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RADAR INTERFEROMETRY: 2D PHASE UNWRAPPING VIA GRAPH CUTS

Gonçalo Ramiro Valadão Matias (Licenciado)

Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Sistemas de Informação Geográfica

Orientador: Doutor José Manuel Bioucas Dias

Júri Presidente: Doutor Carlos Alberto Ferreira de Sousa Oliveira Vogais: Doutor Luís Eduardo Neves Gouveia Doutor Mário Alexandre Teles de Figueiredo Doutor José Manuel Bioucas Dias Doutor Pedro Manuel Quintas Aguiar

Julho de 2006

Abstract

Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is a radar remote sensing technique primarily aimed at measuring terrain altitude. Relevant InSAR features are night-andday and all-weather operability. In particular, such features spurred InSAR based digital elevation models (DEM) into a wide spread operational use. Phase unwrapping is the inference of absolute phase from modulo-2π phase. This is a critical step in the InSAR processing chain, yet still one of its most challenging problems; this fact makes of phase unwrapping a crucial problem to InSAR based DEM production. This thesis introduces a new energy minimization framework for phase unwrapping, building on graph cuts based binary optimization techniques. We provide an exact minimizer general algorithm, termed PUMF (Phase Unwrapping Max-Flow), considering convex pairwise pixel interaction potentials; namely we solve exactly all the phase unwrapping classical minimum Lp norm problems for p ≥ 1. A set of experimental results illustrates the eﬀectiveness of the proposed algorithm, and its competitiveness with state-of-the-art algorithms.

Key Words: Phase unwrapping, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), integer optimization, graph cuts, image processing, remote sensing.

i

Resumo

A Interferometria de Radar de Abertura Sint´ etica (InSAR) ´ e uma t´ ecnica de detec¸ c˜ ao remota cujo principal objectivo ´ e medir a altitude do terreno. A capacidade de operar independentemente da hora do dia ou noite, bem como das condi¸ c˜ oes climat´ ericas, potenciou o uso de modelos digitais do terreno (MDT) obtidos via InSAR. As t´ ecnicas de Desenrolamento de Fase visam, dada uma imagem de fase m´ odulo-2π , inferir a correspondente imagem de fase absoluta. Tal procedimento, sendo um passo cr´ ıtico na cadeia de processamento em InSAR, constitui tamb´ em, reconhecidamente, um dos seus problemas mais dif´ ıceis; este facto faz do Desenrolamento de Fase um problema crucial na produ¸ c˜ ao de MDT baseados em InSAR. Esta tese introduz uma nova abordagem a este problema, seguindo um paradigma de ´ proposto um minimiza¸ c˜ ao de energia e utilizando t´ ecnicas de optimiza¸ c˜ ao com grafos. E algoritmo de minimiza¸ c˜ ao exacta, o PUMF (Phase Unwrapping Max-Flow), admitindo quaisquer potenciais de interac¸ c˜ ao convexos entre pares de p´ ıxeis. O PUMF resolve de forma exacta todos os problemas de desenrolamento de fase de m´ ınima norma Lp com p ≥ 1. Um conjunto de resultados experimentais ilustra a eﬁc´ acia do algoritmo proposto, bem como o seu desempenho competitivo relativamente aos melhores algoritmos em Desenrolamento de Fase.

Palavras chave: Desenrolamento de Fase, Interferometria de Radar de Abertura Sint´ etica (InSAR), Optimiza¸ c˜ ao Inteira, Cortes em Grafos, Processamento de Imagem, Detec¸ c˜ ao Remota.

ii

Finally. for his generous. Paulo and Isabel. Fechi. Prof. I also would like to thank the support of many friends. iii . Jorge. Nunos. his scientiﬁc creativity. Jo˜ ao. Filipa. thanks to all my family. Thanks also to Prof. and commitment to excellence. Carlas. namely: Vasco.Acknowledgements First and foremost I would like to thank my thesis supervisor. Inˆ es. Jos´ e BioucasDias. Jo˜ ao Matos and all the n´ ucleo 7 team. last but not the least. devoted and challenging guidance. Pedro. Padre Jo˜ ao.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 3. . .3 Residues . . . . . Concepts and Applications . 17 3 Main Phase Unwrapping Approaches and State-Of-The-Art Algorithms 3. . . . . .1. . .1 3. . . . 16 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 SAR Concept . .1 2. .2.1. . . . . .3 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . .4 2. . . . .1 2. . . . . InSAR Geometry . . 1 2 3 3 4 4 4 6 2 Background: SAR Interferometry and Phase Unwrapping 2. .1. . . . 11 Decorrelation and Quality Maps . . . . . 21 Branch Cuts Algorithms .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Proposed Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2. . . . . . . . . .1 20 Path Following Methods . . . . .1. . . . . . . .1 SAR Interferometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Minimum Lp Norm . . . 14 Phase Unwrapping . .Contents 1 Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 3. .2 Minimum Norm Methods . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . 22 Quality Guided Algorithms . . . . . . . . . .2 What is Phase Unwrapping? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dissertation Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 3. . . . . . . . . Thesis Contextual Setting . . . . . . . . . . InSAR: Milestones. . . .2. . . . . . . 25 iv . . 16 The Itoh Condition . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . 32 4. 42 Long’s Peak . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . . .2 3.4 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Energy Minimization by a Sequence of Binary Optimizations . . . . . . . . 28 30 4 The PUMF Approach 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 4. . . 26 L1 Norm Algorithms . . . . . 46 Benchmarking . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . . . .4 Gaussian Hills . . . . . . . .3 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Bayesian and Parametric Methods . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .1 4. . . . . .3 3. . . . . . . .1 4. 38 41 5 PUMF Performance 5. . . . . . . . .3 L2 Norm Algorithms . . . 37 Clique Potentials . . 32 Mapping Binary Optimizations onto Graph Max-Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 An Existence Theorem for Energy Minimization . 41 Shear Ramps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . 27 Low p Valued Lp Norm Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Problem Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 4. . . 33 Energy Minimization Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 52 53 6 Concluding Remarks A Proof of Theorem 1 v .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 4. 17 Integration path independence . 22 Branch cuts conﬁguration . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 5. .2 4. . . . . . . . reference bound . . . . . . The synthetic aperture radar (SAR) principle . . . . . 21 Residues and composition of elementary loops . . . . . 13 Phase unwrapping problem ill posedness . . .2 5. . . .3 5. . . . . . .1 3. 43 PUMF complexity experimental estimates vs. . . .3 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Long’s Peak surface application example . . . 31 Graphs structure . 40 Gaussian surface application example . . .4 2. . . . . .7 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 2. . .2 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 vi . . . 36 A classical Lp norm as a quantized potential . 23 A site and ﬁrst order neighbours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 3. . . . . 10 PSInSAR: subsidence in Lisbon suburbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 2. . . . .3 5. .1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Figures 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Current ﬂow obtained with SRTM-ATI mode: Dutch Wadden Sea . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 5. . . . . 6 7 8 Diﬀerential InSAR: subsidence in Las Vegas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 InSAR geometry in a ﬂat earth . . . . . . 45 Shear planes surface application example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Radar resolution . . 44 Gaussian surface with a quarter null application example . . . .1 4. . . . . . . InSAR: XTI conﬁguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .3 PUMF vs. . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 vii . . 50 5. . . . . Phase unwrapping problem presented in section 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Phase unwrapping problems presented in section 5. Phase unwrapping problems presented in section 5. . . reference PU algorithms. . . . . .3 . . . reference PU algorithms. . 50 5. . . . . . . . .1 PUMF vs. .1 . reference PU algorithms. . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Tables 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 PUMF vs. . . . .2 . . . . . . . . . .

Chapter 1 Introduction This thesis presents a new energy minimization framework to phase unwrapping and illustrates its relevance to interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) applications. can also be obtained using InSAR. or diﬀerence in the used wavelengths. Other characteristics.. 1 ..e. amplitude) values. in SAR interferometry phase can be observed only in the principal interval ] − π. A necessary 1 Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and SAR interferometry are two terms used interchangeably throughout the text.e. the acquisition system wraps the phase around that interval. Those images must diﬀer by a certain feature. such as land classiﬁcation or motion tracking. SAR interferometry1 utilizes two or more complex-valued images of the same scene to infer the desired information. in all weather. InSAR is an increasingly popular remote sensing technique [1]. SAR interferometry works with pixel-to-pixel phase diﬀerences between the images. where the information lies in the phase rather than amplitude. SAR is the acronym for Synthetic Aperture Radar. InSAR imaging comprises an ensemble of techniques that provide measurements on surface topography and surface deformation. In spite of a possible resemblance with optical stereoscopy. with an ever improving spatial resolution due to developments in sensors and processing algorithms. this is a crucial distinction that calls for diﬀerent processing techniques. i. like a slight diﬀerence in the sensor ﬂight track. instead of intensity (i. Like several other imaging technologies. Capable of day and night. diﬀerence in the acquisition time. 2 In radians. π ]2 . measurements. [2]. as well as a complementary set of applications [1].

and speed is the aim of phase unwrapping research. using recent results on binary energy minimization [7]. To deal with absolute phase discontinuities and noise. phase unwrapping cannot be considered a mature ﬁeld. We exemplify its eﬀectiveness by presenting applications comprising hard artiﬁcial problems and synthesized InSAR data. This estimation is achieved through the minimization of a so-called energy function. the algorithm is termed PUMF. these discontinuities are a result of well known identiﬁed situations. it renders. measurements of glaciers ﬂows. tentatively. volcanoes and subsidence phenomena.g. e. For each pixel a certain 2π multiple is to be found. In radar interferometry. and mapping of earth quakes. 1. Improvement on algorithms accuracy. for instance. With an ongoing wide research and operational set of InSAR applications. for Phase Unwrapping Max-Flow. 2 . phase unwrapping is a worthwhile problem to be addressed in the geographical information science communities [1]. Although there is a quite extensive published literature.operation is. robustness.. but instead. Accordingly. generation of digital elevation models. inspired by the Zπ M algorithm [6]. PUMF competes with state-of-the-art PU algorithms.1 Proposed Approach The framework herein presented considers phase unwrapping as an optimization problem. Being a critical step in the InSAR processing chain. phase unwrapping is also considered to be one of the most challenging problems for InSAR successful application [5]. steep slopes on the ground or typiﬁed bad SAR geometries inducing. the removing of the 2π -multiple ambiguity in order to recover the true (i. absolute ) phase from the wrapped phase: the phase unwrapping (PU) problem. Each of these binary optimizations is solved via a max-ﬂow/min-cut formulation. therefore. namely. due to multiple sources. the absolute phase. noise. using a sequence of binary optimizations. such that when added to the wrapped phase.e. shadowing and layover [4]. an active research topic [3]. is also an ubiquitous origin of phase discontinuities. is still an open question to which lots of ongoing research eﬀorts are being devoted.. in a series of shown benchmarking representative problems.

1. as well as benchmarks against reference algorithms. 3 . with emphasis on its theoretical support and on algorithm aspects. in Chapter 3. in fact. 1. followed by a quick review of the main phase unwrapping approaches and state-of-the-art algorithms. the thesis aims at helping to bridge the gap between geographical information systems and InSAR research areas. In this context. Then. Portugal. as well. Chapter 4 presents the PUMF approach. this thesis beneﬁted from more than a decade long of research activity on phase unwrapping at the Communications Theory and Pattern Recognition Group of the Instituto de Telecomunica¸ c˜ oes at Instituto Superior T´ ecnico. Jos´ e Bioucas-Dias. Chapter 5 presents the experimental results obtained with PUMF.3 Dissertation Outline Chapter 2 gives a basic background on radar interferometry and phase unwrapping. Chapter 6 draws conclusions from the work done. setting directions for future work. Finally.2 Thesis Contextual Setting The main ideas underlying PUMF are due to my advisor.

[4]. 2. and we emphasize the critical importance of phase unwrapping for the generation of InSAR products. Next. Without entering into the technicalities of SAR processing.1.1 (a). according to whether they provide their own energy source for illumination or not [8]. rain.1 SAR Interferometry SAR Concept Remote sensing systems can be classiﬁed as either active or passive. 2. thus.1 2. we set the stage by giving some background on SAR interferometry and on phase unwrapping. which propagate through clouds. and fog practically without disturbance. a 24 hours a day and nearly all-weather operation [4]. we give a brief overview of the phase unwrapping problem. Radar imaging spatial resolution is illustrated in Fig. we browse through some of the main interferometry topics. 4 . Radar operates at the microwave range of frequencies (wavelengths between 1cm and 1m).Chapter 2 Background: SAR Interferometry and Phase Unwrapping In this chapter. Most of the active type systems are radar based1 systems [9]. which shows a radar platform at velocity V illuminating the ground in a resolution cell having a ground range 1 Radar is the acronym for RAdio Detection And Ranging. Radar systems allow.

Commonly attributed to Carl Wiley (Goodyear Aircraft Corporation. Range resolution can be deﬁned as the shortest range distance. and later processing it as if it was obtained from a physically large antenna (see Fig. we can get ﬁner resolutions by increasing the antenna size. then. therefore. it is a matter of how much the antenna is capable of focusing the received and transmitted microwaves into a sharp beam. [4.g. we must have an aperture D = 448 m. that this depends on the antenna size or aperture2 [12]. Chap. collecting data. namely. from antenna theory. The ground range resolution is approximately given by ∆X ≈ c/2 1 B sin(θ ) . a desired azimuthal resolution of 10 m. 2. SAR boosted the development of radar imaging applications. given the wavelength and the range distance. using a side looking geometry. e. ﬁrst military and then 2 These two concepts are not rigorously equivalent but very similar in practice. Considering. The sin(θ ) term accounts for the projection of the range resolution on the ground [10]. 1951).1 (b). It is well known. As illustrated in Fig. Namely. ∆r . The synthetic aperture technique was developed to overcome the antenna size limitation on resolution. 1]. for which two point targets produce non-overlapping echoes. [11]. 5 . which is obviously a prohibitive antenna size to put on-board any existing satellite. 2. Fine range resolutions require.2). there exist signal processing techniques. 2. transmitting radar pulses and retrieving their echoes. 2. [11]. its principle consists on letting the radar antenna ﬂy over the length of the desired aperture. D for the antenna aperture.1 (a)]. a range resolution ∆r = cτ 2 . where c is the speed of light. Concerning azimuthal resolution.dimension ∆X and an azimuthal dimension ∆Y . B for the chirp frequencies bandwidth. a pulse with duration τ gives.6 cm) radar. and r for range [4. chirp pulse compression which consists in transmitting long pulses (chirps). and then compressing the echoes[10]. To overcome this. and a typical range distance of 800 km (approximately the ERS-1/2 satellites range distances) for a C-band (λ = 5. which brings both a technological and an economical problem. we have ∆Y ≈ λ D r. These signal processing algorithms thus synthesize an aperture. where c stands for light velocity. 1]. range r (slant range in SAR jargon) is deﬁned as the distance from the antenna to the target and ground range x as its projection on the ground.1 (a). This expression for ∆Y tells us that.. Chap. short pulses. where λ stands for wavelength. In that sketch the sensor goes on. Still referring to Fig. and θ for the look angle [see Fig.

in 1969. and Rosen et al. will provide SAR images of up to 1 m resolution [13]. Interferometric SAR evolved both from the development of SAR and of interferometric techniques used in radio astronomy. Concepts and Applications In this section and in part of the next one. (b) Range resolution. 2. Zisk published a work on measurements of the moon topography [15]. with which he obtained the ﬁrst InSAR measurements of Earth topography. the TerraSAR-X satellite scheduled to be launched in 2006. [1].1. The very ﬁrst reported application of radar interferometry was made by Rogers and Ingalls [14]. we follow very closely the InSAR review papers by Bamler et al.y D V θ r cτ/2 ∆y ∆x (a) (b) x Figure 2. As an example. 6 .1: (a) Radar spatial resolution cell. in a work on the mapping of the surface reﬂectivity of Venus. [2]. The collected data over Puerto Rico served as proof-of-concept generation of topography mapping using InSAR. civilian. In 1972. he employed an airborne system with an ensemble of two SAR antennas constituting a cross-track interferometer. Therein. and two years later Graham ﬁrst reported the ﬁrst application of InSAR to Earth observation [16].2 InSAR: Milestones.

The most prominent application of spaceborne cross-track interferometry was made by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission4 (SRTM) in 2000. A cross-track baseline. has a non null projection in the plane perpendicular to the ﬂight tracks or orbits. and thus produce a digital elevation model (DEM). thus.3 sketches a typical InSAR cross-track interferometry (XTI) conﬁguration. two or more SAR antennas separated by a certain cross-track3 baseline distance acquire images over the same area via slightly diﬀerent directions. by deﬁnition. 4 A joint mission of NASA (National Aeronautics & Space Administration). because as SAR is a coherent system [17]. The Endeavour shuttle (NASA) We call baseline to the vector joining two platforms. the 3-D position for each ground resolution cell. it is possible to retrieve the phase of the electromagnetic radar waves arriving at the sensors and.2: The synthetic aperture radar (SAR) principle.y D V θ r ∆x ∆y x Figure 2. Unlike classical stereo techniques. In this mode. and conversion of the results into digital elevation models (DEM) of the terrain [1]. InSAR works by measuring phase diﬀerences on every pixel. the retrieval of the interferometric phase diﬀerence. This can be so. produce phase images. given the two ranges r1 and r2 and the two SAR antennas locations. it is possible to recover. This fact additionally brings automation to the processes of registration of the SAR images entering into the interferometric measurement. As shown below. which constitutes a beneﬁt of the InSAR framework.1. DLR (German Aerospace 3 7 . which involve the selection of sparse homologous points in the image pairs and for which image contrast is needed. Cross-track interferometry DEM Generation Figure 2. in Section 2. by triangulation.3.

call for 16 m (90%) absolute vertical height accuracy. 8 . and 20 m (90%) absolute horizontal circular accuracy6 .g. During those time lags (e.g. made on a repeat-pass basis. but made in successive times of revisit to the ground spots at issue.nga. 6 For accuracy deﬁnitions see. was equipped with a main antenna mounted on the cargo bay. and ASI (Italian Spatial Agency). In 10 days it covered the Earth surface between latitudes 60◦ North and 54◦ South. may change. to date. The global DEM produced. λ (2.1) Center).3: InSAR: XTI conﬁguration.pdf).Diﬀerential Interferometry Besides the SRTM mission.mil/ast/fm/acq/89020B. which means that the acquisition of the image pair (or multiple) is not simultaneous. interferometry with SAR satellites has been. and an outboard antenna at the end of a 60 m mast. as well as surface. the ERS satellite revisit time is 35 days) propagation properties. namely. 30 m spatial sampling. A ground motion ∆r in the range direction translates into a diﬀerential phase shift of φdif f = 2 × 2π ∆r. complies with DTED25 speciﬁcations which..y D V D r1 r2 ∆x ∆y x (a) Figure 2. e. Motion Mapping . [18]. 5 Digital Terrain Elevation Data level 2 speciﬁcations (http://www..

however. it is possible to infer the surface velocity (in the range direction). it has been observed that some sparse ground scatterers present an outstanding time persistent correlation. This ambiguity suppression must assume a certain kinematic model for the ground motion [19]. This brings in an ambiguity of motion versus topographic induced phases that can be resolved. and noise. whether for spaceborne or airborne systems. to allow the production of meaningful interferograms. For each of these persistent scatterers. However. relies on producing several independent interferograms (the images containing the phase shifts) and then to average them. may also contribute to temporal decorrelation. if either an accurate DEM or a set of diﬀerent baseline interferograms are available [19]. Motion Mapping . This average ﬁlter can be applied assuming that atmospheric properties evolve in an approximately random fashion. Persistent (or permanent) scatterers interferometry (PSInSAR) is a diﬀerential interferometry technique that makes use of this fact. USA).Persistent Scatterers Interferometry Time changes of propagation and surface properties tend to produce a decorrelation between the images acquired at diﬀerent times. PSInSAR algorithms can produce an individual displacement history 7 Ground down lift. ranging a period that is usually between 5 and 12 years. Other changes in the ground point scattering properties. a measured diﬀerential phase shift may include.where the factor 2 accounts for the two-way round trip of the radar pulse. Knowing ∆r and acquisition times. 9 . thus. as well. being able to produce maps of subsidence/uplift rates to an accuracy of less than 1 mm/year. between 1992 and 1997. the atmospheric contributions due to change in propagation properties. introduces a non-zero crosstrack baseline. to reach extremely accurate displacement measurements.4 shows a mapping of subsidence7 in Las Vegas (Nv. It should be noted that in practice. the platform does not repeat exactly the same path and. a large number of phase images (30 − 100) is required. using diﬀerential interferometry from ERS images [20]. Although this temporal decorrelation sets limits on the time spanned between image acquisitions. The most employed technique to suppress those unwanted contributions. Figure 2. in many cases cm-accuracy is achievable for ∆r measurements. For that.

Portugal. These results were obtained in the framework of the ESA/UE Terraﬁrma project. sampled at each image acquisition epoch. Along-track interferometry Some conﬁgurations employ two radar antennas displaced in the along-track direction. This so-called along-track interferometry (ATI) allows the measurement 10 .4: Diﬀerential InSAR derived subsidence in Las Vegas between 1992 and 1997. Detected persistent scatterers are overlaid and represented by coloured dots that correspond to diﬀerent subsidence rates.Figure 2. or natural rocky areas. Taken from [20]. red means high subsidence rates (around −12mm/year ). and usually mounted on the same platform. The major limitation of PSInSAR is the inhomogeneity of the persistent scatterers spatial distribution. and in practice the two antennas acquire images from the same position. such that phase topographic signature is null.5 shows a segment of an amplitude radar image covering an area along the Tagus river near Lisboa. Figure 2. following each other at a short distance. Time delay between the two acquisitions is very often in the range 10 − 100 ms. which gives predominance to urban man-made features.

5: Persistent scatterers near Lisbon. φscat stands for the change in phase due to ground 8 Whether of the single-pass or repeat-pass type. The phase φ1.5 ms between the acquisition pairs. Mostly used in airborne systems. SRTM remains one of the few spaceborne experiments with ATI. In this section.2 arriving at a pixel on each sensor has the following contributions: φ1. In [21] the authors used the SRTM-ATI time lag of about 0. to produce measurements on the currents of the Dutch Wadden Sea (Fig.2) where φr is the phase due to the round trip propagation distance.2 1.2 . Let us use labels 1. Portugal (data processed by TRE in the framework of the ESA/EU Terraﬁrma project). we brieﬂy browse the basics of the geometry of the correspondent cross-track InSAR mode. 2 to identify two SAR sensors forming an interferometer8 . 2r represents the round trip range distance (from the sensor to the ground and back again).2 2r +φ1 scat + φprop + φnoise . λ .2.Figure 2. whether by being historically the ﬁrst operational product. of fast surface displacements of the range of m/s. 11 . with rapid decorrelation properties.2 = 2π 1. 2.2 1.6). 2π λ is the wave number).2 φ1 r (2.1. whether by deﬁning a core concept in most InSAR applications.3 InSAR Geometry Digital elevation models generation is virtually the primal application of InSAR. λ is the used wavelength (thus.

B is the baseline distance between the two sensors. Neglecting time. which is at a height a from a reference level.711 . and φscat = φscat .3) where ∆r = r 2 − r 1 . in the next section. for simplicity. namely. Taken from [21]. it comes for the phase diﬀerence 1 φ = φ2 − φ1 = φ2 r − φr = 4π ∆r. thermal noise. 10 9 12 . Noise may have several sources. in which. 11 Sketch taken from [22]. we consider a ﬂat earth. scattering. and φnoise stands for a phase shift due to noise10 . Range distances r 1 and r 2 are much larger than B . at range distances r 1 and r 2 from a resolution cell in the ground. respectively.6: Range direction current ﬂow obtained by SRTM-ATI acquisition over the Dutch Wadden Sea.Figure 2. spatial and geometrical decorrelation. with B⊥ and B being its perpendicular and parallel components respectively. 2. Sensor 1 and sensor 2 are. we may assume that φ2 prop = 2 1 φ1 prop . so we have: The main inﬂuence is due to water vapour in the troposphere. We will refer in more detail to decorrelation and noise issues. So. Let us now consider a general interferometric conﬁguration as depicted in Fig. φprop stands for atmospheric propagation delay9 . λ (2. also neglecting noise.

8) into (2.Sensor2 Sensor1 B α B B γ r2 r1 A a x Figure 2.7 we have: a = A − r 1 cos(γ ).9) (2. 2. (2. (2. Taken from [22].4) (2.7) r2 − r1 B + α.6) γ = arcsin so.7: InSAR geometry in a ﬂat earth. = B cos (2.7) we get a = A − r 1 cos arcsin r2 − r1 B +α . inserting (2. and from (2.3) and noting that ∆r = r 2 − r 1 . From Fig.8) Finally. from (2.6) We are actually interested in obtaining the ground resolution cell height a. we get 13 .5) (2. r2 − r1 ≈ B π −γ+α 2 = B sin(γ − α).

then the round trip phase diﬀerence φ = φ2 − φ1 between On each ground resolution cell.2]: zi = Ai ejφi + ηi . the sensor resolution cell “sees” the complex sum —the so-called coherent sum— of all these contributions. [22. 13 As usual. 2.10) is a fundamental one. E stands for the expected value operator. A2 and ρ is their correlation coeﬃcient13 . [22. (2. A common model for the value of a certain pixel in the ith image entering into an interferogram is given by.10) Expression (2. r 1 .12 φi accounts for the round trip propagation for the pulse backscattered at this cell.2]. each of which is located at a diﬀerent distance from the sensor (besides possessing diverse scattering properties). It is trivial to show that. Chap. SAR image pixels are complex-valued. considering that the ground surface is rough (comparing to the wavelength). as it gives the ground cell height a from the interferometric phase φ. we have E(A1 A∗ 2) = ρ ∗ |2 ) = ρθ 2 .11) where Ai = Aejψi is a random variable accounting for a complex amplitude. In fact.4 Decorrelation and Quality Maps Unlike most imagery. we are then able to 2. Ai is a zero mean circular gaussian random variable [23]. 12 14 . where θ is the (common) standard deviation of random variables E(|z1 |2 )E(|z2 A1 . [6].1. if the random variables A1 and A2 are totally correlated (ρ = 1) and if noise is neglected. and that none of the scatterers is predominant. B and α. [22]. (r 1 )2 − (A − a)2 . For any two homologous pixels in images 1. then. Chap.a = A − r 1 cos arcsin φλ 4πB +α . resulting from the complex sum of the echoes backscattered from the various scatterers in the same resolution cell. Computing the associated ground range x = produce a digital elevation model. a complex number is the natural representation of both the amplitude and the phase retrieved at each SAR sensor cell. Furthermore. there are a certain number of elementary scatterers. that on each resolution cell the scatterers are randomly spatially distributed. and via the acquisition geometry parameters A. and ηi is a random variable accounting for electronic noise [6]. (2.

Thus. coherence is low for pixels having high decorrelation or original phase discontinuities. in the presence of decorrelation and noise. whenever that is not misleading. from which we emphasize: • Spatial decorrelation: results from misregistration between the images entering into the interferogram. φ = arg(z2 z1 (2. When available. which can be shown [24]. over the images. • Temporal decorrelation: results from time dependent phase ﬂuctuations due to ground motion. The usually preferred criterion to measure quality is the absolute value of the correlation coeﬃcient. ground scattering properties. then it can be sensible even to misregistration at the subpixel level. the so-called coherence: α = |ρ| = ∗) E(z1 z2 . where φ is assumed to be constant. • Geometric decorrelation: results from variations in phase of targets inside a resolution cell due to diﬀerent incidence angles.12) is useless and some kind of statistical inference is used instead. This is. φ is the so-called interferometric phase. or propagation conditions.the two images can be given by ∗ ). as if the SAR system has a narrow enough impulsive response. A commonly used one is through the maximumlikelihood estimator. in practice.13) extends over a window with k pixels. there are in practice other decorrelation sources. (2. which we will ∗ is usually referred to as the simply refer to as phase. quality maps carry very useful information to some of the existing 15 . A last note about the so-called quality maps is worthy. [25] to be given by ˆ = arctan Im( φ Re( where k ∗ k z1 z2 ) ∗ k z1 z2 ) . expression (2. besides noise. a delicate issue.12) where arg(z ) ≡ arctan Im(z ) Re(z ) . These maps are ancillary images that give information on the quality of the retrieved interferometric phase φ.14) Generally. However. z2 z1 interferogram. ∗ |2 ) E(|z1 |2 )E(|z2 (2.

8 with a toy example using 3 × 3 size images with pixels values in principal interval units. 2. which is deﬁned as the remainder of phase after the subtraction of the maximum 2π -multiple that is less or equal than the phase value. be argued that.3) the interferometric phase magnitude.2. 2. In mathematical terms. to some tens of meters. in principle. can be detected and stored. We will cover the basics of phase unwrapping in the following section. After acquiring two SAR images S1 and S2 . This lack of uniqueness for the unwrapping of an image per se. there is an inﬁnite number of images that are 2π -congruent with it.8 (a) a modulo-2π wrapped image is shown. together with a corresponding mesh rendering. Phase unwrapping is an ill-posed problem [26]. only its principal value.8 (c) present two diﬀerent possible Without loss of generality any 2π -length interval could have been deﬁned as the principal interval. at least. Phase unwrapping (PU) is the inverse process: the recovery of the absolute phase from the wrapped phase. Instead of the absolute (i. is illustrated in Fig. the travel path diﬀerence between the two sensors always amounts. the ambiguity is also present in the interferometric phase given by (2. however. Figures 2. and producing the correspondent interfero∗ . In fact. an ambiguity that is intrinsic to the SAR phase acquisition systems [10]. This procedure encloses. even so. then.phase unwrapping processing algorithms. which can be seen as the outcome of wrapping the phase around a 2π length interval (2π radians corresponds to a full wavelength cycle).8 (b) and 2. given any wrapped phase image. 2. Correspondingly the principal interval. Nevertheless. In Fig. the interferometric phase can ﬁnally be obtained according to expression gram I = S1 S2 (2.12)15 . the (absolute) interferometric phase could fall within the principal value. plus a further subtraction of a π quantity. its modulo-2π value. the true) phase. in which case there would be no ambiguity. there is an inﬁnite number of possible corresponding unwrapped phase images16 . Its goal is. is ] − π π ]14 . It could. to remove the 2π -multiple ambiguity. 15 14 16 . and according to (2. basically. resulting in the so-called wrapped phase. then. which is the set of all possible principal values. the principal value of the phase is also known as. given any image.12). far exceeds the 2π value. 16 In other words. if no further information is added.2 2. Accordingly.e.1 Phase Unwrapping What is Phase Unwrapping? We have shown above that phase holds the quested InSAR information on ground height.

the so-called Itoh condition [27].25 0.6 0.75 0.2. in essence.2 1 1.25 1. Introducing some simple notation. (2. If this assumption is not violated. thus.2 0 2 1.5 2 1. as referred previously. the modulo-2π operator.8 0. corresponding unwrapped images.5 0.75 1.5 0. is that the absolute value of phase diﬀerences between neighbouring pixels is less than π . along with their mesh renderings which emphasize how diﬀerent those solutions are. which. All the values are in principal interval units. The operator W . let us deﬁne the wrapper operator W (·) by W : R −→ φ → ] − π π] φ − 2πk. 2.15) where k ∈ Z is such that (φ − 2πk) ∈] − π π ].5 1. wraps any phase φ into the principal interval ] − π π ].4 0. 2π length interval.5 2. allowing the absolute phase image to be easily determined up to a constant.0 0. (c) A second possible unwrapped solution and its mesh rendering.4 1.75 1.6 1.5 2 -1.8 1.25 0 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 0.25 1. is a zero centred.75 -1.5 4.75 0.2 The Itoh Condition The Itoh Method An assumption taken by most phase unwrapping strategies.5 1.75 -3. that is.25 1 (a) (b) (c) Figure 2.25 0 1 0.5 1. (b) Possible unwrapped solution and its mesh rendering. it eliminates the ill-posedness of the problem.8: (a) Modulo-2π wrapped image and its mesh rendering. with no loss of generality by 17 .

φ will be denoting an absolute (i. Now. W [∆W (φn )] = ∆φn . From (2.16). (2. write W [∆W (φn )] = ∆φn −2π (kn − kn−1 ) − 2πk . We can. n=1 (2.15) we have W (φn ) = φn − 2πkn (kn ∈ Z) and so. and from (2.17) and knowing that by deﬁnition |a| ≤ π . irrespective of phase being an absolute or a wrapped one. k ∈ Z. where kn .e. unwrapped) phase.21) 18 . and 2πk is the proper 2π multiple to bring a into the principal interval.17) ∆φn = φm − φ0 . and ψ a wrapped phase. and deﬁne a corresponding sequence of linear diﬀerences by ∆φn = φn − φn−1 .16). thus. kn−1 ∈ Z. (2. it comes immediately m (2. The Itoh condition can be expressed as |∆φn | ≤ π. kn−1 .. introducing (2. ∆W (φn ) = φn − φn−1 − 2π (kn − kn−1 ). from (2. we have necessarily b = 0.subtracting π radians.16) Hereafter.19) (2. Let us also consider a sequence {φn } of neighbouring pixels values over an absolute phase image.18) as the intermediate sequence values cancel out each other. a b (2.20) where kn . which allows us to write. the ∆ operator deﬁnition will hold.

piecewise smooth (at the range of scales that InSAR deals with). while image in Fig. This means that. In the following one. the image in Fig. for which the absolute phase value. A Smoothness Assumption Again referring to Fig.8 (c) does not. at a frequency greater or equal than its higher frequency component w [28].8 (b) clearly veriﬁes the Itoh condition. which is exactly the Itoh condition (2. where the ground topography is very often smooth or. Furthermore. as stated in Nyquist’s theorem. hence the emphasis we have put on it in this section.21) into (2.Finally. introducing (2. φm . Itoh condition can be relaxed just to be satisﬁed almost everywhere in the image. signal17 can be completely reconstructed from a sampling made. from the wrapped phase values along any path linking that pixel to another. the “minimum” sampling must have a 2w frequency. This is.22) which gives us a procedure for obtaining the unwrapped phase on any pixel. It is instructive to note that the Itoh condition can also be understood as a version of the Nyquist sampling theorem. the ﬁrst one showing the smoothness assumption that Itoh condition holds for the absolute images. Nyquist’s theorem states that a continuous. bandwidthlimited.8. we will brieﬂy review the main phase unwrapping approaches and representative state-of-the-art algorithms. it allows us to unwrap an entire image up to a constant (the absolute phase value for one pixel in the image) given that the Itoh condition is satisﬁed. Itoh condition lies at the heart of most phase unwrapping techniques. 2. 2. is known: the Itoh method. the case in many InSAR applications.18) we obtain: m φm = n=1 W [∆W (φn )] + φ0 . These two images claim very diﬀerent absolute solutions. 2. in fact. By covering the image with a path. 17 A continuous function whose Fourier transform power spectrum is limited [28]. (2. almost everywhere. φ0 .17). at least. for which the samples present a phase diﬀerence less or equal than π radians. 19 .

3.Chapter 3 Main Phase Unwrapping Approaches and State-Of-The-Art Algorithms We have seen that Itoh condition immediately provides a phase unwrapping method. In this chapter.1 Path Following Methods Path following methods directly apply the concept. Nevertheless. the phase unwrapping problem is rather more diﬃcult and a great number of solving techniques (exact or approximate) have been proposed in the literature. Given a starting pixel.. we succinctly overview the main approaches and highlight some of the representative algorithms. as terrain topography can present a very rich geometry. introduced in the Itoh algorithm. neighbour pixels phase diﬀerences larger than π radians. Itoh method prescribes on how to compute the absolute phase on any 20 . decorrelation and noise also introduce phase discontinuities. as explained in the previous chapter. i. In this scenario. for which the absolute phase is known. Moreover. employs a path following concept. of discrete phase integration along a path. it is unrealistic to expect it to be applicable everywhere. and therefore induce phase discontinuities. which constitute violations to the Itoh condition. which.e.

we call parallel paths to any two (or more) paths sharing the same start and end pixels.6π Figure 3. can be tested by reverting the direction of one of them. as is illustrated in Fig.1 (a)] along with the unwrapped solutions obtained by employing the Itoh condition using two distinct paths linking the start pixel (represented by a hollow square) and the end pixel [Figs. in [29]. and then integrating along the resultant closed loop path. on whether this discrete integration is. 3. in this case the integration is path dependent. devised the (natural) strategy of path integrating the phase around every elementary 2 × 2 loop. we depict an elementary wrapped image [Fig.1: (a) Wrapped image. Clearly. (c) Another possible unwrapped solution. other pixel. 3. 21 . We note here that path integration dependence among two parallel1 paths. The answer to this question is negative.1. furthermore. (b) A possible unwrapped solution. path independent.1. in general.4π -π 0 (a) -0.4π 0 (c) -0. As can be seen. path integration dependence is to be tested between parallel paths. In what follows. where a very simple counter-example is given.0. There. There.6π π −1. 3. to identify in full detail the inconsistencies locations in the image. there is path dependence if and only if that quantity does not evaluate to zero.1 Residues This path dependence phenomena in 2D phase unwrapping was ﬁrst reported by Ghiglia et al.1 (b) and (c) respectively]. 3.6π 0 (b) 1. Ghiglia et al. though. Accordingly. whenever that sum is not zero. A basic question arises.6π -π 0. the authors observed that these inconsistencies were restricted to some regions on the phase image. without restricting the path linking the two whatsoever. it signals an inconsistency located precisely on 1 By deﬁnition.

Therefore. and its signal deﬁnes the residue charge sometimes also termed residue polarity. instead of inconsistency. The remaining components constitute the original outer closed path. was introduced by Goldstein et al. Fig. Therefore. (b) Any closed loop can be given as composition of elementary closed loops. We must remark at this point that. 3. residues are computed using counter-clockwise closed loops. It should be noted that a 2 × 2 loop is elementary. The path integration always sums up to a 2π multiple. while a residue implies a phase discontinuity existence.1. the absolute value of the sum is always a 2π multiple3 . in [30].2: (a) An elementary closed loop having a residue. is to connect opposite charge residues with certain lines with which integration 2 3 In a clear resemblance with complex analysis. Chap. By convention. additional information is very often.6π d3 (a) (b) Figure 3. 3. 3. and in this case the residue charge is positive. as will become apparent in the next sections.0. Later. in the sense that it is the shortest closed path that we may deﬁne and. It can be easily shown [31. introduced. even if implicitly. given two parallel paths and considering again the correspondent closed loop. 22 .2(a).2]. any closed path can be given by a composition of all such elementary loops that it encloses. the sum of the enclosed residues is an eﬀective criterion for inconsistency detection. as above referred. that loop. accordingly.2 Branch Cuts Algorithms A natural strategy to overcome path dependence in path following phase unwrapping methods. the term residue2 . the converse implication does not hold. In this sketch each pair of cancelling elementary path components is signalled by a red ellipse.6π d1 -π d4 +2π 0 d2 -0. and became the standard term ever since. as illustrated in Fig.2(b) illustrates this.

Zebker. That is why Golsdstein’s algorithm only solves it approximately. is necessarily zero and. Clearly. 3. Those lines are the so-called branch cuts 4 . In Fig. As integration paths cannot traverse branch cuts. To minimize the total branch cuts length is.3(a) we show a set of opposite charges residues and a certain branch cuts conﬁguration. paths are not allowed to have cross-overs.3 taken from [31]. that is an ill choice. we emphasize the one proposed by Goldstein. as there are large isolated regions which will always remain so5 . 23 . From the many PU algorithms of the branch cuts type published in the literature. Choosing the placement for the branch cuts is a critical task. Besides being seminal in the phase unwrapping literature. Positive charged residues are represented by black dots and negative charged ones by white dots. there is no path dependence phenomena. 3. one of the earliest to be reported in the 2D phase unwrapping literature. (b) Minimum length branch cuts conﬁguration. The proposed conﬁguration in Fig. and Werner in 1988 [30]. as argued in the previous section. and the lengthy branch cuts almost isolate other huge regions as well. by itself.3: Example of residues and respective possible branch cuts conﬁgurations (Taken from [31]). (a) Ill branch cuts conﬁguration. the net charge of possible residues that may be enclosed on any path. a very diﬃcult problem. suggesting the minimization ot the total branch cuts length as a criterion to the choice of the cuts conﬁguration.(a) (b) Figure 3. as illustrated in Fig. other valid branch cuts are those linking a residue to a border of the image (it makes it impossible for any path to encircle the residue). In this way.3(b) is clearly better. Goldstein’s algorithm still is competitively fast and does not 4 5 Also termed residue cuts by some authors. 3.

The opposite charged clusters are then connected by a branch cut to balance charge. While path following methods are local in nature. they rely on a completely diﬀerent concept. 3. 4]. explicitly identifying those residues. they attempt to employ the additional information contained in the quality maps. Goldstein’s algorithm performance is found to be superior [31. Now.3 Quality Guided Algorithms This class of algorithms employs quality maps to guide the integration paths. In doing so. however. as previously referred. [37]. Next we will brieﬂy address the minimum norm methods. to avoid residues-originated path dependence without. [32]. A further development is the conception of algorithms using quality maps to delineate the branch cuts [36]. minimum norm methods adopt a global perspective. [38]. typically decorrelation maps.1. More complex structures in which same charge residues are linked together forming charged clusters. Chap. 6 24 . giving priority to high quality phase pixels [34].restrict itself to creating dipoles. [35]. but also residues clusters6 . By noting that residues tend to be located in low quality regions of the image [31. addressing the problem via optimization procedures that involve the image as a whole. [33]. as well as retaining the branch cuts guarantee of path integration independence. Other branch cuts algorithms include.g. they use the additional information. As will become apparent in what follows.4]. is a diﬃcult problem. Chap. Many of these techniques basically adopt the criterion of letting the quality values to deﬁne the order by which phase is unwrapped. 3. they constitute an attempt to overcome the possible misplacement of branch cuts which. we will overview the other major approach to phase unwrapping: the minimum norm methods. In fact. we introduced a key phase unwrapping class of methods which rely in path following concepts.. e. When a good quality map is lacking.2 Minimum Norm Methods In the previous section.

15).n − ∆h ψm. a way of applying the Itoh condition10 . Φ Φ with E (Φ) being the above referred Lp norm which is given by M N −1 (3. 25 . and More formally. We emphatically stress that this is an optimization 7 This is an analogy with norms deﬁned in Lp spaces. [39]. the terms derivative and linear diﬀerence can be considered interchangeably8 .n+1 − φm. which are measure theory concepts. respectively) between absolute phase derivatives and wrapped phase derivatives is minimized. 10 To illustrate the importance of operator W in this formula. their correspondent derivative is ∆ = −2π + 0. M and N denote. Ψ is the wrapped image. it is desirable to ﬁt the derivative of the unwrapped solution to the true ∆ = 0.n ≡ W (ψm.n ≡ φm. Obviously.2.g. where. 9 When referring to a whole image. this minimization goal is to yield an unwrapped image solution Φ can be expressed by ˆ = arg min E (Φ). It is. respectively.n+1 − ψm.3.1 and −π + 0. So. ˆ .n+1 − φm. On the other hand.n . For further reading see.1 The Minimum Lp Norm Minimum norm methods try to ﬁnd an absolute phase image solution Φ for which the Lp norm7 of the diﬀerence (horizontal and vertical.2 and not to ∆ = −2π + 0. respectively. ∆v ψm.2.n . and W is the wrapper operator introduced in expression (2. Their correspondent derivative is ∆ = 0.2. the images number of lines and columns. e. and accordingly. instead of one of its pixels. p ≥ 0 (3. their wrapped counterparts are π − 0. This kind of methods. look for unwrapped phase images whose local derivatives match the measured derivatives. 8 The term linear diﬀerence is employed here as the diﬀerence between neighbour pixels values.n ) . we employ boldface types.. Φ is a possible unwrapped image9 . therefore. We recall here that in digital image processing.1 and π +0. in a certain sense that is given by the particular Lp norm chosen. again. Let us note here that the presence of the wrapper operator is.n ≡ φm. respectively.1 respectively. they can be considered as surface ﬁtting processes. ∆h ψm.n ≡ W (ψm.n |p .n p M −1 N + m=1 n=1 |∆v φm.2. ∆h (·) and ∆v (·) denote the horizontal and vertical derivatives.2) and ∆h φm. convenient to apply the wrapper operator to annihilate the erroneous introduced 2π ambiguity in the latter derivative value.1.n − ∆v ψm.1) E (Φ) = m=1 n=1 ∆h φm. let us consider two neighbour pixels with phase values π − 0. in fact. ∆v φm.n ) .n+1 − ψm. thus.

Fried and Hudgin were the ﬁrst to propose least squares type phase unwrapping approximate algorithms [41]. Distinct exponent p values in Lp norms. We remark here that the minimization of an Lp norm. As such. (3. the great majority of the existing algorithms are approximate ones. We will next quickly refer to some of the correspondent algorithms for these p values. reduce the bad quality phase inﬂuence on the unwrapped solution [31. yield distinct properties in the unwrapping performance.1). they intend to overcome the 11 12 We can always deﬁne Qh ≡ Qv . Φ and Ψ respectively. Chap.3) In regions where it is known to exist absolute phase discontinuities. In doing so. so. unless they are provided as binary weights. 26 . 3. [42]. respectively11 . 4].1. as deﬁned above. the constraints being given by Φ = Ψ + 2kπ .2). respectively.n |∆v φm. M and N denote the number of lines and columns. and it can be deﬁned a weighted Lp norm analogous to (3.2): M N −1 h qm.2.2 L2 Norm Algorithms With p = 2. a drawback of the L2 norm based criterion is that it tends to smooth discontinuities. we can set qm. in the sense that all the observed phases are used to compute a solution. Since then. Chap. where k is an integer image. Expressions (3. we have a least squares problem.n − ∆ ψm. many algorithms have been published. from which we highlight (due to popularity) those approximating the least squares solution by relaxing the discrete domain ZM N to RM N 12 . (3. p ≥ 0. when a quality map (see Section 2.n − ∆v ψm.3) clearly highlight the global character of these techniques. 5]. In addition. even just for p = 2 is a discrete minimization problem which is very demanding from the computational point of view [31.n |p .n h h p M −1 N + m=1 n=1 v qm. 2 are the most representative.n E (Φ) = m=1 n=1 ∆ φm.problem constrained to integers.n to lower or zero values and. usually only p ≤ 2 values are employed and namely p = 0.4) Q is available it is possible to derive horizontal and vertical quality measures [40] Qh and Qv . in case we do not possess any further information. and (3. Furthermore. 1. which is the diﬀerence between the unwrapped and the wrapped images. or noise corruption.

and x is the largest integer less or 27 . Flynn’s algorithm [40] fundamental idea consists in choosing between the possible unwrapped images (Section 2. 2π (3. using network programming techniques.2. respectively. Flynn’s Minimum Discontinuity Algorithm As introduced in Sections 2. We here highlight with a little more detail Flynn’s algorithm. which often can be identiﬁed in quality maps. the notation used by Flynn in [40]. adding a 2π phase to one of them.4) zm. n) represents the usual pixel indexing. Basically. phase unwrapping is an inverse problem with relation to the wrapping process. creates discontinuities in the wrapped image. Chap. It can be shown that in the continuous domain.n + π .5) where (m. and then coming back to discrete domain [43].2.3 L1 Norm Algorithms L1 norm performs better than L2 norm in what discontinuity preserving is concerned. Introducing. using network programming concepts.1 and 2.1). succinctly. An exact solution to least squares is developed as a step of the ZπM algorithm in [6]. as it is somehow closer to our own proposed algorithm. by deﬁnition. 3.2.2. Given that the discontinuities in the unwrapped image should be limited to noisy areas and to the true absolute image discontinuities.n−1 + π . let us deﬁne. 5]. this algorithm operates by applying iteratively an elementary procedure of partitioning the image in two connected regions and.2.n − φm. which in turn. such that the weighted sum of discontinuities decreases. Such a criterion has been solved exactly by Flynn [40] and Costantini [44]. the one which minimizes discontinuities. then.n = (3.complexity introduced by the discrete nature of the problem.n − φm−1. 2π φm. vertical and horizontal jump counts by: vm. the problem is equivalent to solving a Poisson partial diﬀerential equation [31.n = φm. This has been solved by applying techniques using fast Fourier or cosine transforms.

28 . 3.equal than x. L0 norm is generally accepted as the most desirable in practice. [46].n (3. to infer the unwrapped image Φ.3 Bayesian and Parametric Methods The Bayesian approach relies on a data-observation mechanism model. It should be noted that the minimization procedure is guaranteed to reach the global minimum [40]. an NP-hard problem13 [46]. from there. respectively. where data-observation mechanism is modelled by a conditional probability density function P (Ψ|Φ) and the a priori knowledge by the so-called prior probability density function P (Φ). however. however.n denote vertical and horizontal weights.7) we can get the a posteriori probability density function and. Chap. 3. wm. The goal of Flynn’s algorithm is. a non-linear optimal ﬁltering is applied. of highly complex algorithms [45]. The minimization of L0 norm is. taking into account not only the image phase..2. but also 13 For algorithmic complexity theory issues see. while in [49] an InSAR observation model is considered. e. [45]. which are de- rived from quality maps.n and wm.6) v z where wm.n | . For instance in [48].g. 5] and [47]. P (Ψ) (3.n |zm. for which approximate algorithms have been proposed in [31. the multiple of 2π that is required to annihilate a discontinuity (we recall that a discontinuity exists when two neighbouring pixels phase diﬀerence is greater than π ). as well as a prior knowledge of the phase to be modelled.n | + wm. A jump count is. In particular. then.4 Low p Valued Lp Norm Algorithms With 0 ≤ p < 1 the discontinuity preserving ability of the minimum Lp norm algorithms is further increased at stake. This is a probabilistic approach to phase unwrapping. thus. Using the Bayes theorem P (Φ|Ψ) = P (Ψ|Φ)P (Φ) . Here Φ is the unwrapped image and Ψ the wrapped image. to minimize E= v z |vm.

Finally. In such cases the image is partitioned and diﬀerent parametric models are applied to each partition [51]. 29 . Work [50] proposes a fractal based prior.the backscattering coeﬃcient and correlation factor images. Very often in real applications just one polynomial is not enough to describe accurately the complete surface. which are jointly recovered from InSAR image pairs. parametric algorithms constrain the unwrapped phase to a parametric surface. Low order polynomial surfaces are used in [51].

1) where k ≡ {kij : (i. 4. present and discuss our phase unwrapping algorithm. of 2π multiples.e. j ) ∈ Z0 } is the observed wrapped phase image. . . j ) ∈ Z0 } is an integer image deﬁned in Z. . ﬁnally.1 shows a site (i. V (·) is the clique potential. l) : k = 1. i. hij . .1 Problem Formulation Figure 4. . ψ ≡ {ψij : (i.Chapter 4 The PUMF Approach In this chapter we propose a new phase unwrapping method. N } (Z0 is the usual image pixel indexing 2D grid) and its ﬁrst-order neighbours along with the variables hij and vij signalling horizontal and vertical discontinuities. l = 1.2. (4. Let us deﬁne the energy E (k|ψ ) ≡ ij ∈Z1 v V ∆φh ij vij + V ∆φij hij . . and (·)h and (·)v denote pixel horizontal and 30 . a real valued function. develop the theoretical backgrounds of the proposed solution and. we rigorously formulate the problem to be solved. vij = 0 signals a discontinuity. the so-called wrap-count image. By changing into a more formal gear. respectively. j ) ∈ Z0 ≡ {(k. . 1} and hij . vij ∈ {0. M. Our approach is an energy minimization one that generalizes the classical minimum Lp norm formulation introduced in Section 3. .

5) and Z1 = {(i.4.3) (4. .j i+1. We should stress that the variables hij and vij .4) (4. k ∈ Z h ≡ ψij −1 − ψij ∆ψij v ≡ ψi−1j − ψij . vertical diﬀerences given by h ∆φh ij ≡ 2π (kij − kij −1 ) − ∆ψij .j+1 i. j ) and its ﬁrst order neighbours along with the variables hij and vij signalling horizontal and vertical discontinuities respectively. Our goal is to ﬁnd the integer image k that minimizes energy (4. expressing prior knowledge on phase variability. using a Markov random ﬁeld as a prior. conveying discontinuity information.j i.j-1 i. . quality maps are often very noisy or unavailable. j = 2. in practice. implying blind handling of discontinuities.1) was introduced deterministically in a natural way. brieﬂy addressed in Section 2.2) (4.j+1 vi.j Figure 4. k ∈ Z v ∆φv ij ≡ 2π (kij − ki−1j ) − ∆ψij . . depending on the clique potential V . are introduced when available. 31 .j vi. k being such that φ = 2π k + ψ . ∆ψij (4. Although energy (4. . M. Nevertheless. this energy minimization approach yields the classical minimum Lp norm formulation or a more general one. N }. . 1].j hi. These maps can also be used as continuous variables in [0. As will be seen in the next section. j ) : i = 2. . for more details see [6] and references therein. .1: Representation of the site (i. . where φ is the estimated unwrapped phase image. it can also be derived under a Bayesian perspective.1).j hi+1.i-1. In SAR jargon these images are the quality maps.1.

The assumption of convexity is relaxed.4. Theorem 1 Let k1 and k2 be two wrap-count images such that E (k2 |ψ ) < E (k1 |ψ ). in a certain sense. 32 . Then. we address a set of potentials tailored to phase unwrapping. each binary problem is mapped onto a certain graph and a binary minimization obtained by computing a max-ﬂow/min-cut on it. 1}M N minimizes1 E (kt + δk|ψ ). there exists a binary image δk such that E (k1 + δk|ψ ) < E (k1 |ψ ). Proof 1 See the Appendix. 4.6) (4. then. where δk ∈ {0.2 Energy Minimization by a Sequence of Binary Optimizations In this section.4. 1 (4. According to Theorem 1. which in turn is inspired by Lemma 1 of [40]..2. there exists a binary image δk (i. we can iteratively compute kt+1 = kt + δk. Finally.e. Assuming a convex clique potential V . we present in detail the PUMF algorithm.2. it assures that if the minimum of E (k|ψ ) is not yet reached. if V is convex. the elements of δk are all 0 or 1) such that E (k + δk|ψ ) < E (k|ψ ). the minimization of E (k|ψ ) can be achieved through a sequence of binary optimizations. until the the minimum energy is reached. We show that for convex potentials V . in Section 4.1 An Existence Theorem for Energy Minimization The following theorem is an extension of Lemma 1 taken from [6].7) Or at least decreases.

respectively. 1}. two ordered sets. (4.10) (4.3).14) where xij ≡ δkij .xij ) ij Ev (xi−1j . E (kt + x|ψ ) = ij ∈Z1 E ij (xi .11) v ∆φv ij = [2π (δkij − δki−1j ) + a ] . Introducing k t+1 Let kij = kij ij ij into (4. (4.11) into (4. Notice that with this representation some terms E ij stand for Lexicographic ordering corresponds to the dictionary ordering.2) and (4. introducing (4. Occasionally. 2 33 . b) ≤ (a .1). where t t h − kij ah ≡ 2π (kij −1 ) − ∆ψij t t v − ki av ≡ 2π (kij −1j ) − ∆ψij .9) After some simple manipulation. and x = {xi } ∈ {0. t+1 t+1 h ∆φh ij = 2π (kij − kij −1 ) − ∆ψij t+1 t+1 v ∆φv ij = 2π (kij − ki−1j ) − ∆ψij . ij Eh (xij −1 .2 Mapping Binary Optimizations onto Graph Max-Flows t+1 t + δk be the wrap-count at time t + 1 and pixel (i. i. we use the representation.4. More formally: Given A and B .10) and (4.e. j ). 1}M N . we obtain. E (kt + δk|ψ ) = ij ∈Z1 V 2π (δkij − δkij −1 ) + ah vij + V [2π (δkij − δki−1j ) + av ] hij . j correspond now to the lexicographic column ordering2 of Z0 . b ) if f a < a . xj ). 1}.xij ) (4. the lexicographical order in the cartesian product A × B is deﬁned as (a. (4. or a = a and b ≤ b . we can rewrite energy E (kt + δk|ψ ) as a function of the binary variables δkij ∈ {0.15) where indices i.12) (4. and for the sake of notational simplicity.8) (4. we get h ∆φh ij = 2π (δkij − δkij −1 ) + a (4.2. xi ∈ {0.13) Now.

e.16) By deﬁnition both a metric and a semi-metric satisfy the symmetry property. has been addressed in works [53] and [54]. respectively). Nevertheless. [55]. then. a considerable amount of research eﬀort has been devoted to energy minimization via graph methods (see. 0) = V (2π + a) dij . namely the source s and the sink t. [54]. 1) = V (−2π + a) dij . At this point a reference to work [57] should be made: it introduces an energy minimization for convex potentials also by computing a max-ﬂow/min-cut on a certain graph. [7]. which generalizes the class of binary minimizations that can be solved by graph cuts. E ij (1. which is not the case for the clique potentials that we are considering: from (4. 3 (4. for a general convex potential that graph can be huge. these two works assume the potentials to be either a metric or a semimetric. The cost of the cut is the sum of costs of all edges between S and T . [52]. An s − t cut C = S.. [56]. 1) = V (a) dij . [53]. we have E ij (0. For this reason. Following. The graph has two special vertices. the mapping of a minimization problem into a sequence of binary minimizations. the graph structures therein proposed are simpler.g. Namely. T is a partition of vertices V into two disjoint sets S and T . the source and the sink. we adopt the method proposed in [7]. E 12 and E 1(M +1) represent vertical and horizontal clicks. E ij (1. Using the notation introduced in (4. 0) = V (a) dij . The number of vertices is 2 + M × N (two terminals. [57]). such that s ∈ S and t ∈ T .14) with respect to δk is now mapped onto a max-ﬂow problem. Since the seminal work of Greig et al.14) and cuts on a directed graph G = (V . The minimization of (4. computed by graph cut techniques. respectively) with non-negative weights. imposing in practice.g. E ) (V and E denote the set of vertices and edges..14). [7]. E ij (0. However. it can be seen that E ij = E ji as a consequence of the presence of ah and av terms3 . we now exploit a one-to-one map existing between the energy function (4. 34 . Furthermore.15). heavy computational and storage demands.horizontal clicks whereas others stand for vertical ones (e. plus the number of pixels).

20) (4. t} represents source and the sink. can be stated as E ij (0. E ) with terminals s and t and a subset of vertices V0 = {v1 . 1) ≤ E ij (0. . roughly speaking4 . The structure of the graph is as follows: ﬁrst build vertices and edges corresponding to each pair of neighbouring pixels. v }. .18) (4.14)]. . if and only if E ij (0. 0) + E ij (1. . c) ≤ b ≤ max(a. we construct an “elSo. and {v. for any conﬁguration x1 . b. c). for any real triplet a.17) which. points in the domain of E (kt + x|ψ )] and s − t cuts on that graph. In the proof of Theorem 1 (see the Appendix). (4. Energy E (kt + x|ψ ) is a particular case of the F 2 class of functions addressed in [7]. Moreover.21) ementary” graph with four vertices {s. So. 0) − E (1. if xi = 0. 1) ≤ E ij (0.where a represents ah or av and dij represents hij or vij . if xi = 1 (1 ≤ i ≤ n). 0) + E ij (1. if 4 As deﬁned in [7]. v ) with the weight E (0. in terms of E ij [see expression (4. . we deﬁne a directed edge (v. A function of F 2 is graph representable. c such that min(a. t. V (−2π + a) + V (2π + a) − V (a) ≥ V [2π + a + (−2π + a) − a] V (−2π + a) + V (2π + a) ≥ 2V (a) [V (−2π + a) + V (2π + a)] dij ≥ 2V (a)dij . in particular. ij ij and Ev [see expression (4. and vi ∈ T . 1). . vn } ⊂ V − {s. a function E of n binary variables is called graph-representable if there exists a graph G = (V . with zero unary terms. T in which vi ∈ S . and then join these graphs together based on the additivity theorem also given in [7]. Following very closely [7]. common to all terms. .16)]. the value of the energy E (x1 . 35 . 1) + E (1. 0) − E (0.e. where {s. for each energy term Eh (4. . xn .19) (4. . our binary function is graph-representable. v } represents the two pixels involved [v being the left (up) pixel and v the right (down) pixel]. t} such that. . So... 1) + E ij (1. . 0). 1}M N [i. 1) + E ij (1. there exists a one-to-one relation between conﬁgurations x ∈ {0. xn ) is equal to a constant plus the cost of the minimum s-t-cut among all cuts C = S. v. i. 0). we derived the inequality V (a) + V (c) − V (b) ≥ V (a + c − b). .e.

1) t (a) Sink (b) Sink Figure 4. 0).0) Source s Source S v’ v’ v v Cut E(0. In a similar way for vertex v . t) with the weight E (0. v ) with weight E (1. respectively. where s and t represent source and sink. 1). t) with the weight E (1. 0) − E (0. 0) − E (0.2(a) shows an example where E (1. In this case E (1. 0) > 0. 0) − E (0. if E (1. we deﬁne an edge (s. 0) − E (1. (b) The graph obtained at the end results from adding elementary graphs. and v and v represent the two pixels involved in the energy term. we deﬁne an edge (v . 0) > 0 and E (1. 0) − E (1. 0) − E (0. otherwise. 1) − E (1.s E(1.0)-E(0. we deﬁne an edge (v.2: (a) Elementary graph for a single energy term. Figure 4. 0) − E (1. 0) − E (1. 0) > 0 and E (1. 1) > 0.1) T t E(1.0)-E(1.1)+E(1. v ) with the weight E (1. E (1. we deﬁne an edge (s. 0) > 0.0)-E(1. 0) or. Figure 4.2(b) illustrates the complete graph obtained at the end. 36 . 1) > 0. 0) > 0 or.0)-E(0. 1) − E (1. otherwise.

1). Initialization: k ≡ k ≡ 0. j ) do 6: if pixel (i. It solves a sequence of binary optimizations until no energy decreasing is possible. E (1.j = ki. where kmax is the maximum admitted wrap-count.2. and so the algorithm terminates.4. j ) ∈ S then 7: k i. respectively. 1). it terminates. 5: for all pixel (i. i.j {remains unchanged} 10: end if 11: end for 12: if E (k |ψ ) < E (k|ψ ) then 13: k=k 14: else 15: possible improvement = 0 16: end if 17: end while Algorithm 1 shows the pseudo-code for the Phase Unwrapping Max-Flow (PUMF) algorithm. Since the set {k : k ∈ C} is ﬁnite. ..e. T ) {S . and PUMF does have a ﬁnite number of steps. possible improvement ≡ 1 1: while possible improvement do 2: Compute E (0. 3: Construct elementary graphs and merge them to obtain the main graph.source set. a crude explanation for this number is that after Where φij stands for the unwrapped image. E (0. . Assuming that the initial phase is zero everywhere. Algorithm 1 PUMF: Graph cuts based phase unwrapping algorithm.j + 1 8: else 9: k i. 0) {for every horizontal and vertical pixel pair}. we have found out empirically that Nbopt 5 (maxij (φij ) − minij (φij )) /(2π ) 5 . An essential question is whether the number of binary optimizations is ﬁnite. where Nbopt and Nmf stand for number of binary optimizations and number of ﬂops per max-ﬂow computation. . 0). T -sink set}. necessarily any strictly energy decreasing path on C does have a ﬁnite length. then. PUMF takes Nbopt × Nmf ﬂops (measured in number of ﬂoating point operations).j = ki.3 Energy Minimization Algorithm In this section we propose an algorithm that implements the PUMF approach. Although the number of binary optimizations depends on the speciﬁc problem at hand. and E (1. 4: Compute the max-ﬂow/min-cut (S. . 37 . kmax }M N . Consider that the sequence kt takes values in C = {0. Concerning computational complexity.

we have used the augmenting path type maxﬂow/min-cut algorithm proposed in [58].11) V (a) + V (c) − V (b) ≥ V (a + c − b). b and c diﬀer from each other by multiples of 2π . respectively. This scenario has systematically been observed. if we choose θ (x) = P (x) + αx. shown in Appendix. we run a set of experiments where the worst case complexity is roughly O(n). c) ≤ b ≤ max(a. What if we apply a function θ to the arguments of V ? Using the notation θ (x) = x . in a huge array of experiments conducted in [58]. 4.23) (4.5 ). which is O(n2 m). by construction6 . with the √ queue based selection rule. we have assumed the clique potentials to be convex. c). The worst case complexity for augmenting path algorithms is O(n2 m) [59]. where n and m are the number of vertices and edges. where P is any 2π -periodic real valued function and α ∈ R. Thus.k binary optimization steps. the worst case complexity of the PUMF algorithm is bounded above by O(n2.2. noting that.4 Clique Potentials So far. where min(a. Given that in our graphs m 3n and Nbopt does not depend on n. In section 5. the algorithm correctly ﬁnds any wrap-count less or equal than k. However. we get the proposition: V (a ) + V (c ) − V (b ) ≥ V [(a + c − b) ]. 38 . a.1). In the results presented in section 5. Both are implied by the inequality (A. authors systematically found out a complexity that is inferior to that of the push-relabel algorithm [60]. 6 Stated in the proof of Theorem 1.22) Now. we herein take this bound. (4. This is central in the two main results in the thesis: the Theorem 1 and the regularity of energy (4.

(4. to the most widely used phase unwrapping methods.27) follows from expression (4. we identify immediately C (x) = |x|p . corresponds. we conclude that. it is guaranteed that min(a . it follows directly from (4.27) Since any 2π -sampling of θ is a monotone sequence.proposition (4.21) is also satisﬁed.26) (4. PUMF exactly solves the classical minimum Lp norm phase unwrapping problem. P (x) = −W (x). methods using this clique potential ﬁnd a phase solution φ for which Lp norm of the diﬀerence between absolute phase diﬀerences and wrapped phase diﬀerences (so a second order diﬀerence) is minimized. recalling section 3. The classical Lp norm This norm. for this range of p values.15) and. From above. c ).2. We next give two examples of possible clique potentials. thus. Therefore we have the following result: Proposition 1 The set of clique potentials considered in Theorem 1 can be enlarged by admitting functions of the form V ≡ C ◦ (P + L). proposition (4. the regularity condition (4.24) (4. so. It should be stressed that for such a potential. where C is a convex function. we can see that it is given by V (∆φ) = |∆φ − W (∆ψ )|p . and A(x) = x. P is a 2π -periodic function. We can thus conclude that the PUMF algorithm is valid for this broader class of clique potential functions. in our setting. V (a ) + V (c ) − V (b ) ≥ V [P (a + c − b) + α(a + c − b)] = V [P (a) + α(a + c − b)] = V [(P (a) + αa) + (P (a) + αc) − (P (a) + αb)] = V (a + c − b ). we see that C (x) is convex given that p ≥ 1. where W (x) is the wrapper operator deﬁned by (2. and L is a linear function. Again recalling section 3. Therefore. by far. 39 . c ) ≤ b ≤ max(a . then |∆φ − W (∆ψ )|p = |∆φ − W (∆φ)|p .25) (4.22). Therefore. Since ∆φ and ∆ψ diﬀer by a multiple of 2π . W (x) ∈] − π π ].23) becomes.2.27).

4 .4 norm potential given by V2π (x) = C [Q2π (x)]. and the classical L1. the quantization function Q2π (x). under a Bayesian approach and a Markovian prior for the absolute phase.70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 V(x) 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 Q2π(x) (a) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -20 -15 -10 -5 x (b) x V2π(x) 0 5 10 15 20 (c) x Figure 4.4 norm given by V2π (x) = |Q2π (x)|1. (c) The classical L1. P (x) = 0 and L(x) = x.4 .4 . Convex potential Choosing any convex C (x). Figure 4. As already said. (b) Q2π (x) = x − W (x). For example. the quadratic clique potential V (x) = x2 was used in work [6]. we obviously get back to the convex potential case.3 plots the potential C (x) = |x|1. 40 . this potential tends to wash out phase discontinuities. We refer to Q2π (x) ≡ −W (x) + x as the 2π -quantization function and denote V2π (x) ≡ V [Q2π (x)].3: (a) The convex function C (x) = |x|1.

they are synthesized from an original absolute phase surface formed by a Gaussian elevation with a height of 14π rad. respectively. respectively. The wrapped images are generated according to an InSAR observation statistics (see.Chapter 5 PUMF Performance In this chapter we illustrate the PUMF performance on a set of representative phase unwrapping problems.95. See [58] for more details. and standard deviations σi = 10 and σj = 15 pixels. [6])..7 Ghz Pentium-IV CPU. producing an interferometric pair. In addition. The benchmark algorithms are coded in C and also distributed with [31]. respectively.1 Gaussian Hills Figures 5. in the horizontal and vertical dimensions.1 (b) display two phase images (100 × 100 pixels) to be unwrapped. and using a PC workstation equipped with a 1.5◦ . The results presented for PUMF were obtained with MATLAB coding (max-ﬂow algorithm is implemented in C++1 ). by computing the product of one image by the comCode made available at http://www. with correlation coeﬃcient 1. This corresponds to an interferometric noise standard deviation of 0◦ and 50. The wrapped phase images are obtained (for each pair).html by V. 1 41 .cs. we also benchmark PUMF against the main state-of-the-art algorithms. e.edu/People/vnk/software. Kolmogorov.1 (a) and 5.g.0 and 0.cornell. 5. The data employed is distributed with book [31] and is widely adopted as a testbed for PU algorithms performance evaluation.

Figure 5.1 (f) show the energy evolution along the nine iterations taken by the algorithm to perform the unwrapping. Figures 5. we have observed approximately an O(n) complexity (where n is the size of the input image) in the experiences we have run with PUMF. when low p values are used. The noise standard deviation of 50. therefore rendering a quite diﬃcult unwrapping problem. It is noticeable a major energy decreasing in the ﬁrst few iterations.3 (e) we display. respectively. and the result is shown in Fig. which clearly is useless2 .4) yields a similarly useless solution. making the unwrapping a hard task.3 (b) we show the unwrapped solution with a classical L2 potential. PUMF successfully accomplishes a meaningful unwrapping.2.3.2.4) L2 norm potential. and employing two kinds of clique potentials. We can see that. As referred in Section 4. Figure 5. again. 5.1 (e) and 5. In Figs. We point out that it was not supplied any discontinuity information to the algorithm. this result illustrates the ability of PUMF to cope with absolute phase discontinuities. We remark here that. 42 . the classical L1 .2 illustrates this for the unwrapping of the Gaussian surface with and without noise.e. a 3-D representation of the unwrapped solution and the energy evolution along the nine iterations taken by the algorithm to achieve the correct solution. i. Figures 5.3 (d) and 5. and ﬁnally taking the argument.plex conjugate of the other. no discontinuities are explicitly supplied in this application example.3 (a) is analogous to 5.4 (a) and 5. This introduces additional discontinuities in the wrapped values. The wrapped images are generated using the same 2 The non-quantized version (section 4.2. but now the original absolute phase surface Gaussian elevation has a quarter set to zero. 5.5◦ is large enough to induce a huge number of residues.1 (d) show the corresponding unwrapped surfaces by PUMF using a non-quantized (see section 4..1 (a).2 Shear Ramps Figures 5. 5.1 (c) and 5. even with low-correlation induced discontinuities. 5. no quality maps are supplied to the algorithm.3 (c).4 (b) display two phase images to be unwrapped. A successful unwrapping was obtained with a quantized potential. they are synthesized from an original absolute phase surface formed by two equal size planes with slopes 0 and 1 rad/pixel (maximum height is 99 rad). In Fig.

The associated noise standard deviation is 50. correspondent colorbar on the right. (d) Image in (b) unwrapped by PUMF.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 (e) Iterations (f) Iterations Figure 5.1: (a) Wrapped Gaussian elevation with 14π height. correspondent colorbar on the right. 43 . (f) Energy decreasing for the unwrapping of image in (b). (c) Image in (a) unwrapped by PUMF. (e) Energy decreasing for the unwrapping of image in (a).5 3 4 x 10 2.5 1 0.5 1 0.5 Energy Energy 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 1.5 2 1. correspondent colorbar on the right.3 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 (a) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 (b) 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 4 (c) 3 x 10 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 4 (d) 3.5 0 2. (b) Wrapped Gaussian elevation with 14π height.5◦ . correspondent colorbar on the right. The associated noise standard deviation is 0◦ .

using a PC workstation equipped with a 1.5) A C B D Time (s) 10 1 O(n) 10 0 (128)2 (256)2 (512)2 (1024)2 Size (n) Figure 5. 44 .10 3 10 2 O(n2.7 Ghz Pentium-IV CPU: time (s) vs image size (n). An O(n2.2: Unwrapping times of a 14π height Gaussian surface with PUMF. (A) Gaussian surface with 50. Time grows roughly as O(n) in all the four shown experiments.5 ) line is shown for reference. (D) Gaussian surface without interferometric noise unwrapped with a classical (quantized) L2 norm. (C) Gaussian surface with 50. (B) Gaussian surface without interferometric noise unwrapped with a non-quantized L2 norm.5◦ interferometric noise unwrapped with a classical (quantized) L2 norm.5◦ interferometric noise unwrapped with a nonquantized L2 norm.

(c) Image in (a) successfully unwrapped by PUMF. It was employed a (quantized) L2 norm.3 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 (a) 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 45 35 25 15 5 150 100 50 20 40 60 80 100 1 60 0 -1 -2 -3 80 100 120 140 2 20 40 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 (b) (c) 4500 4000 3500 (d) 0 0 Energy 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 (e) Iterations Figure 5.3: (a) Wrapped Gaussian elevation with 14π height and a quarter set to zero. 45 . correspondent colorbar on the right. correspondent colorbar on the right. (d) 3-D representation of the unwrapped image. The associated noise standard deviation is 0◦ . correspondent colorbar on the right. (e) Energy decreasing along the unwrapping process. It was employed a (quantized) L1 norm. (b) Failed unwrapping of the image in (a).

procedure described for images in 5.1 (a) and (b), again with interferometric noise standard deviation of 0◦ and 50.5◦ , respectively. The main unwrapping diﬃculty with these images, lies in the shear line that separates the two equal size planes, which is an obvious source of discontinuities; once more no quality maps are used to supply explicit discontinuities information. We note, again, that the 50.5◦ noise standard deviation is high enough to also induce a large number of phase residues, making the unwrapping even harder. Figures 5.4(c) and 5.4(d) show the corresponding unwrapped surfaces by PUMF using a classical L1 norm, both taking 18 iterations. We can see that, even with low-correlation induced discontinuities, PUMF successfully accomplishes a meaningful unwrapping. Figures 5.4 (e) and (f) display, respectively, the corresponding energy evolutions. Figure 5.4 (g) displays a 3-D representation of the unwrapped image in (c). Finally, Fig. 5.4 (h) shows the failed unwrapping of the image in 5.4 (b) with a classical L1.5 potential. As expected, the failure is mainly along the shear line where the major discontinuities lie. This, over again, highlights the PUMF ability to preserve discontinuities and the importance of a low p value to do it.

5.3

Long’s Peak

In this section we apply PUMF to InSAR data. The interferogram phase image is distributed with [31], and was obtained from a USGS3 digital elevation model, by using a high-ﬁdelity InSAR simulator [31, Chap. 3] (for more information see the references therein). Geographically, the data corresponds to Long’s Peak, in Colorado (USA), which is a steep-relief terrain thus inducing phase discontinuities and posing a challenging phase unwrapping problem. Moreover, the simulator introduces shadowing, layover, and speckle noise, which constitute well known characteristic SAR imaging phenomena [4]: shadowing results from the absence of radar echoes of terrain areas that are occluded by other terrain areas; layover is quite the opposite, as it corresponds to coincident echoes from diﬀerent terrain areas; speckle noise is characteristic of coherent imaging systems, and is due to interference of the echoes returned from the scatterers, that are within the same resolution cell.

3

United States Geological Survey.

46

20 40

2 1

20 40 60

2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

60 80 100 120 140 0 -1 -2 -3 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 100 120 140 30 20 10

80 100 120 140

(a)

20 40 60 80

(b) 10

20 40 60 80 100 120 140

(c)

8000 7000

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

(d)

12000 10000

Energy

Energy

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

8000 6000 4000 2000 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

(e)

Iterations

(f)

Iterations

20 100 80 60 40 20 150 100 50 20 40 60 80 100 40 60 80 100 120 140

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

(g)

0 0

(h)

Figure 5.4: (a) Wrapped shear planes without noise; correspondent colorbar on the right. The associated noise standard deviation is 0◦ . (b) Wrapped shear planes with noise (50.5◦ standard deviation); colorbar on the right. (c) Image in (a) successfully unwrapped by PUMF using a classical L1 norm; colorbar on the right. (d) Image in (b) successfully unwrapped by PUMF using a classical L1 norm; colorbar on the right. (e) Energy decreasing for the unwrapping of image in (a). (f) Energy decreasing for the unwrapping of image in (b). (g) 3-D representation of the unwrapped image in (c). (h) Failed unwrapping of the image in (b); colorbar on the right. It was employed a classical L1.5 norm. 47

In Fig. 5.5 (a) we depict a contour map (values in radians) corresponding to the Long’s Peak DEM and in Fig. 5.5 (b) we show the corresponding interferogram phase image. In this wrapped image, the regions where the fringes come very close each other, correspond to layover [31, Chap.3]. The black areas at top and bottom correspond to artifacts. Figure 5.5 (c) displays a quality map computed from the InSAR coherence estimate [31, Chap.4], while Fig. 5.5 (d) presents a subset of that quality map; this subset was supplied as a discontinuity information to PUMF; this reduced quality map usage, aims at somehow suggesting the PUMF ability to preserve discontinuities. Finally, Fig. 5.5 (e) displays a 3D rendering of the resulting phase unwrapping, showing the Long’s Peak; a non-quantized L1 potential was used. Figure 5.5 (f) depicts the energy decreasing for the unwrapping along the 23 iterations employed to accomplish phase unwrapping.

5.4

Benchmarking

In this section we benchmark PUMF against main state-of-the-art algorithms, using the above presented PUMF phase unwrapping examples. The algorithms performances are measured by the standard deviation of the absolute error between original and unwrapped phase images4 . The results are summarized in tables 5.1, 5.2, and 5.3 corresponding, respectively, to the examples shown in sections 5.1, 5.2, and 5.3. It should be noted that only in the latter we provide discontinuity information, by supplying the binary quality map, displayed in Fig. 5.5 (d), to all competing algorithms. In this case, we do not include the areas masked out by this quality map, as well as the above referred top and bottom artifact areas, in the computation of the error measure. The comparing algorithms are: • Path following type: Goldstein’s branch cut (GBC) [30]; quality guided (QG) [61]; and mask cut (MC) [38]. • Minimum norm type: Flynn’s minimum discontinuity (FMD) [40]; weighted leastsquares (WLS) [43]; and L0 norm (L0N) (see [31, Chap. 5.5]).

4 The absolute error is the diﬀerence between the images. The diﬀerence is deﬁned pixel-to-pixel, and so the absolute error is itself an image.

48

White pixels signal discontinuity locations. (f) Energy decreasing for the unwrapping process. 49 .5: (a) Contour map (values in radians) corresponding to the Long’s Peak DEM. White pixels signal discontinuity locations. (b) Corresponding interferogram phase image (colorbar on the top). (e) 3-D rendering of the image in (b) unwrapped in 23 iterations. (c) Total discontinuity information at disposal.1 140 120 100 80 45 2 3 4 5 6 15 15 15 30 30 30 45 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 60 45 30 90 15 45 60 75 75 105 60 90 75 105 75 60 40 20 90 75 90 105 120 90 105 105 120 (a) 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 (c) 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 60 75 120 90 1 0 5 (b) 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 (d) x 10 4 10 160 140 100 80 60 40 20 0 200 150 100 Energy 400 500 8 6 4 2 0 (e) 50 0 0 100 200 300 (f) 5 10 15 20 25 Iterations Figure 5. (d) Discontinuity information supplied to the phase unwrapping process.

Phase unwrapping problems presented in section 5.54 1.1.14 WLS 0.08 0 0.36 5. Error (radians) Algorithm Shear Planes Shear Planes (Clean) (Noisy) PUMF 0 0.41 L0N Table 5. Error (radians) Algorithm Long’s Peak (Clean) PUMF 0.51 5.75 2.99 4.12 3.10 0 0.23 FMD WLS 2.56 MC 2. NullQuarter (Clean) (Noisy) (Clean) PUMF 0 0.15 1.60 0.2.43 FMD 1.00 WLS 1.51 1.99 0 0.12 GBC 12.33 0.71 QG 1.1: PUMF vs. reference PU algorithms. reference PU algorithms.77 MC 0. reference PU algorithms.02 QG 14.50 FMD 1.55 1.51 0 GBC 0 0.3.3: PUMF vs. Phase unwrapping problem presented in section 5.36 QG MC 0 0.Table 5.48 L0N 50 .30 8.65 L0N Table 5.2: PUMF vs. Error (radians) Algorithm Gaussian Gaussian Gauss.16 0 0.47 GBC 0 6. Phase unwrapping problems presented in section 5.

51 .The obtained results clearly illustrate the competitiveness of PUMF with relation to the main state-of-the-art algorithms.

Our method employs energy minimization concepts. suggests the ability to blindly deal with phase discontinuities. jointly with graph cuts techniques for binary optimization. for p ≥ 1. using a binary-moves optimization scheme adopted from the Zπ M algorithm [6]. have the additional beneﬁt of speeding up. Addressing non-convex potentials can be an interesting extension of the current work. which may. 1 All the minimum Lp norm problems with p ≤ 1 are NP-Hard [45]. This leads. in particular. Such potentials are well known to possess discontinuity preserving capabilities. PUMF exactly solves the minimum Lp norm PU problem.Chapter 6 Concluding Remarks We have presented a new approach to the phase unwrapping problem. In particular. the PUMF algorithm. a minimum L0 norm PU algorithm is commonly regarded as the desirable solution for phase unwrapping. 52 . even more. possibly. Moreover. It was shown that. This was conﬁrmed by the experiments presented. The proposed algorithm – the PUMF – addresses the phase unwrapping problem entirely in the integers domain. yet an N P -hard problem1 . therefore handling a discrete optimization problem for which it is an exact global minimizer. to research on suitable approximate optimization techniques. then. which also show the PUMF competitiveness with state-of-the-art algorithms. the PUMF ﬂexibility to admit any 2π -periodically convex clique potential.

.e. Given that the energy E (k|ψ ) depends only on diﬀerences between elements of k. . N }. . ∆kij ) . (A. Deﬁne ∆kij = [k2 ]ij −[k1 ]ij . t = 0. . n. . then at least one of the terms ∆E (t) of the above sum is negative. j ) : i = 1. .. . M. and kij = kij + min (t. . . The energy variation ∆E ≡ E (k2 |ψ ) − E (k1 |ψ ) can be decomposed as n (t) (0) (A.2) 53 . . . n.1) ∆E ≡ t=1 E (k(t) |ψ ) − E (k(t−1) |ψ ) . . The theorem is proved if we show that the variation δE (t) ≡ E (k(0) + δk(t) |ψ ) − E (k(0) |ψ ) satisﬁes δE (t) ≤ ∆E (t) . . with M and N denoting the number of lines and columns respectively (i. . . the usual image pixel indexing 2D grid). . . . such that k(0) = k1 . This condition is equivalent to 0 ≤ E (k(t) |ψ ) − E (k(t−1) |ψ ) − E (k0 + k(t) − k(t−1) |ψ ) + E (k0 |ψ ). k(n) = k2 . ∆ E (t ) Since ∆E < 0 by hypothesis. j ) ∈ Z0 where Z0 = {(i. for (i. n . j = 1. with the appropriate modiﬁcations to deal with the more general clique potentials here employed. for any t = 1. . we take ∆kij ≥ 0 for (i. Deﬁne n = maxij (∆kij ) and the wrap-count image sequence k(t) . t = 0. . j ) ∈ Z0 . where δk(t) ≡ k(t) − k(t−1) .Appendix A Proof of Theorem 1 This proof parallels the proofs of Lemma 1 in the appendixes of [6] and of [40].

if ∆kij ≤ ∆kij −1 the sequence is monotone decreasing. Also by hypothesis.for t = 1. . . The diﬀerence kij − kij −1 . because the sequence as we have shown.1) into (A. j ) ∈ Z1 have positive sum. computed at the wrap-count image k(t) . respectively.2). is a monotone sequence.6) (A. This is a consequence of the deﬁnition (A.3). We will show that the sum of terms of S h . . and c ≡ h(t) ∆φij .2). To prove (A. V (b) ≤ tV (a) + (1 − t)V (c) V (a) + V (c) − V (b) ≥ V (a) + V (c) − [tV (a) + (1 − t)V (c)] ≥ (1 − t)V (a) + tV (c). corresponding to the site (i. . Thus. 1 (A. where Sh = ij V ∆φij h(t) − V ∆φij h(t−1) + V ∆φij h(0) − V ∆φij h(0) + ∆φij h(t) − ∆φij h(t−1) v ij (A. and ∆φij and ∆φij are given by (4. .1): if ∆kij > ∆kij −1 the sequence is monotone increasing. .8) is monotone Ò ∆φij Ó h(t) 54 . for t = 0. 1] : b = at + c(1 − t). V is convex. j ) is positive: V (c) − V (b) + V (a) − V (a + c − b) ≥ 0 V (a) + V (c) − V (b) ≥ V (a + c − b). n. and without loss of generality let us assume1 a ≥ b ≥ c.3) Sv = ij V ∆φij v(t) − V ∆φij v(t−1) + V ∆φij h(t) v(0) − V ∆φij v(t) v(0) + ∆φij − ∆φij v(t) v(t−1) hij . (A.2) and (4. n. a ≥ b ≥ c. . Introducing (4. Therefore the sequence for t = 0. (t) (t) ∆φij h(t) .5) By hypothesis. . n. we obtain 0 ≤ S h + S v . Deﬁne a ≡ h(0) ∆φij . (A. The only possibilities are either a ≥ b ≥ c or a ≤ b ≤ c. .7) (A. . b≡ h(t−1) ∆φij . . is also monotone. we now show that the terms of S h corresponding to a given site (i.4) where V is the clique potential. The same is true concerning S v . . so ∃t ∈ [0.

from (A. (1 − t)V (a) + tV (c) ≥ V [(1 − t)a + tc]. 55 .10) (A. V (a) + V (c) − V (b) ≥ V [(1 − t)a + tc] ≥ V (a + c − [at + c(1 − t)]) b (A.9) (A.8). So.As V is convex. The same reasoning applies to S v .11) ≥ V (a + c − b).

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