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Benguet State University La Trinidad, Benguet GRADUATE SCHOOL Philo 303. Modern Philosophy of Education (Imelda Parcasio, Ph.

D) A Critique Paper on Eastern Educational Philosophy By Sheila G. Dolipas
Aims of Buddhist Education Bhikkhu Bodhi Source: BPS Newsletter cover essay no. 35 (1st mailing, 1997). Copyright © 1997 Buddhist Publication Society Access to Insight edition © 1998 Ideally, education is the principal tool of human growth, essential for transforming the unlettered child into a mature and responsible adult. Yet everywhere today, both in the developed world and the developing world, we can see that formal education is in serious trouble. Classroom instruction has become so routinized and pat that children often consider school an exercise in patience rather than an adventure in learning. Even the brightest and most conscientious students easily become restless, and for many the only attractive escape routes lie along the dangerous roads of drugs, sexual experimentation, and outbursts of senseless violence. Teachers too find themselves in a dilemma, dissatisfied with the system which they serve but unable to see a meaningful alternative to it. One major reason for this sad state of affairs is a loss of vision regarding the proper aims of education. The word "education" literally means "to bring forth," which indicates that the true task of this process is to draw forth from the mind its innate potential for understanding. The urge to learn, to know and comprehend is a basic human trait, as intrinsic to our minds as hunger and thirst are to our bodies. In today's turbulent world, however, this hunger to learn is often deformed by the same moral twists that afflict the wider society. Indeed, just as our appetite for wholesome food is exploited by the fast-food industry with tasty snacks devoid of nutritional value, so in our schools the minds of the young are deprived of the nutriment they need for healthy growth. In the name of education the students are passed through courses of standardized instruction intended to make them efficient servants of a demeaning social system. While such education may be necessary to guarantee societal stability, it does little to fulfill the higher end of learning, the illumination of the mind with the light of truth and goodness. A major cause of our educational problems lies in the "commercialization" of education. The industrial growth model of society, which today extends its tentacles even into the largely agrarian societies of South and Southeast Asia, demands that the educational system prepare students to become productive citizens in an economic order governed by the drive to maximize profits. Such a conception of the aim of education is quite different from that consistent with Buddhist principles. Practical efficiency certainly has its place in Buddhist education, for Buddhism propounds a middle path which recognizes that our loftiest spiritual aspirations depend on a healthy body and a materially secure society. But for Buddhism the practical side of education must be integrated; with other requirements designed to bring the potentialities of human nature to maturity in the way envisioned by the Buddha. Above all, an educational policy guided by Buddhist principles must aim to instill values as much as to impart information. It must be directed, not merely toward developing social and commercial skills, but toward nurturing in the students the seeds of spiritual nobility. Since today's secular society dictates that institutional education is to focus on preparing students for their careers, in a Buddhist country like Sri Lanka the prime responsibility for imparting the principles of the Dhamma to the students naturally falls upon the Dhamma schools. Buddhist education in the Dhamma schools should be concerned above all with the transformation of character. Since a person's character is molded by values, and values are conveyed by inspiring ideals, the first task to be faced by Buddhist educators is to determine the ideals of their educational system. If we turn to the Buddha's discourses in search of the ideals proper to a Buddhist life, we find five qualities that the Buddha often held up as the hallmarks of the model disciple, whether monk or layperson. These five qualities are faith, virtue, generosity, learning, and wisdom. Of the five, two — faith and generosity — relates primarily to the heart: they are concerned with taming the emotional side of human nature. Two relate to the intellect: learning and wisdom. The second, virtue or morality,

and above all in the Buddha as the Fully Enlightened One. As stated. the former providing a basis for the latter. qualities which sustained the Buddha throughout his entire career. so essential for overcoming selfishness. and light. and the narrow focus on selfadvancement that dominates in present-day society. one could not avoid to conclude that Buddhism has not forgotten as to ideal purpose of education. the two wings of Buddhist meditation. greed. It is to learn that cooperation is greater than competition. It is wisdom that the Buddha held up as the direct instrument of final liberation. and mental sobriety. intelligent discussion. Even the brightest and most conscientious students easily become restless. and that our true welfare is to be achieved through harmony and good will rather than by exploiting and dominating others. It is with this step that education reaches completion. which requires deep reflection. Most importantly. and sexual abuse.partakes of both sides of the personality: the first three precepts-abstinence from killing. to understand the reasons for observing them. The fourth and fifth virtues work closely together. sexual experimentation. they should come to appreciate the positive virtues these precepts represent: kindness. Knowledge only fulfills its proper purpose when it serves as a springboard for wisdom (pañña). Of course. . They must come to know the precepts well. According to the author. truthfulness. They must also acquire the spirit of generosity and selfsacrifice (caga). and to know how to apply them in the difficult circumstances of human life today. as exclaimed by the Buddha on the night of his Awakening: "There arose in me vision. Buddhist education is devoted to taming the emotion and developing the intellect of the individual. the precepts of abstinence from falsehood and intoxicants help to develop the clarity and honesty necessary for realization of truth. and also as the infallible guide to success in meeting life's mundane challenges. knowledge." From the above article. and outbursts of senseless violence.govern the emotions. The entire system of Buddhist education must be rooted in faith (saddha) — faith in the Triple Gem.” Buddhism have not lost any time in implementing do something with this observation. the students must be inspired to become accomplished in virtue (sila) by following the moral guidelines spelled out by the Five Precepts. honesty. But mere learning is not sufficient. education exists for the “transformation of the unlettered child to a mature and responsible adult”. Thus wisdom is the crown and pinnacle of the entire system of Buddhist education. “Classroom instruction has become so routinized. that self-sacrifice is more fulfilling than self-aggrandizement. In this task learning and wisdom are closely interwoven. and all the preliminary steps in a Buddhist educational system should be geared toward the flowering of this supreme virtue. generosity. purity. understanding. as the key for opening the doors to the Deathless. To strive to fulfill the ideal of generosity is to develop compassion and renunciation. The article also mentioned that an education based on the five qualities of “faith. But Buddhist education can go far in laying the foundation for this wisdom by clarifying the principles that are to be penetrated by insight. By learning (suta) is meant a wide knowledge of the Buddhist texts which is to be acquired by extensive reading and persistent study. and keen investigation. wisdom. that it becomes illumination in the truest and deepest sense. dissatisfied with the system which they serve but unable to see a meaningful alternative to it. Based on this faith. virtue. and for many the only attractive escape routes lie along the dangerous roads of drugs. the peerless teacher and supreme guide to right living and right understanding. holding both in balance and ensuring that both are brought to fulfillment. Teachers too find themselves in a dilemma. the higher wisdom that consummates the Noble Eightfold Path does not lie within the domain of the Dhamma school. stealing. Wisdom arises by systematically working the ideas and principles learned through study into the fabric of the mind. Thus Buddhist education aims at a parallel transformation of human character and intelligence. This wisdom must be generated by methodical mental training in calm and insight. direct personal insight into the truth of the Dhamma.

conjures up idea of a superhuman accomplishment. To achieve enlightenment. This includes.learning. in reality however. a state of connectedness with something immeasurable and indestructible. This is probably why like Hinduism. he is reincarnated in various lifetimes . This is something inherent in him. a perfect man. Rather than ending the suffering.the Great Buddha. and eventually from conflict within happens. I think this is its drawback. and Right Contemplation. there is lack of specificity here. Personally. That is why I personally don’t think. Right intentions. How is this done? Moreover. and you have a perfect being. one has to live by what Buddhism termed as the EIGHTFOLD PATH. then the very purpose of Buddhism is defeated. and wisdom” will ensure the transformation of human character and intelligence. Right Action. Is this is the case. Right Actions. vague. Take it away. Buddhism believes in reincarnation. Right views. from oneself and from the world around. what is an enlightened life? What methods and curriculum should be adapted in the school for the fulfillment of enlightenment? The word enlightenment according to Tolle(2004) in an article entitled. needed by man to live a fully developed life. The search for enlightenment becomes the cause of stress. Education as Buddhism sees it is too ideal and at the same time. fear arises. Unless man reaches enlightened life. Buddhist education focuses on the BALANCED DEVELOPMENT of the learner. enlightenment is a natural state of felt oneness with Being. the non-achievement of enlightenment cause more so. which in turn would inspire the development of virtues. Right Mindedness. what would the effect be if the individual who strives for enlightenment but is unable to achieve so? IT is obvious that the inability to feel the “connectedness” gives rise to the feeling of separation. The author talks about Buddhist education to be rooted on faith in the triple gem and the Enlightened One. My question however is. “The Power of Now”. Enlightenment means no suffering. Right Speech. Right Effort. something greater than man. Buddha’s end of suffering or enlightenment is possible. Again. Is this even achievable? Man is part suffering. It is finding beyond the nature of man. This in turn then creates a feeling of isolation.

to be able to accept the precepts of Buddhism. how do you train children towards the path of striving towards achieving enlightenment? According to the author. One does into high moral maturity over night. So how can children appreciate a profound concept such as those advocated by Therefore. According to Jean Piaget (Wade. The ideas are ideal. . The problem with Buddha’s teaching is its ambiguity. Kohlberg with his theory of moral development proposed that moral development is growth. but what I would prefer is the “hows” of achieving what Buddha has taught in specific terms. I once asked a Buddhist student as to whether one can achieve enlightenment like Buddha. He was unsure. one cannot deny that a child can only develop within the limits of age. and like all growth. the student can be inspired by the life of the Great Teacher Based.and varying life forms. Moreover. mostly moral in nature. children do not think the way adults do. I am not in any way discounting the contribution of Buddha and his followers to philosophy and education. takes place according to a pre-determined sequence. one has to be The ideas proposed by Buddhism are Buddhism? mature not only cognitively but morally as well. Definitely. While it may be true that a child is shaped by his society. the students will be inspired to become accomplished in virtue (sila) by following the moral guidelines spelled out by the Five Precepts. 1998). education as suggested by buddhism is not for young students.