2. If x and y are production vectors, then the total cost vector associated with the
combined production x Cy is precisely the sum of the cost vectors T.x/ and
T.y/.
13"$5*$& 130#&.4
1. Suppose T W R
5
!R
2
and T.x/ D Ax for some matrix Aand for each x in R
5
. How
many rows and columns does A have?
2. Let A D
Ä
1 0
0 1
. Give a geometric description of the transformation x 7!Ax.
3. The line segment from 0 to a vector u is the set of points of the form t u, where
0 Ä t Ä 1. Show that a linear transformation T maps this segment into the segment
between 0 and T.u/.
&9&3$* 4&4
1. Let A D
Ä
2 0
0 2
, and defne T W R
2
!R
2
by T.x/ D Ax.
Find the images under T of u D
Ä
1
3
and v D
Ä
a
b
.
2. Let A D
2
4
1
3
0 0
0
1
3
0
0 0
1
3
3
5
, u D
2
4
3
6
9
3
5
, and v D
2
4
a
b
c
3
5
.
Defne T W R
3
!R
3
by T.x/ D Ax. Find T.u/ and T.v/.
In Exercises 36, with T defned by T.x/ D Ax, fnd a vector x
whose image under T is b, and determine whether x is unique.
3. A D
2
4
1 0 3
3 1 6
2 2 1
3
5
, b D
2
4
2
3
1
3
5
4. A D
2
4
1 2 3
0 1 3
2 5 6
3
5
, b D
2
4
6
4
5
3
5
5. A D
Ä
1 5 7
3 7 5
, b D
Ä
2
2
6. A D
2
6
6
4
1 3 2
3 8 8
0 1 2
1 0 8
3
7
7
5
, b D
2
6
6
4
1
6
3
10
3
7
7
5
7. Let A be a 6 5 matrix. What must a and b be in order to
defne T W R
a
!R
b
by T.x/ D Ax?
8. How many rows and columns must a matrix A have in order
to defne a mapping fromR
5
into R
7
by the rule T.x/ D Ax?
For Exercises 9 and 10, fnd all x in R
4
that are mapped into the
zero vector by the transformation x 7!Ax for the given matrix A.
9. A D
2
4
1 3 5 5
0 1 3 5
2 4 4 4
3
5
10. A D
2
6
6
4
3 2 10 6
1 0 2 4
0 1 2 3
1 4 10 8
3
7
7
5
11. Let b D
2
4
1
1
0
3
5
, and let A be the matrix in Exercise 9. Is b
in the range of the linear transformation x 7!Ax? Why or
why not?
12. Let b D
2
6
6
4
1
3
1
4
3
7
7
5
, and let A be the matrix in Exercise 10. Is
b in the range of the linear transformation x 7!Ax? Why or
why not?
In Exercises 1316, use a rectangular coordinate system to plot
u D
Ä
5
2
, v D
Ä
2
4
, and their images under the given transfor
mation T . (Make a separate and reasonably large sketch for each
exercise.) Describe geometrically what T does to each vector x
in R
2
.
13. T.x/ D
Ä
1 0
0 1
Ä
x
1
x
2
14. T.x/ D
Ä
2 0
0 2
Ä
x
1
x
2
15. T.x/ D
Ä
0 1
1 0
Ä
x
1
x
2
16. T.x/ D
Ä
0 0
0 2
Ä
x
1
x
2
17. Let T W R
2
!R
2
be a linear transformation that maps u D
Ä
3
4
into
Ä
4
1
and maps v D
Ä
3
3
into
Ä
1
3
. Use the fact
that T is linear to fnd the images under T of 2u, 3v, and
2u C3v.
$)"15&3 ¡Ineur EquuLIons In ¡Ineur AIgebru
&9&3$* 4&4
In Exercises 110, assume that T is a linear transformation. Find
the standard matrix of T .
1. T W R
2
!R
4
, T.e
1
/ D .3; 1; 3; 1/, and T.e
2
/ D .5; 2; 0; 0/,
where e
1
D .1; 0/ and e
2
D .0; 1/.
2. T W R
3
!R
2
, T.e
1
/ D .1; 4/, T.e
2
/ D .2; 9/, and
T.e
3
/ D .3; 8/, where e
1
, e
2
, and e
3
are the columns of
the 3 3 identity matrix.
3. T W R
2
!R
2
is a vertical shear transformation that maps e
1
into e
1
3e
2
, but leaves e
2
unchanged.
4. T W R
2
!R
2
is a horizontal shear transformation that leaves
e
1
unchanged and maps e
2
into e
2
C2e
1
.
5. T W R
2
!R
2
rotates points (about the origin) through =2
radians (counterclockwise).
6. T W R
2
!R
2
rotates points (about the origin) through
3=2 radians (clockwise).
7. T W R
2
!R
2
frst rotates points through 3=4 radians
(clockwise) and then refects points through the horizontal
x
1
axis. [ T.e
1
/ D .1=
p
2; 1=
p
2/.]
8. T W R
2
!R
2
frst performs a horizontal shear that trans
forms e
2
into e
2
C2e
1
(leaving e
1
unchanged) and then re
fects points through the line x
2
D x
1
.
9. T W R
2
!R
2
frst refects points through the horizontal x
1

axis and then rotates points =2 radians.
10. T W R
2
!R
2
frst refects points through the horizontal x
1

axis and then refects points through the line x
2
D x
1
.
11. A linear transformation T W R
2
!R
2
frst refects points
through the x
1
axis and then refects points through the x
2

axis. Show that T can also be described as a linear transfor
mation that rotates points about the origin. What is the angle
of that rotation?
12. Show that the transformation in Exercise 10 is merely a
rotation about the origin. What is the angle of the rotation?
13. Let T W R
2
!R
2
be the linear transformation such that T.e
1
/
and T.e
2
/ are the vectors shown in the fgure. Using the
fgure, sketch the vector T.2; 1/.
14. Let T W R
2
!R
2
be a linear transformation with standard
matrix A D Œ a
1
a
2
, where a
1
and a
2
are shown in the
fgure at the top of column 2. Using the fgure, draw the
image of
Ä
1
2
under the transformation T .
In Exercises 15 and 16, fll in the missing entries of the matrix,
assuming that the equation holds for all values of the variables.
15.
2
4
‹ ‹ ‹
‹ ‹ ‹
‹ ‹ ‹
3
5
2
4
x
1
x
2
x
3
3
5
D
2
4
2x
1
4x
2
x
1
x
3
x
2
C3x
3
3
5
16.
2
4
‹ ‹
‹ ‹
‹ ‹
3
5
Ä
x
1
x
2
D
2
4
3x
1
2x
2
x
1
C4x
2
x
2
3
5
In Exercises 1720, show that T is a linear transformation by
fnding a matrix that implements the mapping. Note that x
1
; x
2
; : : :
are not vectors but are entries in vectors.
17. T.x
1
; x
2
; x
3
; x
4
/ D .x
1
C2x
2
; 0; 2x
2
Cx
4
; x
2
x
4
/
18. T.x
1
; x
2
/ D .x
1
C4x
2
; 0; x
1
3x
2
; x
1
/
19. T.x
1
; x
2
; x
3
/ D .x
1
5x
2
C4x
3
; x
2
6x
3
/
20. T.x
1
; x
2
; x
3
; x
4
/ D 3x
1
C4x
3
2x
4
(Notice: T W R
4
!R/
21. Let T W R
2
!R
2
be a linear transformation such that
T.x
1
; x
2
/ D .x
1
Cx
2
; 4x
1
C5x
2
/. Find x such that T.x/ D
.3; 8/.
22. Let T W R
2
!R
3
be a linear transformation with
T.x
1
; x
2
/ D .2x
1
x
2
; 3x
1
Cx
2
; 2x
1
3x
2
/. Find x such
that T.x/ D .0; 1; 4/.
In Exercises 23 and 24, mark each statement True or False. Justify
each answer.
23. a. A linear transformation T W R
n
!R
m
is completely de
termined by its effect on the columns of the n n identity
matrix.
b. If T W R
2
!R
2
rotates vectors about the origin through
an angle ', then T is a linear transformation.
c. When two linear transformations are performed one after
another, the combined effect may not always be a linear
transformation.
d. A mapping T W R
n
!R
m
is onto R
m
if every vector x in
R
n
maps onto some vector in R
m
.
e. If A is a 3 2 matrix, then the transformation x 7!Ax
cannot be onetoone.
24. a. If A is a 4 3 matrix, then the transformation x 7!Ax
maps R
3
onto R
4
.