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Behaviorism in Educational Organizations: Revealing Managers Reward and Punishment Behavior

“If humans were to be changed, even saved, then the environment itself must be changed and not the 'inner self', via a specifically chosen pattern of rewards and punishments.” B.F.Skinner

Any organizations rely on its human resources for its existence and success, a claim which is now a fact. That is why many organizations in many countries are in a hurry to set up their own human resources programs (de Silva, 1997). It is however important to note that these human resources are always in interaction with one another. Therefore, it can further be claimed that the

dealings between the managers and members are also essential for the success of an organizational so much so in educational organization. The manager’s (in this case, the college deans or department heads) manner of interaction with his subordinates can affect the organizational commitment of the members as well as their organizational performance (Landy, 2004). This interactions in turn be

influenced by the dispensation of rewards and punishment by the managers concepts which were initially forwarded by Behaviorism, both a philosophy and a psychology. This study tried to unravel the intricacies of rewards and

punishment as exhibited by the managers in the educational workplace as perceived by the faculty members. Behaviorism espouses the idea that man is a creation of his environment and not of his mind (Graham, 2007). Freewill is an illusion and that man’s

behavior is the result of factors from without. Proposed initially by John Watson

2 and later on developed by B.F. Skinner, Behaviorism became one of the most influential movements in the 20th century. According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2007), behaviorism is an attitude and a doctrine. As an attitude, it insists on behavioral evidences. Behaviorism as a doctrine is committed in its fullest and most complete sense to the truth of the following three sets of claims. 1. Psychology is the science of behavior. Psychology is not the science of mind. 2. Behavior can be described and explained without making reference to mental events or to internal psychological processes. The sources of behavior are external (in the environment), not internal (in the mind). 3. In the course of theory development in psychology, if, somehow, mental terms or concepts are deployed in describing or explaining behavior, then either (a) these terms or concepts should be eliminated and replaced by behavioral terms or (b) they can and should be translated or paraphrased into observable behavior. B.F. Skinner who is believed to be the most influential behaviorist claims that it was possible to have large-scale control over human behavior and that the belief that people were 'free agents' was simply wrong (Graham,2007). To Skinner, therefore, the environment was THE key, because it was this that molded behavior. (Mark, 2002). He further claims that behavior is influenced by the consequences of our actions (Passer, 2007). These consequences are

contained within the framework of operant conditioning, a term to describe the

3 process by which behavior becomes more likely to occur or less so, depending on it’s consequence (Wade et al, 2008). In Behaviorism, a response or operant can lead to reward, or punishment consequences. Rewards or reinforcement strengthens or increases the likelihood of a response. Punishment on the other hand weakens or decreases the probability of a response (Passer, 2007). Reinforcement (reward) and Punishment may be positive or negative depending on whether the consequence involves a stimulus that is presented, or one that is removed or avoided. In positive reinforcement something pleasant follows a response, while on negative reinforcement something unpleasant is removed the response. In positive punishment, something unpleasant follows the response while in negative punishment, something pleasant is removed (Wade, et al, 2002). Behaviorism of course has its greatest detractor on the field of cognitive psychology (Roediger, 2004) – a field that espouses the idea that one has to look into the thinking man to be able to understand man (Passer, 2007). The impetus of behavior is what goes on the mind of an individual; therefore it is the only legitimate area of study. Though overly criticized for their disregard of human cognition, it is not false that the precepts of Behaviorism has had and still influences child rearing, and rehabilitation, and can be found in virtually all institutions from the family, to education, to the workplace, even to the prison (‘O’Leary, 2007). To deny

behaviorism then is to deny what has been achieved so far in this fields. According to Roddy Roediger (2004) of American Psychological Society, that

Behaviorism exists even in self-management problems. the regulation of behavior on a mental ward through a token economy. behaviorism won the intellectual battle. the alleviation or elimination phobias through extinction based therapies. For an autistic child.” . In a very real sense. The treatment for stuttering and aphasia come largely from behaviorist’s laboratory. Even the field of cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience are highly behavioral. According to Mallot (1997). and of animal training programs for pets and for zoos. Roediger (2004) mentioned that between behaviorism and cognitive psychology. in sports.4 despite the criticism against behaviorism. “Reinforcement increases probability that the performer will stay in the situation in which he is reinforced. in industry. Lovaa’s behavioristic technique provides the greatest hope. all psychologists today are behaviorists. The author goes on to say that even for problems that cognitively oriented psychologists study.F. Roediger (2004) listed some area by which behaviorism has tremendous successes. behavioristic therapies are the treatments of choice. the reduction of problematic behaviors and the increase of the probability of desired behaviors by providing and withholding reinforcements. he’ll quit if he can. Punishment increases the probability that the performer will leave the situation in which he is punished. he’ll stay on the job if he can. Skinner if applied to the workplace may make us to conclude then that behavior modification using rewards produces high rates of work behavior while punishment suppresses it. he said. The philosophy and psychology of Behaviorism as espoused by B. the field is alive and thriving. in parenting guides.

2008). . the educational workplace is already a controlled environment where institutionalized rewards and punishment have been set and agreed upon by schools and government standards. “punishers”. It is different to that of a family where parents can impose rewards and punishment at will. But manager also uses rewards and punishment tools to modify workers behavior. Managers who are admittedly powerful distribute these resources called “rewards”.accel-team. or “consequences” contingently (Mallot. The job of a manager in the workplace is to get things done through employees. To do this the manager should be able to prompt employees to perform tasks (http://www.com/motivation/employeeRewards). It is interesting then to study how managers behave with regards to the dispensation of rewards and punishment other than what is prescribed in the faculty manual.5 It involves shaping the workers behavior to get the outcome a manager want to have happen and providing reinforcements so that the person does it again or punishment so that the worker doesn’t do it again if they are doing the wrong things. The use of resources has been known by managers to encourage workers. The use of rewards and punishment is rampant in many organizations (Kurnik. 1993). Not only can we observe individuals from backgrounds but the schools are supposed to be a world of professionals where relationship must be in a “professional level”. The educational workplace is a perfect milieu to study behaviorism. Further.

These are. understandable.et. Punishment on the other hand includes verbal or written reprimands. Kohn (1993) agreed that while rewards are effective at producing temporary compliance. recognition. Accel.com (Downloaded. d) It should be irrevocable and compatible with job measurement. demotion.marietta.al). and suspension (Hughes. praise.6 Rewards in the workplace may include money. a) reward should be quick and significant. money is an important motivator of workplace behavior. Quoting Peter Drucker. they are strikingly ineffective at producing lasting changes in attitudes or behavior. c) It must be distinctly and directly related to performance. An employee may receive punishment or penalties due to poor performance. the article goes on to say that 'there is not one shred of evidence for the alleged turning away from material rewards”. When is it given however is an . and awards (www. Landy (2007) however quoting London and Oldham stated that a “no-pay condition produced a more superior performance”.com (2008) however countered that the use of money or any rewards is effective as long as it complies with the following conditions. b) the goals and rewards must be known. July 2007). incentives. and attainable by the employees. On the part of the organization.edu/employees/total rewards. termination. According to an article at the accel. bonus. money is used to achieve an improve performance from their employees. or non-compliance to workplace policies. insubordination. appreciation gifts. Both rewards and punishment are given to employees mostly as a result of an encouraged or discouraged behavior. merits. credits. 2008). PDF.

(Mallot. This leadership also assumes that when people agree to do a particular assignment. A kind of leadership adhering to the philosophy of behaviorism is called transactional leadership. 2008). The relationship between the subordinate and the leader becomes transactional. Another thing to consider with the reward and punishment behavior of the manager is its role to their position as leaders of their own members. Transactional leadership makes clear that what is required and . In transactional leadership the leader has the right to punish his or her subordinates if their performance is not according to the predetermined standard. It is a process by which leaders and followers interact dynamically in a particular situation or environment. how often it is given by managers is also important. Furthermore. Leadership is a phenomenon involving the leader. 1993). 2002). and the situation.7 important consideration for all managers. It involves an interaction between the leader. and situation (Hughes. the followers. The leader holds control and power over the subordinates. he or she agrees to obey their manager totally. The main goal of the employee is to obey the orders of their managers. et al. The idea is that when a subordinate takes up a job. a part of that agreement is that they give up all authority to their boss. the followers. a leadership that assumes that people are motivated by reward and punishment (Kurnik. The ‘transaction’ is the money or any other award that the company pays to its subordinates for their compliance and effort. Landy (1985) mentioned in his book that the timing or schedule or rewards or punishment is crucial for its effectiveness.

When people do not get the rewards they were hoping for. Mallot (1997) goes on to say using rewards and punishment is not manipulation because its philosophical foundation is based on the fact that reward or punishment is dependent on the performance. Rewarding people is similar to punishment for another reason. Kohn (1993) once stated that the “incentive plans not only do not succeed. e) Rewards ignore reasons because the causes of productivity problems are not looked into.8 expected from their subordinates. rewards are manipulative. but cannot succeed”. In here rewards are used by the According to Kurnik managers to control the behaviors of their members. And the more desirable the reward.destroys this valuable cooperation. . even if punishments are not mentioned in transactional leadership. It also mentions that subordinates will get award if they follow the orders seriously. Mallot (1997) however defended managers is saying that managers use “resources” so they can do their jobs better. Below are the reasons given by Kohn (1993). a) b) c) Rewards just like punishment punish. the more demoralizing it is to miss out. they feel punished. d) Rewards rupture relations by creating competition -. not so they can use those resources to control their worker’s behavior. (2007). they are understood. Like punishments.

He added that . This is supported by another study conducted by Podsakoff et al (1985) entitled “Relationships between leader reward and punishment behavior and subordinate attitudes. But again in another article written by Gehrke (2008). and behaviors: A meta-analytic review of existing and new research”. play hunches or attend to anything whose relevance to the problem at hand is not immediately evident. perceptions. explore possibilities. in a review conducted by Landy (1985) reward or reinforcement has been known to yield of higher levels of effort and production. and a consequence of others. perceptions. g) Rewards undermine interest However. he reiterated that rewards can have the opposite effect of improving employees’ performance especially if the wrong type of reward is given to the employee. and behaviors were more functional when the rewards or punishments were administered contingently than when they were administered non-contingently. In addition.f) 9 Rewards deter risk-taking because when people are offered incentives they are less inclined to take risks. meta-analytic evidence from longitudinal studies suggested that the same leader behavior can be a cause of some employee criterion variables. and (b) these leader reward and punishment behaviors were strongly related to two variables (employees’ perceptions of justice and role ambiguity) that were expected to be key mediators of the relationships between these leader behaviors and the employee criterion variables. The study concluded that the relationships between leader reward and punishment behaviors and employee attitudes.

Ball.10 most managers don't give much thought about how they reward or punish their members. They also found that employees felt the punishment was more fair and consistent. employees feel more motivated by punishment if they are involved in the decision making process regarding punishment. Just as the representative in my example above wanted input into how he was rewarded. their study shows that "individuals with a strong belief in a just world saw punishment as more constructive and as providing them with more control". 2008). However. they are being punished. after all. In a study designed to discover if the way managers deliver punishment has a positive impact on behavior within organizations. It may seem unreasonable to involve an employee in this discussion. the manager is building an environment that the employee feels is just and fair and where he/she is involved . if they had some input into process. Furthermore. By involving the employee in the discussion about the reasons for the punishment and the standards of said punishment. Revino and Sims showed that "punishment can positively influence subordinates' subsequent behaviors (and prevent negative behaviors) if the punishment is conducted in a particular way" (Gehrke. individuals who perceive the world as unjust and where they have little control over events "perceived the punishment process as less constructive and as providing them with less control. This is also true with regards to punishment. and they perceived the imposed punishment as harsher". They found that positive results occurred when punishment was perceived by the employee to be just and "matching the infraction" they committed and "consistent with what others have received" for similar violations.

they must be engaged in a conversation regarding the action and the punishment. Even though researchers have highlighted its limitations.11 in the process. and may effectively suppress undesirable behavior. Filipinos who generally value respect for authority . What effect of punishment has on followers’ satisfaction and performance? Most people would predict that leaders who use punishment more frequently will probably have less satisfied and lower performing followers. the punishment must be seen as just and fair. there must be consistency in who is punished and why throughout the organization. Next. Also. the employee must feel that he/she has some control over what is happening to them. the use of rewards and punishment is still used by employers. The manager should take extra time to ensure that they "influence the subordinate's interpretation of the event by highlighting its positive and constructive features and by clearly explaining and justifying the imposed punishment". More and more managers are it to increase the performance of its employees. To be seen as just. the proposed punishment must be consistent with punishment given in the past and not disproportionate to the infraction. It is prevalent in real workplace (Kurnik. Interestingly this does not appear to be the case-at least when punishment is used appropriately. Further on punishment. et al (2007) revealed that properly administered punishment does not cause undesirable emotional side effects. 2008). Therefore. Hughes. First. is not unethical.

The scope of the research included the details of rewards and punishment behavior exhibited by educational managers. Understanding the basics behind interaction is essential in improving the information base to support a successful education system. The respondents were 20 faculty members from the College of Arts and Sciences. . organizational commitment and performance may be attributed to the interaction that transpires between the managers and their members. College of Nursing. and the effect of managers’ reward and punishment behavior to the performance of the employees.12 may even accept the managers’ reward and punishment behavior without question. the role of rewards and punishment to the position held by the managers. Importance of the Study As initially proposed. Scope and Delimitation The study is delimited to the perception of the educational leaders and their members of Pines City Colleges regarding rewards and punishment. Further. this study will not only help educational leaders to re-evaluate the effectiveness of using punishment and reinforcement in dealing with their members but also provide additional evidence in institutionalizing rewards and punishment in the educational setting. and the Elementary and High School Department.

If used correctly the managers’ reward and punishment behavior influences the performance of the employees by creating an atmosphere conducive to quality performance. a manager must consider the results of this study to be truly effective when delivering punishment. A cycle that may begin with the manager’s reward and punishment behavior. A successful organization of course will be downloaded to the workers.13 The implications of this study are also important just as giving a reward is designed to motivate or encourage positive behavior. On the other hand. Conceptual Framework The Rewards and Punishment behavior of educational managers were assessed according to the framework below. The managers who are always in direct contact with the employees have the power and the position to use these resources. This study will also serve as an evidence for the field of Behaviorism. Therefore. punishment's end goal is also to change or discourage negative behavior. Proponents of behaviorism adhere to the belief that as man is a product of his environment. . Organizations may use these concepts to achieve better performing workers and employees. Eventually better working performance is translated quality products to a successful organization. the use of rewards and punishment is also important to the position held by the managers. manipulation of environmental resources of rewards and punishment can then be used for behavior modification in all setting.

2. To establish the facts of rewards and punishment exhibited by managers in the educational organization. Paradigm of the Study Problem of the Study 1. 3. .14 Managers’ Reward and Punishment Behavior It’s function to the manager’s position Its effect to Members Performance Figure 1. To determine the effect of manager’ rewards and punishment behavior to their members performance. What are the effect of educational managers’ rewards and punishment behavior to their position and to the performance of their members? Objectives: 1. To determine the role of rewards and punishment to the position held by educational managers.

recognition. The effect of mangers’ reward and punishment behavior to the performance of their members is perceived differently. There is a difference in perception regarding the facts of rewards and punishment exhibited by the managers. money. 3. Punishments are what employees receive for poor workplace behavior. Definition of Terms Behaviorism is the philosophy and psychology that adheres to the belief that man is a result of his environment. written or actions) carried out by the educational managers that increases or decreases the probability of the actions of employees Rewards are what employees receive for performing well. The idea that rewards and punishment has a role to play in the position held by the managers is seen differently.15 Hypotheses 1. promotions. 2. Rewards and Punishment Behavior refers to the activities (whether verbal. Educational Managers refers to the college deans and department heads It includes . high evaluation performance.

16 Methodology Research Design This study is a descriptive survey. Data Collection Instruments The questionnaire dealt with the perception of the faculty members regarding the facts of rewards and punishment behavior of managers in their respective departments. College of Nursing. Population and Locale of the Study This study was conducted among faculty members from three departments. College of Arts and Sciences. questionnaire determined possible suggestions The last part of the rewards and regarding punishment behavior of the managers . and Elementary and High School Department of Pines City Colleges located in Baguio City. Data gathering was done in August of the first semester of the school year 2007-2008. Figure 2 shows the map of the specific location. the perceived effect of these rewards and punishment behaviors to the performance of the faculty. A questionnaire was used to gauge the respondents’ perception regarding the existing rewards and punishment behavior of educational managers and it’s implication to their performance. and the roles of rewards and punishment to the position held by the managers.

17 Pines City Colleges Figure 2: Map Showing the Area of Study Data Collection Procedure .

The formula is given as follows. pi = fi (100%) n where pi = percentage of the respondents belonging to the Ith group fi = number of respondents belonging to the ith group n = sample size. Percentage was used to determine the occurrence of the respondents’ answers as regards the three objectives of the research. Treatment of Data The data gathered were tallied. total number of respondents The D-test was used to determine the significance of the difference in the mean ratings of the respondents.18 The data gathered was through a questionnaire and supplemented with individual interviews. Dc=max/f0(x)-s0(x)/ where f = number of subject f0 = theoretical cumulative distribution s0 = observed theoretical distribution . and subjected to descriptive statistical analyses. categorized.

This is confirmed in the succeeding part of the table where 75% of respondents claim that managers never give rewards. faculty high performance (5%) and compliance to school policies and regulations . managers give rewards to The table also shows that the faculty members participation to school non- academic activities (15%). To determine the role of rewards and punishment to the position held by educational managers. 15% once a semester. To determine the effect of manager’ rewards and punishment behavior to their members performance. However.19 Results and Discussion This chapter presents the analysis and interpretation of the findings of this investigation on the following specific objectives of the study: 1. 2. The Facts of Managers’ Reward and Punishment Behavior as Perceived by the Respondents Rewards Behavior Table 1 presents the specifics of rewards exhibited by managers in the educational workplace. while 15 % admits the managers give rewards as needed. Compliance to manager’s rules and policies (10%). 3. 5% admits that managers do so about once a month. for those who claim that managers give rewards. As the table shows 75% of the respondents deny that managers give rewards in the workplace. To establish the facts of rewards and punishment behavior exhibited by managers in the educational organization.

5 (5%). Punishment Behavior Table 2 shows the specifics of punishment behavior of school managers.15 . The table also shows that managers give penalties/punishment as . The table shows that 85% of the respondents believe that managers give punishment. The Facts of Managers’ Rewards Behavior as Perceived by the Respondents F Do managers give rewards in your workplace? Yes No Total How often do managers give rewards Never About once a month More than once a week About once a week About once a semester As needed Total What activities do managers give most rewards in? Faculty high performance Compliance to school policies and regulations Compliance to manager’s rules and policies Participation to school non-academic activities Total Manners of dispensation of rewards Verbal Written Actions Others Total D. 75% of the respondents claim that managers dispense rewards thru actions while 25% perceives that managers do so verbally.35 . It would seem from the table that no written rewards are dispensed by the managers.20 Table 1.84.15 .05(1) = 3.84 7 13 20 13 1 0 0 3 3 20 4 1 2 13 14 7 0 13 0 20 % 35 65 100 65 5 0 0 15 15 100 20 5 10 65 70 35 0 75 0 100 Dc . Moreover. therefore the hypotheses “there is a difference in perception regarding the facts of rewards and punishment exhibited by the managers” is rejected. All the computed D values are lesser than the tabulated value of 3.

and written (30%).05(1) = 3. .Participation to school academic activities such as meetings [ ]don’t receive penalties to any faculty behavior Total Manners of dispensation of penalties Verbal Written Actions/Body Language Others Total D.10 the need arises (50%) while 25% perceived that educational managers dispense punishment once every semester.participation to school nonacademic activities such as school socials (25%) and non. The table also shows that managers dispense penalties through body language (35%).84 17 3 20 3 1 1 1 5 10 20 1 6 5 5 3 20 7 6 7 0 20 % 85% 15% 100 15 5 5 5 25 50 100 5 30 25 25 15 100 35 30 35 0 100 Dcom .participation to school academic activities such as meetings(25%).15 .50 .21 Table 2. The Facts of Managers’ Punishment Behavior as Perceived by the Respondents Frequenc y Do managers give punishment in your workplace? Yes No Total How often do managers give penalties/punishment Never About once a month More than once a week About once a week About once a semester As needed Total What activities do managers give most punishment in? Faculty poor performance [ ]Non-Compliance to school policies and regulations [ ]Non. verbal (35%).Participation to school non-academic activities such as school socials [ ]I Non.35 . Thirty percent (30%) of the employees perceives that most of the punishment is a result to the non.compliance to to school rules and policies followed by non.

the respondents asserts punishment is one way the managers can tell their members they do not agree as to what they are doing while on the other hand. On the other hand. When asked.com (2008) is ascertained on managers’ punishment behavior when the respondents claim that they are punished if they “do not comply with school policies and regulations” and rewarded “on participation to school non-academic activities. This however would be disastrous according to Skinners who advocated that the use of rewards is better that punishment is. As the table shows rewards are mostly done through the manager’s actions while punishment are dispensed either on writing.” It is also interesting to note that managers have different ways of dispensing rewards and punishment. which will also make the study conclude that the hypotheses “there is a difference in perception regarding the facts of rewards and punishment exhibited by the managers” is rejected. the managers do not need to point out their members are doing well. the notion that rewards and punishment must be directly related to performance as endorsed at accel. and written. In the follow-up interview. actions or body language. The fact that managers use rewards and punishment even in the educational workplace agrees to the claim of Kurnik (2008) that rewards and punishment are rampantly used by many managers in organizations.22 The computed D values are lesser than the tabulated value. The managers assumed that the employees know what they should be doing. more managers uses punishment rather than rewards to their employees. it is noticeable that in the tables. the respondents assume this is so because it . However.

the hypotheses “Rewards and punishment has a role to play in the position held by the managers” is rejected. therefore.4 The two computed d. behaviorism have great influence even in the educational organization.05(1) = 3. The Role of Reward and Punishment to the Position Held by the Educational Managers Table 3-1 shows the perception of the faculty members as regards the role of rewards and punishment to the position held by the educational managers.values are lesser than the tabular value. . As the table shows. Do you agree that giving penalties/punishment makes a difference to the roles of the managers? Yes No D. The use of rewards and punishment by educational will lend support to the initial claim by Roediger(2004) even if not admitted. Table 3-1. Though managers may not acknowledge it. eighty-five percent (85%) of respondents believe that giving rewards makes a difference to the position held by the managers while ninety percent (90%) believes that punishment makes a difference to the roles of the managers.35 . they are promoting behaviorism in the workplace. Do you agree that giving rewards makes a difference to the managers and their managerial roles? Yes No 2.23 is quite awkward for a manager such as the deans to give penalties through actions.84 17 3 18 2 % 85 15 90 10 Dcom . The role of Rewards and Punishment to the Position held by the Managers f 1.

9 Since the computed value is greater than the tabular. and It is their right as managers (15%). The role of Rewards and Punishment to the Position held by the Managers Rank What do you perceive is/are the role(s) of rewards and punishment to their position as managers? [ ] To hold control and power over the members [ ] To spell out what is required from their members [ ] To motivate members to do their best [ ] To ascertain their roles as managers [ ] To get the members to behave well [ ] It is their right as managers [ ] To control behavior of members [ ] To change or discourage negative behavior x². to spell out what is required from their members (45%). Table 3-2. to control behavior of members (60%). to hold control and power over the members (50%). To motivate members to do their best (85%).07 % x² 10 9 17 18 11 3 12 8 5 6 2 1 4 8 3 7 50 45 85 90 55 15 60 40 16. to change or discourage negative behavior (40%). is accepted. to get the members to behave well (55%).24 The succeeding table (Table 3-2) also shows that according to the respondents managers give rewards and punishment to ascertain their roles as managers (90%). On the other hand the answer of the respondents that managers uses rewards and punishment to encourage their members to do their best would also agree to Landy(1985) who asserts that the use of reward and punishment is to improve the performance of the workers. .05 (k-1)= 14. it can then be said that the hypothesis. The leading response that managers use rewards and punishment to ascertain their positions as managers and to control the behaviors of their members would corroborate Kurnik’s (2007) argument that leaders assumes all power and authority over their members.

While forty percent (40%) said yes. high Performance evaluation (76%). the respondents considers promotion and privileges (94%) to be effective. followed by. praise (87%) is also rank high. As the table shows. eighty five percent (85%) of the respondents believe that receiving rewards from the managers contributes to the improvement of the faculties’ performance while 15% disagree. sixty percent (60%) disagrees that rewards have negative effect. The table also shows the reply of the respondents when asked whether or not rewards have also negative effect on their performance. on this part of the study. . The table also presents the perception of the respondents about the rewards provided by the managers. The Effect of Managers’ Rewards and Punishment Behavior to the Faculty Members Performance Rewards Table 4 shows the perception of the respondents as regards the effect of managers’ rewards behavior to their performance. When asked what rewards would be most effective in enhancing their performance. and gift vouchers/money/Increased Income (69%) having the lowest percentage. Skinner is vindicated with his claim that the environment is KEY for changing an individual behavior.25 Again. The majority (55%) perceives that the reward behaviors of the managers could be improved while 35 % even believes that the rewards behavior need complete redesigning.

In as much that the respondents believe that the manager’s use of rewards improve their performance.26 Table 4. Landy’s (2007) study is confirmed. It is interesting to . The Effect Manager’s Reward Behavior to the Member’s Performance Frequency Does getting rewards contribute to the improvement of your performance? Yes No Does getting rewards also have negative effects on your performance? Yes No Do you make less effort in your job when you know the manager never gives rewards? Yes No What do you think about the rewards and penalties/punishment given by the managers in your school? It works well It could be improved It needs completely re-designing It has no effect at all What rewards do you think would be most effective? Praise from managers Yes No Gift vouchers/money/Increased Income Yes No Promotion/Privileges Yes No Special certificates Yes No High Performance Evaluation Yes No 17 3 8 12 2 18 1 11 7 2 13 2 Percentage 85 15 40 60 10 90 5 55 35 10 87 13 11 5 17 1 10 4 13 4 69 31 94 6 71 29 76 24 It can be concluded from the above data that the hypothesis “rewards and punishment behavior of the educational managers have an effect to the performance of their members” is accepted. then the claim of Kohn (1997) that rewards is punishing is not accepted.

In this case. Kohn (1997) is right when he stated that man is not only motivated to act on incentives alone.27 note however that even if the respondents believe that rewards improve their performance. when asked whether the managers’ punishment behavior improves the faculty members’ performance. . they responded they do not make less effort in their job if they do not receive any rewards from the managers. it could also be that Podsakoff. Written reprimands has the highest percentage of eighty percent (80%) followed by verbal warnings (75%). et al (1985) is on to something that rewards can become effective if used correctly. sixty percent (60%) admitted it does while forty percent (40%) believes it does not. When followed up with a question whether faculty members work less hard if they do not receive penalties or punishment. On the other hand. Punishment Table 5 presents the perception of the respondents as regards the effect of managers’ punishment behavior to the member’s performance. The table also presents the perception of the respondents as to what they punishment behavior they consider effective in improving their performance. The table also presents that sixty five (65%) of the respondents agreed that the punishments given by managers are just and “matching the infraction” the members committed while thirty five percent (35%) replied “no”. Again. seventy percent (70%) said yes while thirty percent 30 % said no. The table shows that when the respondents were asked if the faculty misbehave more often when the manager does not give penalties or punishment. fifty percent (50%) the respondents agreed while fifty percent 50%) disagreed.

10 . the hypothesis is then accepted.25 In as much that the respondents claim that punishment influences their performance. do you think faculty members misbehave more often? Yes No Do you think faculty members work less hard if they do not receive penalties/punishment? Yes No Do you think the punishments given by managers to their members are just and “matching the infraction” the members committed? Yes No Do you think getting punishment from the managers improves your performance? Yes No What do you think about the penalties/punishment given by the managers in your school? It works well It could be improved It needs completely re-designing It has no effect at all What penalties/punishment do you think would be most effective in improving your performance? Verbal warnings Yes No Written Reprimand Yes No Suspension Yes No Dismissal Yes No Termination Yes No % Dcom 14 6 10 10 70 30 50 50 .20 15 5 16 4 8 12 5 15 5 15 75 25 80 20 40 60 25 75 25 75 .25 .25 .28 Table 5.15 . the respondents believe that punishment improves their job performance even admitting that they will misbehave more often if the managers . In general.2 0 13 7 12 8 1 11 7 2 65 35 60 40 5 55 35 10 .10 .30 . The Effect Manager’s Punishment Behavior to the Member’s Performance F If the managers never give penalties/punishment.

The data gathered from 20 respondents from selected colleges and departments of Pines City Colleges were analyzed and interpreted using frequency and percentage.29 do not dispense penalties. This would corroborate Podsakoffs’ et al (1985) study that manager’s punishment behaviors is positively related to productivity. a. The findings of the study are the following. 2. and to get the members to behave well. Managers dispense punishment as needed specially so when their members do not comply with school policies and regulations. their roles to the position held by the mangers. it is mostly done through body language or action. a Rewards and punishment makes a different to the position held by the managers. . The educational managers seldom exhibit rewards behavior and in events that they do. The educational managers often exhibit punishment behaviors either through writing or actions. Further managers give rewards when their members participate to non-academic activities. to motivate members to do their best.b. 1. Managers give rewards and punishment to ascertain their roles as managers. Summary This study looked into the rewards and punishment behavior exhibited by managers from the educational workplace. to control behavior of members. 1. and their effect to the performance of the employees.

3. 30 The rewards behavior of the educational managers affects the performance of the employees by improving it.3. .a.b. The punishment behavior of the educational managers affects the performance of the employees by improving it.

the following conclusions were drawn. 3. managers must also exhibit rewards behavior to their members. The rewards and punishment behaviors of the educational managers are seen as effective in improving the performance of the employees if implemented well. . 4. 3. 2. The managers must be consistent with reward and punishment given in the past and not disproportionate to the infraction. The managers must engage the employee in a conversation regarding their action and the punishment. Rewards and punishment are observed to be important to the position held by the managers. 1. the following are recommended: 1. In as much that only punishment behaviors are observed by members. The manager must be consistent who is punished and rewarded and why throughout the organization. The rewards behavior exhibited by educational managers is seen differently to that of their punishment behaviors. Recommendations In the light of the above findings and conclusions. 2.31 Conclusion and Recommendation Conclusions Based on the foregoing findings.

Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience. L. 2008-08-07 O’LEARY. July 15. 2008. A theory of rule-governed behavior and organizational behavior management. 2007. Robert G. 9 downloaded. . 2008) Behaviorism. A paper presented at ILO Workshop on Employers Organizations in Asia Pacific in the Twenty First Century. E. 1997. 2007. August 1.J.assortment.upm-data. punishment 32 The manager should explain and justify the imposed LITERATURE CITED DE SILVA.5.2008 LANDY. R. A Priority for Employers. A. G. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy http://plato.stanford. For Best results.. G. USA KURNIK. F. 2002.C. S. New York http://www. Behaviorism (Downloaded July 27. Downloaded august 6.W. downloaded http://www. downloaded July 15 HUGHES R. A. Inc. Accel-team. J.edu/entrie/behaviorism. 2008 GRAHAM. 1997. New York Times. CURPHY. J.com/motivation/employee-rewards. Behavior Modification in Applied Settings The Dorsey Press USA KOHN. Psychology of Work Behavior (1985) The Dorsey Press. 2002. USA MARK..com/skinnerbf rcde. 1984. R.sagepub. Human Resource Development for Competitiveness. Pagewise. 1985. Mc-Graw Hill Irwin..com/hub/transactional leadership.. Forget the Bonus. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management. USA MALLOT. New York. Italy GEHRKE. Chicago Illinois. Downloaded July 2008 KAZDIN. 2008. http://hubpages. Transactional Leadership. Turin.J.E.com. 1993. Rewards and Punishment in Business. Skinner’s Theory of http://il.

The Science of Mind and Behavior. TODOR. SMITH. PODSAKOFF.marietta.pdf. Vol. 2004. 3rd Edition. P.33 PASSER. .11.edu/employees/total rewards. Journal of Management. What Happened to Behaviorism. M. 1985. 1998.1. & TAVRIS. Psychology.17 Number 3. Addison-Wesley Educational Publisher Inc. USA: Mc-Graw Hill. 2008. 2007.C. C. APS Observer. Inc. No. New York. and W. 5 th Edition. and R. USA WADE.55-73 ROEDIGER.M. Vol. Psychology. Relationship Between Leader Reward and Punishment Behavior and Group Processes and Productivity. USA www. R.

Answer a question by marking the box which is closest to your point of view. Do you make less effort in your job when you know the manager never gives rewards? PUNISHMENT No Faculty members are punished for a number of reasons. college deans) to their faculty members. such as for poor behavior. such as for good behavior. or poor work. Do you think the punishments given by managers to their members are just and “matching the infraction” the members committed? 6.34 APPENDIX A Survey Questionnaire Thank you for taking the time to answer this questionnaire. Do managers give rewards in your workplace? 4.e. Mssgdolipas REWARDS Rewards are given to faculty members for a number of reasons. This is to consider what you think about rewards and punishments given by managers (i. Do you agree that giving penalties/punishment makes a difference to the roles of the managers? 3. Do you think faculty members work less hard if they do not receive penalties/punishment? 5. do you think faculty members misbehave more often? 4. Do you agree that giving rewards makes a difference to the managers and their managerial roles? 5. non compliance of school written and unwritten rules. Does getting rewards also have negative effects on your performance? 7. success in curricular and extra-curricular activities or for general good work. Do managers in your school give penalties or punishment? 2. Thank you for your help. Yes No 1. Yes 3. Does getting rewards contribute to the improvement of your performance? 6. If the managers never give penalties/punishment. compliance to school policies. Do you think getting punishment from the managers improves your performance? .

What penalties/punishment do you think would be most effective in improving your performance? Verbal warnings [ ] Yes [ ] No Written Reprimand [ ] Yes [ ] No Suspension [ ] Yes [ ] No Dismissal [ ] Yes [ ] No Termination [ ] Yes [ ] No Other (please write) _____________________________________________________ 10. how often do you get rewards? [ ] Never [ ] More than once a week [ ] about once a month [ ] about once a week . What do you think about the rewards and penalties/punishment given by the managers in your school? [ ] It works well [ ] It has no effect at all [ ] It could be improved [ ] It needs completely re-designing 9. What do you perceive is/are the role (s) of rewards and punishment to the position held by managers? [ ] To hold control and power over the members [ ] To get the members to behave well [ ] To spell out what is required from their members [ ] It is their right as managers [ ] To motivate members to do their best [ ] To control behavior of members [ ] To change or discourage negative behavior [ ] To ascertain their roles as managers [ ] Other (please write) _____________ 8. What rewards do you think would be most effective? Praise from managers Gift vouchers/money/Increased Income Promotion/Privileges Special certificates [ ] Yes [ ] Yes [ ] Yes [ ] Yes [ [ [ [ ] No ] No ] No ] No High Performance Evaluation [ ] Yes [ ] No Other (please write) __________________________________________________________ 11. On average.35 REWARDS AND PUNISHMENT 7.

How do managers dispense rewards? [ ] others (Please write) ____________________ 16. Which activities do you get most rewards in? [ ] Faculty high performance [ ] Compliance to school policies and regulations [ ] Participation to school non-academic activities 13. 4. What suggestions do you propose regarding the manager’s reward and punishment behavior? [ ] the manager must be consistent who is punished and rewarded and why throughout the organization [ ] manager must be consistent with reward and punishment given in the past and not disproportionate to the infraction [ ] manager must engage the employee in a conversation regarding their action and the punishment [ ] the manager should explain and justify the imposed punishment Others: ____________________________________________________________ Your comments on Rewards and Punishment Behavior among School Managers ________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ [ ] Verbal [ ] Written [ ] Actions .How do managers dispense rewards? [ ] Verbal [ ] Written [ ] Actions [ ] others (Please write) 14.Participation to school non-academic activities such as school socials [ ] Non. Which activities do members get most punishment in? [ ] Faculty poor performance [ ] Non-Compliance to school policies and regulations [ ] Non.Participation to school academic activities such as meetings [ ] don’t receive penalties to any faculty behavior [ ] Other (please write) _______________________________ 17. How often do you get penalties/punishment? [ ] Never [ ] about once a month [ ] about once a week [ ] about once a semester [ ] More than once a week [ ] others 15.36 [ ] About once a semester [ ] as needed 12.

37 .