Overview Protection Relays



NAE1001451 / 04.2013

and technical information Industry specific knowledge to help you pick the right product Your electrical safety questions answered in our extensive knowledgebase with application notes Product selection tools Isolated power solution builder for hospitals Local representative information n n n Visit bender. BENDER has been a global leader in ground fault protection. documen- to get expert help on creating a complete electrical safety solution. From industrial plants to mines to hospitals. datasheets. With over 50 agencies and partners across the n Your online electrical safety resource n n Complete listings of products with comparisons. 2 . www. BENDER has a local office to help you from the design phase through the support phase.The Power In Global Experts in Electrical Safety For over 70 and bender-ca. Our years of technical experience and broad portfolio of products utilizing the latest in protection technology will help you create the best solution to meet your needs. customers trust BENDER to protect their electrical systems. Topnotch service and support ensure that your electrical network remains in peak condition.

Electrical Safety Ground Fault Equipment For Grounded and High-Resistance Grounded Systems High sensitivity ground fault monitoring with advanced filtering capabilities for AC/ DC systems Ground Fault Equipment For Ungrounded Systems Advanced ground fault detection and location equipment for virtually any AC/DC application Ground Fault Equipment For Renewable Energies Special ground fault equipment for renewable industries utilizing years of experience and testing Protective Relays Voltage. and ground continuity relays Communication Solutions Remote notification of electrical safety issues Remote indicating stations. current. compact digital voltage. Current. and Continuity Relays Multi-function. and remote communication with Ethernet and Modbus 3 .

DC. IRDH575 n n n n Exceeds requirements for NEC 250.a first ground fault does not generate sufficient leakage current to create a hazardous situation.21(B) and CEC 10-106(2) for ground detectors on ungrounded systems Works in AC. BENDER says it is.the BENDER Difference When others say ground fault location in an ungrounded system is not possible. The BENDER Advantage BENDER‘s complete line of ground fault products for ungrounded systems offers impressive advantages to keep your system online and running healthy: n Online Ground Fault Location . The EDS series of ground fault location products offers fast and easy-to-use location of faults with both portable and installed options. and protect vital equip ment and processes with accurate early warning ground fault detection and location n n EDS195P EDS46x-D Complete Ground Fault Location System 4 Reduce maintenance costs by detecting ground faults before a hazardous situation occurs Reduce system downtime and provide predictive maintenance capability by locating ground faults quickly . BENDER‘s advanced EDS system can locate ground faults down to the load level to find the faulty device. Early detection allows for critical systems to remain online while problems are located and resolved. including DC systems as well as systems containing variable frequency drives (VFDs).Ground Fault Detection / Location Ungrounded AC/DC Systems BENDER Ground Fault Detectors for Ungrounded Systems Ungrounded systems offer an invaluable advantage . BENDER Ground Fault Detectors and Location Systems detect ground faults quickly and easily across all types of applications. all while the system remains online. reduce downtime. and AC/DC applications up to 12 kV Works with Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) Detects symmetrical faults AMP measuring principle allows for accurate insulation measurements across all types of systems Simple and fast ground fault location in ungrounded AC and DC systems with both portable and fixed equipment Reduce cost.

1. SPDT contacts for each Single.Ground Fault Detectors . / N. Features n n n n Applications n n n n For AC and DC systems Installed and portable versions Quickly identify and locate ground faults Remote communication with installed location devices for remote indication Hand-held meter additionally capable of tracing fault current on grounded systems Single. SPDT contacts for each Single-phase AC and DC systems Industrial control circuits Remote operated vehicles Low-voltage motors and drives General low-voltage applications IRDH275 . Features n n n n Applications n n n n n For AC and DC systems up to 300 V Digital display with real-time readout Adjustable setpoint from 1 to 200 kΩ Two separately adjustable alarms with N. / N.and three-phase AC and DC Large motor control centers Ships and offshore platforms Power stations n 5 . such as DC rectifiers and drives.Portable Ground Fault Location System .Ungrounded AC/DC Systems for Main Distribution The IRDH series of ground detectors provides state-of-the-art protection for your ungrounded system.Ungrounded AC/DC Systems The EDS3090 provides a portable location system to quickly find ground faults in any size system. A digital display gives a real-time reading of the system‘s resistance.Ground Fault Products Ungrounded AC/DC Systems IR420 / IR425 . Its compact size allows for easy installation and retrofitting. 650 VDC (voltage couplers extends range up to 12 kV AC.D. as well as connecting to BENDER‘s remote communication system.E. The system can be combined with BENDER‘s installed ground fault detectors or on its own as a completely portable location system. The AMP Plus measuring principle ensures that an accurate measurement is taken through all forms of power conversion. The simple clamp-on meter provides quick location of faulty loads.Low Voltage AC/DC Ungrounded Systems The IR420-D4 (AC) and IR425 (AC/DC) ground fault detectors monitors ungrounded systems up to 300 V for early indication of ground faults.Ground Fault Detector .E.D. The hand-held meter can also be used to trace out ground faults in grounded systems. A complete fault location system including installed location devices additionally provide digital communication capabilities.6 kV DC) Digital display with real-time readout Adjustable setpoint from 1 kΩ to 10 MΩ Two separately adjustable alarms with N. A digital display gives real-time readings of the system‘s insulation resistance to ground to provide predictive maintenance capability and troubleshooting for ground faults. Optional RS-485 communication is available. Features n Applications n n n n n n n n n For AC and DC systems up to 793 VAC.and three-phase AC and DC 480 V / 600 V industrial systems Variable frequency drives Solar fields Offshore platforms Backup battery systems EDS3090 .

DC. Multi channel relays feature harmonics analysis of the leakage current down to the 40th harmonic. but pure DC power as well. Accurate tripping across steplessly adjustable setpoints means BENDER‘s RCM series can easily be tailored to your particular application. or both. and protect personnel and and equipment with BENDER ground fault protection AC/DC Multi-Channel Ground Fault Monitoring System n n n n 6 Protect personnel from shock hazards and injury Protect equipment from damage and fire and reduce your bottom line .Ground Fault Monitoring Grounded and HRG AC/DC Systems BENDER Ground Fault Monitors for Grounded Systems BENDER ground fault relays provide critical protection for personnel and equipment in environments where safety is a must.the BENDER Difference The RCM series provides relays that not only protect AC. Current transformers for AC/DC loads (0 2000 Hz) Grounded System Current transformers for AC loads (42 2000 Hz) Works on AC. The RCM series provides advanced warning of ground faults without the problems associated with nuisance tripping on grounded and high-resistance grounded systems. interruption. Digital versions feature true RMS reading of the leakage current. The BENDER Advantage BENDER‘s complete line of ground fault products for grounded and high-resistance grounded systems offers impressive advantages to keep your system online and running healthy: n n AC/DC True RMS Detection . Output contacts can be used for indication. reduce downtime. as well as digital communication capabilities for remote analysis. and AC/DC systems Utilization of a single current transformer means voltage and load current do not impact measurements Works on systems with Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) Digital series provides true RMS readings and frequency ranges up to 2000 Hz Digital communication capability for remote monitoring and integration into signaling systems Reduce cost. AC/DC measurements utilize a single current transformer.

and three-phase AC and DC General industrial use . and two separately adjustable alarms with an SPDT contact for each.Ground Fault Monitors .Grounded and High-Resistance Grounded AC/DC Systems The RCMA420 and RCMA423 monitor for ground faults in grounded and high-resistance grounded AC and DC systems. generators.and three-phase AC General industrial use .3 A setpoint level Two separately adjustable alarms Works with DC power and VFDs Single.panel boards. A digital display shows measured fault current in real-time. Features n n n n n n Applications n n True RMS readings Digital display with real-time readout RCMA420: 10 .Grounded and High-Resistance Grounded AC/DC Systems The RCMS family detects ground faults in grounded and high-resistance grounded AC and DC systems. Digital communication is also available.panel boards. A wide. and more Variable frequency drives (VFDs) DC battery systems n n RCMS460 / RCMS490 .500 mA setpoint level RCMA423: 30 mA . Features n n Applications n n For AC and DC systems Digital display indicates real-time values for each individual channel Quickly identify and locate ground faults automatically. Features include a true RMS reading. motors. harmonics analysis. Up to 12 separate channels may be connected to one device.Ground Fault Products Grounded and HRG AC/DC Systems RCM420 . Features include a detailed LCD display of each individual channel‘s value. Features n n n n n Applications n n True RMS readings Digital display with real-time readout Adjustable trip level from 10 mA to 10 A Various size current transformers Two separately adjustable alarms with 2 N.E / N. steplessly adjustable trip range allows for flexibility in application and installation. motors. generators. saving cost and time Digital communication. This device is perfect for grounded and high-resistance grounded systems running variable frequency drives (VFDs).Grounded and High-Resistance Grounded AC Systems The RCM420 series ground fault monitors detects ground faults in grounded and high-resistance grounded AC systems. 490 model features individual outputs Single. both single-phase and three-phase. DPDT contact out- puts. motors. real-time values displayed on its LCD screen. generators. SPDT contact outputs Single.D.panel boards.and three-phase AC and DC n General industrial use . Two SPDT contacts may be utilized for both remote indication as well as power interruption. and more Large motor control centers Heat tracing systems DC battery systems n n n n 7 . and more Heat tracing systems n RCMA420 / RCMA423 . and contact outputs for each individual channel on the RCMS490 model.Multi-Channel Ground Fault Monitors .Ground Fault Monitor .

DC.Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters Grounded AC/DC Systems Lifeguard Series Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters The BENDER Lifeguard series of Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters gives your system the added safety of both ground fault detection and interruption. trip level. from load amperage (up to 100 A standard. Features of the 6 mA and 20 mA versions include: n n n n n n Inverse time tripping curve built into BENDER‘s 6 mA and 20 mA versions Class A listed versions where UL943 applies up to 100 A Works on AC. including 480V and 600V three-phase systems Many setpoint options available: 6 mA. DC. 20 mA. and more. The BENDER Advantage BENDER‘s complete line of ground fault circuit interrupters offers impressive advantages to keep your system online and running healthy: n n n Class A listed GFCIs up to 100 A where UL943 Class A applies Works on AC. The Lifeguard series is customizable to fit the needs of your system. including NEMA 4X fiberglass and stainless steel options Option with digital display showing measured ground fault current in real-time Models compatible with BENDER‘s Ethernet / Modbus/TCP communication system n n n n n n Protection Against Nuisance Tripping The Lifeguard GFCI contains a special ground fault monitor that protects against nuisance tripping while still maintaining the level of protection you require. and AC/DC systems Customizable to many different types of systems. voltage (including 480 V and 600 V systems). or steplessly adjustable options 6 mA and 20 mA options operate on an inverse time curve per UL943 Connection monitoring and grounded neutral protection Customizable enclosure options available. higher versions available upon request). and AC/DC systems Inverse time curve for tripping per UL943 Advanced filtering circuitry Connection monitoring Grounded neutral protection Features of the adjustable versions include: n n n n Works on AC (AC/DC version available) Adjustable trip level Adjustable time delay Connection monitoring 8 .

. Our products comply with new standards and code requirements.35.1760 V Inverter Grid Combiner Box 1 To Ethernet / Modbus/TCP Network Master Combiner Box Rf DC+ Rf DCAGH… ISOMETER® iso-PV Inverter Combiner Box 2 MCB Alarm Combiner Box 3 Ce < 2000uF COM460IP RCMS460-D Ground fault monitoring of an ungrounded.. From small kW inverters to large MW arrays to level 3 charging stations. such as solar and wind. such as NEC for more information on how BENDER can protect your renewable energy system. Products tailored specifically for these industries ensure that your modern energy systems are protected with the latest in electrical safety technology. and more. 0.Ground Fault Products Renewable Energy Systems Years of Experience Protecting Renewable Energy Systems BENDER‘s years of expertise in electrical safety have created a portfolio of products specifically designed for renewable industries. UL1741. isoPV ground detector for ungrounded solar arrays RCMA278P-S ground fault module for integration into inverters IR155-3210 ground detector for level 3 electric vehicle chargers Array Solar Array Ungrounded DC System. BENDER has the product that will ensure faults are properly detected. large-scale array and inverter with the isoPV ground detector Monitoring individual combiner boxes with RCMS460-D monitor and Ethernet / Modbus/TCP communication 9 . Renewable Energy Solutions See our renewable energy brochure or visit bender. UL 2231.

The CME420 may be directly connected or used with an X:5 ratio CT. and underfrequency. explicit values may be entered in for alarms and real-time values may be viewed via the onboard LCD display. The device also measures for a transient voltage betwen the monitoring terminals. as well as the resistance of the ground loop to ensure a proper ground exists. all-in-one devices monitoring overvoltage. Features n n n n Applications n n n n True RMS readings Digital display with real-time readout Two SPDT contacts Entering in CT ratio allows for real-time display of primary side current AC systems General industrial use Motors.and three-phase AC and DC General industrial use n n Battery monitoring and charging stations Dump load controller n Generators CME420 / CMD420 .Current Relays CME420 (single-phase) and CMD420/421 (three-phase) relays monitor for overcurrent and undercurrent in AC systems. undervoltage.Voltage and Frequency Relays The VME420 (single-phase AC and DC up to 300 V) and VMD420 (three-phase AC up to 500 V) relays are powerful. Two SPDT contacts are available for alarm outputs. Features n n n Applications n n n n True RMS readings Digital display with real-time readout Precise voltage and frequency alarms may be entered Two separately adjustable alarms Works with DC power and drives Single. Features n n Applications n n Loop resistance displayed in real-time Alarms for open ground. Precise.General Protective Relays AC and DC Systems VME420 / VMD420 . The loop resistance is shown on the digital display in real-time. poor ground connection. The GM420 monitors for a complete break in the ground connection. pumps.E / N.Ground Continuity Relay The GM420 monitors for ground conductor continuity in AC systems.D SPDT contact outputs Trailing cable Portable equipment Loading docks and trailers n n Generators n 10 . overfrequency. CMD420 and CMD421 use three separate current transformers for monitoring three-phase systems. Entering the current transformer ratio into the CME420 will negate the need for any type of calculations. and transient voltage between monitoring terminals 2 N. generators General load monitoring GM420 .

Gateway devices utilizing standard protocols such as Ethernet. and PROFIBUS Option to view status of all devices via a web browser E-mail and SMS alerts when an alarm becomes active Optional Remote indicator station provides information on all connected devices Reduce costs and downtime Visualization – PC / Touch Web Browser TCP/IP Modbus/TCP Router WiFi Modbus/TCP TCP/IP/Ethernet SCADA / BMS Modbus/TCP Ethernet Modbus/TCP COM460IP Modbus RTU Profibus DP BENDER RS-485 Bus FTC470 XMB XDP 11 . MODBUS. Many devices also support settings changes via remote communication. MODBUS and PROFIBUS ensure your BENDER system is easily integrated into an exisiting communication system. detailed information and parameterization from a central point Easily integratable into an exisiting communication system Gateway device to standard protocols such as Ethernet. Utilizing a special protocol across RS-485. these devices can give control stations detailed information as to the condition of the system. The BENDER Advantage n n n n n n n Fast. Special remote indicators placed in critical areas and connected to the network can also display device information.Remote Indicators Digital Communication Integrate BENDER Devices Into Your Safety Network Many BENDER ground fault detection devices can be linked together across a communication network for remote monitoring.

Grounding may only occur through system leakage capacitance to ground. type of insulation used. Dead short) GND V =480 V 1G The ungrounded system with one ground fault path. The IMD‘s internal circuitry will process the signal and trip a set of indicators when the resistance of the fault reaches a certain trip level. It connects via pilot wires between the system and ground. The active IMD is considered to be an online megger. supply side. the resistance of the ground fault causing part and the system capacitances. etc. It will spread out evenly into the secondary side of the transformer and the attached loads. A ground fault will be indicated as insulation breakdown. the value of a system‘s overall resistance may vary depending on the number of loads. 480VAC deltas are also in wide spread use to supply 1000Amp . 480VAC delta configured transformers are a typical supply for a floating system. Some deltas in the mining industry can be found in hoists. 3 ph GF (i. and emergency backup systems. V =480 V 2G On a single ground fault. V =0 V 3G Bender IMD relay(1) AMP measuring mode Ungrounded three-phase AC system with BENDER IMD 12 . Examples are intensive care units (ICUs) in hospitals. however the ground fault will still be seen through the insulation resistance. as well as the ability to have early warnings and trending.2000Amp main feeder circuits in general industrial applications. leakage current may or may not be present at this time. It depends on the system voltage. The ground fault loop will be incomplete because the return path to the source is missing. A constant measuring signal is sent from the IMD into the power wires. The active IMD can detect ground faults regardless of quantity and severity. The Possible resulting current is also known as charging current. ungrounded systems will not produce the amount of fault current needed to trip a common GFR. signal circuits. age of the installation. Dead short GND Leakage capacitance circuit breaker T1 T2 T3 motor. If this signal finds a breakthrough path to ground. A low insulation value for a typical system would be low kΩ to less than one kΩ. Because of this. environmental conditions. Example: If a grounded object with low resistance touches a live conductor. However. By the nature of the ungrounded system. A good insulation value for a typical system would be a value of multiple kΩ to MΩ. the resulting current flow will be negligible. IMDs measure in Ohms (resistance) and not in Amps (current). 3 ph Ground Fault i. it will take this path of least resistance and return to the monitor. 480 VAC L1 L2 L3 L1 L2 L3 The Active IMD on AC Systems An active IMD is the ground detector of choice for ungrounded systems.e. Floating systems are often used in areas where a sudden shut down must not occur. The IMD is the device of choice for the protection of floating systems.e .Information and Applications Ungrounded Systems Ungrounded Systems Floating systems are derived from a power source where there is virtually no connection to ground. The magnitude of ground fault current in an ungrounded system on a first ground fault is very small. supply side. 480 VAC L1 L2 L3 L1 L2 L3 circuit breaker T1 T2 T3 motor.

This method works while the system is still online.Fixed Installation The fixed installation is useful where 24/7 monitoring is required. Ground faults can be located quickly and easily while the system remains online and operational.EDS460 or EDS490 Ground Fault Location Devices . The EDS3090 portable ground fault location series can be used as a completely standalone location system or used in tandem with installed units.e. DC.detection system is an excellent tool for the maintenance personnel in a large facility with extensive wiring. Again. a DC IMD will be connected via pilot wires between the system and ground. locating faults is done via a multi-channel Ground Fault Relay utilizing current transformers to pick up on leakage current for each individual circuit/load. V1G=125 V 13 . it spreads out evenly into the secondary side of the supply (e.Information and Applications Ungrounded Systems The Active IMD on DC Systems The active IMD is the preferred choice for ungrounded DC systems as well. In a grounded system. No shutdown is required. as well as AC systems that have varying voltages or power conversion equipment including variable frequency drives. 125 V load V1N=125 V V12=250 V A controlling device with a pulse generator is present upstream in the system. and tracing the pulse down to the load causing the ground fault with the clamp. The ungrounded system is only safe for its user as long as the occurring faults are immediately traced down and eliminated. have the ability to be used universally in AC. A constant measurement signal will be sent from the IMD into the power wires. The techniques are different than locating ground faults in a grounded system. a special measurement signal is applied. This device sends a low level artificial signal into the faulted system.IRDH575 Ground Fault Detector and Controller . as well as overcoming adverse system conditions. No handheld tracing and/or accessing panels is required. However.g. For DC systems.W series current transformers + - GF = resistance breakdown to 1000 Ohms on two legs i. or a combination of both. As in floating AC systems. it will follow the ground fault path into ground and return to the pulse generator. Faults will be located automatically during normal business operation. a battery) and the attached loads. Ground fault location in an ungrounded system can be done via a fixed installation. and AC/DC systems. then the second ground will follow sooner or later and short circuit the system. due to the nature of the ungrounded system where a first ground fault will not create leakage current. V2N=125 V V =125 V 2G Ungrounded 125/240 VDC system with BENDER IMD Ground Fault Location . and ground faults can be located down to the load causing the problem while all systems remain in operation. a different technique must be employed. Naturally. portable devices. Ground Fault Location . The pulse is traced via a hand-held clamp. Using the EDS460 and EDS490 installed ground fault locators in tandem with the portable EDS3090 system gives technicians a head start as to where to begin clamping. the signal will take the path of least resistance and return to the monitor if it finds a breakthrough to ground. BENDER‘s AMP Plus measurement principle. The beauty of this system lies in its non invasive operation. The system consists of the following: . found in devices such as the IRDH275. cable underwater (Balanced fault situation) L1 L1 250 V load N + L2 L2 circuit breaker Supply side: Battery system 125/250 V DC Bender IMD relay(1) AMP measuring mode The Bender EDS ground fault location .Portable Ground Fault Location in an Ungrounded System Locating ground faults in an ungrounded system is simple with the right technology. as well as giving portable location a head start as to which circuit is causing the problem. The general process for this system is by starting at the point of pulse generation.The signal will be impressed between the power wires and ground. This signal can be traced with special fixed current transformers or a special portable current probe. If that is not the case. such as high leakage capacitance. From there. Pulse generation is done either by an installed IRDH575 or a portable pulse generator that can be connected up to the main system.

Information and Applications Grounded Systems Grounded Systems Grounded systems are derived from a power source where the neutral is solidly tied to ground via a ground neutral bonding jumper (NG). How many Amps would flow if a human would touch the same circuit? Answer: Replace the dead short value of 0. The current is a multiple of 15 mA. The ground fault current can easily reach a value which is multiple times higher than the nominal load current.S. One disadvantage is the high amount of possible fault current in a ground fault situation. a ground fault relay or overcurrent protective devices should trip immediately and interrupt power from the load.� Ω � 0. 50 mA is considered to be lethal. It is important that hot and neutral wires are fed through the CT. A simplified calculation will explain how the high amounts of current are generated: Ground Fault Relays on Grounded Systems Most technicians are very familiar with a current transformer based ground fault current relay.1 Ω supply side. Another possibility is a single phase transformer where   in very rare occasions. For three-phase systems. Fault 2 (GF) i. One might come across a threephase system without a neutral. The grounded system with a single ground fault and broken ground. This goes for both. which is considered to be the let-go value for humans. 3 p h V Fault current path via ground (resistance assumed 0. dead short Resistance = 0. single phase and three phase systems. Fire damage or personnel injury can occur.2 Ohm) V =277 V 3G GND GND V VNG=0 V Neutral Ground (NG) Jumper V V3G=277 V Neutral Ground (NG) Jumper Fault 1 (break) The grounded system. IF = Fault Current ‫ܫ‬ி ൌ  ܸଷீ ܴீி ൅  ܴீோ ൅  ܴேீ V3G = Voltage between faulted phase and ground RGF = Resistance value at shorted point RGR = Resistance of ground path RNG = Resistance of neutral ground bonding jumper 14 . The magnitude of a ground fault current in a solidly grounded system can be very high. Preventative maintenance is not necessarily associated with the grounded system.1 Ohm with a more realistic figure for a human body part. For example. it should be fed through the CT. assume 1000 Ω of resistance from phase L3 and a human body. corner-grounded delta configurations are employed. A current transformer (CT) or “donut” is placed around the power wires leading to the protected load. Nevertheless. As always. Lets assume that a person is resting on the frame of a motor. there are advantages and disadvantages to the grounded power system.1 Ohm T1 T2 T3 ��� � � ���. is derived from a 240/120V transformer with center tap. Nevertheless.� � 0. Often encountered is the typical three phase 208/120V Y or 480/277V Y configuration. Its magnitude depends on the system voltage and the resistance of the ground fault causing part itself. a tripped overcurrent breaker or a GFCI will enable the electrician to quickly identify a faulty branch. Even non-technical personnel encounter them on a daily basis in public restrooms protecting a wall outlet in a wet area.e. The center tap is bonded solidly to ground. 3 ph L2 L3 NG path (resistance assumed 0.1 Ω � 0. The general public is very familiar with solidly grounded systems due to the fact that nearly every residence in the U. Action will often be taken after a fault has occurred. if a neutral is carried out to the load. In this case the three phases only will be fed through the CT. the neutral is tied into ground or sometimes. 480 / 277 VAC L1 L1 L2 L3 circuit breaker circuit breaker T1 T2 T3 motor. 480 / 277 VAC L1 L2 L3 L1 L2 L3 V12=480 V V13=480 V V =480 V 23 A theoretical fault current will be devastating if a dead short occurs. The operating theory behind the relay is as follows. supply side. feeding a pump or an industrial motor. The ground fault relay will still function properly when monitoring a load not using the neutral.1 Ohm) Motor.

variable frequency drive EMI filter Rectifier DC link Inverter T1 T2 T3 GND GND Bender GF relay with summation transformer Neutral Ground (NG) Jumper I =1 A 1 The grounded system with single ground fault with ground fault relay. or rectifier components are installed. therefore DC currents will go unnoticed. It will run into its limitations in circuits where waveform modifying equipment. The GF relay in combination with a zero sequence CT will work in resistance grounded systems as well. In accordance with Kirchhoffs laws. The CT will step the current (1A) down and forward it to the Ground Fault Relay (GFR). which will then be modulated again into a variable cycle AC leading to the load. In a healthy system. A variable frequency drive converts the incoming AC internally into DC. RCMA devices employ a double-coil system which enables them to accurately measure AC. 9 A returns to the source via the phase L2 and L3. a frame or the building ground and return back to the source.5A . Internal VFD . The schematic below is a typical application of current transformer based ground fault detection. 24 VDC + - circuit breaker L+ motor.4A = 1A where 10 A goes into the load. passive I1=10 A I1=5 A I1=4 A T1 T2 T3 motor. therefore 10A will have to return from the load back to the source. A ground fault (as an example. The GFR will then alarm when its set point has been increased. The new equation for the CT is now: 10A . the current across all three phases will equal zero. DC Fault (isolation) L- T2 F2 A2 V(L-G )=0 V BENDER RCMA relay with active transformer V V I =1 A F Grounded 24 VDC system with single fault and RCMA technology supply side.DC grounds can not be detected with conventional GFR technology. 480 / 277 VAC L1 L2 L3 L1 L2 L3 circuit breaker transformer. In this case the negative pole of the DC power supply or the battery is tied into a chassis or the building ground. 3 ph supply side. The common “passive” CT needs alternating currents to detect a ground fault. The CT will measure both simultaneously since it is placed around all conductors. incoming and outgoing currents will cancel each other out. 1 A) will divert some of the current from the arrangement and bypass the CT via the ground wire. and 1 A returns to the source via the ground wire. the negative and positive conductor leading to the load. Early warning or personnel protection cannot be guaranteed in this case. A DC leakage current will bypass the CT through ground. transformer. Grounded DC Systems Bender RCMA devices monitor DC and mixed AC/DC systems. active I =10 A (L+) T1 F1 I =9 A (L-) V =24 V (L+G ) A1 supply side. GND 15 . The active CT would be placed around both. 10A will be fed from the source into the load. 480 / 277 VAC L1 L2 L3 circuit breaker L1 L2 L3 diode SCR BENDER RCMA relay with active transformer Possible AC fault 60 Hz Neutral Ground (NG) Jumper Capacitive leakage through EMI lters Internal DC fault AC fault Variable cycle AC faults The grounded system with drive and RCMA technology Other issues include: EMI filters sometimes incorporated into drives can provide a leakage path to ground and add to the overall system leakage. The solution: Protect by means of an active current transformer with built-in filtering technology. The unique measuring principle can be used for protection if the DC system is grounded as shown below. motor. and harmonic content. multiple KHz carrier frequencies used can cross the gap between insulation and ground.Information and Applications Grounded Systems The current transformer will always read zero current in a healthy system even under a full load condition. such as Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs). 3 ph Fault 1 (isolation) Variable Frequency Drives 60 cycle GFRs have limitations when the circuitry involves VFDs (Variable Frequency Drives). DC. Assume a 10A load connected to a 480/277VAC system. Some drives may be equipped with their own internal scheme to detect ground faults which will eventually trip in the high Ampere range. and mixed AC/DC currents from 0 to 2000 Hz.

including ground fault relays.bender. . and more: n n n n Complete listings of products. BENDER has been a leader in meeting elecrtical safety needs with our large portfolio of ground fault protection products.2013 / © Bender Inc. Three-Phase AC. and DC Systems Visit www. currrent transformers. n n n n Ground Fault Monitors and GFCIs for grounded and high-resistance grounded systems Ground Fault Detectors for ungrounded systems Voltage. PA Toll-Free: 800-356-4266 • Main: 610-383-9200 Fax: 610-383-7100 • E-mail: info@bender. and Frequency Relays Remote Communication Solutions Ground Fault Protection for Ungrounded Systems n n General Purpose Protection Relays n n A-ISOMETER® Ground Detector Series EDS Ground Fault Location Systems Undervoltage and Overvoltage Relays for AC and DC Systems Overfrequency and Underfrequency Relays Overcurrent and Undercurrent Relays for AC and DC Systems Ground Fault Protection for Grounded Systems n n RCM Series Ground Fault Monitors for Single-Phase and Three-Phase AC Systems Communication Solutions n  Standard Protocol Converters for Ethernet. MODBUS. reduce downtime. ON Toll-Free: 800-243-2438 • Main: 905-602-9990 Fax: 905-602-9960 • E-mail: info@bender-ca. and DC Systems n  Lifeguard Series Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters for PROFIBUS n Customizable Visualization Capabilities n  Simple System Integration Single-Phase AC. datasheets. bender. Current. and give the peace of mind that your system is protected by the latest in electrical safety technology. BENDER products enhance the safety of electrical systems and help to save for • bender. and n  RCMA Series Ground Fault Monitors for Single-Phase Canada • Mississauga. and technical information Knowledgebase of technical information answering your ground fault questions Product selection tools. and DC Systems n  RCMS Series Multi-Channel Ground Fault Monitors for Single-Phase AC. Three-Phase AC.Solutions For Your Electrical Safety Needs With our complete portfolio of relay protection products For over 70 Document NAE1001451 / 04. and more Local representative information TM USA • Coatesville. All Rights Reserved. tools. Three-Phase AC.

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