss of nitrogen by denitrification process.87 15. Moreover.75 15.21 15.81 13. ammonium (NH4) and nitrate (NO3).92 15.62 12.D. because the same sort of thing occurs with non-nitrogen-fixing members of this group (Johnston.82 15. The obtained results are in a harmony with CIWMB (2002) who reported that the organic N in mature compost is more stabilized than that found in raw organic materials.44 15.28 16.09 13.75 13.62 15.93 12.39 15.17 15.31 15.72j Mean B 14.39 15.71d 14.09 12. respectively. 2002).58 13.69 15.89 15.32 15. (2007) found that using different amounts of cyanobacterium Fischerella sp.22 13.14.41 15. Therefore.79 15. compared the control treatment under the same conditions.71 15.91 15.88 13.3 16.07.4 15.08 15.32 15.42g 1:02 15. Table 4: Total nitrogen content (g kg-1) of compost treated with algae under different liquid: solid ratio Periods (week) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Treatments 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Mean A Inoculum size (ml) Liquid:Solid ratio Compost + Spirulina maxima 5 1:04 15.71 15.81 13.09 15 15.37 15.17 13.33 15. These results could be attributed to the potentiality of certain blue-green algae to liberate considerable amounts of nitrogenous extracellular products in the form of peptides and compounds containing amide-nitrogen as mentioned by Fogg (1959).34 11.14 11.38k 10 1:04 15.79 13.97 13. compared with the non treated compost with algae under the same conditions.0382 A x B =0. In contrast to our results.09 13.0573 B = 0. but after four weeks of incubation.58 15.05 A = 0. respectively.9 12.23 15.85 13. Baftehchi et al.0052196 4.47 15.72 15. which affects on the activity of the other microorganisms already present in compost.23 %.30 and 17. respectively).12 15.18 % as increasing rates.03a 15. 733 .67 12.89 15.17 16.

1989).46 194. 2011 Table 5: Total available nitrogen content of compost treated with algae under different liquid: solid ratio. Schulze (1961) and Tiquia et al.46 178.31c 118.52 19.91 198.09 147.22 191. where microbial activity was consistently low. 734 .51 21.77 140. in addition to the advantage of algal addition.63 206.95 158. 11.91 167.36 17.83 140.88 186.+ Nostoc muscorum) 10 1:04 176. J.97 151.53 170. Conversely.9797 A x B = 12.29 26.57 148. at low moisture contents (30–40 %).99 23.S.09 152.09b 121.23 11.42a 132.46b 1:01 32. which could be explained due to the anaerobic conditions and denitrification process.75 15.05 A = 4.77 138.69 179.43 169.03 179.03 176.19j 10 1:04 168.3 212.53 24.39 174.65 and 11.54d 1:02 144.81 11.39 146. NH4+NO3 (mg/100g) Periods (week) Treatments ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Mean A Inoculum size (ml) Liquid:Solidratio Compost + Spirulina maxima 5 1:04 144.09 21.74 18.01 15.39 24.86 157.74f 1:01 36.01 154.88 186.01 183.67 180.53 185.6 197.39 282.38%) was recorded with applying the mixed culture of both Spirulina maxima and Nostoc muscorum.39 180.09 22.03 180. microbial activity was low.08 169.75 174.63 187.68 21.76 167.24a 1:01 54..75h 1:02 158 169.98e 1:01 29.04 178.83 169.09 176. organic carbon and C: N ratio: Data shown in Fig.22 21. 60 % or 70 %) exhibit higher microbial activity. Sci.38 23.63e 1:02 93.63 187.61 168.53 191. which could explain the positive effect of high water content on microbial and algal activity and decomposition rate of compost.64 180. 50 and 57<C).06d 1:02 184.98e 1:01 157. Nostoc muscorum and mixed culture.67 171.70 for Spirulina maxima. Also.09 150.35d 132.32ji Mean B 112.54 151. The decomposition rate of compost organic matter for all treatments was low at the low moisture content (1: 4 liquid: solid ratio)..31 269.33 191 188.95 231.46 157.99a 130.69.43 182. respectively. (1996) reported that high moisture may introduce anaerobic conditions from water logging in the pore spaces impeding composting processes.43 25.46 180.9 173.27 182.61 208 191. In this connection.08 144.02 156.03 167.Aust.23 19. C:N ratio was reduced due to applying both algal species either alone or mixed together to compost at 10 % concentration under 1: 2 liquid: solid ratio.3 20. L.05 168.14 18.15 156.16 216.6 155.9 173.83 21.09 8. (2003) who reported that even at low temperatures (22<C).23 21.56j Compost + Nostoc muscorum 5 1:04 144.59 22.6 168.03 178.09 151.27 196. 5.63g 1:02 141. increasing the moisture level up to 1: 1 (liquid: solid ratio) resulted in a great losses in the available nitrogen in all compost treatments either treated or non-treated with algae.05 149.93e 1:02 146.41 298.77j 10 1:04 157.45 162.25 154.6530 While.94 16.33 176 174.98 20.34e 116.73 159. compared with non treated compost under the same moisture content. In contrast.34 188.31j Compost + Mixed culture (Spirulina maxima.75 23.23 276.08 132.00c 1:01 28.03 184.47 187.22 191.D. 1 represented the highest variation in organic matter that observed during the incubation period (the period. Our results suggested that moisture content has a greater influence on the microbial activity.7 200. Organic matter.64 180. even under higher temperature regimes (43.2 15. so slightly increasing in organic matter was detected.65a 127.89 31.09 19.77i Compost without algae 1:04 145. 5(9): 729-737.83 168.01 183.04 169.05 200.29 15. Algalization increases the organic matter content of the soil thereby enhancing its fertility and protects the environments (Cresswell et al.04 189.09 196.32 19.97 151. which recorded the highest algal and microbial activity). Also. It is clear also from data that decreasing rate in organic matter under 1: 1 liquid: solid ratio was higher than those recorded under 1: 2. Shi et al.47 176.56 163.44 15.31 171.27 176.09 17.79cd -----Values within the same column followed by the same letters are not significantly different. (1999) found that humidity strongly influence the decomposition rate of compost. more increasing in moisture content in the form of liquid: solid ratio (1: 2 & 1: 1) resulted in decreasing of organic matter content.44 150. higher moisture content treatments (50 %.02 20.4695 B = 2. 0. which in agreement with Liang et al.62 239.43 18.04 23.11 19.01 189. which recorded 11. The highest value (34.68 169.76 19.45 19. Basic & Appl.07 148.13 145. which could be considered as source of organic matter.

the time of incubation is influential factor on changes of different parameters. The microbial activities resulted in accelerating the decomposition rate of compost and availability of many nutrients needed for plant growth. 2011 Fig.Aust. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This research was carried out in the framework of ARDF Project (123) "Bioconversion of agricultural residues into compost for improving crop productivity and environmental protection". Basic & Appl.. and also because timing and magnitude of nutrients release will be critical for the grower that purchases compost for some enhancement of nutrients supply. Sci. J. especially the microbial activities. 5(9): 729-737. 735 . to validate these results in full-scale operations. 1: Organic matter. However. organic carbon and C: N ratio of compost treated by algae under different liquid: solid ratio after three weeks of incubation. The authors would like to thank the Project staff members for providing facilities and their financial support. Further efforts are needed. the current work suggested that the algal addition to mature compost material has a positive impact on all studied analyses under the optimum moisture condition. In conclusion.

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