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Cronus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In the most classic and well known version of Greek mythology, Cronus or Kronos[1] (Ancient Greek: Κρόνος Krónos) was the leader and the youngest of the first generation of Titans, divine descendants of Gaia, the earth, and Uranus, the sky. He overthrew his father and ruled during the mythological Golden Age, until he was overthrown by his own son, Zeus and imprisoned in Tartarus. Cronus was usually depicted with a sickle or scythe, which was also the instrument he used to castrate and depose Uranus, his father. In Athens, on the twelfth day of the Attic month of Hekatombaion, a festival called Kronia was held in honour of Cronus to celebrate the harvest, suggesting that, as a result of his association with the virtuous Golden Age, Cronus continued to preside as a patron of harvest. Cronus was also identified in classical antiquity with the Roman deity Saturn.


1 Greek mythology and early myths 1.1 Libyan account by Diodorus Siculus 1.2 Sibylline Oracles 2 Name and comparative mythology 3 El, the Phoenician Cronus 4 Roman mythology and later culture 5 Popular Culture 6 Genealogy of the Olympians in Greek mythology 7 References 8 External links

Abode Symbol Consort Parents Siblings

Earth Sickle/Scythe Rhea Gaia and Uranus Rhea, Oceanus, Hyperion, Theia, Coeus, Phoebe, Iapetus, Crius, Mnemosyne, Tethys and Themis Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Hades, Hestia, Demeter, Chiron

Greek mythology and early myths
In ancient myth recorded by Hesiod's Theogony, Cronus envied the power of his father, the ruler of the universe, Uranus. Uranus drew the enmity of Cronus' mother, Gaia, when he hid the gigantic youngest children of Gaia, the hundred-handed Hecatonchires and one-eyed Cyclopes, in the Tartarus, so that they would not see the light. Gaia created a great stone sickle and gathered together Cronus and his brothers to persuade them to castrate Uranus.[2]


Roman Saturn equivalent

Only Cronus was willing to do the deed, so Gaia gave him the sickle and placed him in ambush. When Uranus met with Gaia, Cronus attacked him with the sickle castrating him and casting his testicles into the sea. From the blood (or, by a few accounts, semen) that spilled out from Uranus and fell upon the earth, the Gigantes, Erinyes, and Meliae were produced. The testicles produced a white foam from which the goddess Aphrodite emerged.[2] For this, Uranus threatened vengeance and called his sons Titenes (Τιτῆνες; according to Hesiod meaning "straining ones," the source of the word "titan", but this etymology is disputed) for overstepping their boundaries and daring to commit such an act. In an alternate version of this myth, a more benevolent Cronus overthrew the wicked serpentine Titan Ophion. In doing so, he released the world from bondage and for a time ruled it justly. After dispatching Uranus, Cronus re-imprisoned the Hecatonchires, the Gigantes, and the Cyclopes and set the dragon Campe to guard them. He and his sister Rhea took the throne of the world as king and queen. The period in which Cronus ruled was called the Golden Age, as the people of the time had no need for laws or rules; everyone did the right thing, and immorality was absent.

Giorgio Vasari: The Mutilation of Uranus by Saturn (Cronus)

Cronus learned from Gaia and Uranus that he was destined to be overcome by his own sons, just as he had overthrown his father. As a result, although he sired the gods Demeter, Hestia, Hera, Hades and Poseidon by Rhea, he devoured them all as soon as they were born, to preempt the prophecy. When the sixth child, Zeus, was born Rhea sought Gaia to devise a plan to save them and to eventually get retribution on Cronus for his acts against his father and children. Another child Cronus is reputed to have fathered is Chiron, by Philyra. Rhea secretly gave birth to Zeus in Crete, and handed Cronus a stone wrapped in swaddling clothes, also known as the Omphalos Stone, which he promptly swallowed, thinking that it was his son. Rhea kept Zeus hidden in a cave on Mount Ida, Crete. According to some versions of the story, he was then raised by a goat named Amalthea, while a company of Kouretes, armored male dancers, shouted and clapped their hands to make enough noise to mask the baby's cries from Cronus. Other versions of the myth have Zeus raised by the nymph Adamanthea, who hid Zeus by dangling him by a rope from a tree so that he was suspended between the earth, the sea, and the sky, all of which were ruled by his father, Cronus. Still other versions of the tale say that Zeus was raised by his grandmother, Gaia. Once he had grown up, Zeus used an emetic given to him by Gaia to force Cronus to disgorge the contents of his stomach in reverse order: first the stone, which was set down at Pytho under the glens of Mount Parnassus to be a sign to mortal men, then the goat, and then his two brothers and three sisters. In other versions of the tale, Metis gave Cronus the emetic, or Zeus cut Cronus' stomach open. After freeing his siblings, Zeus released the Gigantes, the Hecatonchires, and the Cyclopes, who with the help of Hephaestus, forged for him his thunderbolts, Poseidon's trident and Hades' helmet of darkness. In a vast war called the Titanomachy, Zeus and his brothers and sisters, with the help of the Gigantes, Hecatonchires, and Cyclopes, overthrew Cronus and the other Titans. Afterwards, many of the Titans were confined in Tartarus. Some Titans were not banished to Tartarus. Atlas, Epimetheus, Menoetius, Oceanus and Prometheus are examples of Titans who were not imprisoned in Tartarus following the Titanomachy. Gaia bore the monster Typhon to claim revenge for the 1/4

Cronus takes his sister Rhea from Hammon. slew and deified his father Epigeius or Autochthon "whom they afterwards called Uranus". Asclepius. they rendered his name as Kronos. related to the Ancient Greek word corōnē (κορώνη) "crow". an island on the river Triton. he emasculated.Wikipedia. as reported in Eusebius' Præparatio Evangelica I. the personification of time. to be his own wife. bequeathed Attica to his own daughter Athena. Name and comparative mythology H. as governor over Egypt. visiting the 'inhabitable world'.[16] Philo's account. This account mentions nothing about Cronus either killing his father or attempting to kill any of his children. though Zeus was victorious.[15] Painting by Peter Paul Rubens of Cronus devouring one of his children. AD 100 by Philo of Byblos' Phoenician history. sixty of Titan's men then imprison Cronus and Rhea. the three sons of Uranus and Gaia. In Homeric and other texts he is imprisoned with the other Titans in Tartarus. This version gives his alternate name as Elus or Ilus.16. The association was recorded c. Jupiter Olympus.[11] Andrew Lang's objection. indicates that Cronus was originally a Canaanite ruler who founded Byblos and was subsequently deified.4 varṣmāṇaṃ divo akṛṇod "he cut [> created] the loftiness of the sky. Libyan account by Diodorus Siculus In a Libyan account related by Diodorus Siculus (1st century BC). where Anu (the heavens) is castrated by Kumarbi. In another version[citation needed ].[7] During antiquity. Cronus or Saturn. generally meaning "to make. motivated by Cronus' characteristic act of "cutting the sky" (or the genitals of anthropomorphic Uranus).[6] establishing that the "castration" of the heavens by means of a sickle was part of a creation myth. In the Song of Ullikummi. beginning a Golden Age. Accounts of the fate of Cronus after the Titanomachy differ. However.[10] holds that Kronos is related to "horned". the free encyclopedia imprisoned Titans. create" (whence karma). somewhere in Africa. who reigns in Crete.47. Cronus. where he is made King of Elysium by Zeus. and Cronus is made king over all. which makes Cronus. (Diodorus. The Indo-Iranian reflex of the root is kar. like that of Cronus resulting in creation: RV 10. Hebrews. Janda (2010) offers a genuinely Indo-European etymology of "the cutter". the Phoenician Cronus When Hellenes encountered Phoenicians and. who appoints Cronus' and Rhea's son. Jupiter Olympus inherits all the kingdoms. that Cronus was never represented horned in Hellenic art. and his brother-in-law Hammon. he is imprisoned for eternity in the cave of Nyx. Pindar describes his release from Tartarus. When Greek writers encountered the Levantine deity El. son of Uranus and Titea. He cites as evidence the heights in Sicily that were in his time known as Cronia. joined by the Titans. was so repudiated by the Greek mythographers of that time that they suppressed it from their accounts until the Christian era (when Tzetzes wrote).[5] The myth of Cronus castrating Uranus parallels the Song of Kumarbi. it is Latium to which Saturn (Cronus) escapes and ascends as king and lawgiver.10 ārdayad vṛtram akṛṇod ulokaṃ "he hit Vrtra fatally.[12] was addressed by Robert Brown.wikipedia. Titan's sons attempt to destroy Cronus' and Rhea's male offspring as soon as they are born. the Titans released the Cyclopes from Tartarus. Sicily. 'Titan' and Iapetus. Book III) Sibylline Oracles Cronus is again mentioned in the Sibylline Oracles. causing the sons of Cronus to declare and fight the first of all wars against them. as were the deities Apollo. ascribed by Eusebius to the semilegendary pre-Trojan War Phoenician historian Sanchuniathon. becoming lord of the world. c. and on the death of Bacchus.[9] The Renaissance. Bacchus and Jupiter Olympus then join their forces to defeat the remaining Titans in Crete. After the death of Uranus. the Greeks believed that Cronus was an allegorical name for Chronos.f. and sometimes still offered somewhat apologetically. noting that Cronus was depicted with a crow. One other account referred by Robert Graves[3] (who claims to be following the account of the Byzantine mythographer Tzetzes) it is said that Cronus was castrated by his son Zeus just like he had done with his father Uranus before. Teshub uses the "sickle with which heaven and earth had once been separated" to defeat the monster Ullikummi. but Janda argues that the original meaning "to cut" in a cosmogonic sense is still preserved in some verses of the Rigveda pertaining to Indra's heroic "cutting". in origin a cut creating an opening or gap between heaven (imagined as a dome of stone) and earth enabling the beginning of time (Chronos) and human history.10. particularly book three. Poseidon and Hades and sends them to Phrygia to be raised in the care of three Cretans. It further states that after ships were invented. who reigns at Nysa. Poseidon El. In Virgil's Aeneid[citation needed ]. Saturn and Bran. makes war against and eventually defeats his brother Jupiter.[13] arguing that in Semitic usage. Cronus. English shear)."to cut" (Greek κείρω (keirō).[17] en. but at Dodona. A theory debated in the 19th century. the identification of Cronus and Chronos gave rise to "Father Time" wielding the harvesting scythe. Cronus in turn is defeated by Hammon's son Bacchus or Dionysus. and Egypt to Thoth the son of Misor and inventor of writing. the subject of a son castrating his own father. as in the Hebrew Bible qeren was a signifier of "power".org/wiki/Cronus 2/4 . each to receive a third division of the Earth.6/20/13 Cronus . Rhea secretly bears her sons Zeus. is said to have reigned over Italy. assuming a Semitic derivation from qrn. later. Upon learning this. Cronus was occasionally interpreted as Chronos.[14] Robert Graves proposed that cronos meant "crow".[8] in Plutarch's own words. and Cronus was awarded the kingship among them. by interpretatio graeca. Recently. cutting [> creating] a free path" RV 6. In Orphic poems. from the root *(s)ker. J. Rose in 1928[4] observed that attempts to give Kronos a Greek etymology had failed.104. and states that in the 32nd year of his reign. and Northern Africa." This may point to an older Indo-European mytheme reconstructed as *(s)kert wersmn diwos "by means of a cut he created the loftiness of the sky". or simply castration in general. following his defeat by his son Jupiter (Zeus). they identified the Semitic El. with Cronus.

e. and harvests — not now confused with Chronos. Greek mythology: an introduction. p.Wikipedia. Innsbruck. 4th-century Temple of Saturn in the Roman Forum. Cronus was conflated with the name of Chronos.tufts. he was a larger aspect of Roman religion. 188ff.. Robert. 2010. while the Greeks considered Cronus merely an intermediary stage between Uranus and Zeus. which in turn was adapted and became the source of the English word Saturday. ^ Fritz Graf. a form neither Greek nor Latin. Genealogy of the Olympians in Greek mythology Genealogy of the Olympians in Greek mythology Uranus Gaia Oceanus Hyperion Coeus Crius Iapetus Mnemosyne Cronus Rhea Tethys Theia Phoebe Themis Zeus Hera Hestia Demeter Hades Poseidon Ares Hephaestus Hebe Eileithyia Enyo Eris Metis Maia Leto Semele Aphrodite Athena Hermes Apollo Artemis Dionysus References 1.wikipedia. 88. 54-56. p. 3. 6. the free encyclopedia Roman mythology and later culture Main article: Saturn (mythology) While the Greeks considered Cronus a cruel and tempestuous force of chaos and disorder. 1996 ISBN 978-0-8018-5395-1. and at least one temple to Saturn already existed in the archaic Roman Kingdom. has had a large influence on Western culture. ^ a b LSJ entry Κρόνος (http://www. i. believing the Olympian gods had brought an era of peace and order by seizing power from the crude and malicious Titans. Consequently. ^ GRAVES. Hebrew Myths. Thomas Marier. 7. 54 and Popular Culture Kronos serves as the main antagonist of the fantasy novel series Percy Jackson and the Olympians where he in the fourth book takes over the body of his servant Luke Castellan and plans to overthrow the gods and regain his throne.perseus. by conflating their indigenous deity Saturn with Cronus. trans.0057%3Aentry%3D*kro%2Fnos) ^ ·On Isis and Osiris. 4. ^ Michael Janda. Thomas Marier. 8. as Robert Brown observed in Semitic Influence in Hellenic Mythology. As a result of Cronus' importance to the Romans.[8] wielding the harvesting scythe. the planet Saturn is named after the Roman deity. The Saturnalia was a festival dedicated in his honour. It is the outermost of the Classical planets (those that are visible with the naked eye). In astronomy. nevertheless. calendars. 5. The seventh day of the Judaeo-Christian week is called in Latin Dies Saturni ("Day of Saturn"). the Romans took a more positive and innocuous view of the deity. Theogony. 9. his Roman variant. seasons. His association with the "Saturnian" Golden Age eventually caused him to become the god of "time". 2. 1898:112-13. ^ a b Hesiod. ^ Andrew Lang habitually called him Cronos. Die Musik nach dem Chaos.04.4 ^ 3/4 .21. Saturn. the personification of "Father Time". the unrelated embodiment of time in general. 32 en. among Hellenistic scholars in Alexandria and during the Renaissance. ^ Janda 2010. A Handbook of Greek Mythology 1928:43.6/20/13 Cronus .

London: Penguin. 11. 38–39. Chapter 10.Wikipedia. p. ISBN 0-14-001026-2. "The Castration of Uranus". ^ Graves. 1877. 17. in which usage we have a lingering feeling of the real meaning of the name" (Brown 1898:116) 15. 1895:216. ^ "Philôn. Robert (1955). the Rev. additional terms may apply. "Five or Seven Recesses?" The Classical Quarterly. with the note "From krn.wikipedia.php?title=Cronus&oldid=560333205" Categories: Kronos-Saturn Greek gods Greek mythology Titans Condemned souls into Tartarus Offspring of Gaia This page was last modified on 17 June 2013 at 18:38." suggests A.theoi. as late as 1989. The quote stands as Philo Fr. Die semitischen Fremdwörter in Griechischen. the free encyclopedia 10. Modern Mythology 1897:35.1 (May 1965). 2.. New Series. Semitic Influence in Hellenic Mythology. 15. always renders the name of the Semitic god Îl or Êl ('the Powerful') by 'Kronos'.org/wiki/Cronus 4/4 . 1898:112ff. Greek Myths. In the Orphic Hymns. Preceded by Uranus Preceded by Gaea King of the gods Leader of the Titans Succeeded by Zeus Succeeded by Atlas Retrieved from "http://en. The Great Dionysiak Myth. 1989:11 note 26. Hislop.html) in classical literature.wikipedia. "Kronos signifies 'the Horned one'". 12. you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. 1862 (p. Inc. who of course regarded Kronos as an Hellenic divinity. Apollo is addressed as 'the Two-Horned god'". which indeed he 13. 14.46). External links TheoiProject: Kronos (http://www. ^ As in H. Alexander Hislop had previously asserted in The Two Babylons. ^ Walcot. Lewy. 79. By using this site. a collection of translated source texts confirming most of the statements in this article. ii.127. ^ Eusebius of Caesarea: Praeparatio Evangelica Book 1.6/20/13 Cronus . The epithet Carneus applied to Apollo is just a different form of the same word. a horn. Bos. The papal worship proved to be the worship of Nimrod and his wife. ^ Lang. or. and Robert Brown. en. P. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. 2nd ed. ^ Brown. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. ^ "We would like to consider whether the Semitic stem q r nmight be connected with the name Kronos. in Cosmic and Meta-cosmic Theology in Aristotle's Lost Dialogues. a non-profit organization. pp.